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 New Mexico, at the breaking out of the Civil War, was abandoned by
 the government at Washington, or at least so overlooked that the
 charge of neglect was merited.  In the report of the committee on
 the Conduct of the War, under date of July 15, 1862, Brevet
 Lieutenant-Colonel B. S. Roberts of the regular army, major of the
 Third Cavalry, who was stationed in the Territory in 1861, says:
           It appears to me to be the determination of General Thomas[37]
           not to acknowledge the service of the officers who saved
           the Territory of New Mexico; and the utter neglect of the
           adjutant-general's department for the last year to
           communicate in any way with the commanding officer of the
           department of New Mexico, or to answer his urgent appeals
           for reinforcements, for money and other supplies, in
           connection with his repudiation of the services of all the
           army there, convinces me that he is not gratified at their
           loyalty and their success in saving that Territory to
           the Union.
 If space could be given to the story of the carefully prepared plans
 of the leaders of secession for the conquest of all the territory
 south of a line drawn from Maryland directly west to the Pacific
 coast, in which were California, Arizona, and New Mexico, it would
 reveal some startling facts, and prove beyond question that it was
 the intention of Jefferson Davis to precipitate the rebellion a
 decade before it actually occurred.  The basis of the scheme was to
 inaugurate a war between Texas--which, when admitted into the Union,
 claimed all that part of New Mexico east of the Rio Grande--and the
 United States, in which conflict Mississippi and some of the other
 Southern States were to become participants.  The plan fell flat,
 because, in 1851, Mr. Davis failed of a re-election to the governorship
 of Mississippi.
 So confident were many of Mr. Davis' allies in regard to the
 contemplated rebellion, that they boasted to their friends of the
 North, upon leaving Washington, that when they met again, it would
 be upon a Southern battle-field.
 I have alluded incidentally to what is known as the Texas Santa Fe
 Expedition, inaugurated by the President of what was then the republic
 of Texas, Mirabeau B. Lamar.  It was given out to the world that
 it was merely one of commercial interest--to increase the trade
 between the two countries; but that it was intended for the conquest
 of New Mexico, no one now, in the light of history, doubts.
 It resulted in disaster, and is a story well worthy the examination
 of the student of American politics.[38]
 In 1861 General Twiggs commanded the military department of which
 Texas was an important part.  It will be remembered that he surrendered
 to the Confederate government the troops, the munitions of war,
 the forts, or posts as they were properly termed, and everything
 pertaining to the United States army under his control.  It was the
 intention of the Confederacy to use this region as a military base
 from which to continue its conquests westward, and capture the various
 forts in New Mexico.  Particularly they had their eyes upon Fort Union,
 where there was an arsenal, which John B. Floyd, Secretary of War,
 had taken especial care to have well stocked previously to the act
 of secession.
 But the conspirators had reckoned without their host; they imagined
 the native Mexicans would eagerly accept their overtures, and readily
 support the Southern Confederacy.  Mr. Davis and his coadjutors had
 evidently forgotten the effect of the Texas Santa Fe Expedition,
 in 1841, upon the people of the Province of New Mexico; but the
 natives themselves had not.  Besides the loyalty of the Mexicans,
 there was a factor which the Confederate leaders had failed to
 consider, which was that the majority of the American pioneers had
 come from loyal States.
 Of course, there were many secessionists both in Colorado and
 New Mexico who were watching the progress of rebellion in eager
 anticipation; and it is claimed that in Denver a rebel flag was
 raised--but how true that is I do not know.
 John B. Floyd, Secretary of War, was one of the leading spirits of
 the Confederacy.  A year before the Civil War he placed in command
 of the department of New Mexico a North Carolinian, Colonel Loring,
 who was in perfect sympathy with his superior, and willing to carry
 out his well-defined plans.  In 1861 he ordered Colonel G. B. Crittenden
 on an expedition against the Apaches.  This officer at once tried to
 induce his troops to attach themselves to the rebel army in Texas,
 but he was met with an indignant refusal by Colonel Roberts and
 the regular soldiers under him.  The loyal colonel told Crittenden,
 in the most forcible language, that he would resist any such attempt
 on his part, and reported the action of Colonel Crittenden to the
 commander of the department at Santa Fe.  Of course, Colonel Loring
 paid no attention to the complaint of disloyalty, and then Colonel
 Roberts conveyed the tidings to the commanding officers of several
 military posts in the Territory, whom he knew were true to the Union,
 and only one man out of nearly two thousand regular soldiers
 renounced his flag.  Some of the officers stationed at New Mexico
 were of a different mind, and one of them, Major Lynde, commanding
 Fort Filmore, surrendered to a detachment of Texans, who paroled
 the enlisted men, as they firmly refused to join the rebel forces.
 Upon the desertion of Colonel Loring to the Southern Confederacy,
 General Edward R. S. Canby was assigned to the command of the
 department; next in rank was the loyal Roberts.  At this perilous
 juncture in New Mexico, there were but a thousand regulars all told,
 but the Territory furnished two regiments of volunteers, commanded by
 officers whose names had been famous on the border for years.
 Among these was Colonel Ceran St. Vrain, who had been conspicuous
 in the suppression of the Mexican insurrection of 1847, fifteen years
 before.  Kit Carson was lieutenant-colonel; J. F. Chaves, major; and
 the most prominent of the line officers Captain Albert H. Pfeiffer,
 with a record as an Indian fighter equal to that of Carson.
 At the same time Colorado was girding on her armour for the impending
 conflict.  The governor of the prosperous Territory was William Gilpin,
 an old army officer, who had spent a large part of his life on the
 frontier, and had accompanied Colonel Doniphan, as major of his
 regiment, across the plains, on the expedition to New Mexico in 1846.
 Colonel Gilpin at once responded to the pleadings of New Mexico for
 help, by organizing two companies at first, quickly following with
 a full regiment.  This Colorado regiment was composed of as fine
 material as any portion of the United States could furnish.
 John P. Slough, a war Democrat and a lawyer, was its colonel.
 He afterwards became chief justice of New Mexico, and was brutally
 murdered in that Territory.
 John M. Chivington, a strict Methodist and a presiding elder of
 that church, was offered the chaplaincy, but firmly declined, and,
 like many others who wore the clerical garb, he quickly doffed it
 and put on the attire of a soldier; so he was made major, and his
 record as a fighter was equal to the best.
 The commanding general knew well the plans of the rebels as to their
 intended occupation of New Mexico, and, notwithstanding the weakness
 of his force, determined to frustrate them if within the limits of
 possibility.  To that end he concentrated his little army, comprising
 a thousand regular soldiers, the two regiments of New Mexico
 volunteers, two companies of Colorado troops, and a portion of the
 territorial militia, at Fort Craig, on the Rio Grande, to await
 the approach of the Confederate troops, under the command of
 General H. H. Sibley, an old regular army officer, a native of
 Louisiana, and the inventor of the comfortable tent named after him.
 Sibley's brigade comprised some three thousand men, the majority
 of them Texans, and he expected that many more would flock to his
 standard as he moved northward.  On the 19th of February, 1862,
 he crossed the Rio Grande below Fort Craig, not daring to attack
 Canby in his intrenched position.  The Union commander, in order
 to keep the Texas troops from gaining the high points overlooking
 the fort, placed portions of the Fifth, Seventh, and Tenth Regulars,
 together with Carson's and Pino's volunteers, on the other side of
 the river.  No collision occurred that day, but the next afternoon
 Major Duncan, with his cavalry and Captain M'Rae's light battery,
 having been sent across to reinforce the infantry, a heavy artillery
 fire was immediately opened upon them by the Texans.  The men under
 Carson behaved splendidly, but the other volunteer regiments became
 a little demoralized, and the general was compelled to call back
 the force into the fort.  Sibley's force, both men and animals,
 suffered much from thirst, the latter stampeding, and many, wandering
 into our lines, were caught by the scouts of the Union forces.
 The next morning early Colonel Roberts was ordered to proceed about
 seven miles up the river to keep the Texans away from the water at
 a point where it was alone accessible, on account of the steepness
 of the banks everywhere else.
 The gallant Roberts, on arriving at the ford, planted a battery there,
 and at once opened fire.  This was the battle of Valverde, the details
 of which, however, do not belong to this book, having been only
 incidentally referred to in order to lead the reader intelligently
 up to that of La Glorieta, Apache Canyon, or Pigeon's Ranch, as it
 is indifferently called.
 Valverde was lost to the Union troops, but never did men fight more
 valiantly, with the exception of a few who did not act the part of
 the true soldier.  The brave M'Rae mounted one of the guns of his
 battery, choosing to die rather than surrender.
 General Sibley, after his doubtful victory at Valverde, continued
 on to Albuquerque and Santa Fe.  The old city offered no resistance
 to his occupation; in fact, some of the most influential Mexicans
 were pleased, their leaning being strongly toward the Southern
 Confederacy; but the common people were as loyal to the Union as
 those of any of the Northern States, a feeling intensified by their
 hatred for the Texans on account of the expedition of conquest in
 1841, twenty-one years before.  They contributed of their means to
 aid the United States troops, but have never received proper credit
 for their action in those days of trouble in the neglected Territory.
 The Confederate general was disappointed at the way in which affairs
 were going, for he had based great hopes upon the defection of the
 native residents; but he determined to march forward to Fort Union,
 where his friend Floyd had placed such stores as were likely to be
 needed in the campaign which he had designed.
 From Santa Fe to Fort Union, where the arsenal was located, the road
 runs through the deep, rocky gorge known as Apache Canyon.  It is
 one of the wildest spots in the mountains, the walls on each side
 rising from one to two thousand feet above the Trail, which is within
 the range of ordinary cannon from every point, and in many places
 of point-blank rifle-shot.  Granite rocks and sands abound, and the
 hills are covered with long-leafed pine.  It is a gateway which,
 in the hands of a skilful engineer and one hundred resolute men,
 can be made perfectly impregnable.
 The Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railway passes directly through
 this picturesque chasm, every foot of which is classic ground, and
 in the season of the mountain freshets constant care is needed to
 keep its bridges in place.
 At its eastern entrance is a large residence, known as Pigeon's Ranch,
 from which the battle to be described derives its name, though,
 as stated, it is also known as that of Apache Canyon, and La Glorieta,[39]
 the latter, perhaps, the most classical, from the range of mountains
 enclosing the rent in the mighty hills.
 The following detailed account of this battle I have taken from
 the _History of Colorado_,[40] an admirable work:
           The sympathizers with and abettors of the Southern
           Confederacy inaugurated their plans by posting handbills
           in all conspicuous places between Denver and the
           mining-camps, designating certain localities where the
           highest prices would be paid for arms of every description,
           and for powder, lead, shot, and percussion caps.
           Simultaneously, a small force was collected and put under
           discipline to co-operate with parties expected from Arkansas
           and Texas who were to take possession, first of Colorado,
           and subsequently of New Mexico, anticipating the easy
           capture of the Federal troops and stores located there.
           Being apprised of the movement, the governor immediately
           decided to enlist a full regiment of volunteers.
           John P. Slough was appointed colonel, Samuel F. Tappan
           lieutenant-colonel, and John J. M. Chivington major.
           Without railroads or telegraphs nearer than the Missouri
           River, and wholly dependent upon the overland mail coach
           for communication with the States and the authorities at
           Washington, news was at least a week old when received.
           Thus the troops passed the time in a condition of doubt
           and extreme anxiety, until the 6th of January, 1862, when
           information arrived that an invading force under General
           H. H. Sibley, from San Antonio, Texas, was approaching
           the southern border of New Mexico, and had already captured
           Forts Fillmore and Bliss, making prisoners of their
           garrisons without firing a gun, and securing all their
           stock and supplies.
           Immediately upon receipt of this intelligence, efforts
           were made to obtain the consent of, or orders from, General
           Hunter, commanding the department at Fort Leavenworth,
           Kansas, for the regiment to go to the relief of General
           Canby, then in command of the department of New Mexico.
           On the 20th of February, orders came from General Hunter,
           directing Colonel Slough and the First Regiment of Colorado
           Volunteers to proceed with all possible despatch to
           Fort Union, or Santa Fe, New Mexico, and report to General
           Canby for service.
           Two days thereafter, the command marched out of Camp Weld
           two miles up the Platte River, and in due time encamped
           at Pueblo, on the Arkansas River.  At this point further
           advices were received from Canby, stating that he had
           encountered the enemy at Valverde, ten miles north of
           Fort Craig, but, owing to the inefficiency of the newly
           raised New Mexican volunteers, was compelled to retire.
           The Texans under Sibley marched on up the Rio Grande,
           levying tribute upon the inhabitants for their support.
           The Colorado troops were urged to the greatest possible
           haste in reaching Fort Union, where they were to unite
           with such regular troops as could be concentrated at that
           post, and thus aid in saving the fort and its supplies
           from falling into Confederate hands.  Early on the
           following morning the order was given to proceed to Union
           by forced marches, and it is doubtful if the same number of
           men ever marched a like distance in the same length of time.
           When the summit of Raton Pass was reached, another courier
           from Canby met the command, who informed Colonel Slough
           that the Texans had already captured Albuquerque and
           Santa Fe with all the troops stationed at those places,
           together with the supplies stored there, and that they
           were then marching on Fort Union.
           Arriving at Red River about sundown, the regiment was
           drawn up in line and this information imparted to the men.
           The request was then made for all who were willing to
           undertake a forced march at night to step two paces to
           the front, when every man advanced to the new alignment.
           After a hasty supper the march was resumed, and at sunrise
           the next morning they reached Maxwell's Ranch on the
           Cimarron, having made sixty-four miles in less than
           twenty-four hours.  At ten o'clock on the second night
           thereafter, the command entered Fort Union.  It was there
           discovered that Colonel Paul, in charge of the post, had
           mined the fort, giving orders for the removal of the women
           and children, and was preparing to blow up all the supplies
           and march to Fort Garland or some other post to the
           northward, on the first approach of the Confederates.
           The troops remained at Union from the 13th to the 22d of
           March, when by order of Colonel Slough they proceeded in
           the direction of Santa Fe.  The command consisted of
           the First Colorado Volunteers; two Light Batteries,
           one commanded by Captain Ritter and the other by Captain
           Claflin; Ford's Company of Colorado Volunteers unattached;
           two companies of the Fifth Regular Infantry; and two
           companies of the Seventh United States Cavalry.
           The force encamped at Bernal Springs, where Colonel Slough
           determined to organize a detachment to enter Santa Fe by
           night with the view of surprising the enemy, spiking his
           guns, and after doing what other damage could be accomplished
           without bringing on a general action, falling back on the
           main body.  The detachment chosen comprised sixty men each
           from Companies A, D, and E of the Colorado regiment, with
           Company F of the same mounted, and thirty-seven men each
           from the companies of Captains Ford and Howland, and of
           the Seventh Cavalry, the whole commanded by Major Chivington.
           At sundown on the 25th of March it reached Kosloskie's Ranch,
           where Major Chivington was informed that the enemy's pickets
           were in the vicinity.  He went into camp at once, and about
           nine o'clock of the same evening sent out Lieutenant Nelson
           of the First Colorado with thirty men of Company F, who
           captured the Texan pickets while they were engaged in a game
           of cards at Pigeon's Ranch, and before daylight on the
           morning of the 26th, reported at camp with his prisoners.
           After breakfast, the major, being apprised of the enemy's
           whereabouts, proceeded cautiously, keeping his advance
           guard well to the front.  While passing near the summit
           of the hill, the officer in command of the advance met
           the Confederate advance, consisting of a first lieutenant
           and thirty men, captured them without firing a gun, and
           returning met the main body and turned them over to the
           commanding officer.  The Confederate lieutenant declared
           that they had received no intimation of the advance from
           Fort Union, but themselves expected to be there four days
           Descending Apache Canyon for the distance of half a mile,
           Chivington's force observed the approaching Texans, about
           six hundred strong, with three pieces of artillery, who,
           on discovering the Federals, halted, formed line and battery,
           and opened fire.
           Chivington drew up his cavalry as a reserve under cover,
           deployed Company D under Captain Downing to the right,
           and Companies A and E under Captains Wynkoop and Anthony
           to the left, directing them to ascend the mountain-side
           until they were above the elevation of the enemy's artillery
           and thus flank him, at the same time directing Captain
           Howland, he being the ranking cavalry officer, to closely
           observe the enemy, and when he retreated, without further
           orders to charge with the cavalry.  This disposition of
           the troops proved wise and successful.  The Texans soon
           broke battery and retreated down the canyon a mile or more,
           but from some cause Captain Howland failed to charge as
           ordered, which enabled the Confederates to take up a new
           and strong position, where they formed battery, threw their
           supports well up the sides of the mountain, and again
           opened fire.
           Chivington dismounted Captains Howland and Lord with their
           regulars, leaving their horses in charge of every fourth
           man, and ordered them to join Captain Downing on the left,
           taking orders from him.  Our skirmishers advanced, and,
           flanking the enemy's supports, drove them pell-mell down
           the mountain-side, when Captain Samuel Cook, with Company F,
           First Colorado, having been signalled by the major, made
           as gallant and successful a charge through the canyon,
           through the ranks of the Confederates and back, as was
           ever performed.  Meanwhile, our infantry advanced rapidly;
           when the enemy commenced his retreat a second time, they
           were well ahead of him on the mountain-sides and poured
           a galling fire into him, which thoroughly demoralized and
           broke him up, compelling the entire body to seek shelter
           among the rocks down the canyon and in some cabins that
           stood by the wayside.
           After an hour spent in collecting the prisoners, and
           caring for the wounded, both Federal and Confederate,
           the latter having left in killed, wounded, and prisoners
           a number equal to our whole force in the field, the first
           baptism by fire of our volunteers terminated.  The victory
           was decided and complete.  Night intervening, and there
           being no water in the canyon, the little command fell back
           to Pigeon's Ranch, whence a courier was despatched to
           Colonel Slough, advising him of the engagement and its
           result, and requesting him to bring forward the main
           command as rapidly as possible, as the enemy with all his
           forces had moved from Santa Fe toward Fort Union.
           After interring the dead and making a comfortable hospital
           for the wounded, on the afternoon of the 27th Chivington
           fell back to the Pecos River at Kosloskie's Ranch and
           encamped.  On receiving the news from Apache Canyon,
           Colonel Slough put his forces in motion, and at eleven
           o'clock at night of the 27th joined Chivington at Kosloskie's.
           At daybreak on the 28th, the assembly was sounded, and
           the entire command resumed its march.  Five miles out
           from their encampment Major Chivington, in command of
           a detachment composed of Companies A, B, H, and E of the
           First Colorado, and Captain Ford's Company unattached,
           with Captain Lewis' Company of the Fifth Regular Infantry,
           was ordered to take the Galisteo road, and by a detour
           through the mountains to gain the enemy's rear, if possible,
           at the west end of Apache Canyon, while Slough advanced
           slowly with the main body to gain his front about the
           same time; thus devising an attack in front and rear.
           About ten o'clock, while making his way through the scrub
           pine and cedar brush in the mountains, Major Chivington
           and his command heard cannonading to their right, and
           were thereby apprised that Colonel Slough and his men
           had met the enemy.  About twelve o'clock he arrived with
           his men on the summit of the mountain which overlooked
           the enemy's supply wagons, which had been left in the
           charge of a strong guard with one piece of artillery mounted
           on an elevation commanding the camp and mouth of the canyon.
           With great difficulty Chivington descended the precipitous
           mountain, charged, took, and spiked the gun, ran together
           the enemy's supply wagons of commissary, quartermaster,
           and ordnance stores, set them on fire, blew and burnt
           them up, bayoneted his mules in corral, took the guard
           prisoners and reascended the mountain, where about dark
           he was met by Lieutenant Cobb, aide-de-camp on Colonel
           Slough's staff, with the information that Slough and his
           men had been defeated and had fallen back to Kosloskie's.
           Upon the supposition that this information was correct,
           Chivington, under the guidance of a French Catholic priest,
           in the intensest darkness, with great difficulty made
           his way with his command through the mountains without
           a road or trail, and joined Colonel Slough about midnight.
           Meanwhile, after Chivington and his detachment had left
           in the morning, Colonel Slough with the main body proceeded
           up the canyon, and arriving at Pigeon's Ranch, gave orders
           for the troops to stack arms in the road and supply their
           canteens with water, as that would be the last opportunity
           before reaching the further end of Apache Canyon.
           While thus supplying themselves with water and visiting
           the wounded in the hospital at Pigeon's Ranch, being
           entirely off their guard, they were suddenly startled by
           a courier from the advance column dashing down the road
           at full speed and informing them that the enemy was close
           at hand.  Orders were immediately given to fall in and
           take arms, but before the order could be obeyed the enemy
           had formed battery and commenced shelling them.
           They formed as quickly as possible, the colonel ordering
           Captain Downing with Company D, First Colorado Volunteers,
           to advance on the left, and Captain Kerber with Company I
           First Colorado, to advance on the right.  In the meantime
           Ritter and Claflin opened a return fire on the enemy with
           their batteries.  Captain Downing advanced and fought
           desperately, meeting a largely superior force in point
           of numbers, until he was almost overpowered and surrounded;
           when, happily, Captain Wilder of Company G of the First
           Colorado, with a detachment of his command, came to his
           relief, and extricated him and that portion of his Company
           not already slaughtered.  While on the opposite side,
           the right, Company I had advanced into an open space,
           feeling the enemy, and ambitious of capturing his battery,
           when they were surprised by a detachment which was concealed
           in an arroya, and which, when Kerber and his men were
           within forty feet of it, opened a galling fire upon them.
           Kerber lost heavily; Lieutenant Baker, being wounded,
           fell back.  In the meantime the enemy masked, and made
           five successive charges on our batteries, determined to
           capture them as they had captured Canby's at Valverde.
           At one time they were within forty yards of Slough's
           batteries, their slouch hats drawn down over their faces,
           and rushing on with deafening yells.  It seemed inevitable
           that they would make the capture, when Captain Claflin
           gave the order to cease firing, and Captain Samuel Robbins
           with his company, K of the First Colorado, arose from the
           ground like ghosts, delivering a galling fire, charged
           bayonets, and on the double-quick put the rebels to flight.
           During the whole of this time the cavalry, under Captain
           Howland, were held in reserve, never moving except to
           fall back and keep out of danger, with the exception of
           Captain Cook's men, who dismounted and fought as infantry.
           From the opening of the battle to its close the odds were
           against Colonel Slough and his forces; the enemy being
           greatly superior in numbers, with a better armament of
           artillery and equally well armed otherwise.  But every inch
           of ground was stubbornly contested.  In no instance did
           Slough's forces fall back until they were in danger of
           being flanked and surrounded, and for nine hours, without
           rest or refreshment, the battle raged incessantly.
           At one time Claflin gave orders to double-shot his guns,
           they being nothing but little brass howitzers, and he
           counted, "One, two, three, four," until one of his own
           carriages capsized and fell down into the gulch; from which
           place Captain Samuel Robbins and his company, K, extricated
           it and saved it from falling into the enemy's hands.
           Having been compelled to give ground all day, Colonel Slough,
           between five and six o'clock in the afternoon, issued
           orders to retreat.  About the same time General Sibley
           received information from the rear of the destruction of
           his supply trains, and ordered a flag of truce to be sent
           to Colonel Slough, which did not reach him, however, until
           he arrived at Kosloskie's.  A truce was entered into until
           nine o'clock the next morning, which was afterward extended
           to twenty-four hours, and under which Sibley with his
           demoralized forces fell back to Santa Fe, laying that town
           under tribute to supply his forces.
           The 29th was spent in burying the dead, as well as those
           of the Confederates which they left on the field, and
           caring for the wounded.  Orders were received from General
           Canby directing Colonel Slough to fall back to Fort Union,
           which so incensed him that while obeying the order he
           forwarded his resignation, and soon after left the command.
 Thus ended the battle of La Glorieta.