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Ben Davis is the leading market apple, followed closely by Missouri Pippin. These two lead all others, and are followed by Winesap and Jonathan. Rawle's Janet, York Imperial, Huntsman's Favorite, Grimes's Golden Pippin and Maiden's Blush are also favorites. We find the Yellow Bellflower, Newtown Pippin, Lawver and a few others are condemned all over the state.

In the eastern third of the state hilltop or slope is preferred to bottom land, but in the central and western portions bottom land is preferred. The reason for this is obvious. Any good soil is satisfactory, if subsoil is porous.

The favorite distance seems to be thirty-two feet east and west and sixteen to twenty feet north and south, some putting peach or early-bearing apples between, the wide way, to be cut out when they crowd. This undoubtedly brings the quickest returns, but many believe it robs the permanent trees of their future sustenance.

Twenty-four prefer one-year-old trees; 7 one to two years old; 153 two-year-old; 10 two- to three-year-old; 21 three-year-old; 3 want four-year-old, and 59 give no age. It is only a matter of cost and convenience. A one-year-old tree costs less and allows the would-be orchardist to set more trees for a given amount of cash. The one- and two-year-old trees require the removal of less earth, and are more readily handled and planted. There is no reason why an apple tree three inches in diameter cannot be transplanted as easily as an elm or maple. A man is willing to set a few large shade-trees at a cost of one dollar to five dollars per tree, but cannot feel that it is economy to set orchard trees at as great individual expense.

"Whole-root grafts" is a misleading appellation, as it will be found to be only a crown graft. Its advocates make great claims that are at variance with the facts. There can scarcely be such a thing unless grafted on a seedling without removal of such seedling from the earth. Our best nurserymen prefer the second cut, about one and one-half to three inches taken from the seedling root a couple of inches below the crown. In any case the piece of root taken has little influence on the future tree. All our ordinary varieties make roots from the scion, and the original seedling root may be found--like the piece of potato we plant--shriveled and useless in the midst of the new roots. The nature of the root growth shows this plainly, as all its peculiarities will be found to be a counterpart of the roots of the variety from which the scion was cut. It is folly to pay any added price for so-called "whole-root grafts."

A very great majority believe in thorough cultivation, at least for from six to ten years; some during the life of the tree. Nearly all agree that Indian corn is the best crop to grow in a young orchard; it shades the ground, and protects from wind. The corn in a young orchard should not be cut in the fall, neither should the stalks be pastured; let them stand till spring as a partial protection; it pays.

Many parts of the state, especially the western half, believe windbreaks on the south and west very valuable, if not quite necessary. Forest-trees with the outside row or rows of Russian mulberries, and perhaps an Osage orange hedge, seem to meet the general opinion.

As a protection from rabbits, the ever-present corn-stalks seem most economical, and the favorite. The cost is little, and the boys and girls, or the farmer and his wife, at odd times can put them on. It is an open question as to the benefit or harm of leaving them on permanently for the first five years. It looks slovenly, but certainly has many arguments in its favor.

The serio-comic idea of boring into an apple tree and placing therein sulphur, asafetida or other drugs does not really deserve a serious thought. It is impossible for the tree to assimilate these substances, especially sulphur, and carry them to the foliage or fruit for preventive or any other purpose. Boring and plugging--like any other threatened death to the tree--may cause temporary fruitfulness, as also will girdling.

While several washes are claimed to prevent or destroy borers, the large majority of extensive orchardists believe the knife and a hooked wire in the hands of a thoroughgoing employee the best and surest way of knowing that you destroy the larva of this persistent and destructive insect.

Smearing trees with any undiluted grease, especially axle grease made from petroleum refuse, is hazardous, and the man who advises it is an enemy to your orchard. If you have applied it, the sooner you wash it off the longer will your orchard thrive.

Pruning has its advocates, but the Eastern style of a long stem has scarcely a follower in our state; a great majority simply cut out "watersprouts" and limbs that cross or rub, or are wind-broken.

Thinning on the trees has many advocates, but few followers. All admit it would often improve the size and quality, yet most growers believe the difference would not be sufficient to pay for the labor, and it would require skilled labor to do it without injury.

A large number, perhaps a majority, believe it pays to apply fertilizers, more especially barn-yard litter, to the orchard; but cases are known where it has done much harm. All agree that it should be kept away from the body of the tree.

As to pasturing the orchard, some think it pays; others that it does no harm; others still--and they are many--condemn it. The larger proportion of those who pasture confine the stock to calves, colts, and pigs. Some would allow only poultry in the orchard, and the poultry must not roost in the trees. This latter point is an excellent one.

We find we have plenty of insects; this is natural. Insects settle in a country that provides proper food for them and their larva. As apple trees are planted in new localities the insects that delight in apple-tree wood, apple-tree roots, apple-tree foliage and apple-tree fruits immigrate, grow, and multiply.

Spraying or using some preventive or destroyer has become necessary, and the man who believes it unnecessary and intends to trust to nature or providence or God will find no truer saying than "God helps those who help themselves." Sit down calmly and watch the worms eat your trees, trust to the woodpecker and the sparrows, and you will in time buy apples from your more active, thoroughgoing neighbor, or go without.

Methods of picking do not vary much, yet all agree that it should be done carefully. If shaken from the tree, poured out carelessly, or jolted about in a lumber wagon, it simply increases the culls and decreases the cash returns.

Sorting is done in various ways (a sorting table or device is explained elsewhere), but a majority seem to make three classes: First class, the unblemished best of each variety; culls, which are the unmarketable, specked, bruised and gnarled fruit; second class, which are between the other two, and really valuable for immediate use. In some cases the "second best" have been put in cold storage, and they sold well after the usual fall glut.

Packing: While there are many who handle in a small way in boxes--and the time is near when all fancy apples will be marketed in boxes--yet all the larger growers use barrels, and it is encouraging to find they use full twelve-peck barrels. The eleven-peck barrels should be boycotted out of existence.

Marketing: In our large apple-growing districts the crop is generally wholesaled, either in the orchard or subject to delivery at the railroad, generally in barrels. In the western half of the state the apples are largely taken in bulk, in wagons, hauled farther west and south, and sold at a good profit to the wagoner. Thousands of wagon-loads are thus disposed of every year. The same wagons often appear in the same neighborhood year after year, to the mutual advantage of all. Shipping to distant markets by the growers, especially when consigned, has been generally unsatisfactory. I need not give reasons; my own experience along similar lines makes me "hot under the hat" when I think over it.

Drying is not practiced to the extent that it ought to be. It seems almost a sin to allow so many thousands of bushels of apples to rot on the ground every year simply because the owner lacks faith in his ability to turn them into a product that will keep while he looks up a market. Dried apples are in demand--hundreds of tons of them--and Kansas dried apples stand as good chances to bring as remunerative prices to the manufacturer as those from other states. If the work is economically done a profit is sure. Storing for winter is described elsewhere.

Cold storage, cave storage, and cellar storage: All know that, after the perishable and inferior apples are gone, good winter apples bring sure and large returns. How best to preserve them is a vital question. The art of keeping apples by the artificial cold-storage process is yet imperfect and unsatisfactory, and the losses have been so great that, unless the owner of the plant will take part of the risk, at least to the extent of his fee, he will find the average grower standing back. To lose your apples, and then pay fifty cents per barrel to the man whose ignorance or carelessness may have caused the loss, is a burden too heavy to be borne. The hillside cave is described elsewhere, and the orchardist who has such a cave well built, and gives it careful attention, will save a large portion of the fee, and have his apples always under his own supervision, besides saving in hauling, and perhaps railroad freight to and from a distant cold-storage plant. House cellars, small caves and buried heaps each and all have their advocates, mostly for family use or among the small growers.

It seems to be determined that the Winesap is the better keeper, followed closely by the Missouri Pippin and Ben Davis. Of less marketable varieties, Rawle's Janet and Rambo seem to keep best. The per cent. of loss, excepting in a few cases, does not seem great considering the (usually) greatly increased value of the sound apples.

The reports from those who irrigate are not as full as we could wish. It is claimed that with irrigation every apple becomes a perfect specimen of its kind; that there are no culls. If this is so, and we hope it is, what a grand opening for those rightly situated.

Our Lakin correspondent sells his apples at top prices at the tree for cash, to men who could but do not heed the injunction, "Go thou and do likewise." Prices, like wages, vary greatly. Apples put on board cars in a northeastern county at twenty cents per bushel often retail in western groceries at one dollar per bushel. The railroad and grocer get the "lion's share."

On the whole, a close study of all that is in this book ought to give an impetus to the planting of proper varieties, the careful and complete destruction of insects, the growing, picking, packing and marketing of more profitable apples, all to the glory of the Kansas grower and incidentally swelling his bank account. This means better dwellings, better furniture therein, better food on the tables, better education for the children, and more and better literature in the house. If these aims are realized, then the labor of the compiler shall not have been in vain, but will prove to be a help in making Kansas and the Kansas apple known throughout the whole world.