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Article Index

 

DESCRIPTION OF VARIETIES REFERRED TO IN THIS BOOK 

BEN DAVIS.

_Synonyms_: New York Pippin, Victoria Pippin, Victoria Red, Red Pippin, Kentucky Pippin, Baltimore Red, Baltimore Pippin, Baltimore Red Streak, Carolina Red Streak, and Funkhouser.

The origin of this apple is unknown. J. S. Downer, of Kentucky, writes that old trees are there found from which suckers are taken in way of propagating. The tree is very hardy, a free grower, with very dark reddish brown, slightly grayish, young wood, forming an erect, round head, bearing early and abundantly. In quality it is not first rate, but from its early productiveness, habit of blooming late in the spring after late frosts, good size, fair, even fruit, keeping and carrying well, it is very popular in all the Southwest and West. Fruit medium to large. Form roundish, truncated conical, often sides unequal. Color yellowish, almost entirely overspread, splashed and striped with two shades of red, and dotted sparsely with aureole dots. Stalk medium, rather slender. Cavity narrow, deep, russeted. Calyx partially open. Basin wide, abrupt, slightly corrugated. Flesh white, tender, moderately juicy, pleasant, subacid. Core medium to large. Good to very good. December to March.

Remarks on the Ben Davis by members of the State Horticultural Society:

E. J. Holman (Leavenworth county): I favor Ben Davis because of its large size and good appearance; because it is long-lived, and attractive in appearance in market; because it is an early bearer; and, to sum it all up, because it is profitable to grow.

J. W. Robison (Butler county): I favor Ben Davis because it is one of the most hardy, even, regular bearers; because it succeeds on a great variety of soils. It is handsome in appearance and attracts the eye in every market.

F. W. Dixon (Jackson county): I favor Ben Davis because it is the most profitable variety.

Phillip Lux (Shawnee county): It has a quality of sticking on until we are ready to pick. It gives good returns for our investment.

J. F. Maxey (Franklin county): I favor it because of its large size and attractive appearance.

G. L. Holsinger (Wyandotte county): I vote for it.

G. W. Bailey (Sumner county): The Ben Davis has been the most profitable with us. It is very attractive and popular, and a good seller.

A member: On account of its large size, attractive appearance, and good market qualities, I vote for it.

B. F. Smith (Douglas county): I vote for it because it is the best commercial apple we have and stands high in the European markets. It sells for six dollars a barrel in Hamburg.

 

WINESAP.

_Synonyms_: Winesop and Potpie Apple.

This is not only a good apple for the table, but it is also one of the very finest cider fruits, and its fruitfulness renders it a great favorite with orchardists. The tree grows rather irregularly, and does not form a handsome head, but it bears early, and the apples have the good quality of hanging late upon the trees without injury, while the tree thrives well on sandy, light soils. The tree is very hardy, and one of the most profitable orchard varieties wherever grown. Young wood reddish brown, with smooth red buds. Fruit of medium size, rather roundish oblong. Skin smooth, of a fine dark red, with a few streaks, and a little yellow ground appearing on the shady side. Stalk nearly an inch long, slender, set in an irregular cavity. Calyx small, placed in a regular basin, with fine plaits. Flesh yellow, firm, crisp, with a rich, high flavor. Very good. November to May.

Remarks on the Winesap by members of the State Horticultural Society:

C. C. Cook (Wabaunsee county): I strongly favor the Winesap, preferring it to any apple I grow.

J. W. Robison (Butler county): The Winesap is desirable because of its deep, rich color, its attractiveness, and high flavor. Its one principal defect is over bearing. It is a good seller.

E. J. Holman: The excellences of the Winesap consist in its color, its flavor, and its keeping quality. I would not recommend it for a commercial orchard. I recommend it for the family orchard only.

W. G. Gano (Missouri): That is my view. I would not recommend it as a commercial apple. The tree grows straggling, and is subject to insects, and the winds affect them greatly, making them unprofitable in our orchards. As a family apple, when grown to perfection, we can hardly dispense with it.

F. W. Dixon: The Winesap trees on my farm are twenty-five years old, and last year yielded ten bushels of marketable apples [per tree], besides culls. I would not recommend the Winesap as a commercial apple, as it is usually small.

Phillip Lux: I must say a good word for the Winesap. It has many traits against it for profit; yet I would give it a place in the commercial orchard. It falls early, and must be picked early; but if planted in good, rich, black soil it will as a rule do well. It commands a good price, and is a good apple for variety. We cannot make it a leader, but should keep it among our commercial apples.

James Sharp (Morris county): I consider it a good apple for my soil. It is a good apple if planted in a cool and moist red clay. In this they grow to a marketable size.

G. L. Holsinger: I think I would not plant another Winesap, unless for family use. I would place it fifth or sixth on the list. After one or two good crops they generally play out. This year they were about the size of crab-apples.

J. W. Robison: The Winesap in Butler county is prone to spur blight. In summer, when the hot sun comes, they dry up in clusters. As far south as we are they are hardly profitable. Farther north they do better. In Illinois, from one square of 200 trees (Winesaps) I gathered 3000 bushels of apples, in 1871.

G. W. Bailey: I know no better apple for family use. In our country, in the low lands, they are fine, of fair size, producing well. While the tree is young the fruit is fine; after it gets older it overbears, and the fruit becomes small. I would not plant it for market.

William Cutter (Geary county): I consider the Winesap good for family orchards, but when old inclined to overbear, which enfeebles the tree. While the tree is young it is among the best. It does not pay for market.

B. F. Smith: I would drop it from the commercial list. If I were to plant 1000 trees I would plant only 200 Winesaps. I prefer the Ben Davis, but we should not all grow the same apple. We want variety.

William Cutter: Every one likes Winesaps, but we cannot grow them at ordinary prices.

George P. Whiteker (Shawnee county): I do not know a better apple. As remarked, when the tree gets old the fruit runs down in size. It is very deceiving. When it appears overloaded there are often not many on it.

President Wellhouse: It has disappointed us every year. Some years they are very full, but many go to the cull piles. I vote against the Winesap. We have not planted any for ten years. Mr. Walter Wellhouse is here. He can tell us about the Winesap.

Walter Wellhouse (Shawnee county): My experience is that, like some other apples, they will not grow in poor soils, but if the soil is suitable they are profitable.

Dr. G. Bohrer (Rice county): I have noticed it is not so much in the quality of the soil as the quantity of moisture in it. Having trees on high ground, I irrigated one of them, and it bore fine apples. In Arkansas, where the land is too poor to raise corn the Winesap does well; but it will not grow on high, dry soil. They must have more than the ordinary amount of moisture.

Secretary Barnes: T. W. Harrison, ex-mayor of Topeka, has Winesap apples growing about seven miles southwest of the city that are phenomenal. They are the largest I ever saw. They have been exhibited at our past meetings, and people would hardly believe them Winesaps. He cannot account for it; says it must be some kind of freak. I examined the trees myself. They are well grown, on high, rolling prairie. I would recommend those who desire Winesaps to get scions from Mr. Harrison. He has seven or eight trees in his orchard, all in one row, far ahead of any Winesaps I ever saw.

Dr. G. Bohrer: Do you know whether there is a source of drainage to that point?

Secretary Barnes: I do not. The trees are probably eighteen years old, and on rolling land.

J. B. McAfee (Shawnee county): I have 145 Winesap trees in my orchard on high ground. They do reasonably well, but are not as large as Mr. Harrison's.

Phillip Lux: Mr. Harrison's orchard lies on a southern slope. It is good orchard land. The soil is very loose. His Missouri Pippins are as good in proportion as his Winesaps. His apples are all good.

J. F. Maxey: We have 300 or 400 acres in Winesap, Missouri Pippin, and Janet. I would not discard the Winesap.

 

JONATHAN.

_Synonyms_: King Philip and Philip Rick.

The Jonathan is a very beautiful dessert apple, and its great beauty, good flavor and productiveness in all soils unite to recommend it to orchard planters. The original tree of this variety is growing on the farm of Mr. Philip Rick, of Kingston, N. Y. It was first described by the late Judge Buel, and named by him in compliment to Jonathan Hasbrouck, Esq., of the same place, who made known the fruit to him. It succeeds wherever grown, and proves one of the best in quality, and most profitable either for table or market. The tree is hardy, moderately vigorous, forming an upright, spreading, round head. Young shoots rather slender, slightly pendulous, grayish brown. Fruit of medium size, regularly formed, roundish conical, or tapering to the eye. Skin thin and smooth, the ground clear light yellow, nearly covered by lively red stripes, and deepening into brilliant or dark red in the sun. Stalk three-fourths of an inch long, rather slender, inserted in a deep, regular cavity. Calyx set in a deep, rather broad basin. Flesh white, rarely a little pinkish, very tender and juicy, with a mild, sprightly, vinous flavor. This fruit evidently belongs to the Spitzenburg class. Best. November to March.

Remarks on the Jonathan by members of the State Horticultural Society:

Dr. G. Bohrer: Jonathan is probably the best apple I grow. They sell for the highest price in the general market. They produce fewer culls than other varieties. It is not a profuse bearer as far south as I am [Rice county]. It ripens too early, and is affected by strong winds.

E. J. Holman: The Jonathan is one of the most desirable all-around apples, excellent as a dessert fruit, of a beautiful deep, bright color, of good quality and strong constitution. It is often called a fall apple, yet, if put in cold storage, it may be brought out even in June in good condition. I place it third as a commercial fruit.

W. G. Gano: The Jonathan should be picked early and put in cold storage. I would place it second as a commercial apple.

W. J. Griffing (Riley county): We consider it about fourth on the list as a commercial apple.

J. B. McAfee: It is large, and about the second for profits in my orchard, which has been planted twenty-seven years.

F. W. Dixon: I would place the Jonathan about third as a commercial apple. In our county it is longer lived than any other apple tree and freer from insects.

James Sharp: Its only objection is its inclination to fall. I suppose, if picked early and put in cold storage, they may be as good, but do not look as well.

Walter Wellhouse: I think the demand for Jonathan is declining some among large dealers. A few years ago they sold for an advance of from fifty cents to one dollar per barrel. In Minneapolis and Chicago the market still seems good for them; but if I were to plant now I would not plant as many Jonathans as five or ten years ago.

G. P. Whiteker: The Jonathan sells better in our market [Topeka] than any other apple. They have a good reputation; none better. They must be picked early.

Phillip Lux: I would place it fifth commercially, it drops so early, before coloring up; it stands more abuse than any other apple we have, and, if gathered early, will keep even without cold storage until the market improves.

Dr. Q. Bohrer: I agree with Mr. Sharp. I think the farther west we go the poorer the fruit gets. You have more rainfall in the eastern part of the state. It is hardy, possibly hardier than Ben Davis, but it falls early. It is much like Winesap, requiring more moisture than other varieties. When not much exposed to winds it does well. Of late our rainfall is not sufficient, and they are not doing so well, but since trying irrigation they do better.

William Cutter: I live too far west for the Jonathan. It will not stand drought or wind. It ripens too early. It is a cold-storage apple. The worst spur blight I ever saw was on them.

B. F. Smith: It is a good wet-weather apple. If there is plenty of moisture, they do fine. I gather them about the 10th of September, and they keep until the next spring. I tried to see how long I could keep them. They should be about third on the commercial list.

 

MISSOURI PIPPIN.

_Synonym_: Missouri Keeper.

It is said to have originated in the orchard of Brink Hornsby, Johnson county, Missouri. Tree hardy, a strong, upright, rather spreading grower, an early and abundant annual bearer. Fruit medium to large, roundish oblate, slightly oblique, somewhat flattened at the ends; skin pale, whitish yellow, shaded, striped and splashed with light and dark red, often quite dark in the sun, having many large and small light and gray dots; stalk short, small; cavity large, deep; calyx closed, or half open; basin rather abrupt, deep, slightly corrugated; flesh whitish, a little coarse, crisp or breaking, moderately juicy, subacid; good; core small. January to April.

Remarks on the Missouri Pippin by members of the State Horticultural Society:

C. C. Cook: I am a warm friend of the Missouri Pippin, and vote it second. It is a short-lived tree, but brings paying returns for expense and trouble. It has a fairly good flavor.

J. W. Robison: The Missouri Pippin is a young and profuse bearer, and quite hardy with me. I should place it second on the list.

E. J. Holman: I have eliminated it from my family orchard, and give it only standing-room as a commercial fruit, and there rate it second [in quality]. There can be more money made from it in a few years than from any apple we have. It is the youngest bearing tree we have. It grows to a good size, and by some is preferred to Ben Davis. The great merit of this apple is in its youthful productiveness, good color, and marketable quality.

W. G. Gano: I do not approve of planting it thickly, intending to let it remain. It is apt to overbear, break in pieces, and become almost worthless. With proper care and thinning when too thick we can partially overcome this.

W. J. Griffing: It is my second best apple. I consider the Winesap the best, as it has paid me the best, and I am planting for winter profit only these two. All apple trees die young with us.

F. W. Dixon: I can add nothing new, but place it second on the list.

James Sharp: It has been my most profitable variety. About four-fifths have been marketable. As to dying young, I would rather grow new ones.

President Wellhouse: We will have to stick to it awhile yet in Kansas. When of good size they command a price in advance of the Ben Davis.

G. P. Whiteker: It gives good satisfaction as a commercial apple. It bears young; and you can get good returns for eight or ten years, and then put out a new orchard.

Phillip Lux: I would place the Missouri Pippin second on the commercial list.

William Cutter: It is the youngest to bear. It is a Western apple. Other varieties gradually die out, but it sticks. The farther west you go the better it is. It stands drought and wind best of all. While it breaks off on the top, it is not a short-lived tree.

B. F. Smith: I would place it second on the commercial list.

 

GANO.

Origin, Howard county, Missouri. Tree very hardy; has never been injured by the cold winters; bears very young, roots readily from its own stock, and can almost be grown from a cutting. Fruit bright red on yellow ground, no stripes; large, oblong, tapering to the eye; surface smooth, takes a very high polish, making it valuable as a stand fruit, thought by many to surpass the Ben Davis. Minute dots; basin shallow, sometimes deep; stem medium to long; flesh white, fine grained, tender, mild, pleasant subacid. An early, annual and prolific bearer. December to May.

Remarks on the Gano by members of the State Horticultural Society:

W. G. Gano: I cannot be against my namesake. I have found nothing yet that excels the parent trees. The Gano is creating a sensation, more especially in the southern part of Missouri. They prefer it to Ben Davis, and, where extensively planted and in bearing, it is creating a sensation. While I have no interest in it, other than the name, still I think we have in the Gano something that will stay. It is much like Ben Davis.

E. J. Holman: I would class it and the Ben Davis as twins.

James Sharp: I planted about 700 trees of it five years ago. This year I raised five apples. Two of these could not be told from Ben Davis. One looked like Jonathan.

William Cutter: I class it with Ben Davis. It differs little except in color. Trees are alike, but I think it a younger bearer. I got my grafts from Lee's Summit, Mo., paying five dollars per 100 for them. One tree I gave to a friend was this year a wonder to all who saw it.

President Wellhouse: We have seventy or eighty acres in Gano, planted five or six years ago. While the tree is much like Ben Davis, I can distinguish a difference in the apples. If I pile both kinds together I can see a difference; if I pick out a Gano and put it in the Ben Davis pile, neither I nor any other man on earth can tell it from the Ben Davis. I do not know whether it is distinct from the Ben Davis or not. If it is Ben Davis, it is all right. I hope it is distinct, but have so far been unable to settle the question.

W. G. Gano: We originally found only one tree in an orchard in Pratt county, Missouri, and in the same orchard there were plenty of Ben Davis trees. There may have been a mix-up of these varieties, but you will not be disappointed if you get the Gano.

President Wellhouse: Before planting, I went to Lee's Summit for three or four years in succession and examined the original trees, to see whether we ought to plant any; we concluded to plant, for if they were not a new apple they would be the Ben Davis anyhow. We may have obtained Ben Davis trees.

Mrs. A. Z. Moore: My husband handles many of them on commission, and favors them both in the orchard and in the market. He says they are known as Jonathan, not as Gano, and while you may not distinguish them in a pile of Ben Davis, you will know the difference if you put your teeth into them.

 

YORK IMPERIAL.

_Synonym_: Johnson's Fine Winter.

Origin thought to be York county, Pennsylvania. Tree moderately vigorous, productive. Young wood rich brown, downy. Fruit medium, oblate oblique, whitish, shaded with crimson in the sun, thinly sprinkled with light and gray dots. Stalk short. Calyx closed, or partially open. Basin large, deep. Flesh yellowish, firm, crisp, juicy, pleasant, mild subacid. Good to very good. Core compact, small. November to February.

Remarks on the York Imperial by members of the State Horticultural Society:

C. C. Cook: I have planted heavily of York Imperial. They are not yet in full bearing. They have given me good results. The trees are of large size and the growth indicates that they will be strong bearers. They are of rather a twig growth. I would put them about sixth on the commercial list.

E. J. Holman: The York Imperial is an old apple. It is new to many of us because of its late sudden popularity. It has been sent to Europe, holding its own with Missouri Pippin and others. It is large, a good keeper, and growers always seem pleased with it. It seems to be growing popular.

James Sharp: I have about 500 or 600 trees I planted on the recommendation of President Wellhouse, six years ago. This year they produced about 100 bushels. I think they will be profitable.

President Wellhouse: I saw a gentleman from St. Louis who gathered about ten car-loads, and he was favorably impressed with it. We have many trees bearing. It keeps well in cellars.

Phillip Lux: I would place them third on the commercial list.

William Cutter: Mine are just beginning to bear. It is not a youthful bearer. I think it will be a popular apple.

G. L. Holsinger: They commence to bear young. We have some that are twenty-two years old. This year they were full. Like the Jonathan, they mature too early and fall off. What I put in the cellar this year kept well, very few rotting.

 

RAWLE'S JANET.

_Synonyms_: Missouri Janet, Red Neverfail, Rawle's Jannet, Rawle's Jannetting, Rawle's Genet, Rock Remain, Rock Rimmon, Yellow Janett, Winter Jannetting, Jeniton, Jennett, Neverfail, Indiana Jannetting, and Raul's Gennetting.

Originated in Amherst county, Virginia, on the farm of Caleb Rawle. Tree hardy, vigorous, spreading. It puts forth its leaves and blossoms much later than other varieties in the spring, and consequently avoids injury by late frost; it is, therefore, particularly valuable for the South and Southwest, where it is much cultivated. Young wood clear reddish brown; fruit rather large, oblate conic, yellowish, shaded with red and striped with crimson; stalk short and thick, inserted in a broad, open cavity; calyx partially open, set in a rather shallow basin; flesh whitish yellow, tender, juicy, pleasant subacid; good to very good; February to June.

Remarks on the Rawle's Janet by members of the State Horticultural Society:

C. C. Cook: I have been acquainted with the Janet from boyhood, but I have little, if any, use for them, because they overbear. It is a hard tree for me to do anything with; cannot get them into shape--die quick.

E. J. Holman: I would only recommend a tree or two of them for the family orchard. It has had its day in the West, and is succeeded by more profitable varieties.

H. L. Ferris (Osage county): I would not plant them to sell. They are too subject to diseases--bitter rot, etc.

W. G. Gano: I think it could be discarded altogether.

James Sharp: Will not pay for commercial orchard.

G. P. Whiteker: Janets bring a good price. They are late keepers. We kept ours this year until we began to pick apples the following fall. It is not a good commercial apple.

Phillip Lux: I would place it on the retired list.

William Cutter: Only fit for family use. Trees overbear; fruit small.

B. F. Smith: I would place it on the retired list.

 

SMITH'S CIDER.

_Synonyms_: Smith's, Fuller, Pennsylvania Cider, Popular Bluff, and Fowler.

Origin, Bucks county, Pennsylvania. This apple is widely grown and much esteemed as a profitable market sort. The tree is a very vigorous, straggling, spreading grower, and productive. Young wood a rich, dark brown. Fruit medium to large, roundish oblate conic, yellow, shaded and striped with red, sparsely covered with gray dots. Stalk slender, of medium length, inserted in a deep, rather narrow cavity. Calyx closed, set in a broad, rather shallow basin. Flesh whitish, tender, juicy, crisp, pleasant, mild subacid. Good December to March.

Remarks on the Smith's Cider by members of the State Horticultural Society:

C. C. Cook: I planted Smith's Cider pretty heavily, and now regret it. It blights badly, and the apples fall off. I intend to replace it with York Imperial.

E. J. Holman: It deserves a place in the family orchard, and a small place in the commercial orchard. They are as large as Ben Davis, and as great bearers, but they fall from the tree sooner.

James Sharp: We had 500 Smith's Cider. Nearly all blighted and died; have never paid me.

G. Whiteker: It is a splendid apple, but blights; I think it will not be profitable.

B. F. Smith: We should not drop it from the list; it is a fairly good apple.

 

MAIDEN'S BLUSH.

A remarkably beautiful apple, a native of New Jersey, and first described by Coxe. It begins to ripen about the 20th of August, and continues until the last of October. It has all the beauty of color of the pretty little Lady Apple, and is much cultivated and admired, both for the table and for cooking. It is also very highly esteemed for drying. This variety forms a handsome, rapid-growing tree, with a fine spreading head, and bears large crops. It is very valuable as a profitable market sort. Fruit of medium size, very regularly shaped, and a little narrow towards the eye. Skin smooth, with a delicate waxen appearance, pale lemon yellow in the shade, with a brilliant crimson cheek next the sun, the two colors often joining in brilliant red. Stalk short, planted in a rather wide, deep hollow. Basin moderately depressed. Calyx closed. Flesh white, tender, sprightly, pleasant subacid. Good.

Remarks on the Maiden's Blush by the members of the State Horticultural Society:

C. C. Cook: It is all right to raise for a local market and for family use. Hardy tree. I planted probably 100. I cannot determine where to place it on the list. Probably others have had more experience with it than I have.

E. J. Holman: The Maiden's Blush deserves a place in both the family and the commercial orchard. In its season it is unexcelled for market purposes, and is especially attractive. I should recommend it as a commercial apple.

H. L. Ferris: I would place it first as a summer apple for local market.

W. G. Gano: You certainly will not discard it.

W. J. Griffing: It is about the earliest apple that will bear shipping in summer, and very profitable.

F. W. Dixon: I find it rather a shy bearer, but the tree is long-lived and very hardy, and it deserves a place in the family orchard. I think there is no profit in them for a commercial orchard.

President Wellhouse: They are long-lived and very hardy; I would recommend them for family, but not for commercial orchard.

G. P. Whiteker: It comes at a time when there is much other fruit. I do not think it pays very well. Mine turn brown from some cause.

Phillip Lux: It is our very best apple in its season; while talking of the commercial orchard, there is a demand for apples at all seasons of the year, and if we discard this, we will have nothing at its season. I would say, place it in the commercial orchard for export.

W. J. Griffing: Do not know that it is profitable, but for quality the Maiden's Blush is worthy of a place among fruits.

G. W. Bailey: As a summer apple for family and commercial orchards, I would place it at the head of the list.

William Cutter: It is the best apple of its season for all purposes.

B. F. Smith: It is the best commercial apple for summer trade we have.

Secretary Barnes: At the late meeting of the Missouri Horticultural Society, the secretary stated that he thought there was good money in the Maiden's Blush. He said the trouble was, they were raised in too limited quantities. He said they should be raised in car lots for shipping to Northern cities; that they were quick growers and brought ready money, and at their season had little competition in the market. They come in when there are few apples obtainable, and he considers them profitable.

H. L. Ferris: In my experience it bears only every other year. Is that the experience of others?

President Wellhouse: The Maiden's Blush is the only summer apple that we have made pay.

J. W. Robison: We have not grown Maiden's Blush very largely here. It is one of our old apples in Illinois, and it is the earliest, most regular and profuse bearer, and the best keeper of its season to ship in hot weather. It was named for its beauty, and is the most attractive apple grown. They last well if kept moderately cool. They are shipped largely in barrels, the earlier ones in boxes, from central Illinois north. The tree is tender in unusually cold seasons. Farther south there is no danger. I find it is a good apple to sell in a small way to grocerymen.

 

GRIMES'S GOLDEN PIPPIN.

_Synonym_: Grimes's Golden.

This valuable apple originated many years since on the farm of Thomas Grimes, Brooke county, Virginia. In its native locality it is highly prized for the peculiar hardihood of the tree, withstanding uninjured the most severe winters, and never breaking in its limbs; also, for its uniform regular annual productiveness. Tree vigorous, hardy, upright, spreading, very productive; branches with peculiar knobs at the base of each, connecting it with the main limbs. Young wood dark, dull red brown, grayish. Fruit medium, roundish oblate, slightly conical. Skin uneven. Color rich golden yellow, sprinkled moderately with small gray and light dots. Stalk rather short and slender. Cavity rather deep, sometimes slightly russeted. Calyx closed, or partially open. Basin abrupt, uneven. Flesh yellow, compact, crisp, tender, juicy, rich, sprightly, spicy subacid; peculiar aroma. Core rather small. Very good to best. December to March.

Remarks on the Grimes's Golden Pippen by members of the State Horticultural Society:

C. C. Cook: I have not tried to ship any Grimes's Golden. I would place it about second on the list of summer [?] apples. With me it is a good, thrifty, hardy tree, but my orchard is young.

J. W. Robison: I have grown it extensively. It is one of the best fall apples and one of the beauties. It does not keep well. It rots badly after it is gathered and goes to market in rather bad shape. It is not planted as much now as in the past.

E. J. Holman: It stands in quality beside the Jonathan, and is a first-class dessert apple. It is a good bearer and ought to be in every family orchard, but I would not recommend it for the commercial orchard.

H. L. Ferris: Mine bore very heavily and were large and fine. Sold well locally; never shipped any; think they should come next to the Maiden's Blush in the commercial orchard.

W. G. Gano: The Grimes's Golden is the very best apple of its season. Should be in all family orchards, and have a small place in commercial orchards.

J. B. McAfee: Like Mr. Gano, I consider it the very best apple that grows, and one of the most profitable in my orchard. I find it short-lived. I take best care of them for use of my family until about the 1st of November.

F. W. Dixon: It is the best apple for family use, but drops badly. The tree is a good bearer but not long-lived.

G. P. Whiteker: I plant Grimes's Golden and Maiden's Blush for profit. The Grimes's Golden is handsome and brings a good price, especially at this time of the year--December.

Phillip Lux: I have had experience with it for years. In the family orchard we cannot do without it. We aim to keep it for our family as long as it lasts, say until February. In my opinion it is better than any pear that grows in our state. We should handle them with care, as we do pears. Put away carefully, in a cold, dry cellar, they retain their flavor and keep well. I think them worthy of a place in the commercial orchard.

J. F. Maxey: I like to eat them; most of us do. There is a place for them as a fancy apple.

William Cutter: I consider it the best-flavored apple grown for family use. Missouri and Arkansas have brought the big red apple into history, but now the big yellow apple is preferred by many consumers. I consider them extra fine.

B. F. Smith: I pack mine in boxes as well as barrels. I consider them fine.

G. Y. Johnson (Douglas county): I find the tree is not as hardy as I would like to have it. As far as the apple is concerned, it sells as well as any.

 

HUNTSMAN'S FAVORITE.

A seedling on the farm of John Huntsman, of Fayette, Mo. Tree vigorous, not a very early bearer, but is very productive annually when the tree has attained sufficient age; it is said to be a valuable and profitable fruit in the locality where it originated. Young shoots smooth, reddish brown; fruit large, oblate, slightly conic, often a little oblate; skin smooth, pale yellow, sometimes a shade of pale red or deep yellow in the sun, and a few scattering grayish dots; stalk short, small; cavity broad, deep, sometimes slight russet; calyx closed, or nearly so; basin large, deep, slightly corrugated; flesh pale yellow, a little coarse, crisp, tender, juicy, mild, rich subacid, slightly aromatic; very good; core rather small. December to March.

Remarks on the Huntsman's Favorite by members of the State Horticultural Society:

William Cutter: The Huntsman is long-lived and deserves a place in our list.

E. J. Holman: The Huntsman is of the York Imperial order, an old variety, not sufficiently known. In Kansas City, I saw them on sale at six dollars per barrel. The tree is a good bearer, and will be planted more than it has been; it never blights.

B. F. Smith: I agree with Mr. Holman.

W. G. Gano: It is a very desirable orchard tree; it is just wonderful how our old orchards hold out; its quality and size are good. It has one fault: if put in cold storage it bleaches out, as most yellow apples do. I cannot keep yellow apples in cold storage, and the Huntsman has disappointed me; but if taken out and sold when just right it is a success, and sells in Kansas City at six dollars per barrel.

 

MAMMOTH BLACK TWIG.

This apple originated with John Crawford, near Ray's Mills, Washington county, Arkansas. It is conceded to be a seedling of the Black Twig (said to be a misnomer for the Winesap). It has been exhibited as the "Arkansaw." Mr. Crawford says he brought to Arkansas and planted seeds of the Limber Twig and Black Twig over fifty-five years ago, and this apple sprang from one of those seeds. Really an enlarged and improved Winesap. Tree a fine, upright, spreading grower.

Remarks on the Mammoth Black Twig by members of the State Horticultural Society:

William Cutter: My trees set fruit for three years, but it all dropped off.

President Wellhouse: Mr. Munger says his were very small this year, but also that all his apples were small.

G. W. Bailey: I have a few, planted eight years, but the fruit this year was very small.

E. J. Holman: Many Mammoth Black Twig trees have been extensively propagated by nurserymen. We should know more about them. This variety came before the public with a "hurrah," and people were told it was an apple with the quality of Winesap and the vigor of Ben Davis.

Mrs. A. Z. Moore (Missouri): My husband and I superintended sixty acres. We grew 500 bushels of them, all very fine. Of the tree I know little, but the apples were beautiful. They are of dark color and very handsome.

B. F. Smith: Two years ago I was down the Port Arthur road, and saw some, and they were fine-looking apples; but on testing it I thought many others were better, though in the general trade I think it will do well. We have a few trees and they are rapid growers, but I would not recommend them for flavor.

Mr. Adams: I can give you no particular information on this apple, but believe in the right location it is as fine as any grown. Location has much to do with its success.

Walter Wellhouse: I examined some Mammoth Black Twigs in Leavenworth, and they were of good size--as large as any Winesap I ever saw, and of good color.

L. D. Buck: It is a hardy grower. This year it is small.

 

PECK'S PLEASANT.

_Synonym_: Waltz Apple.

A first-rate fruit in all respects, belonging to the Newtown Pippin class. It has long been cultivated in Rhode Island (where, we think, it originated) and in the northern part of Connecticut, and deserves extensive dissemination. It considerably resembles the Yellow Newtown Pippin, with more tender flesh, and is scarcely inferior to it in flavor. The tree is a moderate, upright, spreading grower, but bears regularly and well, and the fruit commands a high price in the market. The apples on the lower branches of old trees are flat, while those on the upper branches are nearly conical. Young shoots reddish brown, slightly downy. Fruit above medium size, roundish, a little ribbed, and slightly flattened, with an indistinct furrow on one side. Skin smooth, and, when first gathered, green, with a little dark red; but when ripe a beautiful clear yellow, with bright blush on the sunny side and near the stalk, marked with scattered gray dots. The stalk is peculiarly fleshy and flattened, short, and sunk in a wide, rather wavy cavity. Calyx woolly, sunk in a narrow, abruptly and pretty deeply sunk basin. Flesh yellowish, fine grained, juicy, crisp and tender, with a delicious, high aromatic, sprightly subacid. Very good or best. November to March.

Remarks on Peck's Pleasant by members of the State Horticultural Society:

H. L. Ferris: We have a large number; while generally small, they can be made larger by cultivation and care. They are the longest keepers I know of, and carry well in shipping.

William Cutter: I was well acquainted with it in Illinois.

Secretary Barnes: About a year and a half ago, Governor Morrill said to me, "Why don't you get your people to grow Peck's Pleasant? It is the best apple grown."

E. J. Holman: I have several trees, planted in 1870. They have been light bearers. The apple is of high quality, and keeps until January. The color is not so good as Huntsman. They die early.

H. L. Ferris: I cannot agree to that. I never had one die.

C. C. Cook: It is a good apple for home use; not very profitable.

W. G. Gano: Good family apple; green; subacid; elegant in quality.

 

INGRAM.

A new variety, grown from seed of Rawle's Janet, by Martin Ingram, of Greene county, Missouri. Tree productive, and the fruit especially valued for its long keeping. Fruit medium, or below, roundish oblate, orange yellow, mostly overspread with broken stripes of rich, warm red, gray russet dots, and slight marblings. Stalk slender. Calyx small. Flesh yellowish white, moderately juicy, crisp, mild subacid. Core above medium. Seeds dark brown. February to June. (Hort.)

Remarks on the Ingram by members of the State Horticultural Society:

Mrs. A. Z. Moore: I speak of this as the "coming apple" in southern Missouri. They are not very large; beautiful in color; have a tendency to overbear and grow in clusters. Must be picked by hand; is free from common diseases.

J. F. Maxey: I am greatly interested in it. Very late last spring, while in Kansas City, I noticed a variety of apples that looked so fresh, with stems as green as if just picked, in shape and color like large Janets. They had come out of cold storage. I asked the name, and was told they were Ingram. I was told they were grown in the vicinity of Garden City, Kan. I wrote to Garden City, and received an answer from the grower, saying this apple was well worthy of growing.

Mrs. A. Z. Moore: I have seen it kept until the following August.

G. P. Whiteker: I got twenty barrels of them from Mr. Rose in Kansas City. I brought them here [Topeka] and retailed most of them, and got six dollars per barrel for them. I do not think we found two bad apples to the barrel. Most people thought them Janets. I believe it a profitable tree to plant.

B. F. Smith: In collecting apples in Douglas county for the World's Fair, we could not tell them from the Janet, except in size. It is beautifully streaked, and the grower called it a variety of the Janet.

 

LOWELL.

_Synonyms_: Queen Anne, Tallow Apple, Michigan Golden, Golden Pippin of some, Greasy Pippin, and Orange.

Origin unknown. Tree hardy, vigorous, spreading, productive. Young wood reddish brown. Fruit large, roundish, oval or conic, bright waxen yellow, oily. Stalk of medium length. Cavity deep, uneven. Basin deep, abrupt, and furrowed. Calyx closed. Flesh yellowish white, with a brisk, rich, rather acid flavor. Good to very good. September, October.

Remarks on the Lowell by members of the State Horticultural Society:

J. B. McAfee: I have realized more from my Lowells than from any other apple in my orchard. They are early and prolific. The Lowell has been the best-paying and the easiest-selling apple in our market [Topeka].

Phillip Lux: I planted mine in 1870. They blight badly and the fruit is often knotty. Have made no money from them.

J. W. Robison: I grew it in Illinois. I planted it here in 1879 and 1880, and it paid there and here. It is a large, green, smooth apple, and follows the Maiden's Blush closely. The tree did not blight with me there or here. It is best cooked. It does not get mellow or soft. It is an old variety and is falling out.

E. J. Holman: This apple is all right in such a market as Topeka in its season. It is not good to ship. Another apple we know little of is the Orange Pippin. There is two or three dollars in it where there is one dollar in the Maiden's Blush. It can be shipped to Liverpool and back in good condition. No other will compare with it in productiveness. It ought to be on our list.

 

CELESTIA.

Originated with L. S. Mote, Miami county, Ohio. A new variety, of good promise as an amateur sort. Fruit large, form roundish, conical, slightly ribbed. Color pale yellow, moderately sprinkled with gray or brown dots, and sometimes large dots of red. Stalk rather short and slender. Cavity deep, uneven. Calyx closed. Segments long, slender, partially recurved. Basin rather small, furrowed. Flesh yellowish, crisp, tender, juicy, very pleasant, rich, mild subacid. Core rather large. Very good. October.

 

MINKLER.

_Synonym_: Brandywine.

This is an old variety which was first exhibited before the Illinois Horticultural Society, and, because it could not be identified, received, for the time being, the name of its exhibitor. At some future time it will probably be found identical with some variety long since named and described. Tree an irregular grower; good bearer and keeper. Fruit medium, roundish oblate, slightly conic, pale greenish yellow, striped and splashed with two shades of red. Flesh yellowish, compact, moderately juicy, mild, pleasant subacid. Good. Core small. January to March.

 

KING OF TOMPKINS COUNTY.

_Synonyms_: King, Tom's Red, Tommy Red.

Origin uncertain; said to have originated with Thomas Thacher, Warren county, New Jersey. A valuable market apple. Tree very vigorous, spreading, abundant bearer annually. Young shoots very dark reddish brown, quite downy, especially toward the ends. Fruit large, globular, inclining to conic, sometimes oblate, angular. Color yellowish, mostly shaded with red, striped and splashed with crimson. Stalk rather stout and short, inserted in a large, somewhat irregular cavity. Calyx small and closed, set in a medium, slightly corrugated basin. Flesh yellowish, rather coarse, juicy, tender, with an exceedingly agreeable, rich, vinous flavor, delightfully aromatic. Very good to best. December to March.

 

SUMMER QUEEN.

_Synonyms_: Sharpe's Early, Lancaster Queen, and Polecat.

This variety forms a large tree with somewhat pendent boughs, and is a profitable sort for orchards and marketing over a large territory. The fruit is large and broad at the crown, tapering toward the eye. The stalk is rather long, and is planted in a pretty deep cavity, sometimes partially closed. Calyx but little sunk, in a narrow plaited basin. Skin fine deep yellow in its ground, though well striped and clouded with red. Flesh aromatic, yellow, rich, and of good flavor. August and September.

 

LAWVER.

Origin uncertain. Introduced by George S. Parks, of Parkville, Mo., and said to have been found in an old Indian orchard in Kansas. Tree vigorous, spreading, an early and annual bearer; a beautiful fruit and a long keeper. Fruit large, roundish oblate. Color dark, bright red, covered with small dots. Stalk medium. Cavity deep, regular. Calyx small, closed. Basin medium, furrowed. Flesh white, firm, crisp, sprightly, aromatic, mild subacid. January to May. (_Prairie Farmer._)

 

STARK.

Origin unknown; grown in some parts of Ohio, and valued as a long keeper and profitable market fruit. Tree vigorous, upright, spreading. Young shoots dark brownish red. Fruit large, roundish, inclining to conic, sometimes a little elongated, and sometimes slightly oblique. Skin greenish yellow, shaded, splashed and striped with light and dark red over nearly the whole surface, and thickly sprinkled with light and brown dots, a portion of them aureole dots. Stalk short, rather stout, inserted in a medium cavity. Calyx closed. Basin rather large, slightly corrugated. Flesh yellowish, a little coarse, moderately juicy, mild subacid. Good. Core small. January to May.

 

WHITE WINTER PEARMAIN.

_Synonym_: Campbellite.

Origin unknown; by some thought to be an old Eastern variety; highly esteemed at the West. Tree spreading, hardy, and thrifty, a regular and good bearer. Young shoots very short jointed, dull reddish brown, slightly grayish or downy at the ends. Fruit medium or above, roundish oblong conic, somewhat oblique. Stalk short, in a deep cavity. Calyx nearly closed. Segments long. Basin uneven. Skin pale yellow, with a slight blush or warm cheek, thickly sprinkled with minute brown dots. Flesh yellowish, tender, crisp, juicy, very pleasant subacid. Very good. January to April.

 

SMOKEHOUSE.

_Synonyms_: Millcreek Vandevere, Red Vandevere, English Vandevere.

Origin, Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, near Millcreek, grown on the farm of ---- Gibbons, near his smokehouse; hence its name. An old variety, and popular in Pennsylvania. It somewhat resembles the old Pennsylvania Vandevere, and is supposed to be a seedling of it. Tree moderately vigorous, with a spreading head, a good bearer. Young wood dark, dull reddish brown. Fruit rather above medium, roundish oblate, skin yellow, shaded and splashed with crimson, and thickly sprinkled with large gray and brown dots. Stalk rather long, curved, inserted in a broad cavity. Calyx closed, set in a wide basin of moderate depth, slightly corrugated. Flesh yellowish, somewhat firm, juicy, crisp, rather rich subacid. Good. September to February. Valued for culinary uses.

 

AUTUMN PEARMAIN.

_Synonym_: Winter Pearmain.

A slow-growing tree, but attains a large size. Branches slender, spreading. Fruit of medium size, roundish, narrowing gradually toward the eye. Color brownish yellow, mixed with green on the shaded side, but next the sun reddish, blended with yellow, streaked with deeper red, and sprinkled with numerous small brown specks. Stalk short, obliquely planted under a fleshy lip. Calyx small, set in a broad shallow basin, which is sometimes scarcely at all sunk, and obscurely plaited. Flesh pale yellow, crisp, firm, a little dry, but rich and high flavored. Core rather small. Quality very good. October to March.

 

CHENANGO (STRAWBERRY).

_Synonyms_: Frank, Buckley, Sherwood's Favorite, Strawberry, Jackson Apple, and Smyrna.

Originated in the town of Lebanon, Madison county, New York. It is an apple pleasant to the taste and much esteemed as a table fruit wherever grown. Tree is vigorous, spreading. Young wood light reddish brown, downy. Fruit medium, oblong conic or oblong truncated conic, indistinctly ribbed. Color whitish, shaded, splashed and mottled with light and dark crimson over most of the surface; light dots. Stalk rather short, small. Cavity acute, somewhat uneven. Calyx closed, or partially open. Segments erect. Basin rather large, abrupt, slightly corrugated. Flesh white, tender, juicy, peculiar mild subacid. Core rather large. Very good. September and October.

 

HAAS.

_Synonyms_: Horse Apple, Summer Horse, Yellow Hoss, and Trippe's Horse.

Origin supposed to be North Carolina. Tree vigorous, an annual, early and abundant bearer, valuable for drying and culinary purposes. Young wood light reddish brown. Fruit large, roundish, yellow, sometimes tinged with red, and small patches of russet. Flesh yellow, rather firm and coarse, tender, pleasant subacid. Good. Last of July and first of August.

 

HAAS.

_Synonym_: Ludwig.

Originated on the land of ---- Ludwig, Bucks county, Pennsylvania, and considerably grown in its native locality. Fruit large, roundish, slightly conical, whitish, splashed, mottled and shaded with light red; many dots, with dark centers. Stalk short, slender. Cavity rather large, a little greenish russet. Calyx closed. Basin slightly corrugated. Flesh white, sometimes a little stained next the skin, fine grained, juicy, mild subacid. Core rather small. Good to very good. November to March.

 

BAILEY'S SWEET.

_Synonyms_: Edgerly's Sweet, Howard's Sweet, and Patterson's Sweet.

Origin unknown; introduced by J. Edgerly, of Perry, Wyoming county, New York. Tree hardy, vigorous, upright, spreading, productive. This variety is regarded as profitable for all purposes, although perhaps a little too tender skin for shipping long distances. Fruit large, form roundish conical often approaching oblong, obscurely ribbed; color yellowish, mostly shaded and obscurely striped with red, and thickly sprinkled with minute dots. Stalk short and rather small, inserted in a narrow cavity. Calyx small, closed, set in a narrow, irregular basin. Flesh white, tender, not very juicy, almost melting, with a honeyed sweet flavor. Core rather large. Very good. November to March.

 

SWEET JUNE.

_Synonyms_: Summer Sweet and Hightop Sweet.

Origin, Plymouth, Mass. An old variety, highly prized at the West. Growth upright, vigorous. Tree hardy, very productive, light reddish brown shoots. Fruit medium or below, roundish, regular. Skin very smooth. Color light yellow, partially covered with green dots. Stalk medium, inserted in a deep, narrow cavity, surrounded by thin russet. Calyx small, closed. Basin shallow, slightly furrowed. Flesh yellowish, very sweet, not very juicy, but pleasant and rich. Very good. August.

 

WEALTHY.

Originated by Peter M. Gideon, near St. Paul, Minn., from seed gathered in Maine about 1860. So far the tree has proved hardy, vigorous, and healthy. Fruit medium, oblate or roundish oblate; whitish yellow ground, shaded with deep, rich crimson in the sun, obscure broken stripes and mottlings in the shade, sometimes entirely covered with crimson, many light dots. Stalk short to medium, slender. Cavity green, russet. Calyx partially closed. Basin deep, abrupt, uneven. Flesh white, fine grained, stained with red, tender, juicy, lively, vinous subacid. Very good. Core small. Season, December to February.

 

RED JUNE.

_Synonyms_: Knight's Red June, Blush June, Georgia June, and Wilson's June.

Origin somewhat uncertain, supposed to be Carolina. Tree very vigorous, upright, an early and abundant bearer, much esteemed at the South and Southwest as their best early apple; ripe a few days after Early Harvest; not equal to it in flavor, but more profitable as an orchard fruit. Fruit medium or below, oval, irregular, inclined to conic. Skin smooth, nearly the whole surface shaded with deep red, and almost of a purplish hue on the sunny side, and covered with a light bloom. Stalk variable in length, inserted in a small, narrow cavity. Calyx closed. Segments long, reflexed. Basin narrow, plaited. Flesh very white, tender, juicy, with a brisk subacid flavor. Core rather large. Very good.

     NOTE.--Carolina Striped June (Carolina June). This is generally confounded with the above, and is scarcely distinguishable, except that, as it ripens, it becomes striped. One is doubtless a seedling from the other.

 

BALDWIN.

_Synonyms_: Woodpecker, Pecker, Steel's Red Winter, Red Baldwin, and Butters.

The Baldwin stands at the head of all New England apples, and is unquestionably a first-rate fruit in all respects. It is a native of Massachusetts, and is more largely cultivated for the Boston market than any other sort. Tree vigorous, upright, spreading, productive. Young shoots dull reddish brown. Fruit large, roundish, and narrowing a little to the eye. Color yellow in the shade, but nearly covered and striped with crimson, red, and orange in the sun, dotted with a few russet dots, and with radiating streaks of russet about the stalk. Calyx closed, and set in a rather narrow plaited basin. Stalk half to three-fourths of an inch long, rather slender for so large a fruit, planted in an even, moderately deep cavity. Flesh yellowish white, crisp, with that agreeable mingling of the saccharine and acid which constitutes a rich, high flavor. Very good. The tree is a vigorous, upright grower, and bears most abundantly. Ripe from November to March, but with us it is perfection in January.

 

GOLDEN SWEET.

_Synonyms_: Orange Sweeting and Early Golden Sweet.

A celebrated Connecticut fruit. Tree very vigorous, spreading, forming a tree of moderate size, hardy and very productive. Young shoots reddish brown. Fruit above the medium size, roundish, scarcely flattened, fair, and well formed; when fully ripe, pale yellow or straw color. Stalk about an inch long, slender at its junction with the fruit. Calyx closed, and set in a basin of moderate depth. Flesh tender, sweet, rich, and excellent. Good to very good. August and September. A valuable sort for cooking, market, or stock feeding.

 

COOPER'S EARLY (WHITE).

Grown in Illinois and other Western states, where it is regarded by many as productive and profitable. Fruit medium, roundish, little flattened, pale yellow with faint blush, tinge of green at the stem. Flesh white, crisp, sprightly. September and October. (Elliott).

 

NORTHERN SPY.

This beautiful American fruit is one of the most delicious, fragrant and sprightly of all late dessert apples. It ripens in January, keeps until June, and always commands the highest market price. The tree is of rapid, upright growth, and bears moderate crops. It originated on the farm of Herman Chapin, of East Bloomfield, near Rochester, N. Y. The trees require high culture, and open heads to let in the sun; otherwise the fruit is wanting in flavor, and apt to be imperfect and knotty. Young shoots dark, reddish brown. The tree blooms late, often escaping vernal frosts. Fruit large, roundish, oblate, conical. Skin thin, smooth, in the shade greenish or pale yellow, in the sun covered with light and dark stripes of purplish red, marked with a few pale dots, and a thin white bloom. Stalk three-fourths of an inch long, rather slender, planted in a very wide, deep cavity, sometimes marked with russet. Calyx small, closed. Basin narrow, abrupt, furrowed. Flesh white, fine grained, tender, slightly subacid, with a peculiarly fresh and delicious flavor. Core large and open. Very good to best. December to June.

 

DUCHESS OF OLDENBURG.

_Synonyms_: Smith's Beauty of Newark, Russian, Borovitsky, and New Brunswick.

This handsome Russian apple proves one of the most hardy and profitable varieties in cultivation, especially in our northwestern sections. The tree is vigorous, forming a roundish, upright, spreading head, requiring little or no pruning, and producing abundantly a fruit of fair, even and regular size, that, although not of the first quality, always commands a ready sale, as it is valuable for market and cooking, and passably good for dessert. Young shoots smooth, reddish. Fruit medium size, regularly formed, roundish oblate. Skin smooth, finely washed and streaked with red on a golden or yellow ground. Calyx pretty large and nearly closed, set in a wide, even hollow. There is a faint blue bloom on this fruit. The flesh is juicy, sprightly subacid. Ripens early in September.

 

EARLY HARVEST.

_Synonyms_: Prince's Harvest, July Pippin, Yellow Harvest, Large White Juneating, Tart Bough, Early French Reinette, and Sinclair's Yellow.

An American apple; and taking into account its beauty, its excellent qualities for the dessert and cooking, and its productiveness, we think it the finest early apple yet known. It begins to ripen about the first of July, and continues in use all that month. The smallest collection of apples should comprise this and the Red Astrachan. Trees moderately vigorous, upright, spreading. Young shoots reddish brown. Fruit medium size. Form roundish, often roundish oblate, medium size. Skin very smooth, with a few faint white dots, bright straw color when fully ripe. Stalk half to three-fourths of an inch long, rather slender, inserted in a hollow of moderate depth. Calyx set in a shallow basin. Flesh very white, tender and juicy, crisp, with a rich, sprightly subacid flavor. Very good to best. Core small.

 

TWENTY OUNCE.

_Synonyms_: Morgan's Favorite, Eighteen Ounce Apple, Aurora, Coleman, Cayuga Red Streak, Lima, and Wine of Connecticut.

A very large and showy apple. It is a good, sprightly fruit, though not very high flavored, but its remarkably handsome appearance and large size render it one of the most popular fruits in the market. The tree is thrifty, and makes a compact, neat head; bears regular crops, and the fruit is always fair and handsome. Young wood rich, brownish red. Fruit very large, roundish, slightly uneven, greenish yellow, boldly splashed and marbled with stripes of purplish red. Stalk short, set in a wide, deep cavity. Calyx small. Basin moderately deep. Flesh coarse grained, sprightly, brisk subacid. Good to very good. October to January.

 

SWEET BOUGH.

_Synonyms_: Large Yellow Bough, Early Sweet Bough, August Sweet, Sweet Harvest, Bough, and Washington.

A native apple, ripening in harvest time, and one of the first quality, only second as a dessert fruit to the Early Harvest. It is not so much esteemed for the kitchen as the latter, as it is too sweet for pies and sauce, but it is generally much admired for the table, and is worthy of a place in every collection. Fruit above the middle size, and oblong ovate in form. Skin smooth, pale greenish yellow. Stalk rather long, and the eye narrow and deep. Flesh white, very tender and crisp when fully ripe, and with a rich, sweet, sprightly flavor. Ripens from the middle of July to the 10th of August. Tree moderately vigorous, bears abundantly, and forms a round head. Young shoots grayish brown, very slightly downy.

 

PEWAUKEE.

Raised from seed of Duchess of Oldenburg by George P. Pepper, of Pewaukee, Wis., who sends us specimens, and writes that the tree is strong and vigorous, center upright, very spreading, an annual bearer, and one of the hardiest and best for the Northwest; young shoots dark, brownish red. Fruit medium to large, roundish oblate, skin bright yellow, striped, splashed and mottled with light and dark red over most of the surface, covered with a thin greenish bloom, and many large and small light dots, a few being aureole; stalk short, small; cavity small; calyx closed; basin medium, slightly corrugated; flesh white, a little coarse, breaking, half tender; juicy, subacid, slightly aromatic; good; core small. January to May.

 

NELSON SWEET.

Origin unknown. Fruit medium to large. Form roundish oblate, regular. Color dull green, becoming yellow, sometimes bronzed with dull brown. Stalk rather long, slender. Cavity medium, acute, regular, green. Calyx medium, closed. Segments reflexed. Basin small, uneven. Flesh greenish yellow, firm, fine grained, juicy, sweet. Core medium. Good. May to July. (_American Journal of Horticulture._)

 

RED ASTRACHAN.

_Synonyms_: Deterding's Early, Astrachan Rogue, Robert Astrakan, Vermillion d'Ete, and Abe Lincoln.

A fruit of extraordinary beauty, first imported into England, with the White Astrachan, from Sweden, in 1816. It bears abundantly with us, and its singular richness of color is heightened by an exquisite bloom on the surface of the fruit, like that of the plum. It is one of the handsomest dessert fruits, and its quality is good, but if not taken from the trees as soon as ripe it is liable to become mealy. Tree a vigorous grower, upright, spreading. An early and abundant bearer. Young shoots clear, reddish brown. Fruit pretty large, rather above the middle size, and very smooth and fair, roundish, a little narrowed toward the eye. Skin almost entirely covered with deep crimson, with sometimes a greenish yellow in the shade, and occasionally a little russet near the stalk, and covered with a pale white bloom. Stalk rather short and deeply inserted. Calyx partially closed, set in a slight basin, which is sometimes a little irregular. Flesh quite white, crisp, moderately juicy, with an agreeable, rich, acid flavor. Good to very good. Ripens from last of July to middle of August.

 

BALTZBY.

From Virginia. Tree spreading, productive. Fruit large, oblate, yellowish white, with a faint blush. Dots scattered, small, white. Flesh white, firm, somewhat tough, juicy, almost sweet. Good. October.

 

MOUNTAINEER.

_Synonym_: Mountain Sweet.

From Pennsylvania. Fruit large, oblate, light yellow. Dots minute. Calyx small, closed. Stalk short, slender. Flesh white, breaking, very tender, fine grained, juicy, sweet. Good to very good. December. (Warder.)

 

IMPERIAL.

Of French origin. Fruit medium, oblate inclined to conic, yellow, shaded, splashed and striped with light and dark red, deepest in the sun. Stalk short. Calyx closed. Flesh white, crisp, tender, juicy, refreshing subacid. Good. October and November. (Warder.)

 

FULTON STRAWBERRY.

Originated with A. G. Downing, Canton, Fulton county, Illinois. Tree vigorous, stout, spreading grower, hardy; does not come early into bearing. Young wood grayish brown, slightly downy. Fruit medium, oblate, whitish, mostly overspread, striped, splashed and mottled with shades of red. Flesh whitish, tinged with pink, juicy, pleasant subacid. Good. Core small. September.

 

ENGLISH SWEET.

_Synonyms_: Ramsdell's Sweet, Ramsdell's Sweeting, Ramsdell's Red Pumpkin Sweet, Avery Sweet, and Ramsdell's Red Winter.

This old variety is esteemed where grown for the large crops which it bears, and as a showy sweet apple for market, and profitable for stock feeding, as well as superior for cooking. The tree is very vigorous, grows remarkably straight and upright, comes early into bearing, and yields enormously every year. Young shoots clear, reddish brown, slightly grayish. Fruit rather above medium size, oblong, regularly shaped, and tapering slightly towards the eye; dark red, dotted with fawn-colored specks, and covered with a blue bloom. Flesh yellowish, very tender and mellow, usually sweet and rich. Good to very good. In weight the apple is light. October to February.

 

WHITE JUNEATING.

_Synonyms_: Joanneting, Juniting, Gennetting, Primiting, May of Virginia, Jennetting, Juneting, May Pippin, Caroline, Early May, Owen's Golden Beauty, Juneating, Ginetting, Early Jennetting, Yellow May, Carolina.

This is an old variety, mentioned by Evelyn in 1660, and described by Ray in 1688, and is a very tolerable little apple, ripening among the very earliest, during the last of June and the first of July. It is very distinct from the Early Harvest, sometimes called by this name. Tree a moderate grower, and forms a roundish, upright, spreading head. Productive. Fruit small, round, a little flattened. Calyx closed. Stalk rather long and slender. Pale green at first, light yellow with sometimes a faint blush on the sunny side. Flesh crisp and of a pleasant flavor, but soon becomes dry. Good.

 

HUBBARDSTON NONSUCH.

_Synonyms_: John May, Old Town Pippin, and Hubbardston.

A fine, large, early winter fruit, which originated in the town of Hubbardston, Mass. The tree is a vigorous grower, forming a handsome branching head, and bears very large crops. Young shoots dull, grayish brown, slightly downy. It is worthy of extensive orchard culture. Fruit large, roundish oblong, much narrowed near the eye. Skin smooth, striped with splashes and irregular broken stripes of pale and bright red, which nearly cover a yellowish ground. Calyx open. Stalk short, in a russeted hollow. Flesh yellow, juicy, and tender, with an agreeable mingling of sweetness and acidity in its flavor. Very good to best. October to January.

 

HOLLAND PIPPIN.

_Synonyms_: Summer Pippin, Pie Apple.

This and the Fall Pippin are frequently confounded together. They are indeed of the same origin. One of the strongest points of difference lies in their time of ripening. The Holland Pippin begins to fall from the trees and is fit for pies about the middle of August, and from that time to the first of November is one of the very best kitchen apples. Fruit very large, roundish, a little more square in outline than the Fall Pippin, and not so much flattened, though a good deal like it, a little narrowed next the eye. Stalk half an inch long, thick, deeply sunk. Calyx small, closed, moderately sunk in a slight plaited basin. Skin greenish yellow or pale green, becoming pale yellow when fully ripe, washed on one side with a little dull red or pale brown, with a few scattered, large, greenish dots. Good.

 

YELLOW TRANSPARENT.

A new Russian variety, which was imported from St. Petersburg in 1870 by the department of agriculture, Washington, D. C., and promises to be valuable for a cold climate as an early fruit of good quality, ripening before the Tetofsky, with more tender and delicate flesh, but does not continue long in use. It is said that the tree so far has proved to be very hardy, moderately vigorous, upright, an early and good bearer annually. Fruit medium, roundish, oblate, slightly conical, slightly angular; skin clear white at first, becoming pale yellow when fully mature, moderately sprinkled with light and greenish dots, somewhat obscure. Stalk short to medium, rather slender; cavity rather large, sometimes a little greenish; calyx closed; basin medium, slightly corrugated, sometimes small protuberances; flesh white, half fine, tender, juicy, sprightly subacid; quality good to very good. Core medium. Season early in August, and a week or two before Tetofsky.

 

BENTLEY'S SWEET.

Origin unknown. Supposed Virginia. Tree moderately vigorous, hardy, good bearer and keeper, valuable in the Southwest in rich soils. Fruit medium, roundish, flattened at ends, sometimes slightly oblique, and sometimes sides unequal, pale yellowish green, shaded with pale red and, moderately sprinkled with light and brown dots. Stalk long, slender, curved. Cavity smooth, deep. Calyx large, closed, or partially open. Segments medium length, erect, sometimes a little recurved. Basin large, deep, corrugated. Flesh fine, whitish, compact, sweet, somewhat honeyed flavor. Core small. Very good. January to May.

 

EARLY RIPE.

Supposed origin, Pennsylvania, but unknown. Tree a free grower, and productive. Fruit medium, roundish oblate, pale yellow, sprinkled with a few gray dots. Stalk long, in a slightly russeted cavity. Calyx small, closed. Flesh white, tender, juicy, subacid. Good. August.

 

DOCTOR WATSON.

_Synonym_: Autumn Seek-no-farther.

Origin unknown. A variety considerably grown in Indiana, where it is much esteemed. Tree moderately vigorous, spreading, productive. Fruit medium, oblate, sides sometimes unequal. Color greenish white, shaded and splashed in the sun with dull crimson. Stalk of medium length. Cavity broad, uneven. Calyx open. Basin large, rather deep. Flesh whitish yellow, rather firm, juicy, rich subacid. Core medium. Very good. September and October.

 

MUSTER.

Origin unknown. Fruit oblate, yellow, mostly covered with mixed red and splashes of crimson. Flesh yellow, fine grained, tender, juicy, subacid, aromatic. Best. Core small. August and September. (Warder.)

 

WAGENER.

Origin, Penn Yan, Yates county, New York. Tree thrifty, upright, hardy, and early bearer. Requires thinning to produce good-flavored fruit. When grown in the shade is wanting in flavor. Young wood light, reddish brown, slightly downy. Buds prominent. Fruit medium or above, roundish oblate, yellow, mostly shaded with crimson, obscurely striped, and splashed with light dots. Stalk nearly an inch long, rather slender, inserted in a large, broad, irregular cavity. Calyx small and closed, set in a rather abrupt, somewhat corrugated basin. Flesh yellowish, very tender, juicy, excellent, brisk, somewhat vinous. Very good to best. A very delicate apple. Ripe November to February.

 

BROADWELL.

_Synonym_: Broadwell Sweet.

Originated with Jacob Broadwell, near Cincinnati, Ohio. An extremely valuable sweet apple, either for the table or cooking. Tree vigorous, quite hardy, very spreading, irregular, productive. Young shoots dull, reddish brown, downy. Fruit medium, oblate, somewhat conic. Color clear, bright yellow, brownish blush in the sun exposure, with carmine spots. Dots few, greenish, suffused beneath. Stalk rather short. Cavity broad, russeted. Calyx closed, with short segments. Basin regular. Flesh whitish, firm, juicy, rich, sweet. Core small. Very good. November to February.

 

SUPERB.

Origin, Franklin county, North Carolina. Tree tolerably vigorous, spreading, and a prodigious bearer. Fruit medium or above, roundish, oblate, regular. Skin green, rarely with a blush. Stalk of medium length, in a shallow cavity. Calyx large and open. Flesh yellow, solid, slightly coarse grained, rich, subacid. Good to very good. November to March.

 

RAMBO.

_Synonyms_: Fall Romanite, Gray Romanite, Striped Rambo, Delaware, Romanite, Seek-no-further, Bread and Cheese, Rambouillet, Trumpington, Large Rambo, and Terry's Redstreak.

The Rambo is one of the most popular autumn or early winter fruits. It is a highly valuable apple for the table or kitchen, and the tree thrives well on light, sandy soil, being a native of the banks of the Delaware. The tree is of a vigorous, rather spreading habit, quite productive. Fruit of medium size, flat, smooth, yellowish white in the shade, streaked and marbled with pale yellow and red in the sun, and speckled with large rough dots. Stalk long, rather slender, curved to one side, and deeply planted in a smooth, funnel-like cavity. Calyx closed, set in a broad basin, which is slightly plaited around it. Flesh greenish white, very tender, rich, mild subacid. Very good. October to December. There is claimed to be distinct or subvariety of this, called Red Rambo, the fruit of which is more red; otherwise there is no perceptible difference.

 

ROME BEAUTY.

_Synonym_: Gillett's Seedling.

Origin, southern Ohio. Tree a moderate grower; succeeds well at the Southwest. Young wood clear, reddish brown, slightly downy or gray. A late bloomer. Fruit large, roundish, approaching conic, yellow, shaded and striped with bright red, and sprinkled with light dots. Stalk an inch long, inserted in a large, deep cavity, surrounded by greenish russet. Calyx partially closed, set in a narrow, deep basin. Flesh yellowish, tender, juicy, sprightly, subacid. Good. Core rather large. October to December.

 

ROMAN STEM.

Originated at Burlington, N. J., and is much esteemed there. Tree very productive, spreading, irregular. Fruit scarcely of medium size, roundish, whitish yellow, with a faint brownish blush, sprinkled with patches of dark russet, and, when ripe, having a few reddish specks, unless the fruit is very fair. Stalk three-fourths of an inch long, inserted in a shallow cavity under a fleshy protuberance. Calyx set in a rather narrow basin, with a few plaits. Core hollow. Flesh tender, juicy, with a rich, pleasant, musky flavor. Very good. November to March.

 

SNOW.

_Synonyms_: Fameuse and Snow Chimney.

A very celebrated Canada fruit (probably an old French variety), which has its name from the snow-white color of its flesh, or, as some say, from the village from whence it was first taken to England. It is an excellent, productive, autumn apple, and is especially valuable in northern latitudes. Tree moderately vigorous, round-headed, hardy. Young shoots reddish brown. Fruit of medium size, roundish, somewhat flattened. Skin with a ground of pale, greenish yellow, mixed with faint streaks of pale red on the shady side, but marked with blotches and short stripes of darker red, and becoming a fine, deep red in the sun. Stalk quite slender, half an inch long, planted in a narrow, funnel-shaped cavity. Calyx small, and set in a shallow, rather narrow basin. Flesh remarkably white, very tender, juicy, and with a slight perfume. Very good. Ripe in October and November. A regular bearer and a handsome dessert fruit. There is a variety under the name Striped Fameuse, claimed to be distinct, the fruit being more striped and less highly colored.

 

AUTUMN STRAWBERRY.

_Synonym_: Late Strawberry.

Origin, Aurora, N. Y., on lands formerly owned by Judge Phelps. Tree vigorous, upright, spreading, hardy. Young wood smooth, reddish brown; a regular and early bearer. Fruit medium, roundish, inclined to conic, sometimes obscurely ribbed. Color whitish, striped and splashed with light and dark red, and often covered with a thin bloom. Stalk rather long, slender, curved. Cavity large, deep, slightly russeted. Basin abrupt, corrugated. Flesh yellowish white, tender, juicy, pleasant, vinous subacid. Very good. October to December.

 

GILPIN.

_Synonyms_: Carthouse, Small Romanite, Gray Romanite, Roman Knight, Romanite of the West, and Little Romanite.

A handsome cider fruit, from Virginia, which is also a good table fruit from February to May. A very hardy, vigorous and fruitful tree. Fruit of medium size, roundish, oblong. Skin very smooth and handsome, richly streaked with deep red and yellow. Stalk short, deeply inserted. Calyx in a round, rather deep basin. Flesh yellow, firm, juicy, and rich, becoming tender and sprightly in the spring. Good.

 

MILAM.

_Synonyms_: Harrigan, Winter Pearmain, Blair, and Thomas.

Origin uncertain; much grown in some sections of the West; very productive, and keeps well. Fruit medium or below, roundish, greenish, shaded and striped with red. Flesh rather firm, pleasant subacid, not rich. Good. December to March.

 

LIMBER TWIG.

_Synonym_: James River.

An apple much cultivated South and West. Origin, supposed North Carolina. Tree hardy and productive, roundish, spreading, somewhat drooping. Fruit medium or above, roundish oblate, inclining to conic, greenish yellow, shaded and striped with dull crimson, and sprinkled with light dots. Stalk of medium length, inserted in a broad, deep cavity, surrounded by thin, green russet. Calyx closed, set in a small, uneven basin. Flesh whitish, not very tender, juicy, with a brisk, subacid flavor. Good. January to April.

 

BENONI.

This excellent early apple is a native of Dedham, Mass. The tree is of vigorous, upright, spreading habit; hardy and productive; light, reddish brown. It is a valuable variety for market or table use. Fruit rather below medium size. Form roundish, oblate conical. Color pale yellow, shaded, striped and marbled with dark crimson, and thinly sprinkled with bright dots. Stalk short, slender. Cavity deep, russeted. Calyx closed. Segments persistent, sometimes a little recurved. Basin abrupt, quite deep, somewhat uneven. Flesh yellow, juicy, tender, pleasant subacid. Core small. Very good. August.

 

ORTLEY.

_Synonyms_: Ortley Pippin, Woolman's Long, Greasy Pippin, White Bell-flower, Van Dyne, Melting Pippin, Yellow Pippin, Woodward's Pippin, Davis White Bellflower, White Bellflower, White Detroit, Hollow-cored Pippin, Green Bellflower, Jersey Greening, Crane's Pippin, Inman, Tom Woodward's Pippin, Marrow Pippin, Ohio Favorite, Willow-leaf Pippin, White Pippin, Detroit, Davis, Warren Pippen, Golden Pippin, White Seek-no-further, and Tod's Golden Pippin.

Origin, orchard of Michael Ortley, South Jersey. It grows pretty strongly, with upright, slender shoots, and bears abundantly. Fruit medium to large, roundish, oblong conic, greenish yellow, becoming fine yellow at maturity, sometimes with a sunny cheek. Stalk slender, of medium length, inserted in a deep, acute cavity, surrounded by russet. Calyx closed, set in an abrupt, somewhat corrugated basin. Flesh white, fine grained, tender, juicy, subacid, very pleasant. Good to very good. Core large. November to February.

 

STAYMAN'S SUMMER.

Originated on the grounds of Dr. J. Stayman, Leavenworth, Kan. Tree hardy, vigorous, spreading, irregular, tough, wiry, droops like a weeping willow with ropes of fruit, never breaking a limb. An early bearer and very productive, very nearly equal to Benoni and Summer Pearmain, and handsomer. Fruit medium, round, regular, approaching conic; skin smooth, greenish yellow, splashed and striped with red and purple, covered with a white bloom; dots small, gray, scattered. Stem medium, rather slender. Cavity narrow, deep, irregular, russeted. Eye very small, closed. Basin narrow, shallow, furrowed. Core small, slightly open. Flesh greenish white, very juicy, brittle, sprightly, high flavored, mild acid. Very good. Use: Kitchen, table, and market. August and September. (_Western Pomologist._)

 

STAYMAN'S WINESAP.

A seedling of the Winesap, originated with Dr. J. Stayman, Leavenworth, Kan. We give his description: "Tree very vigorous, open, irregular, spreading. Wood very dark; dark heavy foliage. An early and very abundant bearer. Tree much in appearance like the Winesap. Fruit hangs well on the tree. Fruit medium to large, heavy, oblate conical, regular, greenish yellow, mostly covered and indistinctly splashed, mixed and striped with dark, dull red; dots medium, numerous, distinct gray. Stem of medium length, slender. Cavity wide, deep, much russeted, extending, regular. Calyx large, open, or half closed. Segments large, erect. Basin rather narrow, abrupt, deep, furrowed. Core medium. Flesh yellow, firm, tender, juicy, rich, mild subacid, aromatic. Quality best. Season January to May."

 

GARRETTSON'S EARLY.

_Synonyms_: Somerset Harvest.

Originated on the farm of John Garrettson, Somerset, N. J. Tree vigorous, upright, spreading, productive. Young wood brown, slightly downy. Fruit medium, roundish conic, yellowish, thickly covered with light specks. Stalk short. Cavity deep, acute. Calyx closed, in a small, abrupt, furrowed basin. Flesh white, tender, juicy, brisk subacid. Good; valuable for cooking. September.

 

EARLY SUMMER PEARMAIN.

_Synonym_: American Summer Pearmain.

A rich, highly flavored fruit, much esteemed where it is known. It appears to be quite different from the Summer Pearmain (of the English), and is probably a seedling raised from it. It ripens gradually from the 10th of August to the last of September. Tree moderately vigorous, with slender branches, round headed. Young shoots dull, reddish brown. Fruit of medium size, oblong, widest at the crown, and tapering slightly to the eye. Skin red, spotted with yellow in the shade, but streaked with livelier red and yellow on the sunny side. Stalk three-fourths of an inch long, and pretty deeply inserted. Eye deeply sunk. Calyx closed. Segments short, erect. Basin abrupt, slightly corrugated. Flesh yellow, remarkably tender, with a rich and pleasant flavor. It often bursts when falling from the tree. Quality best. Core medium.

 

EARLY JOE.

Origin, orchard of Herman Chapin, Ontario county, New York. Tree of slow growth, productive; requires high culture for fair fruit. Fruit below medium, oblate, very slightly conic, smooth, yellowish, shaded and striped with red, and thickly sprinkled with greenish spots. Stalk of medium length, inserted in a large cavity surrounded by russet. Calyx closed. Basin moderate. Flesh whitish, tender, juicy, with a very agreeable vinous flavor. Best. Ripe middle of August to middle of September.

 

JEFFERIS.

Origin, Chester county, Pennsylvania. Growth medium, very productive. A fair and handsome fruit, of excellent quality, in use all of September. Young wood light, reddish brown, smooth. Fruit medium, oblate, inclined to conic, yellow, shaded and splashed with crimson, and thickly covered with large whitish dots. Stalk very short, inserted in a rather large cavity. Calyx closed, set in a round, open basin. Flesh white, tender, juicy, with a rich, mild, subacid flavor. Very good. September.

 

WHITE PIPPIN.

_Synonym_: Canada Pippin.

This apple is much cultivated at the West, but of unknown origin. It is of the Newtown Pippin class, distinct from Canada Reinette. Tree thrifty, upright, a regular and good bearer. Young shoots dark, clear, reddish brown, downy. Fruit large, form variable, roundish, oblate, slightly oblique, greenish white, waxen, sprinkled with green dots, and becoming pale yellow at maturity, sometimes having a dull blush and a few brown dots. Stalk short, inserted in a large cavity, surrounded by green russet. Calyx small, nearly closed, set in an abrupt-furrowed basin. Flesh white, tender, crisp, juicy, fine, rich subacid. Very good to best. Core small. January to March.

 

DOMINIE.

_Synonyms_: English Rambo, Wells, Cheat, Hogan, Striped Rhode Island Greening, Cling Tight, English Red Streak, and English Beauty of Pennsylvania.

This apple, extensively planted in the orchards on the Hudson and west, so much resembles the Rambo externally that the two are often confounded, and the outline of the Rambo may be taken as nearly a _facsimile_ of this. The Dominie is, however, of a livelier color, and the flavor and season of the two fruits are very distinct, the Rambo being rather a high-flavored early winter apple, while the Dominie is a sprightly, juicy, long-keeping winter fruit. Fruit of medium size, flat. Skin lively greenish yellow in the shade, with stripes and splashes of bright red in the sun, and pretty large russet specks. Stalk long and slender, planted in a wide cavity, and inclined to one side. Calyx small, in a broad basin, moderately sunk. Flesh white, exceedingly tender and juicy, with a sprightly, pleasant, though not high flavor. Young wood of a shoot lively light brown, and the trees are very hardy, and the most rapid growers and prodigious early bearers that we know--the branches being literally weighted down by the rope-like clusters of fruit. The Dominie does not appear to be described by any foreign author. Coxe says that he received it from England, but the apple he describes and figures does not appear to be ours, and we have never met with it in any collection here. It is highly probable that the Dominie is a native fruit. It is excellent from December to April.

 

RHODE ISLAND GREENING.

_Synonyms_: Burlington Greening, Russine, Bell Dubois, and Jersey Greening.

The Rhode Island Greening is such a universal favorite, and so generally known, that it seems superfluous to describe it. It succeeds well in most of the northern sections of the United States, and on a great variety of soils. Where it succeeds it is one of the most esteemed and profitable among early winter fruits. [In Kansas it drops too early.] Tree a very vigorous, spreading grower. Young shoots reddish brown. Very productive. [Shy in Kansas.] Fruit large, roundish, a little flattened, pretty regular, but often obscurely ribbed, dark green, becoming greenish yellow when ripe, when it sometimes shows a dull blush near the stalk. Calyx small, woolly, closed, in a slightly sunken, scarcely plaited basin. Stalk three-fourths of an inch long, curved, thickest at the bottom. Flesh yellow, fine grained, tender, crisp, with an abundance of rich, sprightly, aromatic, lively, acid juice. Very good. November to February.

 

PENNOCK.

_Synonyms_: Pomme Roye, Large Romanite, Prolific Beauty, Roman Knight, Big Romanite, Neisley's Winter Penick, Pelican, Red Ox, Red Pennock, Pennock's Red Winter, and Gay's Romanite.

Origin, Pennsylvania. Tree a strong, vigorous, upright, spreading grower, and very productive. Fruit quite large, oblique, generally flat, but occasionally roundish oblong, fine, deep red, with faint, indistinct streaks of yellow. Flesh yellow, tender and juicy, with a pleasant, half-sweet flavor. Good. November to March.

 

KESWICK CODLIN.

A noted English cooking apple, which may be gathered for tarts as early as the month of August, and continues in use till November. It is an early and a great bearer and a vigorous tree, and is one of the most profitable of orchard sorts for cooking or market. Tree very hardy, forming a large, regular, upright, spreading, round head. Fruit a little above the middle size, rather conical, with a few obscure ribs. Stalk short and deeply set. Calyx rather large. Skin greenish yellow, washed with a faint blush on one side. Flesh yellowish white, juicy, with a pleasant acid flavor.

 

EMPEROR.

Described by Verry Aldrich in the _Prairie Farmer_ as follows: Fruit medium, roundish, one-sided, orange, striped and shaded with red on the sun side, covered with white specks. Stalk short and slender. Cavity deep. Flesh white, fine grained, tender, juicy, pleasant, almost sweet.

 

EARLY MARGARET.

_Synonyms_: Margaret or Striped Juneating, Early Red Juneating, Red Juneating, Striped June, Eve Apple of the Irish, and Margaretha Apfel of the Germans.

An excellent early apple, ripening about the middle of July, or directly after the Early Harvest. The tree while young is rather slender, with reddish brown, upright, woolly shoots. It is a moderate bearer. Fruit below medium size, roundish oblate, tapering towards the eye. Skin greenish yellow, pretty well covered by stripes of dark red. Flesh white, subacid, and, when freshly gathered from the tree, of a rich, agreeable flavor. Good.

 

MOTHER.

_Synonyms_: Queen Anne, Gardener's Apple.

Origin, Bolton, Mass. Tree moderately vigorous, upright, and productive. Young shoots grayish brown, downy. One of the best of apples for dessert; rather too tender for shipment. Fruit medium. Form roundish, slightly conical. Color yellow, almost entirely overspread with light, clear, rich red, splashed and marbled with many deeper shades, many minute little dots. Stalk short, small. Cavity acute, often a little russeted. Calyx closed. Basin small, corrugated. Flesh yellow, tender, juicy, rich, aromatic subacid. Best. November to February.

 

ARKANSAS BLACK.

Medium, slightly conical, regular, smooth, glossy; yellow, generally covered with deep crimson, small, light-colored dots. Basin shallow. Eye small, closed. Cavity shallow, russeted. Stem medium. Flesh very yellow, fine grained, firm, juicy, subacid, rich. Very good. Arkansas. (Thomas.)

 

WHITNEY.

Medium, handsome, rich, good. Very hardy. Illinois. (Thomas.)

 

NOTE.

All the descriptions of apples given here are taken from Downing's "Fruit and Fruit-trees of America," excepting otherwise noted.