Counties

  • Kansas Facts: Lane County Facts

    Lane County was organized on June 3, 1886, by Richard Deighton; Thomas Hahn; Joshua Wheatcroft; John Schiereck; and William Walker. The county was named for James H. Lane and contains the town of Dighton. The town of Dighton was named for Richard Deighton, the surveyor who came in 1878 with four homesteaders claiming the four quarters that constituted Dighton.

  • Kansas Facts: Leavenworth County Facts

    As originally formed, Leavenworth County was a river district. By the creation of Wyandotte County, its southeastern portion was cut off, leaving the Missouri River for its northeastern boundary merely. Leavenworth is one of the flourishing northeastern counties of Kansas and has an area of 455 square miles.

  • Kansas Facts: Lincoln County Facts

    Lincoln County, situated just north of the center of the State, is bounded on the north by Mitchel (sic), on the east by Ottowa and Saline, on the south by Ellsworth, and on the west by Osborne and Russell counties. The major portion of the county is rough and undulating, only about fifteen per cent of the surface being bottom land. The Saline River runs through the center of the county, from west to east; while Salt Creek runs diagonally through the northeast township of the county. The tributaries of the Saline River are Wolf, Spillman, Lost, Beaver, and Twelve Mile creeks on the north; and the Twins, Bull-foot, Spring, Elkhorn, Brush, Owl, and Tablerock creeks. The Rattlesnake, Battle and Prosser creeks run in a northerly direction and empty into Salt Creek.

  • Kansas Facts: Linn County Facts

    Linn County is situated in the eastern tier of counties next to Missouri, and in the third tier south from the Kansas River. The southern boundary of the county is three miles north of the thirty-eighth parallel of north latitude. It is bounded on the north by Miami County, on the east by Missouri, on the south by Bourbon County and on the west by Anderson County. The county was named "Linn" in honor of Lewis F. Linn, a distinguished United States Senator from Missouri. The Bogus Legislature passed an act bounding Linn County, as follows: 

  • Kansas Facts: Logan County Facts

    Logan County is named in honor of John A. Logan (1826-1886), a Union general during the Civil War and later U.S. senator from Illinois. On September 17, 1887, Governor John A. Martin, by proclamation, declared the organization of Logan County, Kansas and appointed officers to hold office until the election and qualification of legally elected officers took place. 

  • Kansas Facts: Lyon County Facts

    Lyon, County is in the fourth tier of counties from Missouri, being in the line of the Great Neosho Valley and nearly at the head waters of that river. The Osage River has its rise in Osage, Wabaunsee and Lyon counties, its branches watering the northeastern sections of the latter district. Eagle, Allen, Dow, Rock, Badger, Plum, Coal and Dry creeks, tributaries of the Neosho River, water thoroughly the central and southern portions of the county, and, to a partial extent, the northwestern.

  • Kansas Facts: Marion County Facts

    Marion County is situated nearly in the center of the organized counties of Kansas, the center of population being according to the census of 1880, twelve miles west of the western boundary line of the county.The original location of Marion County, as created by an act of the Territorial Legislature February 17, 1860 is as follows:

  • Kansas Facts: Marshall County Facts

    Marshall County is in the first tier of counties south of Nebraska, and the fourth, west of the Missouri River. It is bounded on the north by Gage and Pawnee Counties (Nebraska); on the east by Nemaha County; on the south by Pottawatomie and Riley Counties; and on the west by Washington County.

  • Kansas Facts: McPherson County Facts

    McPherson County is one of the central counties of Kansas, and is one of the best wheat producing sections in the portion of the State. The county is principally watered by the Little Arkansas, a branch of the Arkansas River. The Smoky Hill River passes through the northwestern and northern parts of the county. Gypsum Creek runs through the northeastern portion-through Delmore, Battle Hill and Gypsum townships-into the Saline River. The tributaries of the Smoky Hill River flow in a generally northern and southern direction. Turkey, Crooked and Emmett creeks, branches of the Little Arkansas River, drain the entire southeastern portion.

  • Kansas Facts: Meade County Facts

    Meade County was organized November 4, 1885 and was named in honor of Major-General George C. Meade, United States Army, who died in 1872.

  • Kansas Facts: Miami County Facts

    Miami County is located in the eastern tier of counties, next to Missouri, and in the second tier south from the Kansas River. It is bounded on the north by Johnson County, on the east by Missouri, south by Linn County, and west by Franklin County. When organized the county was named Lykins, in honor of David Lykins, long a resident of the county, and member of the first Territorial Council. The first Legislature of the Territory passed an act in 1855, bounding Lykins County as follows:"Beginning at the southeast corner of Johnson County, thence south twenty-four(24) miles, thence west twenty-four (24) miles, thence north twenty-four(24) miles to the southwest corner of Johnson County, thence east twenty-four (24) miles to the place of the beginning." Lykins County, as thus defined, was twenty -four miles square, and contained 368,640 acres.

  • Kansas Facts: Mitchell County Facts

    Mitchell County is situated in the northern part of the State, and is bounded on the north by Jewell County; on the east by Cloud and Ottowa; on the south by Lincoln; and on the west by Osborne.

  • Kansas Facts: Montgomery County Facts

    Montgomery County is situated in the southern part of the State of Kansas, the north line of the Indian Territory forming its southern boundary. It is further bounded by Labette County on the east, Wilson on the north and Elk and Chautauqua counties on the west. The general surface of the county is variable, being a succession of rolling prairies, broad, fertile valleys, and low hills. Elevated mounds, with steep declivitous sides, are found in places, rising abruptly out of the midst of a plain, to considerable heights.

  • Kansas Facts: Morris County Facts

    Morris County is situated in the center of the eastern half of the State. This county is bounded on the north by Davis County, and a portion of Wabaunsee; on the south  by Chase County and a part of Marion; on the east by Lyon County and a portion of Wabaunsee, and on the west by a part of Dickinson and Marion counties. The county contains eleven civil townships, and in shape is square, except that in the northeast corner its square formation is broken by the southwest corner of Wabaunsee County, while in the northwest corner, a strip about two miles wide and four miles long is taken from the square and added to Dickinson County.

  • Kansas Facts: Morton County Facts

    Morton County is in the extreme southwest corner of the state, is bounded on the north by Stanton county; on the east by Stevens; on the south by the State of Oklahoma, and on the west by the State of Colorado. It comprises the territory defined as Kansas county in 1873, except that it extends 3 miles further east. The boundaries were defined in Feb., 1886, by the legislature as follows: "Commencing at the intersection of the section line 3 miles east of the west line of range 39 west with the 6th standard parallel; thence south along said section line to where it intersects the south boundary line of the State of Kansas; thence west along said boundary line to the southwest corner of the State of Kansas; thence north along the west boundary line of the State of Kansas to where it intersects the 6th standard parallel; thence east to the place of beginning."

  • Kansas Facts: Nemaha County Facts

    Nehmaha County adjoins Nebraska on the south, and is the third county of Kansas in the northern tier west of the Missouri River. It is bounded on the east by Brown and Jackson Counties, on the south by Jackson and Pottawatomie, and on the west by Marshall. Its size is twenty-four miles east and west, and thirty miles north and south, its area comprising 460,800 acres of land, 247,117 acres of which is divided into farms in the counties; contains about 87 per cent. of prairie and 10 per cent. of bottom lands, the amount of timber being estimated at about 3 per cent.

  • Kansas Facts: Neosho County Facts

    Neosho County is situated in the second tier of counties from Missouri, and also from the Indian Territory. It is bounded on the north by Allen County, on the east by Bourbon and Crawford, on the south by Labette, and on the west by Wilson County. By the Bogus Laws, the territory now included within the limits of Neosho County was part of Dorn County, as explained in the history of Labette County; Dorn County extending northward about three-fourths of a mile from the township line between townships twenty-seven and twenty-eight, and southward to the Indian Territory - embracing the "Osage ceded lands." The name Dorn was changed to "Neosho," by the Legislature, June 3, 1861, and the county was organized by proclamation of Governor Carney, November 20, 1864.

  • Kansas Facts: Ness County Facts

    Ness County was created and named by an act of the Legislature of 1867. Its area then was 900 square miles. In 1873 the boundaries of the county were enlarged so as to include an area of 1,080 square miles. The county was named after Noah V. Ness, Corporal of Company G, Kansas Cavalry, who died of wounds received in battle at Abbeyville, Miss., August 11, 1864.

  • Kansas Facts: Norton County Facts

    Norton County, lying in the northern tier, adjoining Nebraska, is the fourth county from the Colorado line on the west and the tenth from the eastern boundary-line of the State. Its climate and soil are similar to the neighboring counties of Phillips, Smith and Decatur. The soil has the same marvelous richness and capacity to resist drouth; there is the same scarcity of timber and absence of stone-coal, the same abundance of fine building-stone (magnesian limestone.) Like its neighboring counties, already named, Nortorn has numerous water-courses, the principal of which are the Solomon River, flowing east through the southern tier of townships, the Prairie Dog, through the central portion, and the Sappa, from southwest to northeast, through the northwest corner of the county.

  • Kansas Facts: Osage County Facts

    Osage County is situated about midway across the State, north and south, and about fifty miles from its eastern boundary. In extent it is twenty-four miles east and west, and thirty miles north and south. It is bounded on the north by Shawnee County, on the east by Douglas and Franklin, on the south by Coffey, and on the west by Lyon and Wabaunsee.

  • Kansas Facts: Osborne County Facts

    Osborne county is bounded on the north by Smith County, on the east by Mitchell and Lincoln, on the south by Russell and on the west by Rooks. It contains 900 square miles and 576,000 acres of land. The north fork of the Solomon River runs diagonally through the two northeastern townships, and the south fork of the same stream runs entirely through the county from west to east, confining itself to the seventh range of townships. The North and South Solomon in Osborne County have an average fall through the county of over eleven feet per mile until they unite at Waconda, in the county east, where the average fall is only ten feet. Hence the frequency of mills along this stream.

  • Kansas Facts: Ottawa County Facts

    Ottawa county, organized in 1866, is situated on the west side of the sixth principal meridian, 125 miles west of the Missouri River, and in the third tier of counties from the north. It is bounded on the north by Cloud County, on the east by Clay, on the south by Saline, and on the west by Lincoln and Mitchell counties. It is twenty-four miles north and south, by thirty east and west, and contains 460,800 acres. It is one of the best counties in Central and Western Kansas, having a rich soil, desirable location, being most admirably watered, and possessing a good supply of timber, and an abundance of excellent building stone, red sandstone, and limestone. It is watered by the Solomon and Saline rivers, and numerous creeks.

  • Kansas Facts: Pawnee County Facts

    Pawnee County, in the western part of the state, is the fourth county north of the Oklahoma line and the fifth east from Colorado. It is bounded on the north by Rush and Barton counties; on the east by Barton and Stafford; on the south by Stafford and Edwards, and on the west by Hodgeman and Ness. The county was created in 1867 and named for the Pawnee Indians. As originally defined the boundaries were as follows: "Commencing where the east line of range 16 west intersects the 4th standard parallel; thence south to the 5th standard parallel; thence west to the east line of range 21 west; thence north to the 4th standard parallel; thence east to the place of beginning.'

  • Kansas Facts: Philips County Facts

    Philips County, one of the northern tier, is the 5th county east from the Colorado line. It is bounded on the north by the State of Nebraska; on the east by Smith county; on the south by Rooks, and on the west by Norton. This county was created in 1867 and named in honor of William Phillips, a free-state martyr who was murdered at Leavenworth in 1856. The boundaries were defined as follows: "Commencing where the east line of range 16 west intersects the 40th degree of north latitude; thence south to the 1st standard parallel; thence vest to the east line of range 21 west, thence north to the 40th degree of north latitude; thence east to the place of beginning."

  • Kansas Facts: Pottawatomie County Facts

    Pottawatomie County, formerly embraced within the limits of Riley, was organized by the Territorial Legislature of 1857. Its northern and southern boundaries were the same as at present, while its western boundary was the guide meridian, about five miles east of Manhattan, and its eastern boundary about five miles east of its present one. It is now bounded on the north by Marshall and Nemaha counties, on the east by Jackson and Shawnee, on the south by the Kansas River, on the west by the Big Blue; having natural boundaries on the south and west. 

  • Kansas Facts: Pratt County Facts

    Pratt County, in the south central part of the state, is the second county from the southern line of the state and the seventh from the west line. It is bounded on the north by Stafford county; on the east by Reno and Kingman; on the south by Barber, and on the west by Kiowa and Edwards. It was created in 1867 and named for Caleb Pratt, of the First Kansas infantry. The boundaries fixed at that time were as follows: "Commencing where the east line of range 11 west intersects the 5th standard parallel; thence south to the 6th standard parallel; thence west to the east line of range 16 west; thence north to the 5th standard parallel; thence east to the place of beginning."

  • Kansas Facts: Rawlins County Facts

    Rawlins County, the westernmost of the late organized counties of Kansas, is in the northern tier of counties, the twelfth one from the Missouri River, the second one from Colorado. It was named after Gen. John A. Rawlins, who went into the cabinet of Gen. Grant as Secretary of War March 11, 1869, and died September 6, 1879, while holding the office.

  • Kansas Facts: Reno County Facts

    Reno County, in the central part of the state, is bounded on the north by Rice and McPherson counties; on the east by Harvey and Sedgwick; on the south by Sedgwick and Kingman, and on the west by Pratt and Stafford. Its boundary lines were fixed by the legislature of 1868, and it was named in honor of Gen. Reno, who was killed at the battle of Gettysburg. It was not settled until three years later. The first settlers were not at that time within the confines of Reno county, as the lines have been changed, but all those which shall be mentioned were settlers in Reno county as it now exists. The last change was made in 1872 when range 4 on the east and a tier of townships from Rice county on the north were added, while a large tract on the south was detached and given to the new county of Kingman.

  • Kansas Facts: Republic County Facts

    Republic County, located in the northern tier of counties with the 6th principal meridian forming the eastern boundary, has 20 civil townships, viz: Albion, Beaver, Belleville, Big Bend, Courtland, Elk Creek, Fairview, Farmington, Freedom, Grant, Jefferson, Liberty, Lincoln, Norway, Richland, Rose Creek, Scandia, Union, Washington and White Rock. The towns are Agenda, Belleville, Courtland, Cuba Haworth, Kackley, Munden, Narka, Norway, Republic, Rydal, Scandia, Sherdahl, Talmo, Warwick, Wayne and White Rock.

  • Kansas Facts: Rice County Facts

    Rice  County, in the central part of the state, is in the second tier of counties west of the 6th principal meridian, and in the fourth tier north of the Oklahoma line. It is bounded on the north by Ellsworth county; on the east by McPherson; on the south by Reno, and on the west by Stafford and Barton. It is crossed a little to the west of the center by the 1st guide meridian west. It was named in honor of Brig.-Gen. Samuel A. Rice, of the United States volunteers, who was killed at Jenkins' Ferry, Ark., April 30, 1864.

  • Kansas Facts: Riley County Facts

    Riley County, one of the counties organized by the first territoriai legislature in 1855, is the second county east of the 6th principal meridian, the second south from Nebraska, and the fifth west from the Missouri river. It is bounded on the north by Washington and Marshall counties; on the east by Jackson and Shawnee; on the south by Wabaunsee and Geary, and on the west by Geary and Clay. As originally organized its eastern and western boundary lines were almost identical with those of Marshall county extended south, and the southern boundary was the Kansas river. Between the years 1857 and 1873 several changes were made in the county lines. The eastern line was moved west to the Big Blue river; the western 8 miles west to the present location; Geary county was enlarged from Riley county territory, and additions were made to the latter from Wabaunsee and Geary, forming one of the most irregularly shaped counties in the state.

  • Kansas Facts: Rooks County Facts

    Rooks County, in the northwestern section of the state, is in the second tier south of the Nebraska line, and the fifth county east from Colorado. It is bounded on the north by Phillips county; on the east by Osborne; on the south by Ellis, and on the west by Graham. The legislature defined the boundaries in 1867 as follows: "Commencing where the east line of range 16 west intersects the 1st standard parallel; thence south to the 2nd standard parallel; thence west to the east line of range 21 west; thence north to the 1st standard parallel; thence east to the place of beginning."

  • Kansas Facts: Rush County Facts

    Rush County, west of the central part of the state, is the fifth county north from Oklahoma, the fourth south from Nebraska, and the sixth east from the west line of the state. It is bounded on the north by Ellis county; on the east by Barton; on the south by Pawnee, and on the west by Ness. It was named in honor of Capt. Alexander Rush, who was killed at Jenkins' Ferry, Ark. The boundaries were described in the creative act as follows: "Commencing where the east line of range 16 west crosses the 3d standard parallel; thence south to the 4th standard parallel; then west to the east line of range 21 west; thence north to the 3d standard parallel; thence east to the place of beginning." By an act of the legislature in 1873, the southern tier of townships was taken off and the present boundaries established.

  • Kansas Facts: Russell County Facts

    Russell County, in the northwest section of the state, is in the third tier from the Nebraska line, and is the sixth county east from Colorado. It is bounded on the north by Osborne county: on the east by Lincoln and Ellsworth; on the south by Barton, and on the west by Ellis. The railroad was built throught[sic] the central part of the county in 1867, about the time the boundaries were first defined, and before there was a single settler. In 1868 the legislature again defined the boundaries and named the county in honor of Avra P. Russell of the Second Kansas cavalry. In July, 1869, A. E. Mathews settled near the eastern edge of the county for the purpose of mining coal. Early in that year a party of seven section hands working 3 miles west of Fossil were attacked by 25 Indians. The Indians were armed with native weapons and the white men had but two guns. They tried to escape on a handcar, but two of their number were killed and all but one wounded. The five were saved by a man named Cook, who came to their aid with a gun.

  • Kansas Facts: Saline County Facts

    Saline  County, one of the central counties of the state, is the fourth county south from Nebraska, and the eighth from the Missouri river, the 6th principal meridian forming its eastern boundary line. It is bounded on the north by Ottawa county; on the east by Dickinson; on the south by McPherson, and on the west by Ellsworth and Lincoln. The name Saline was given to the river, and later to the county on account of the salt marshes in this section.

  • Kansas Facts: Scott County Facts

    Scott County, in the western part of the state, is the third county east from Colorado, the fourth south of Nebraska, and the fourth from the southern boundary of the state. It is bounded on the north by Logan and Gove counties; on the east by Lane; on the south by Finney, and on the west by Wichita. It was created in 1873 and named for Winfield Scott, a hero in both the War of 1812 and the Mexican war, and commander-in-chief of army at the beginning of the Civil war in 1861.

  • Kansas Facts: Sedgwick County Facts

    Sedgwick County, in the southern part of the state, is 135 miles west of the Missouri line, 250 miles east of Colorado and is the second county north of Oklahoma. The territory of which it is comprised was included in Butler county until 1867, when Sedgwick was formed by act of the legislature. The description was as follows: "Commencing at the northwest corner of Butler county, thence south to the southwest corner of the same; thence west to the west line of range 4 west; thence north to the south line of township 22; thence east to the place of beginning." In 1872 four townships on the north of the west tier were given to Reno county, and two full tiers from the north were given to Harvey. The county was named in honor of John Sedgwick, a general of the Civil war, who was killed at Spottsylvania Court House, Va., in May, 1864.

  • Kansas Facts: Seward County Facts

    Seward  County, in the southern tier, is the third county east from Colorado. It is bounded on the north by Haskell county; on the east by Meade; on the south by the State of Oklahoma, and on the west by Stevens county. It was created in 1873 and named in honor of William H. Seward of New York, who was secretary of state during Lincoln's administration. The boundaries were defined as follows: "Commencing at the intersection of the east line of range 31 west with the 6th standard parallel; thence south on said range line to the southern boundary line of the State of Kansas; thence west on said southern boundary line of the State of Kansas to the east line of range 35 west; thence north on said range line to the 6th standard parallel; thence east to the place of beginning."

  • Kansas Facts: Shawnee County Facts

    Shawnee County is situated in the third tier of counties west of the Missouri River and contains 357,120 acres of land. The face of the county is such as is general in the eastern part of Kansas, where water courses thread the territory. It is rolling prairie, nearly 150 feet above the bed of the water courses, with hills or mounds rising 100 feet above the land level.

  • Kansas Facts: Sheridan County Facts

    Sheridan County, in the northwestern part of the state, is located in the second tier from the north line of the state and is the third county east of Colorado. It is bounded on the north by Decatur; on the east by Graham; on the south by Gove, and on the west by Thomas. It was created in 1873 and named in honor of Gen. Philip H. Sheridan.

  • Kansas Facts: Sherman County Facts

    Sherman County, one of the western tier, the second south from Nebraska, is bounded on the north by Cheyenne county; on the east by Thomas; on the south by Wallace and Logan, and on the west by the State of Colorado. It was created in 1873 and named for Gen. William T. Sherman. The boundaries were defined as follows: "Commencing where the east line of range 37 west intersects the 1st standard parallel; thence south with said line to the 2nd standard parallel; thence west with said parallel to the west line of the State of Kansas; thence north on said line to the 1st standard parallel; thence east on said parallel to the place of beginning."

  • Kansas Facts: Smith County Facts

    Smith County, named in honor of Major Nathan Smith, of the Second Colorado Cavalry, who was killed at the battle of the Blue, is on the northern tier of counties, bordering on Nebraska on the north, and is the sixth east of the Colorado and Kansas dividing lines.

  • Kansas Facts: Stafford County Facts

    Stafford County is a portion of that wide stretch of territory of the State of Kansas embraced in the great bend of the Arkansas River. At a point twelve miles south, and thirty miles west of the southwest corner of the county, the river takes a northeasterly direction, which it follows for a distance of about seventy miles, until it reaches a point seven miles north of the center of the north line of Stafford County, when it turns to the southeast, which course it pursues until it reaches a point about twelve miles south and sixty miles east of the southeast corner of the county, from which point its course is almost due south. Stafford County is centrally located in the territory embraced within this bend of the river.

  • Kansas Facts: Stanton County Facts

    Stanton County was organized on June 17, 1887, by William H. Quick; Charles Sooper; Frank Woodruff; and A. N. Fisher. Named for Edwin M. Stanton, Abraham Lincoln's Secretary of War, the county conatins the cities of Manter and Johnson City.

  • Kansas Facts: Stevens County Facts

    Stevens County was organized on August 3, 1885, by H. B. Kelly; Charles and Orin Cook; C. B. Freese; A, M. Donald; William Harklerodes; J. C. Harris; W. C. Rathbun; and Frank Kroh. Containing the cities of Hugoton and Moscow, the county was named for Thaddeus Stevens.

  • Kansas Facts: Sumner County Facts

    Sumner County takes its name from Honorable Charles Sumner, of Massachusetts, whose services to his country are so recent as to yet be fresh in all minds. The county lies in the southern tier, on what was Indian land for many years after much of Kansas was thickly settled. Cutting three miles from the southern part of the present county ran the Cherokee strip, the pathway of the tribe to their western hunting grounds. From this to the north line of the county ran the Diminished Osage Reserve, known as the 'thirty-mile strip,' and extending to the western line of the State. The boundaries of the county were defined by the Legislature of 1867, and on May 27, 1868, a treaty was made with the Indians, and 8,000,000 acres of land sold to the L., L. & G Railway. This included some of Sumner's best lands, and is known as the 'Sturgis treaty.'

  • Kansas Facts: Thomas County Facts

    Thomas County was founded in October 8, 1885. It was named for George Henry Thomas, a Union General during the American Civil War, hero of the Battle of Chickamauga. The townships of the county were named after the soldiers that died at the Battle of Chickamauga.

  • Kansas Facts: Trego County Facts

    Trego County is in the western part of Kansas, and is included in what was once known as the Great American Desert. It is located in the fourth tier of counties from the west line of the State, and in the third tier from the north line, and is about 315 miles west from Kansas City, or the eastern boundary line of the State. The county being thirty miles square, contains 570,000 acres or 900 square miles. It is bounded on the north by Graham County, on the south by Ness, on the east by Ellis, and on the west by Gove County. Its location is about midway between Kansas City and Denver; the second standard parallel, south, forming its northern boundary line, and the third standard parallel its southern line.

  • Kansas Facts: Wabaunsee County Facts

    Wabaunsee County is located abut midway between the north and south lines of the State, and about seventy-five miles west of the Missouri River. The county is bounded on the north by the Kansas River, on the south by Lyon County, on the east by Shawnee County, and on the west by Morris County and a portion of Morris and Riley Counties. The north line of the county follows the sinuous course of the Kansas River, by which it presents a rather rugged and irregular appearance, the northeast corner being six miles further south than the northwest corner, and the center of the north line being about three miles still farther north than the northwest corner. 

  • Kansas Facts: Wallace County Facts

    Wallace county, which contains the cities of Sharon Springs and Wallace, was named for For Fort Wallace, which was named for General William H. L. Wallace of Civil War fame (Illinois general, not to be confused with L. E. W. Wallace of Indiana).