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Article Index




     Compiled, by request, by Miss GERTRUDE COBURN, Professor of Domestic Economy, Iowa Agricultural College, Ames, Iowa.


Chemical analysis of apples, fairly representing the average composition, indicates that the total nutriment is about fifteen per cent. of the whole weight, and consists principally of sugar, organic acid, and pectin (which gelatinizes when boiled and cooled). Although the fruit is thus shown to be but slightly nutritious, it is generally palatable and wholesome. It easily supplies variety in diet throughout the year, and it has the advantage of being suitable for any meal and combining agreeably with many other common food materials.

When ripe, and carefully selected, the uncooked apple is toothsome and healthful, either alone and between meals or as one of the table fruits. The indigestible skin and cellulose, with the water and acid, contribute to the dietetic value, in that they make the whole raw apple a laxative food, especially effective when eaten before breakfast or at night.

Cooked entire, and without any addition, the well-flavored apple is among the most perfect and economical of the subacid fruits for every-day use, and for the invalid's tray is seldom surpassed. Baked in its own juice, with sugar and additional flavoring, or boiled in syrup, it is relished equally with the breakfast mush, the dinner meat, and the supper bread and cake. Combined with cream, custard, whipped white of egg, or tapioca, which add nutriment without destroying the fruit flavor, it affords a delicate dessert, inexpensive and easily prepared. Steamed or baked, with a light covering or crust of biscuit dough or pastry, it has a variety of forms, all used for dinner, and usually made complete with sweetened cream, or in other cases with a bit of good cheese.

The skin, while not digestible, is not often injurious, and as the best flavor is contained in the surface portion of the apple, careless paring is wasteful and unnecessary, especially when the fruit is to be baked. The unbroken envelope retains the steam produced as the juice is heated, thus hastening the process of expanding and bursting the tiny cells and converting the firm pulp into a delicate sauce. This suggests that, in order to produce the desirable lightness, the oven should be sufficiently hot to change the water of the fruit into steam. If the skin is tough or for other reasons is removed, the clean, unblemished parings, with the cores, may be simmered in water until the flavor and color make it a useful addition for pudding sauce, preserves, or jelly. It is usually best to remove the core before cooking, and, when the apple (as for compote) is not to be otherwise cut after paring, it should be cored before the skin is taken off, to prevent breaking.

The various forms of boiled and steamed apples are attractive and generally liked. The requisites are: To select good fruit and wash it clean before cutting; to remove only a thin paring, _all_ of the core, and the bruised, discolored and defective parts; to intensify rather than obscure the apple flavor, using only enough of sugar, spice, or lemon, when any is needed, to accomplish this purpose; to use granite or porcelain-lined utensils (avoiding even tin covers) and silver or wooden spoons; to retain by slow cooking and careful handling the perfect form of the fruit, or else to produce, by stirring and straining, a light, lumpless sauce; to serve the apple preparation with the same respectful and dainty care that is usually bestowed upon the rarer but not more worthy pineapple and orange.

In the summer and autumn, when the fruit is at its best, no additional flavor is needed. Toward spring, when it becomes less palatable, the deficiency may be best supplied with a little lemon juice and grated rind, a bit of pineapple or quince, a few drops of almond extract or rose water, or a few whole cloves. Sweet apples which are dry and rather tasteless may be utilized satisfactorily if stewed, canned or preserved with one-third their bulk of quince.

Apples, Raw, for Breakfast.--Select fresh, unspotted apples of good flavor, but not very sour, wash and wipe thoroughly, and arrange tastefully, alone or with other fruit. For serving, use small plates and fruit-knives, to be removed with them. Individual taste must decide whether the fruit should be eaten before or after the heavier part of the breakfast.

Apples and Cream.--A delicious breakfast dish, to be served with the cooked cereal or alone, consists of fresh, mellow, sweet apples, pared and sliced, sprinkled with fine sugar and dressed with cream.

Apples and Bread and Milk.--For a summer luncheon, a bowl of rich milk and bread may be pleasantly varied by the addition of a ripe sweet apple, pared and thinly sliced. If the fruit is not thoroughly ripe and mellow, it is improved by slow baking until quite soft.

Baked Apples.--Select moderately tart or very juicy sweet apples, of equal size. Wash them, remove the cores (or at least the blossom ends) and any imperfections, with the skin also, if it is objectionable. Put in a shallow baking dish, and fill the cavities with sugar and such flavoring as seems to be demanded, allowing from one-third to one-half of a cup of sugar and about one-fourth of a teaspoonful of nutmeg or cinnamon to eight apples, with sometimes the juice and grated rind of half a lemon. Cover the bottom of the dish with boiling water (which may need to be replenished if the fruit is not very juicy), and bake in a hot oven until soft, basting often with the syrup in the dish. Sweet apples need to bake longer and more slowly than sour, and when done should be very soft. Set the baking dish in a cool place until the fruit is almost cold, then transfer the apples to a glass dish and pour the syrup, which should be thick and amber colored, around them.

Apples in Bloom. (By consent, from "Boston Cooking-School Cook-Book," by Miss Farmer.)--Select eight red apples, cook in boiling water until soft, turning them often. Have water half surround apples. Remove skins carefully, that the red color may remain, and arrange on a serving dish. To the water add one cup sugar, grated rind one-half lemon, and juice one orange; simmer until reduced to one cup. Cool, and pour over apples. Serve with sweetened whipped cream or cream sauce.

Baked Apple-Sauce. (By consent, from "Every-Day Dishes," by Mrs. E. E. Kellogg.)--Pare, core and quarter apples to fill an earthen crock or deep pudding dish, taking care to use apples of uniform degree of hardness and pieces of the same size. For two quarts of fruit thus prepared, add a cup of water and, if the apples are sour, a cup of sugar. Cover closely, and bake in a moderate oven several hours, or until of a dark red color. Sweet apples and quinces, in the proportion of two parts of apple to one of quince, baked in this way, are also good. Cut the apples into quarters, but slice the quinces much thinner as they are more difficult to cook. Put a layer of quince on the bottom of the dish, and alternate with layers of apple until the dish is full. Add cold water to half cover the fruit, and stew in the oven, well covered, without stirring, until tender. Fruit cooked in this way may be canned while hot and kept for a long period.

Stewed Apples.--Pare, quarter and core six or eight tart apples; put them into a granite kettle, strew with one cup or less of sugar, add juice of half a lemon and a few bits of the yellow rind; cover with boiling water and simmer (not boil) until tender. Dish carefully, without breaking, and serve cold.

Green-Apple Sauce.--For sour green apples it is best to use a sharp silver knife, to prevent discoloration. Cut the apples in quarters, remove the cores and skin, and drop them as fast as pared into a bowl of cold water. Skim them out into a granite kettle with a large bottom, so that there will not be much depth to the apples. Add boiling water enough to show among the pieces, cover tightly, and cook quickly. Shake the pan occasionally, and as soon as the fruit is soft mash it with a silver fork, add sugar to taste, and when it is dissolved remove from the fire. Serve hot or cold. This sauce should be free from lumps, light colored and not very sweet. A pinch of salt may be an improvement.

Apple-Sauce For Goose or Pork.--Pare, quarter and core six tart apples. Put them in a granite saucepan, cover with water, boil until tender, and press through a colander; add a teaspoonful of butter, a dash of nutmeg or cinnamon, and sugar to taste, being careful to keep the sauce tart.

Canned Apples. (By consent, from Mrs. Rorer's "Philadelphia Cook-Book.")--To four pounds of apples use one pound of sugar, the juice and yellow rind of one lemon, and one quart of water. Choose fine ripe Pippins or Bellflowers. Pare, core, and throw them into cold water. When you have sufficient to fill one or two jars, lift them carefully from the water, weigh, then put them in a porcelain-lined kettle, cover with boiling water, bring quickly to the boiling-point, and then stand them over a moderate fire, where they will scarcely bubble, until tender. While they are cooking, put the sugar and water into another kettle, stir with a clean wooden spoon until the sugar is thoroughly dissolved, add the lemon, and boil three minutes. With a perforated skimmer lift the apples from the water, hold a moment until drained, and then slide them carefully into the boiling syrup; continue until the bottom of the kettle is covered; boil until the apples are sufficiently tender to admit a straw, then lift them carefully and slide one at time into the jar. The jars should be thoroughly cleaned and heated and set on a folded wet towel. After passing a silver spoon handle around the inside of the filled jar to break any air bubbles present, screw on the top as quickly as possible. Stand the jars in a warm place in the kitchen over night, and in the morning again tighten the covers and put away in a cool, dark, dry closet.

Apple Compote. (By consent, from Mrs. Lincoln's "Boston Cook-Book.")--Make a syrup with one cup of sugar, one cup of water, and a square inch of stick cinnamon. Boil slowly for ten minutes, skimming well. Core and pare eight or ten tart apples and cook until nearly done in the syrup. Drain, and cook them for a few minutes in the oven, with the door open. Boil the syrup until almost like a jelly. Arrange the apples on a dish for serving, fill the core cavities with jelly or marmalade, and pour the syrup over them. Put whipped cream around the base and garnish the cream with jelly.

Apple Preserves. (By consent, from Mrs. Rorer's "Philadelphia Cook-Book.")--Core and pare fine ripe Pippins, and cut them into quarters. Weigh, and to each pound allow one pound of granulated sugar and a half pint of boiling water, the grated rind of one and the juice of two lemons. Boil the sugar and water until clear (about three minutes), skimming when necessary; add the lemon juice and rind, then the apples, and _simmer_ gently until they are clear and tender, but not broken; then stand aside to cool. When cold put them into jars, cover closely, and stand them in a cool, dark place for one week. At the end of that time turn them carefully into the kettle, bring them to the boiling-point, and _simmer_ for five minutes; then return them to the jars, cover closely with tissue paper brushed over with the white of an egg, and put in a dark, cool place to keep.

Apple Butter. (By consent, from Mrs. Rorer's "Philadelphia Cook-Book.")--This should be made from new cider, fresh from the press, and not yet fermented. Fill a porcelain-lined kettle with cider, and boil until reduced one-half. Then boil another kettleful in the same way, and so continue until you have sufficient quantity. To every four gallons of boiled cider allow a half-bushel of nice, juicy apples, pared, cored, and quartered. The cider should be boiled the day before you make the apple butter. Put the boiled cider in a very large kettle, and add as many apples as can be kept moist. Stir frequently, and when the apples are soft beat with a wooden stick until they are reduced to a pulp. Cook and stir continuously until the consistency is that of soft marmalade and the color is very dark brown. Have boiled cider at hand in case it becomes too thick, and apples if too thin. Twenty minutes before you take it from the fire add ground cinnamon and nutmeg to taste. It requires no sugar. When cold, put into stone jars and cover closely.

Apple Jelly. (By consent, from Mrs. Rorer's "Philadelphia Cook Book.")--Lady Blush or Fall Pippins are best for jelly. The first make a bright-red jelly, and the latter an almost white jelly. Wipe the fruit, cut it into pieces without paring or removing the seeds. Put into kettle and barely cover with cold water; cover the kettle, and boil slowly until the apples are very tender; then drain them through a flannel jelly bag--do not squeeze or the jelly will be cloudy. To every pint of this juice allow one pound of granulated sugar. Put the juice into the kettle and bring it quickly to the boiling-point; add the sugar and stir until dissolved, and then boil rapidly and continuously until it jellies, skimming as a scum rises to the surface. Twenty minutes is usually sufficient for the boiling, though not always. After fifteen minutes' boiling begin the testing by taking out one teaspoonful of the boiling jelly, pouring it into the bottom of a saucepan, and standing it in a cool place for a moment. Scrape it up with the side of a spoon, and, if jellied, the surface will be partly solid; if not, boil a few minutes longer and try again; as soon as it jellies roll the tumblers in boiling water and fill with the boiling liquid. Stand aside until cold and firm (about twenty-four hours). If the glasses have lids put them on; if not, cover with two thicknesses of tissue paper and paste the edges down over the edge of the tumbler. Then moisten the papers with a sponge dipped in cold water, so that when it dries it will shrink and be tight. Keep in a cool, dark place.

Apple Rose Cream. (By consent, from Mrs. E. E. Kellogg's "Every-Day Dishes.")--Wash, core, slice and cook without paring a dozen fresh Snow apples until soft and very dry. Rub through a colander to remove skins, add sugar to taste and the beaten whites of two eggs, beating vigorously until stiff; add a teaspoonful of rose-water for flavoring, and serve at once or keep on ice. It is important that the apples be very dry, as otherwise the cream will not be light. Other varieties of apples may be used, and flavored with vanilla or pineapple. It is sometimes better to steam the apples than to stew them tender.

Apple Tapioca Pudding. (By consent, from Mrs. Lincoln's "Boston Cook-Book.")--Pick over and wash three-quarters of a cup of pearl tapioca. Pour one quart of boiling water over it, and cook in the double boiler until transparent; stir often and add a half teaspoonful of salt. Core and pare seven apples. Put them in a round baking dish and fill the core cavities with sugar and lemon juice. Pour the tapioca over them and bake until the apples are very soft. Serve hot or cold, with sugar and cream. A delicious variation may be made by using half pears or canned quinces and half apples.

Apple and Rice Pudding.--Steam one cupful of rice in two cupfuls of boiling salted water until soft. With this, line a buttered pudding dish on the sides and bottom, leaving a portion for the top. Fill the dish with thinly sliced tart apples and cover with the remainder of the rice. Put the dish in a steamer and steam until the apples are found to be tender by running a fork into them. Set it away to cool and invert the dish so that the pudding will come out entire. Serve with sweetened cream, thin custard, or fruit sauce. Flavoring may be added to the apple according to taste.

Dutch Apple Cake. (By consent, from Mrs. Lincoln's "Boston Cook-Book.")--One pint flour, one-half teaspoonful salt, two heaping teaspoonfuls baking-powder, one-fourth cup butter, one egg, one scant cup milk, four sour apples, two tablespoonfuls sugar. Mix the dry ingredients in the order given; rub in the butter, beat the egg and mix it with the milk, then stir this into the dry mixture. The dough should be soft enough to spread half an inch thick on a shallow baking pan. Core, pare and cut four or five apples into eighths; lay them in parallel rows on top of the dough, the sharp edge down, and press enough to make the edge penetrate slightly. Sprinkle the sugar on the apple. Bake in a hot oven twenty or thirty minutes. To be eaten hot with butter as a tea cake, or with lemon sauce or with sugar and cream as a pudding.

Scalloped Apples. (By consent, from Mrs. Lincoln's "Boston Cook-Book.")--Mix half a cup of sugar and an eighth of a teaspoonful of cinnamon or the grated rind of half a lemon. Melt half a cup of butter and stir it into one pint of soft bread crumbs; prepare three pints of sliced apples. Butter a pudding dish, put in a layer of crumbs, then sliced apple, and sprinkle with sugar; then another layer of crumbs, apple, and sugar, until the materials are used. Have a thick layer of crumbs on top. When the apples are not juicy, add half a cup of cold water; and if not tart apples, add the juice of half a lemon. Bake about an hour, covering at first to prevent burning. Serve with cream. Ripe berries and other acid fruits may be used instead of the apples, and oat-meal or cracked-wheat mush in place of the bread crumbs.

Brown Betty. (By consent, from "Century Cook-Book.")--In a quart pudding dish arrange alternate layers of sliced apples and bread crumbs; season each layer with bits of butter, a little sugar, and a pinch each of ground cinnamon, cloves, and allspice. When the dish is full pour over it a half cupful each of molasses and water mixed; cover the top with crumbs. Place the dish in a pan containing hot water, and bake for three-quarters of an hour, or until the apples are soft. Serve with cream or with any sauce. Raisins or chopped almonds improve the pudding.

Friar's Omelet. (Mrs. Treat.)--Stew six or seven good-sized apples as for apple-sauce; when cooked and still warm stir in one teaspoonful of butter and one cupful of sugar; when cold, stir in three well-beaten eggs and a little lemon juice. Now put a small piece of butter into a saucepan, and, when hot, add to it a cupful of bread crumbs and stir until they assume a light-brown color. Butter a pudding mold, and sprinkle on the bottom and sides as many of these bread crumbs as will adhere; fill in the apple preparation, sprinkle bread crumbs on top, bake it for fifteen or twenty minutes, and turn it out on a good-sized platter. It can be eaten with or without a sweet sauce.

Baked Apple Dumplings.--Make a short pie-crust; roll it thin and cut it into squares large enough to cover an apple. Select apples of the same size, core and pare them, and fill the space with sugar, butter, and a little ground cinnamon or nutmeg. Place an apple in each square of pie-crust; wet the edges with water or white of egg, and fold together so that the points meet on the top. Pinch and turn the edges so that they are fluted. Bake in a moderate oven about forty minutes, or until the apples are soft without having lost their form. Serve with hard sauce or with sugar and cream.

Steamed Apple Dumplings.--Core and pare six or eight apples. Make a biscuit dough, using four cups of flour, two heaping teaspoonfuls of baking-powder, one large tablespoonful of butter, one teaspoonful of salt, and one cup of milk. Use more or less milk as is needed to make a soft dough that will roll out without being sticky. Roll the dough about half an inch thick and cut in squares to cover the apples, as in the preceding recipe, after sweetening and flavoring. Place the dumplings on a dinner plate which can be set in the steamer. Steam forty minutes and serve from the same plate, with hard sauce or sweetened cream. A variation of this recipe, which is sometimes more convenient, is as follows: Cut the apples into eighths, and put them, with half a cup of water, into a granite pudding pan; roll the biscuit dough out to fit the pan, and cover the apples; cover the pan, and steam or cook in the oven. Sprinkle sugar thickly over the top and serve in the pudding pan, with hard sauce in another dish.

Apple Pie. (By consent, from "Boston Cooking-School Cook-Book," by Miss Farmer.)--Four or five sour apples, one-third cup sugar, one-fourth teaspoon grated nutmeg, one-eighth teaspoon salt, one teaspoon butter, one teaspoon lemon juice, few gratings lemon rind. Line pie plate with paste. Pare, core, and cut the apples into eighths; put row around the plate one-half inch from the edge, and work toward the center until the plate is covered; then pile on the remainder. Mix sugar, nutmeg, salt, lemon juice and rind and sprinkle over the apples. Dot over with butter. Wet edges of under crust, cover with upper crust, and press edges together. Bake forty to forty-five minutes in a moderate oven. A very good pie may be made without butter or lemon. Cinnamon may be substituted for nutmeg. Evaporated apples soaked over night in cold water may be used in place of the fresh fruit.

Apple Fritters.--Core and pare three or four apples. Cut them crosswise into slices one-third of an inch thick, leaving the opening in the center. Sprinkle with lemon, sugar, and spice. Let stand one hour. Dip each slice in fritter batter, and fry in deep, hot fat. Drain, and sprinkle with powdered sugar. Serve hot, with or without hard sauce.

Batter For Fritters.--One cup flour, one-fourth teaspoonful salt, two-thirds cup milk, yolks and whites of two eggs beaten separately, one tablespoonful olive oil or melted butter. Mix salt and flour, add milk gradually, yolks of eggs, butter, and stiff whites. A tablespoonful of sugar may be added, if liked.

Fried Apples.--Cut slices one-half inch thick across the apple without removing skin or core, or cut the apple in quarters and remove the core. Saute the apples in butter or drippings until tender and light brown, but not soft enough to lose form. Serve on the same dish with pork chops.

Apple Water (for invalids).--Wipe, core and pare one large sour apple. Put two teaspoonfuls sugar in the core cavity, and bake until tender. Pour one cup boiling water over the baked apple, let it stand one-half hour, strain, and serve.