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[Lewis, July 1, 1806]
 Tuesday July 1st 1806.
 This morning early we sent out all our hunters. set Sheilds at work to
 repair some of our guns which were out of order Capt. Clark & my self
 consurted the following plan viz. from this place I determined to go
 with a small party by the most direct rout to the falls of the
 Missouri, there to leave Thompson McNeal and goodrich to prepare
 carriages and geer for the purpose of transporting the canoes and
 baggage over the portage, and myself and six volunteers to ascend
 Maria's river with a view to explore the country and ascertain whether
 any branch of that river lies as far north as Latd. 50 and again return
 and join the party who are to decend the Missouri, at the entrance of
 Maria's river. I now called for the volunteers to accompany me on this
 rout, many turned out, from whom I scelected Drewyer the two Feildses,
 Werner, Frazier and Sergt Gass accompanied me the other part of the men
 are to proceed with Capt Clark to the head of Jefferson's river where
 we deposited sundry articles and left our canoes. from hence Sergt
 Ordway with a party of 9 men are to decend the river with the canoes;
 Capt C. with the remaining ten including Charbono and York will proceed
 to the Yellowstone river at it's nearest approach to the three forks of
 the missouri, here he will build a canoe and decend the Yellowstone
 river with Charbono the indian woman, his servant York and five others
 to the missouri where should he arrive first he will wait my arrival.
 Sergt Pryor with two other men are to proceed with the horses by land
 to the Mandans and thence to the British posts on the Assinniboin with
 a letter to Mr. Heney whom we wish to engage to prevail on the Sioux
 Chefs to join us on the Missouri, and accompany them with us to the
 seat of the general government. these arrangements being made the party
 were informed of our design and prepared themselves accordingly. our
 hunters killed 13 deer in the course of this day of which 7 were fine
 bucks, deer are large and in fine order. the indians inform us that
 there are a great number of white buffaloe or mountain sheep of the
 snowey hights of the mountains West of this river; they state that they
 inhabit the most rocky and inaccessible parts, and run but badly, that
 they kill them with great ease with their arrows when they can find
 them. the indian warrior who overtook us on the 26th Ult. made me a
 present of an excellent horse which he said he gave for the good
 council we had given himself and nation and also to assure us of his
 attatchment to the white men and his desire to be at peace with the
 Minnetares of Fort de Prarie. we had our venison fleeced and exposed in
 the sun on pole to dry. the dove the black woodpecker, the lark
 woodpecker, the logcock, the prarie lark, sandhill crain, prarie hen
 with the short and pointed tail, the robin, a speceis of brown plover,
 a few curloos, small black birds, ravens hawks and a variety of
 sparrows as well as the bee martin and the several speceis of Corvus
 genus are found in this vally.
 Windsor birst his gun near the muzzle a few days since; this Sheilds
 cut off and I then exchanged it with the Cheif for the one we had given
 him for conducting us over the mountains. he was much pleased with the
 exchange and shot his gun several times; he shoots very well for an
 inexperienced person.
 The little animal found in the plains of the Missouri which I have
 called the barking squirrel weighs from 3 to 31/2 pounds. it's form is
 that of the squirrel. it's colour is an uniform light brick red grey,
 the red reather predominating. the under side of the neck and bely are
 lighter coloured than the other parts of the body. the legs are short,
 and it is wide across the breast and sholders in propotion to it's
 size, appears strongly formed in that part; the head is also bony
 muscular and stout, reather more blontly terminated wider and flatter
 than the common squirrel. the upper lip is split or divided to the
 nose. the ears are short and lie close to the head, having the
 appearance of being cut off, in this particular they resemble the
 guinea pig. the teeth are like those of the squrrel rat &c. they have a
 false jaw or pocket between the skin and the mustle of the jaw like
 that of the common ground squrrel but not so large in proportion to
 their size. they have large and full whiskers on each side of the nose,
 a few long hairs of the same kind on each jaw and over the eyes. the
 eye is small and black. they have five toes on each foot of which the
 two outer toes on each foot are much shoter than those in the center
 particularly the two inner toes of the fore feet, the toes of the fore
 feet are remarkably long and sharp and seem well adapted to cratching
 or burrowing those of the hind feet are neither as long or sharp as the
 former; the nails are black. the hair of this animal is about as long
 and equally as course as that of the common grey squrrel of our
 country, and the hair of the tail is not longer than that of the body
 except immediately at the extremity where it is somewhat longer and
 frequently of a dark brown colour. the part of generation in the female
 is placed on the lower region of the belly between the hinder legs so
 far forward that she must lie on her back to copolate. the whole length
 of this animal is one foot five inches from the extremity of the nose
 to that of the tail of which the tail occupyes 4 inches. it is nearly
 double the size of the whistleing squirrel of the Columbia. it is much
 more quick active and fleet than it's form would indicate. these
 squirrels burrow in the ground in the open plains usually at a
 considerable distance from the water yet are never seen at any distance
 from their burrows. six or eight usually reside in one burrow to which
 there is never more than one entrance. these burrows are of great
 debth. I once dug and pursued a burrow to the debth of ten feet and did
 not reach it's greatest debth. they generally associate in large
 societies placing their burrows near each other and frequently occupy
 in this manner several hundred acres of land. when at rest above ground
 their position is generally erect on their hinder feet and rump; thus
 they will generally set and bark at you as you approach them, their
 note being much that of the little toy dogs, their yelps are in quick
 succession and at each they a motion to their tails upwards. they feed
 on the grass and weeds within the limits of their village which they
 never appear to exceed on any occasion. as they are usually numerous
 they keep the grass and weeds within their district very closely
 graized and as clean as if it had been swept. the earth which they
 throw out of their burrows is usually formed into a conic mound around
 the entrance. this little animal is frequently very fat and it's flesh
 is not unpleasant. as soon as the hard frosts commence it shuts up it's
 burrow and continues within untill spring. it will eat grain or meat.
 [Clark, July 1, 1806]
 Tuesday July 1st 1806 on Clark's river
 We Sent out all the hunters very early this morning by 12 OClock they
 all returned haveing killd. 12 Deer Six of them large fat Bucks, this
 is like once more returning to the land of liveing a plenty of meat and
 that very good. as Capt. Lewis and Myself part at this place we make a
 division of our party and such baggage and provisions as is Souteable.
 the party who will accompany Capt L. is G. Drewyer, Sergt. Gass, Jo. &
 R. Fields, Frazier & Werner, and Thompson Goodrich & McNear as far as
 the Falls of Missouri at which place the 3 latter will remain untill I
 Send down the Canoes from the head of Jeffersons river. they will then
 join that party and after passing the portage around the falls, proceed
 on down to the enterance of Maria where Capt. Lewis will join them
 after haveing assended that river as high up as Laid. 50° North. from the
 head of Jeffersons river I shall proceed on to the head of the
 Rockejhone with a party of 9 or 10 men and desend that river. from the
 R Rockejhone I Shall dispatch Sergt. Pryor with the horses to the
 Mandans and from thence to the Tradeing Establishments of the N. W. Co
 on the Assinniboin River with a letter which we have written for the
 purpose to engage Mr. H. Haney to endeaver to get Some of the principal
 Chiefs of the Scioux to accompany us to the Seat of our government &.
 we divide the Loading and apportion the horses. Capt L. only takes 17
 horses with him, 8 only of which he intends to take up the Maria &c.
 One of the Indians who accompaned us Swam Clarks river and examined the
 Country around, on his return he informed us that he had discovered
 where a Band of the Tushepaws had encamped this Spring passed of 64
 Lodges, & that they had passed Down Clarks river and that it was
 probable that they were near the quawmash flatts on a Easterly branch
 of that river. those guides expressed a desire to return to their
 nation and not accompany us further, we informed them that if they was
 deturmined to return we would kill some meat for them, but wished that
 they would accompy Capt. Lewis on the rout to the falls of Missouri
 only 2 nights and show him the right road to cross the Mountains. this
 they agreed to do. we gave a medal of the Small Size to the young man
 Son to the late Great Chief of the Chopunnish Nation who had been
 remarkably kind to us in every instance, to all the others we tied a
 bunch of blue ribon about the hair, which pleased them very much. the
 Indian man who overtook us in the Mountain, presented Capt. Lewis with
 a horse and said that he opened his ears to what we had said, and hoped
 that Cap Lewis would see the Crovanters of Fort De Prarie and make a
 good peace that it was their desire to be at peace. Shew them the horse
 as a token of their wishes &c.
 [Lewis, July 2, 1806]
 Wednesday July 2ed 1806.
 We sent out the hunters early this morning, they returned not so
 succesfull as yesterday having killed 2 deer only. Sheilds continued
 repairing the gunns which he compleated by evening. all arrangements
 being now compleat we determined to set out in the morning. in the
 course of the day we had much conversation with the indians by signs,
 our only mode of communicating our ideas. they informed us that they
 wished to go in surch of the Ootslashshoots their friends and intended
 leaving us tomorrow morning, I prevailed on them to go with me as far
 as the East branch of Clark's River and put me on the road to the
 Missouri. I gave the Cheif a medal of the small size; he insisted on
 exchanging names with me according to their custom which was
 accordingly done and I was called Yo-me-kol-lick which interpreted is
 the white bearskin foalded. in the evening the indians run their
 horses, and we had several foot races betwen the natives and our party
 with various success. these are a race of hardy strong athletic active
 men. nothin worthy of notice transpired in the course of the day.
 Goodrich and McNeal are both very unwell with the pox which they
 contracted last winter with the Chinnook women this forms my inducement
 principally for taking them to the falls of the Missouri where during
 an intervail of rest they can use the murcury freely. I found two
 speceis of native clover here, the one with a very narrow small leaf
 and a pale red flower, the other nearly as luxouriant as our red clover
 with a white flower the leaf and blume of the latter are proportionably
 large. I found several other uncommon plants specemines of which I
 preserved. The leaf of the cottonwood on this river is like that common
 to the Columbia narrower than that common to the lower part of the
 Missouri and Mississippi and wider than that on the upper part of the
 Missouri. the wild rose, servise berry, white berryed honeysuckle,
 seven bark, elder, alder aspin, choke cherry and the broad and narrow
 leafed willow are natives of this valley. the long leafed pine forms
 the principal timber of the neighbourhood, and grows as well in the
 river bottoms as on the hills. the firs and larch are confined to the
 higher parts of the hills and mountains. the tops of the high mountains
 on either side of this river are covered with snow. the musquetoes have
 been excessively troublesome to us since our arrival at this place.
 [Clark, July 2, 1806]
 Wednesday July 2nd 1806
 Sent out 2 hunters this morning and they killed 2 Deer. the Musquetors
 has been So troublesom day and night Since our arrival in this Vally
 that we are tormented very much by them and Cant write except under our
 Bears. We gave the Second gun to our guides agreeable to our promis,
 and to each we gave Powder & ball I had the greater part of the meat
 dried for to Subsist my party in the Mountains between the head of
 Jeffersons & Clarks rivers where I do not expect to find any game to
 kill. had all of our arms put in the most prime order two of the rifles
 have unfortunately bursted near the muscle, Shields Cut them off and
 they Shute tolerable well one which is very Short we exchanged with the
 Indian whoe we had given a longer gun to induc them to pilot us across
 the Mountains. we caused every man to fill his horn with powder & have
 a sufficincy of Balls &c. the last day in passing down Travellers rest
 Creek Capt Lewis fell down the Side of a Steep Mountain near 40 feet
 but fortunately receved no dammage. his hors was near falling on him
 but fortunately recovered and they both escaped unhurt. I killed a
 Small grey squurel and a Common pheasant. Capt L. Showed me a plant in
 blume which is Sometimes called the ladies Slipper or Mockerson flower.
 it is in shape and appearance like ours only that the corolla is white
 marked with Small veigns of pale red longitudinally on the inner Side,
 and much Smaller. The Indians and Some of our men amused themselves in
 running races on foot as well as with their horses.
 [Lewis, July 3, 1806]
 Thursday July 3rd 1806.
 All arrangements being now compleated for carrying into effect the
 several scheemes we had planed for execution on our return, we saddled
 our horses and set out I took leave of my worthy friend and companion
 Capt. Clark and the party that accompanyed him. I could not avoid
 feeling much concern on this occasion although I hoped this seperation
 was only momentary. I proceeded down Clark's river seven miles with my
 party of nine men and five indians. here the Indians recommended our
 passing the river which was rapid and 150 yds. wide. 2 miles above this
 place I passed the entrance of the East branch of Clark's River which
 discharges itself by two channels; the water of this river is more
 terbid than the main stream and is from 90 to 120 yds. wide. as we had
 no other means of passing the river we busied ourselves collecting dry
 timber for the purpose of constructing rafts; timber being scarce we
 found considerable difficulty in procuring as much as made three small
 rafts. we arrived at 11 A.M. and had our rafts completed by 3 P.M. when
 we dined and began to take over our baggage which we effected in the
 course of 3 hours the rafts being obliged to return several times. the
 Indians swam over their horses and drew over their baggage in little
 basons of deer skins which they constructed in a very few minutes for
 that purpose. we drove our horses in after them and they followed to
 the opposite shore. I remained myself with two men who could scarcely
 swim untill the last; by this time the raft by passing so frequently
 had fallen a considerable distance down the river to a rapid and
 difficult part of it crouded with several small Islands and willow bars
 which were now overflown; with these men I set out on the raft and was
 soon hurried down with the current a mile and a half before we made
 shore, on our approach to the shore the raft sunk and I was drawn off
 the raft by a bush and swam on shore the two men remained on the raft
 and fortunately effected a landing at some little distance below. I wet
 the chronometer by this accedent which I had placed in my fob as I
 conceived for greater security. I now joined the party and we proceeded
 with the indians about 3 Ms. to a small Creek and encamped at sunset. I
 sent out the hunters who soon returned with three very fine deer of
 which I gave the indians half These people now informed me that the
 road which they shewed me at no great distance from our Camp would lead
 us up the East branch of Clark's river and a river they called
 Cokahlarishkit or the river of the road to buffaloe and thence to
 medicine river and the falls of the Missouri where we wished to go.
 they alledged that as the road was a well beaten track we could not now
 miss our way and as they were affraid of meeting with their enimies the
 Minnetares they could not think of continuing with us any longer, that
 they wished now to proceed down Clark's river in surch of their friends
 the Shalees. they informed us that not far from the dividing ridge
 between the waters of this and the Missouri rivers the roads forked
 they recommended the left hand as the best rout but said they would
 both lead us to the falls of the Missouri. I directed the hunters to
 turn out early in the morning and indeavour to kill some more meat for
 these people whom I was unwilling to leave without giving them a good
 supply of provision after their having been so obliging as to conduct
 us through those tremendious mountains. the musquetoes were so
 excessively troublesome this evening that we were obliged to kindle
 large fires for our horses these insects tortured them in such manner
 untill they placed themselves in the smoke of the fires that I realy
 thought they would become frantic. about an hour after dark the air
 become so coald that the musquetoes disappeared.
 We saw the fresh track of a horse this evening in the road near our
 camp which the indians supposed to be a Shale spye. we killed a prarie
 hen with the short and pointed tail she had a number of young which
 could just fly.
 [Lewis, July 4, 1806]
 July 4th 1806.
 An Indian arrived alone from the West side of the mountains. he had
 pursued and overtook us here. sent out the hunters early to kill some
 meat to give the indians as they would not go with us further and I was
 unwilling after they service they had rendered to send them away
 without a good store of provision. they are going down Clark's River in
 surch of the Shalees their friends, and from thence intend returning by
 this rout home again, they fleesed their meat informed us that they
 should dry it and leave it for their homeward journey.--Set out at 12.
 had killed no deer.
 [Lewis, July 4, 1806]
 Friday July 4th 1806.
 I arrose early this morning and sent out Drewyer and the Fieldses to
 hunt. at 6. A.M. a man of the Pallote pellows arrived from the West
 side of the Rocky mountains; he had pursued us a few days after our
 departure and overtook us at this place; he proved to be the same young
 man who had first attempted to pass the rocky mountains early in June
 last when we lay on the Kooskooske and was obliged to relinquish the
 enterprize in consequence of the debth and softness of the snow. I gave
 a shirt a handkercheif and a small quantity of ammunition to the
 indians. at half after eleven the hunters returned from the chase
 unsuccessfull. I now ordered the horses saddled smoked a pipe with
 these friendly people and at noon bid them adieu. they had cut the meat
 which I gave them last evening thin and exposed it in the sun to dry
 informing me that they should leave it in this neighbourhood untill
 they returned as a store for their homeward journey. it is worthy of
 remark that these people were about to return by the same pass by which
 they had conducted us through the difficult part of the Rocky
 Mountains, altho they were about to decend Clark's river several days
 journey in surch of the Shale's their relations, a circumstance which
 to my mind furnishes sufficient evidence that there is not so near or
 so good a rout to the plains of Columbia by land along that river as
 that which we came. the several war routs of the Minetarees which fall
 into this vally of Clark's river concenter at traveller's rest beyond
 which point they have never yet dared to venture in pursuit of the
 nations beyond the mountains. all the nations also on the west side of
 the mountain with whom we are acquainted inhabiting the waters of
 Lewis's river & who visit the plains of the Missouri pass by this rout.
 these affectionate people our guides betrayed every emmotion of
 unfeigned regret at seperating from us; they said that they were
 confidint that the Pahkees, (the appellation they give the Minnetares)
 would cut us off. the first 5 miles of our rout was through a part of
 the extensive plain in which we were encamped, we then entered the
 mountains with the East fork of Clark's river through a narrow confined
 pass on it's N. side continuing up that river five ms. further to the
 entrance of the Cokahlahishkit R which falls in on the N. E. side, is
 60 yds. wide deep and rapid. the banks bold not very high but never
 overflow. the East fork below its junction with this stream is 100 yds.
 wide and above it about 90. the water of boath are terbid but the East
 branch much the most so; their beds are composed of sand and gravel;
 the East fork possesses a large portion of the former. neither of those
 streams are navigable in consequence of the rapids and shoals which
 obstruct their currents. thus far a plain or untimbered country
 bordered the river which near the junction of these streams spread into
 a handsome level plain of no great extent; the hills were covered with
 long leafed pine and fir. I now continued my rout up the N. side of the
 Cokahlahishkit river through a timbered country for 8 miles and
 encamped in a handsom bottom on the river where there was an abundance
 of excelence grass for our horses. the evening was fine, air pleasent
 and no musquetoes. a few miles before we encamped I killed a squirrel
 of the speceis common to the Rocky Mountains and a ground squirrel of a
 speceis which I had never before seen, I preserved the skins of both of
 these animals.
 [Lewis, July 5, 1806]
 July 5th 1806. Set out at 6 A.M.--steered
 N. 75 E. 61/2 M. passed a stout C. N Side at 21/2 M. another just above
 saw an old indian encampment of 11 lodges of bark and leather on S.
 side at 31/2 M. killed a deer.
 N. 25 E. 12 m. passing a small creek at one m. on S side on which there
 is a handsom and extensive Valley and plain for 10 or 12 ms. also
 another creek 12 yd. wide at 1/2 a mile further on N. sides and another
 8 yds. wide on N. side at 5 ms further one & 1/2 m. short of the
 extremity of this course arrive at a high prarie on N. side from one to
 three miles in width extending up the river. halted and dined in the
 mouth of a little drane on the left of the plain where there was a
 considerable quantity of quawmash. saw a gang of antelopes here of
 which we killed one the does at this season herd with each other and
 have their young. the bucks are alone there are many wild horses on
 Clarkes river about the place we passed it we saw some of them at a
 distance. there are said to be many of them about the head of the
 yellowstone river.
 East 6 m. to the entrance of Werner's Creek 35 yds. wide through a high
 extensive prairie on N. side. hills low and timbered with the long
 leafed pine, larch, and some fir. the road passes at some distance to
 the left of the river and this couses is with the river.
 N. 22 W. 4 miles to a high insulated knob just above the entrance of a
 Creek 8 yards wide which discharges itself into Werners Creek.
 N. 75 E. 21/2 M. to the river passing through an extensive and handsom
 plain on Werner's Creek, crossing that creek at 1 m. and leaving a high
 prarie hill to the right seperating the plain from the river. saw two
 swan in this beautiful Creek.
 East 3 m. to the entrance of a large creek 20 yds. wide Called
 31 m. Seamans Creek passing a creek at 1 m. 8 yds. wide. this course
 with the river, the road passing through an extensive high prarie
 rendered very uneven by a vast number of little hillucks and sinkholes
 at the heads of these two creeks high broken mountains stand at the
 distance of 10 m. forming a kind of Cove generally of open untimbered
 country.--we encamped on the lower side of the last creek just above
 it's entrance. here a war party had encamped about 2 months since and
 conceald their fires.-
 [Lewis, July 6, 1806]
 July 6th 1806.
 Set out a little after sunrise passed the creek a little above our
 East 14 M. to the point at which the river leaves the extensive plains
 and enters the mountains these plains I called the prarie of the knobs
 from a number of knobs being irregularly scattered through it. passed
 the N. fork 1 of the Cokahlarishkit Rivers at 7 M. it is 45 yds. wide
 deep and rapid. had some difficulty in passing it. passed a large
 crooked pond at 4 ms. further. great Number of the burrowing squirrls
 in this prarie of the speceis common to the plains of Columbia. saw
 some goats and deer. the hunters killed one of the latter. the trail
 which we take to be a returning war-party of the Minnetares of Fort de
 prarie becomes much fresher. they have a large pasel of horses. saw
 some Curloos, bee martains woodpeckers plover robins, doves, ravens,
 hawks and a variety of sparrows common to the plains also some ducks.
 the North fork is terbid as is also the main branch which is about 50
 yds. wide the other streams are clear. these plains continue their
 course S 75 E. and are wide where the river leaves them. up this valley
 and creek a road passes to Dearbourn's river and thence to the Missouri.
 N. 60 E 11/2 up the river. here we halted and dine and our hunters
 overtook us with a deer which they had killed. river bottoms narrow and
 country thickly timbered. Cottonwood and pine grow intermixed in the
 river bottoms musquitoes extreemely troublesome. we expect to meet with
 the Minnetares and are therefore much on our guard both day and night.
 the bois rague in blume.--saw the common small blue flag and
 peppergrass. the southern wood and two other speceis of shrub are
 common in the prarie of knobs. preserved specemines of them. passed
 several old indian encampments of brush lodges.-
 S 80 E 2 m. to two nearly equal forks of the river here the road forks
 also one leading up each branch these are the forks of which I presume
 the indians made mention. passed a creek on N. side 12 yds. wide
 shallow and clear.
 N 75 E. 8 m. to our encampment of this evening over a steep high
 Ms. 25 balld toped hill for 2 m. thence through and to the left of a
 large low bottom 2 M. thence three miles through a thick wood along the
 hill side bottoms narrow. thence 1 m. to our encampment on a large
 creek some little distance above it's mouth through a beatifull plain
 on the border of which we passed the remains of 32 old lodges. they
 appear to be those of the Minnetares as are all those we have seen
 today. killed five deer and a beaver today. encamped on the creek much
 sign of beaver in this extensive bottom.
 [Lewis, July 7, 1806]
 July 7 1806. Set out at 7 A.M.
 N. 75 E. 6 M. with the road through a level beatifull plain on the
 North side of the river much timber in the bottoms hills also timbered
 with pitch pine. no longleafed pine since we left the praries of the
 knobs. crossed a branch of the creek 8 yds. wid. on which we encamped
 at 1/4 m. also passed a creek 15 yd. wide at 1/4 further.
 North 6 ms.--passed the main creek at a mile 1/2 and kept up it on the
 wright hand side through handsom plain bottoms to the foot of a ridge
 which we ascended the main stream boar N W & W. as far as I could see
 it a wright hand fork falls into this creek at 1 M. above the
 commencement of this course.
 N. 15 E. 8 m. over two ridges and again striking the wrighthand fork at
 4 ms. then continued up it on the left hand side much appearance of
 beaver many dams. bottoms not wide and covered with low willow and
 grass. halted to dine at a large beaver dam the hunters killed 3 deer
 and a fawn. deer are remarkably plenty and in good order. Reubin Fields
 wounded a moos deer this morning near our camp. my dog much worried.
 N. 10 E. 3 m. up the same creek on the east side through a handsome
 narrow plain.
 N 45 E. 2 m. passing the dividing ridge betwen the waters of the
 Columbia and Missouri rivers at 1/4 of a mile from this gap which is
 low and an easy ascent on the W. side the fort mountain bears North
 Eaast, and appears to be distant about 20 Miles. the road for one and
 3/4 miles desends the hill and continues down a branch.
 N. 20 W. 7 ms. over several hills and hollows along the foot of the
 mountain hights passing five small rivulets running to the wright. saw
 some sighn of buffaloe early this morning in the valley where we
 encamped last evening from which it appears that the buffaloe do
 sometimes penetrate these mountains a few miles. we saw no buffaloe
 this evening. but much old appearance of dung, tracks &c. encamped on a
 small run under the foot of the mountain. after we encamped Drewyer
 killed two beaver and shot third which bit his knee very badly and
 [Lewis, July 8, 1806]
 July 8th 1806.
 Set out at 6 A.M.
 N 25 W. 31/2 m. to the top of a hill from whence we saw the Shishequaw
 mountain about 8 M. distant, immediately before us. passed Dearborne's
 river at 3 m. this stream comes form the S. W. out of the mountains
 which are about 5 Ms. to our left. the bed of the river is about 100
 yds. wide tho the water occupys only about 30 yds. it appears to spread
 over it's bottoms at certain seasons of the year and runs a mear
 torrant tearing up the trees by the roots which stand in it's bottom
 the Shishiquaw mountain is a high insulated conic mountain standing
 several miles in advance of the Eastern range of the rocky mountains.
 Country broken and mountanous to our wright.
 North--141/2 ms. through an open plain to Shishequaw Creek 20 yds. wide
 bottoms and considerable gantity of timber it leaves the mountain to
 the S E and enters the mountains. we struck it about 10 miles below the
 mountain which boar S. 32 W. from us. the road continued along the foot
 of the mountain to the West of north which not being anything like our
 course and the country becoming tolerably level at the commencement of
 this course we steered through the plains leaving the road with a view
 to strike Medicine river and hunt down it to it's mouth in order to
 procure the necessary skins to make geer, and meat for the three men
 whom we mean to leave at the falls as none of them are hunters. we
 halted and dined on Shishequaw Creek R. Fields killed a fine buck and a
 goat; Josh. Fields saw two buffaloe below us some distance which are
 the first that have been seen. we saw a great number of deer goats and
 wolves as we passed through the plains this morning but no Elk or
 buffaloe. saw some barking squirrils much rejoiced at finding ourselves
 in the plains of the Missouri which abound with game.
 N. 50 E 2 m. to the discharge of Shishequaw Creek into the Medicine
 Rivers through an extensive beautiful) and level bottom.
 N. 85° E. 8 m. to our encampment of this evening on a large island the
 bottoms continue level low and extensive plains level and not very
 elivated partcularly on the N. E. side of the river. the land of
 neither the plains nor bottoms is fertile. it is of a light colour
 intermixed with a considerable proportion of gravel the grass generally
 about 9 inghes high. the hunters were unsuccessful this evening. I
 killed a very large and the whitest woolf I have seen-
 [Lewis, July 9, 1806]
 July 9th 1806. Set out early and had not proceeded far before it began
 to rain. the
 air extreemly cold. halted a few minutes in some old lodges until it
 cased to rain in some measure. we then proceeded and it rained without
 intermission wet us to the skin.
 N. 80° E. 4 ms. through a handsome level wide bottom in which there is a
 considerable quanty of narrow leafed cottonwood timber. the river is
 generally about 80 yds. wide rapid yet I think it migt be navigated.
 it's bed is loose gravel and pebbles. the banks low but seldom
 overflow. water clear.
 S 85 E 4 ms Still on the S W. side of the river through wide and level
 bottoms some timber. Joseph feilds killed a very fat buffaloe bull and
 we halted to dine. we took the best of the meat as much as we could
 possibly carry on our horses. the day continuing rainy and cold I
 concluded to remain all day. we feasted on the buffaloe. saw a number
 of deer wolves and Antelopes. killed two deer.
 [Lewis, July 10, 1806]
 July 10th 1806. Set out early and continued down the S W bank of the
 N 75 E 24 m. to our encampment in a grove of cottonwood timber. the
 latter part of this course for 7 miles there is no timber in the river
 bottom, the other parts of the river possesses bottoms of the wide
 leafed cottonwood. much the greater part of the bottom is untimbered.
 the bottoms are wide and level the high praries or plains are also
 beautiful level and smooth. great quantities of prickly pear of two
 kinds on the plains. the ground is renderd so miry by the rain which
 fell yesterday that it is excessively fatiegueing to the horses to
 travel. we came 10 miles and halted for dinner the wind blowing down
 the river in the fore part of the day was unfavourable to the hunters
 they saw several gangs of Elk but they having the wind of them ran off.
 in the evening the wind set from the West and we fell in with a few elk
 of which R. Fields and myself killed 3 one of which swam the river and
 fell on the opposite so we therefore lost it's skin I sent the
 packhorses on with Sergt. Gass directing them to halt and encamp at the
 first timber which proved to be about 7 ms. I retained frazier to
 assist in skining the Elk. we wer about this time joined by drewer. a
 large brown bear swam the river near where we were and drewyer shot and
 killed it. by the time we butchered thes 2 elk and bar it was nearly
 dark we loaded our horses with the best of the meat and pursud the
 party and found them encamped as they had been directed in the first
 timber. we did not reach them until 9 P.M. they informed us that they
 had seen a very large bear in the plains which had pursued Sergt. Gass
 and Thomson some distance but their horses enabled them to keep out of
 it's reach. they were affraid to fire on the bear least their horses
 should throw them as they were unaccustomed to the gun. we killed five
 deer 3 Elk and a bear today saw vast herds of buffaloe in the evening
 below us on the river. we hered them bellowing about us all night. vast
 assemblages of wolves. saw a large herd of Elk making down the river.
 passed a considerable rapid in medicine river after dark. the river
 about a hundred yards wide is deep and in many parts rappid and today
 has been much crouded with islands. from our encampment down we know
 the river and there is no rapids and scarcely any courant. goosberries
 are very abundant of the common red kind and are begining to ripen. no
 currants on this river. both species of the prickly pears just in blume.
 [Lewis, July 11, 1806]
 July 11th 1806.
 the morning was fair and the plains looked beatifull the grass much
 improved by the late rain. the air was pleasant and a vast assemblage
 of little birds which croud to the groves on the river sung most
 enchantingly. we set out early. I sent the hunters down Medicine river
 to hunt Elk and proceeded with the party across the plain to the white
 bear Islands which I found to be 8 ms. distant my course S. 75 E.-
 through a level beautiful) and extensive high plain covered with
 immence birds of buffaloe.--it is now the season at which the buffaloe
 begin to coppelate and the bulls keep a tremendious roaring we could
 hear them for many miles and there are such numbers of them that there
 is one continual roar. our horses had not been acquainted with the
 buffaloe they appeared much allarmed at their appearance and bellowing.
 when I arrived in sight of the whitebear Islands the missouri bottoms
 on both sides of the river were crouded with buffaloe I sincerely
 belief that there were not less than 10 thousand buffaloe within a
 circle of 2 miles arround that place. I met with the hunters at a
 little grove of timber opposite to the island where they had killed a
 cowl and were waiting our arrival. they had met with no elk. I directed
 the hunters to kill some buffaloe as well for the benifit of their
 skins to enable us to pass the river as for their meat for the men I
 meant to leave at this place. we unloaded our horses and encamped
 opposite to the Islands. had the cow skined and some willows sticks
 collected to make canoes of the hides by 12 OCk. they killed eleven
 buffaloe most of them in fine order. the bulls are now generally much
 fatter than the cows and are fine beef. I sent out all hands with the
 horses to assist in buthering and bringing in the meat by 3 in the
 evening we had brought in a large quantity of fine beef and as many
 hides as we wanted for canoes shelters and geer. I then set all hands
 to prepare two canoes the one we made after the mandan fassion with a
 single skin in the form of a bason and the other we constructed of two
 skins on a plan of our own. we were unable to compleat our canoes this
 evening. the wind blew very hard. we continued our operations untill
 dark and then retired to rest. I intend giving my horses a couple of
 days rest at this place and deposit all my baggage which is not
 necessary to my voyage up medicine river.
 [Lewis, July 12, 1806]
 July 12th 1806. we arrose early and resumed our operations in
 compleating our canoes which we completed by 10 A.M. about this time
 two of the men whom I had dispatched this morning in quest of the
 horses returned with seven of them only. the remaining ten of our best
 horses were absent and not to be found. I fear that they are stolen. I
 dispatch two men on horseback in surch of them. the wind blew so
 violently that I did not think it prudent to attempt passing the
 river.--at Noon Werner returned having found three others of the horses
 near Fort Mountain. Sergt. Gass did not return untill 3 P.M. not having
 found the horses. he had been about 8 ms. up medecine river. I now
 dispatched Joseph Fields and Drewyer in quest of them. the former
 returned at dark unsuccessfull and the latter continued absent all
 night. at 5 P.M. the wind abated and we transported our baggage and
 meat to the opposite shore in our canoes which we found answered even
 beyond our expectations. we swam our horses over also and encamped at
 sunset. quetoes extreemly troublesome. I think the river is somewhat
 higher than when we were here last summer. the present season has been
 much more moist than the preceeding one. the grass and weeds are much
 more luxouriant than they were when I left this place on the 13th of
 July 1805 saw the brown thrush, pigeons, doves &c.
 the yellow Currants begining to ripen.
 [Lewis, July 13, 1806]
 13th July.
 removed above to my old station opposite the upper point of the white
 bear island. formed our camp and set Thompson &c at work to complete
 the geer for the horses. had the cash opened found my bearskins entirly
 destroyed by the water, the river having risen so high that the water
 had penitrated. all my specimens of plants also lost. the Chart of the
 Missouri fortunately escaped. opened my trunks and boxes and exposed
 the articles to dry. found my papers damp and several articles damp.
 the stoper had come out of a phial of laudinum and the contents had run
 into the drawer and distroyed a gret part of my medicine in such manner
 that it was past recovery. waited very impatiently for the return of
 Drewyer he did not arrive. Musquetoes excessively troublesome insomuch
 that without the protection of my musquetoe bier I should have found it
 impossible to wright a moment. the buffaloe are leaving us fast and
 passing on to the S. East. killed a buffaloe picker a beatifull bird.
 [Lewis, July 14, 1806]
 14th July
 Had the carriage wheels dug up found them in good order. the iron frame
 of the boat had not suffered materially. had the meat cut thiner and
 exposed to dry in the sun. and some roots of cows of which I have yet a
 small stock pounded into meal for my journey. I find the fat buffaloe
 meat a great improvement to the mush of these roots. the old cash being
 too damp to venture to deposit my trunks &c in I sent them over to the
 Large island and had them put on a high scaffold among some thick brush
 and covered with skins. I take this precaution lest some indians may
 visit the men I leave here before the arrival of the main party and rob
 them. the hunters killed a couple of wolves, the buffaloe have almost
 entirely disappeared. saw the bee martin. the wolves are in great
 numbers howling arround us and loling about in the plains in view at
 the distance of two or three hundred yards. I counted 27 about the
 carcase of a buffaloe which lies in the water at the upper point of the
 large island. these are generally of the large kind. Drewyer did not
 return this evening.-
 [Lewis, July 15, 1806]
 15 July 1806.
 Sent McNeal down this morning to the lower part of the portage to see
 whether the large perogue and cash were safe.--Drewyer returned without
 the horses and reported that he had tracked them to beyond our camp of
 [Lewis, July 15, 1806]
 Tuesday July 15th 1806.
 Dispatched McNeal early this morning to the lower part of portage in
 order to learn whether the Cash and white perogue remained untouched or
 in what state they were. the men employed in drying the meat, dressing
 deerskins and preparing for the reception of the canoes. at 1 P.M.
 Drewyer returned without the horses and reported that after a diligent
 surch of 2 days he had discovered where the horses had passed
 Dearborn's river at which place there were 15 lodges that had been
 abandoned about the time our horses were taken; he pursued the tracks
 of a number of horses from these lodges to the road which we had
 traveled over the mountains which they struck about 3 ms. South of our
 encampment of the 7th inst. and had pursued this road Westwardly; I
 have no doubt but they are a party of the Tushapahs who have been on a
 buffaloe hunt. Drewyer informed that there camp was in a small bottom
 on the river of about 5 acres inclosed by the steep and rocky and lofty
 clifts of the river and that so closely had they kept themselves and
 horses within this little spot that there was not a track to be seen of
 them within a quarter of a mile of that place. every spire of grass was
 eaten up by their horses near their camp which had the appearance of
 their having remained here some time. his horse being much fatiegued
 with the ride he had given him and finding that the indians had at
 least 2 days the start of him thought it best to return. his safe
 return has releived me from great anxiety. I had already settled it in
 my mind that a whitebear had killed him and should have set out
 tomorrow in surch of him, and if I could not find him to continue my
 rout to Maria's river. I knew that if he met with a bear in the plains
 even he would attack him. and that if any accedent should happen to
 seperate him from his horse in that situation the chances in favour of
 his being killed would be as 9 to 10. I felt so perfectly satisfyed
 that he had returned in safety that I thought but little of the horses
 although they were seven of the best I had. this loss great as it is,
 is not intirely irreparable, or at least dose not defeat my design of
 exploring Maria's river. I have yet 10 horses remaining, two of the
 best and two of the worst of which I leave to assist the party in
 taking the canoes and baggage over the portage and take the remaining 6
 with me; these are but indifferent horses most of them but I hope they
 may answer our purposes. I shall leave three of my intended party, (viz
 ) Gass, Frazier and Werner, and take the two Feildses and Drewyer. by
 having two spare horses we can releive those we ride. having made this
 arrangement I gave orders for an early departure in the morning, indeed
 I should have set out instantly but McNeal road one of the horses which
 I intend to take and has not yet returned. a little before dark McNeal
 returned with his musquet broken off at the breech, and informed me
 that on his arrival at willow run he had approached a white bear within
 ten feet without discover him the bear being in the thick brush, the
 horse took the allarm and turning short threw him immediately under the
 bear; this animal raised himself on his hinder feet for battle, and
 gave him time to recover from his fall which he did in an instant and
 with his clubbed musquet he struck the bear over the head and cut him
 with the guard of the guns and broke off the breech, the bear stunned
 with the stroke fell to the ground and began to scratch his head with
 his feet; this gave McNeal time to climb a willow tree which was near
 at hand and thus fortunately made his escape. the bear waited at the
 foot of the tree untill late in the evening before he left him, when
 McNeal ventured down and caught his horse which had by this time
 strayed off to the distance of 2 ms. and returned to camp. these bear
 are a most tremenduous animal; it seems that the hand of providence has
 been most wonderfully in our favor with rispect to them, or some of us
 would long since have fallen a sacrifice to their farosity. there seems
 to be a sertain fatality attatched to the neighbourhood of these falls,
 for there is always a chapter of accedents prepared for us during our
 residence at them. the musquetoes continue to infest us in such manner
 that we can scarcely exist; for my own part I am confined by them to my
 bier at least 3/4ths of my time. my dog even howls with the torture he
 experiences from them, they are almost insupportable, they are so
 numerous that we frequently get them in our thrats as we breath.
 [Lewis, July 16, 1806]
 Wednesday July 16th 1806.
 I dispatched a man early this morning to drive up the horses as usual,
 he returned at 8 A.M. with one of them only. allarmed at this
 occurrence I dispatched one of my best hands on horseback in surch of
 them he returned at 10 A.M. with them and I immediately set out. sent
 Drewyer and R. Fields with the horses to the lower side of Medecine
 river, and proceeded myself with all our baggage and J. Fields down the
 missouri to the mouth of Medecine river in our canoe of buffaloe skins.
 we were compelled to swim the horses above the whitebear island and
 again across medicine river as the Missouri is of great width below the
 mouth of that river. having arrived safely below Medicine river we
 immediatly sadled our horses and proceeded down the river to the
 handsom fall of 47 feet where I halted about 2 hours and took a haisty
 sketch of these falls; in the mean time we had some meat cooked and
 took dinner after which we proceeded to the grand falls where we
 arrived at sunset. on our way we saw two very large bear on the
 opposite side of the river. as we arrived in sight of the little wood
 below the falls we saw two other bear enter it; this being the only
 wood in the neighbourhood we were compelled of course to contend with
 the bear for possession, and therefore left our horses in a place of
 security and entered the wood which we surched in vain for the bear,
 they had fled. here we encamped and the evening having the appearance
 of rain made our beds and slept under a shelving rock. these falls have
 abated much of their grandure since I first arrived at them in June
 1805, the water being much lower at preset than it was at that moment,
 however they are still a sublimely grand object. I determined to take a
 second drawing of it in the morning. we saw a few buffaloe as we passed
 today, the immence hirds which were about this place on our arrival
 have principally passed the river and directed their course downwards.
 we see a number of goats or antilopes always in passing through the
 plains of the Missouri above the Mandans. at this season they are
 thinly scattered over the plains but seem universally distributed in
 every part; they appear very inquisitive usually to learn what we are
 as we pass, and frequently accompany us at no great distance for miles,
 frequently halting and giving a loud whistle through their nostrils,
 they are a very pretty animal and astonishingly fleet and active. we
 spent this evening free from the torture of the Musquetoes. there are a
 great number of geese which usually raise their young above these falls
 about the entrance of Medicine river we saw them in large flocks of
 several hundred as we passed today. I saw both yesterday and today the
 Cookkoo or as it is sometimes called the rain craw. this bird is not
 met with west of the Rocky Mountains nor within them.
 [Lewis, July 17, 1806]
 Thursday July 17th 1806.
 I arrose early this morning and made a drawing of the falls. after
 which we took breakfast and departed. it being my design to strike
 Maria's river about the place at which I left it on my return to it's
 mouth in the begining of June 1805. I steered my course through the
 wide and level plains which have somewhat the appearance of an ocean,
 not a tree nor a shrub to be seen. the land is not fertile, at least
 far less so, than the plains of the Columbia or those lower down this
 river, it is a light coloured soil intermixed with a considerable
 proportion of coarse gravel without sand, when dry it cracks and
 appears thursty and is very hard, in it's wet state, it is as soft and
 slipry as so much soft soap the grass is naturally but short and at
 present has been rendered much more so by the graizing of the buffaloe,
 the whole face of the country as far as the eye can reach looks like a
 well shaved bowlinggreen, in which immence and numerous herds of
 buffaloe were seen feeding attended by their scarcely less numerous
 sheepherds the wolves. we saw a number of goats as usual today, also
 the party coloured plover with the brick red head and neck; this bird
 remains about the little ponds which are distributed over the face of
 these plains and here raise their young. we killed a buffaloe cow as we
 passed throug the plains and took the hump and tonge which furnish
 ample rations for four men one day. at 5 P.M. we arrived at rose rivers
 where I purposed remaining all night as I could not reach maria's river
 this evening and unless I did there would be but little probability of
 our finding any wood and very probably no water either. on our arrival
 at the river we saw where a wounded and bleading buffaloe had just
 passed and concluded it was probable that the indians had been runing
 them and were near at hand. the Minnetares of Fort de prarie and the
 blackfoot indians rove through this quarter of the country and as they
 are a vicious lawless and reather an abandoned set of wretches I wish
 to avoid an interview with them if possible. I have no doubt but they
 would steel our horses if they have it in their power and finding us
 weak should they happen to be numerous wil most probably attempt to rob
 us of our arms and baggage; at all events I am determined to take every
 possible precaution to avoid them if possible. I hurried over the river
 to a thick wood and turned out the horses to graize; sent Drewyer to
 pursue and kill the wounded buffaloe in order to determine whether it
 had been wounded by the indians or not, and proceeded myself to
 reconnoitre the adjacent country having sent R. Fields for the same
 purpose a different rout. I ascended the river hills and by the help of
 my glass examined the plains but could make no discovery, in about an
 hour I returned to camp, where I met with the others who had been as
 unsuccessfull as myself. Drewyer could not find the wounded buffaloe.
 J. Fields whom I had left at camp had already roasted some of the
 buffaloe meat and we took dinner after which I sent Drewyer and R.
 Fields to resume their resurches for the indians; and set myself down
 to record the transactions of the day. rose river is at this place
 fifty yards wide, the water which is only about 3 feet deep occupys
 about 35 yds. and is very terbid of a white colour. the general course
 of this river is from East to west so far as I can discover it's track
 through the plains, it's bottoms are wide and well timbered with
 cottonwood both the broad and narrow leafed speceis. the bed of this
 stream is small gravel and mud; it's banks are low but never overflow,
 the hills are about 100 or 150 feet high; it possesses bluffs of earth
 like the lower part of the Missouri; except the debth and valocity of
 it's stream and it is the Missouri in miniture. from the size of rose
 river at this place and it's direction I have no doubt but it takes
 it's source within the first range of the Rocky mountains. the bush
 which bears the red berry is here in great plenty in the river bottoms
 The spies returned having killed 2 beaver and a deer. they reported
 that they saw no appearance of Indians.-
 [Lewis, July 18, 1806]
 Friday July 18th 1806.
 We set out this morning a little before sunrise ascended the river
 hills and continued our rout as yesterday through the open plains at
 about 6 miles we reached the top of an elivated plain which divides the
 waters of the rose river from those of Maria's river. from hence the
 North mountains, the South mountains, the falls mountains and the Tower
 Mountain and those arround and to the East of the latter were visible.
 our course led us nearly parrallel with a creek of Maria's river which
 takes it's rise in these high plains at the place we passed them; at
 noon we struck this creek about 6 ms. from its junction with Maria's
 river where we found some cottonwood timber; here we halted to dine and
 graize our horses. the bed of this creek is about 25 yds. wide at this
 place but is nearly dry at present, the water being confined to little
 pools in the deeper parts of it's bed. from hence downwards there is a
 considerable quantity of timber in it's bottom. we passed immence herds
 of buffaloe on our way in short for about 12 miles it appeared as one
 herd only the whole plains and vally of this creek being covered with
 them; saw a number of wolves of both speceis, also Antelopes and some
 horses. after dinner we proceeded about 5 miles across the plain to
 Maria's river where we arrived at 6 P.M. we killed a couple of buffaloe
 in the bottom of this river and encamped on it's west side in a grove
 of cottonwood some miles above the entrance of the creek. being now
 convinced that we were above the point to which I had formerly ascended
 this river and faring that a fork of this stream might fall in on the
 Northside between this place and the point to which I had ascended it,
 I directed Drewyer who was with me on my former excurtion, and Joseph
 Fields to decend the river early in the morning to the place from
 whence I had returned, and examine whether any stream fell inn or not.
 I keep a strict lookout every night, I take my tour of watch with the
 [Lewis, July 19, 1806]
 Saturday July 19th 1806.
 Drewyer and J. Fields set out early this morning in conformity to my
 instructions last evening. they returned at 1/2 after 12 OCk. and
 informed me that they had proceeded down the river to the place from
 which I had returned on the ____ of June last and that it was 6 miles
 distant. they passed the entrance of buffaloe Creek at 2 ms. the course
 of the river from hence downwards as far as they were is N. 80 E. they
 killed 8 deer and two Antelopes on their way; most of the deer were
 large fat mule bucks. having completed my observation of the sun's
 meridian Altitude we set out, ascended the river hills having passed
 the river and proceeded through the open plains up the N. side of the
 river 20 miles and encamped. at 15 miles we passed a large creek on N.
 side a little above it's entrance; there is but little running water in
 this creek at present, it's bed is about 30 yds. wide and appears to
 come from the broken Mountains so called from their raggid and
 irregular shape there are three of them extending from east to West
 almost unconnected, the center mountain terminates in a conic spire and
 is that which I have called the tower mountain they are destitute of
 timber. from the entrance of this creek they bore N. 10° W. the river
 bottoms are usually about 1/2 a mile wide and possess a considerable
 quantity of timber entirely cottonwood; the underbrush is honeysuckle
 rose bushes the narrow leafed willow and the bush which bears the acid
 red berry called by the french engages grease de buff. just as we
 halted to encamp R. Fields killed a mule doe. the plains are beautifull
 and level but the soil is but thin. in many parts of the plains there
 are great quantities of prickly pears. saw some herds of buffaloe today
 but not in such quantities as yesterday, also antelopes, wolves, gees,
 pigeons, doves, hawks, ravens crows larks sparrows &c. the Curlooe has
 [Lewis, July 20, 1806]
 Sunday July 20th 1806
 We set at sunrise and proceed through the open plain as yesterday up
 the North side of the river. the plains are more broken than they were
 yesterday and have become more inferior in point of soil; a great
 quanty of small gravel is every where distributed over the surface of
 the earth which renders travling extreemly painfull to our bearfoot
 horses. the soil is generally a white or whiteish blue clay, this where
 it has been trodden by the buffaloe when wet has now become as firm as
 a brickbat and stands in an inumerable little points quite as
 formidable to our horses feet as the gravel. the mineral salts common
 to the plains of the missouri has been more abundant today than usual.
 the bluffs of the river are about 200 feet high, steep irregular and
 formed of earth which readily desolves with water, slips and
 precipitates itself into the river as before mentioned frequentlly of
 the bluffs of the Missouri below which they resemble in every
 particular, differing essencially from those of the Missouri above the
 entrance of this river, they being composed of firm red or yellow clay
 which dose not yeald readily to the rains and a large quantity of rock.
 the soil of the river bottom is fertile and well timbered, I saw some
 trees today which would make small canoes. the timber is generally low.
 the underbrush the same as before mentioned. we have seen fewer
 buffaloe today than usual, though more Elk and not less wolves and
 Antelopes also some mule deer; this speceis of deer seems most
 prevalent in this quarter. saw some gees ducks and other birds common
 to the country. there is much appearance of beaver on this river, but
 not any of otter. from the apparent decent of the country to the North
 and above the broken mountains I am induced to beleive that the South
 branch of the Suskashawan receives a part of it's waters from the plain
 even to the borders of this river and from the brakes visible in the
 plains in a nothern direction think that a branch of that river
 decending from the rocky mountains passes at no great distance from
 Maria's river and to the N. E. of the broken mountains. the day has
 proved excessively warm and we lay by four hours during the heat of it;
 we traveled 28 miles and encamped as usual in the river bottom on it's
 N. side. there is scarcely any water at present in the plains and what
 there is, lies in small pools and is so strongly impregnated with the
 mineral salts that it is unfit for any purpose except the uce of the
 buffaloe. these animals appear to prefer this water to that of the
 river. the wild liquorice and sunflower are very abundant in the plains
 and river bottoms, the latter is now in full blume; the silkgrass and
 sand rush are also common to the bottom lands. the musquetoes have not
 been troublesome to us since we left the whitebear islands.-
 [Lewis, July 21, 1806]
 Monday July 21st 1806.
 We set out at sunrise and proceeded a short distance up the North side
 of the river; we found the ravines which made in on this side were so
 steep and numerous that we passed the river in doing which the pack
 horse which carried my instruments missed the ford and wet the
 instruments. this accident detained us about half an hor. I took the
 Instruments out wiped them and dryed their cases, they sustained no
 naterial injury. we continued on the S. side of the river about 3 miles
 when we again passed over to the N. side and took our course through
 the plains at some distance from the river. we saw a large herd of Elk
 this morning. the buffaloe still become more scarce. at 2 P.M. we
 struck a northern branch of Marias river about 30 yds. wide at the
 distance of about 8 miles from it's entrance. this stream is closely
 confined between clifts of freestone rocks the bottom narrow below us
 and above the rocks confine it on each side; some little timber below
 but not any above; the water of this stream is nearly clear. from the
 appearance of this rock and the apparent hight of the bed of the streem
 I am induced to beleive that there are falls in these rivers somewhere
 about their junction. being convinced that this stream came from the
 mountains I determined to pursue it as it will lead me to the most
 nothern point to which the waters of Maria's river extend which I now
 fear will not be as far north as I wished and expected. after dinner we
 set out up the North branch keeping on it's S. side; we pursued it
 untill dark and not finding any timber halted and made a fire of the
 dung of the buffaloe. we lay on the south side in a narrow bottom under
 a Clift. our provision is nearly out, we wounded a buffaloe this
 evening but could not get him.
 [Lewis, July 22, 1806]
 Tuesday July 22ed 1806.
 We set out very early this morning as usual and proceeded up the river.
 for the first seven miles of our travel this morning the country was
 broken the land poor and intermixed with a greater quantity of gravel
 than usual; the ravines were steep and numerous and our horses feet
 have become extreemly soar in traveling over the gravel we therefore
 traveled but slow. we met with a doe Elk which we wounded but did not
 get her. the river is confined closely between clifts of perpendicular
 rocks in most parts. after the distance of seven miles the country
 became more level les gravly and some bottoms to the river but not a
 particle of timber nor underbush of any discription is to be seen. we
 continued up the river on it's South side for 17 miles when we halted
 to glaize our horses and eat; there being no wood we were compelled to
 make our fire with the buffaloe dung which I found answered the purpose
 very well. we cooked and eat all the meat we had except a small peice
 of buffaloe meat which was a little tainted. after dinner we passed the
 river and took our course through a level and beautifull plain on the
 N. side. the country has now become level, the river bottoms wide and
 the adjoining plains but little elivated above them; the banks of the
 river are not usually more than from 3 to four feet yet it dose not
 appear ever to overflow them. we found no timber untill we had traveled
 12 miles further when we arrived at a clump of large cottonwood trees
 in a beautifull and extensive bottom of the river about 10 miles below
 the foot of the rocky mountains where this river enters them; as I
 could see from hence very distinctly where the river entered the
 mountains and the bearing of this point being S of West I thought it
 unnecessary to proceed further and therefore encamped resolving to rest
 ourselves and horses a couple of days at this place and take the
 necessary observations. this plain on which we are is very high; the
 rocky mountains to the S. W. of us appear but low from their base up
 yet are partially covered with snow nearly to their bases. there is no
 timber on those mountains within our view; they are very irregular and
 broken in their form and seem to be composed principally of clay with
 but little rock or stone. the river appears to possess at least double
 the vollume of water which it had where we first arrived on it below;
 this no doubt proceeds from the avapparation caused by the sun and air
 and the absorbing of the earth in it's passage through these open
 plains. The course of the mountains still continues from S. E. to N. W.
 the front rang appears to terminate abrubtly about 35 ms. to the N. W.
 Of us. I believe that the waters of the Suskashawan apporoach the
 borders of this river very nearly. I now have lost all hope of the
 waters of this river ever extending to N Latitude 50° though I still hope
 and think it more than probable that both white earth river and milk
 river extend as far north as latd. 50°--we have seen but few buffaloe
 today no deer and very few Antelopes; gam of every discription is
 extreemly wild which induces me to beleive that the indians are now, or
 have been lately in this neighbourhood. we wounded a buffaloe this
 evening but our horses were so much fatiegued that we were unable to
 pursue it with success.-
 [Lewis, July 23, 1806]
 Wednesdy July 23rd 1806
 I dispatched Drewyer an Joseph fields this morning to hunt. I directed
 Drewyer who went up the river to observe it's bearings and the point at
 which it entered the mountains, this he did and on his return I
 observed the point at which the river entered to bear S 50° W. distant
 about ten miles the river making a considerable bend to the West just
 above us.
 both these hunters returned unsuccessful and reported that there was no
 game nor the appearance of any in this quarter. we now rendered the
 grease from our tainted meat and made some mush of cows with a part of
 it, reserving as much meal of cows and grease as would afford us one
 more meal tomorrow. Drewyer informed us that there was an indian camp
 of eleven leather lodges which appeared to have been abandoned about 10
 days, the poles only of the lodges remained. we are confident that
 these are the Minnetares of fort de prarie and suspect that they are
 probably at this time somewhere on the main branch of Maria's river on
 the borders of the buffaloe, under this impression I shall not strike
 that river on my return untill about the mouth of the North branch.
 near this place I observe a number of the whistleing squirrel of the
 speceis common to the plains and country watered by the Columbia river,
 this is the first instance in which I have found this squirrel in the
 plains of the Missouri. the Cottonwood of this place is also of the
 speceis common to the Columbia. we have a delightfull pasture for our
 horses where we are.
 The clouds obscured the moon and put an end to further observation. the
 rok which makes its appearance on this part of the river is of a white
 colour fine grit and makes excellet whetstones; it lies in horizontal
 stratas and makes it's appearance in the bluffs of the river near their
 base. we indeavoured to take some fish but took only one small trout.
 Musquetoes uncommonly large and reather troublesome.
 [Lewis, July 24, 1806]
 Thursday July 24th 1806.
 At 8 A.M. the sun made it's appearance for a few minutes and I took
 it's altitude but it shortly after clouded up again and continued to
 rain the ballance of the day I was therefore unable to complete the
 observations I wished to take at this place. I determined to remain
 another day in the hope of it's being fair. we have still a little
 bread of cows remaining of which we made a kettle of mush which
 together with a few pigeons that we were fortunate enough to kill
 served us with food for this day. I sent the hunters out but they
 shortly returned without having killed anything and declared that it
 was useless to hunt within 6 or 8 miles of this place that there was no
 appearance of game within that distance. the air has become extreemly
 cold which in addition to the wind and rain renders our situation
 extreemly unpleasant. several wolves visited our camp today, I fired on
 and wounded one of them very badly. the small speceis of wolf barks
 like a dog, they frequently salute us with this note as we pass through
 the plains.
 [Lewis, July 25, 1806]
 Friday July 25th 1806.
 The weather still continues cold cloudy and rainy, the wind also has
 blown all day with more than usual violence from the N. W. this morning
 we eat the last of our birds and cows, I therefore directed Drewyer and
 J. Fields to take a couple of the horses and proceed to the S. E. as
 far as the main branch of Maria's river which I expected was at no
 great distance and indeavour to kill some meat; they set out
 immediately and I remained in camp with R. Fields to avail myself of
 every opportunity to make my observations should any offer, but it
 continued to rain and I did not see the sun through the whole course of
 the day R. Fields and myself killed nine pigeons which lit in the trees
 near our camp on these we dined. late in the evening Drewyer and J.
 Fields returned the former had killed a fine buck on which we now fared
 sumptuously. they informed me that it was about 10 miles to the main
 branch of Maria's River, that the vally formed by the river in that
 quarter was wide extensive and level with a considerable quantity
 timber; here they found some wintering camps of the natives and a great
 number of others of a more recent date or that had from appearance been
 evacuated about 6 weeks; we consider ourselves extreemly fortunate in
 not having met with these people. I determined that if tomorrow
 continued cloudy to set out as I now begin to be apprehensive that I
 shall not reach the United States within this season unless I make
 every exertion in my power which I shall certainly not omit when once I
 leave this place which I shall do with much reluctance without having
 obtained the necessary data to establish it's longitude-as if the fates
 were against me my chronometer from some unknown cause stoped today,
 when I set her to going she went as usual.
 [Lewis, July 26, 1806]
 Saturday July 26th 1806.
 The moring was cloudy and continued to rain as usual, tho the cloud
 seemed somewhat thiner. I therefore posponed seting out untill 9 A.M.
 in the hope that it would clear off but finding the contrary result I
 had the horses caught and we set out biding a lasting adieu to this
 place which I now call camp disappointment. I took my rout through the
 open plains S. E. 5 ms. passing a small creek at 2 ms. from the
 mountains wher I changed my direction to S. 75 E. for 7 ms. further and
 struck a principal branch of Maria's river 65 yds. wide, not very deep,
 I passed this stream to it's south side and continued down it 2 ms. on
 the last mentioned course when another branch of nearly the same
 dignity formed a junction with it, coming from the S. W. this last is
 shallow and rappid; has the appearance of overflowing it's banks
 frequently and discharging vast torrants of water at certain seasons of
 the year. the beds of both these streams are pebbly particularly the S.
 branch. the water of the N. branch is very terbid while that of the S.
 branch is nearly clear not withstanding the late rains. I passed the S.
 branch just above it's junction and continued down the river which runs
 a little to the N of E 1 ms. and halted to dine and graize our horses
 here I found some indian lodges which appeared to have been inhabited
 last winter in a large and fertile bottom well stocked with cottonwood
 timber. the rose honeysuckle and redberry bushes constitute the
 undergrowth there being but little willow in this quarter both these
 rivers abov their junction appeared to be well stocked with timber or
 comparitively so with other parts of this country. here it is that we
 find the three species of cottonwood which I have remarked in my voyage
 assembled together that speceis common to the Columbia I have never
 before seen on the waters of the Missouri, also the narrow and broad
 leafed speceis. during our stay at this place R. Fields killed a buck a
 part of the flesh of which we took with us. we saw a few Antelopes some
 wolves and 2 of the smallest speceis of fox of a redish brown colour
 with the extremity of the tail black. it is about the size of the
 common domestic cat and burrows in the plains. after dinner I continued
 my rout down the river to the North of Eat about 3 ms. when the hills
 putting in close on the S side I determined to ascend them to the high
 plain which I did accordingly, keeping the Fields with me; Drewyer
 passed the river and kept down the vally of the river. I had intended
 to decend this river with it's course to it's junction with the fork
 which I had ascended and from thence have taken across the country
 obliquely to rose river and decend that stream to it's confluence with
 Maria's river. the country through which this portion of Maria's river
 passes to the fork which I ascended appears much more broken than that
 above and between this and the mountains. I had scarcely ascended the
 hills before I discovered to my left at the distance of a mile an
 assembleage of about 30 horses, I halted and used my spye glass by the
 help of which I discovered several indians on the top of an eminence
 just above them who appeared to be looking down towards the river I
 presumed at Drewyer. about half the horses were saddled. this was a
 very unpleasant sight, however I resolved to make the best of our
 situation and to approach them in a friendly manner. I directed J.
 Fields to display the flag which I had brought for that purpose and
 advanced slowly toward them, about this time they discovered us and
 appeared to run about in a very confused manner as if much allarmed,
 their attention had been previously so fixed on Drewyer that they did
 not discover us untill we had began to advance upon them, some of them
 decended the hill on which they were and drove their horses within shot
 of it's summit and again returned to the hight as if to wate our
 arrival or to defend themselves. I calculated on their number being
 nearly or quite equal to that of their horses, that our runing would
 invite pursuit as it would convince them that we were their enimies and
 our horses were so indifferent that we could not hope to make our
 escape by flight; added to this Drewyer was seperated from us and I
 feared that his not being apprized of the indians in the event of our
 attempting to escape he would most probably fall a sacrefice. under
 these considerations I still advanced towards them; when we had arrived
 within a quarter of a mile of them, one of them mounted his horse and
 rode full speed towards us, which when I discovered I halted and
 alighted from my horse; he came within a hundred paces halted looked at
 us and turned his horse about and returned as briskly to his party as
 he had advanced; while he halted near us I held out my hand and
 becconed to him to approach but he paid no attention to my overtures.
 on his return to his party they all decended the hill and mounted their
 horses and advanced towards us leaving their horses behind them, we
 also advanced to meet them. I counted eight of them but still supposed
 that there were others concealed as there were several other horses
 saddled. I told the two men with me that I apprehended that these were
 the Minnetares of Fort de Prarie and from their known character I
 expected that we were to have some difficulty with them; that if they
 thought themselves sufficiently strong I was convinced they would
 attempt to rob us in which case be their numbers what they would I
 should resist to the last extremity prefering death to that of being
 deprived of my papers instruments and gun and desired that they would
 form the same resolution and be allert and on their guard. when we
 arrived within a hundred yards of each other the indians except one
 halted I directed the two men with me to do the same and advanced
 singly to meet the indian with whom I shook hands and passed on to
 those in his rear, as he did also to the two men in my rear; we now all
 assembled and alighted from our horses; the Indians soon asked to smoke
 with us, but I told them that the man whom they had seen pass down the
 river had my pipe and we could not smoke untill he joined us. I
 requested as they had seen which way he went that they would one of
 them go with one of my men in surch of him, this they readily concented
 to and a young man set out with R. Fields in surch of Drewyer. I now
 asked them by sighns if they were the Minnetares of the North which
 they answered in the affermative; I asked if there was any cheif among
 them and they pointed out 3 I did not believe them however I thought it
 best to please them and gave to one a medal to a second a flag and to
 the third a handkercheif, with which they appeared well satisfyed. they
 appeared much agitated with our first interview from which they had
 scarcely yet recovered, in fact I beleive they were more allarmed at
 this accedental interview than we were. from no more of them appearing
 I now concluded they were only eight in number and became much better
 satisfyed with our situation as I was convinced that we could mannage
 that number should they attempt any hostile measures. as it was growing
 late in the evening I proposed that we should remove to the nearest
 part of the river and encamp together, I told them that I was glad to
 see them and had a great deel to say to them. we mounted our horses and
 rode towards the river which was at but a short distance, on our way we
 were joined by Drewyer Fields and the indian. we decended a very steep
 bluff about 250 feet high to the river where there was a small bottom
 of nearly 1/2 a mile in length and about 250 yards wide in the widest
 part, the river washed the bluffs both above and below us and through
 it's course in this part is very deep; the bluffs are so steep that
 there are but few places where they could be ascended, and are broken
 in several places by deep nitches which extend back from the river
 several hundred yards, their bluffs being so steep that it is
 impossible to ascend them; in this bottom there stand tree solitary
 trees near one of which the indians formed a large simicircular camp of
 dressed buffaloe skins and invited us to partake of their shelter which
 Drewyer and myself accepted and the Fieldses lay near the fire in front
 of the sheter. with the assistance of Drewyer I had much conversation
 with these people in the course of the evening. I learned from them
 that they were a part of a large band which lay encamped at present
 near the foot of the rocky mountains on the main branch of Maria's
 river one 1/2 days march from our present encampment; that there was a
 whiteman with their band; that there was another large band of their
 nation hunting buffaloe near the broken mountains and were on there way
 to the mouth of Maria's river where they would probably be in the
 course of a few days. they also informed us that from hence to the
 establishment where they trade on the Suskasawan river is only 6 days
 easy march or such as they usually travel with their women and childred
 which may be estimated at about 150 ms. that from these traders they
 obtain arm amunition sperituous liquor blankets &c in exchange for
 wolves and some beaver skins. I told these people that I had come a
 great way from the East up the large river which runs towards the
 rising sun, that I had been to the great waters where the sun sets and
 had seen a great many nations all of whom I had invited to come and
 trade with me on the rivers on this side of the mountains, that I had
 found most of them at war with their neighbours and had succeeded in
 restoring peace among them, that I was now on my way home and had left
 my party at the falls of the missouri with orders to decend that river
 to the entrance of Maria's river and there wait my arrival and that I
 had come in surch of them in order to prevail on them to be at peace
 with their neighbours particularly those on the West side of the
 mountains and to engage them to come and trade with me when the
 establishment is made at the entrance of this river to all which they
 readily gave their assent and declared it to be their wish to be at
 peace with the Tushepahs whom they said had killed a number of their
 relations lately and pointed to several of those present who had cut
 their hair as an evidince of the truth of what they had asserted. I
 found them extreemly fond of smoking and plyed them with the pipe
 untill late at night. I told them that if they intended to do as I
 wished them they would send some of their young men to their band with
 an invitation to their chiefs and warriors to bring the whiteman with
 them and come down and council with me at the entrance of Maria's river
 and that the ballance of them would accompany me to that place, where I
 was anxious now to meet my men as I had been absent from them some time
 and knew that they would be uneasy untill they saw me. that if they
 would go with me I would give them 10 horses and some tobacco. to this
 proposition they made no reply, I took the first watch tonight and set
 up untill half after eleven; the indians by this time were all asleep,
 I roused up R. Fields and laid down myself; I directed Fields to watch
 the movements of the indians and if any of them left the camp to awake
 us all as I apprehended they would attampt to seal steal our horses.
 this being done I fell into a profound sleep and did not wake untill
 the noise of the men and indians awoke me a little after light in the
 [Lewis, July 27, 1806]
 July 27th 1806 Sunday.
 This morning at day light the indians got up and crouded around the
 fire, J. Fields who was on post had carelessly laid his gun down behid
 him near where his brother was sleeping, one of the indians the fellow
 to whom I had given the medal last evening sliped behind him and took
 his gun and that of his brothers unperceived by him, at the same
 instant two others advanced and seized the guns of Drewyer and myself,
 J. Fields seing this turned about to look for his gun and saw the
 fellow just runing off with her and his brothers he called to his
 brother who instantly jumped up and pursued the indian with him whom
 they overtook at the distance of 50 or 60 paces from the camp sized
 their guns and rested them from him and R Fields as he seized his gun
 stabed the indian to the heart with his knife the fellow ran about 15
 steps and fell dead; of this I did not know untill afterwards, having
 recovered their guns they ran back instantly to the camp; Drewyer who
 was awake saw the indian take hold of his gun and instantly jumped up
 and sized her and rested her from him but the indian still retained his
 pouch, his jumping up and crying damn you let go my gun awakened me I
 jumped up and asked what was the matter which I quickly learned when I
 saw drewyer in a scuffle with the indian for his gun. I reached to
 seize my gun but found her gone, I then drew a pistol from my holster
 and terning myself about saw the indian making off with my gun I ran at
 him with my pistol and bid him lay down my gun which he was in the act
 of doing when the Fieldses returned and drew up their guns to shoot him
 which I forbid as he did not appear to be about to make any resistance
 or commit any offensive act, he droped the gun and walked slowly off, I
 picked her up instantly, Drewyer having about this time recovered his
 gun and pouch asked me if he might not kill the fellow which I also
 forbid as the indian did not appear to wish to kill us, as soon as they
 found us all in possession of our arms they ran and indeavored to drive
 off all the horses I now hollowed to the men and told them to fire on
 them if they attempted to drive off our horses, they accordingly
 pursued the main party who were drying the horses up the river and I
 pursued the man who had taken my gun who with another was driving off a
 part of the horses which were to the left of the camp, I pursued them
 so closely that they could not take twelve of their own horses but
 continued to drive one of mine with some others; at the distance of
 three hundred paces they entered one of those steep nitches in the
 bluff with the horses before them being nearly out of breath I could
 pursue no further, I called to them as I had done several times before
 that I would shoot them if they did not give me my horse and raised my
 gun, one of them jumped behind a rock and spoke to the other who turned
 arround and stoped at the distance of 30 steps from me and I shot him
 through the belly, he fell to his knees and on his wright elbow from
 which position he partly raised himself up and fired at me, and turning
 himself about crawled in behind a rock which was a few feet from him.
 he overshot me, being bearheaded I felt the wind of his bullet very
 distinctly. not having my shotpouch I could not reload my peice and as
 there were two of them behind good shelters from me I did not think it
 prudent to rush on them with my pistol which had I discharged I had not
 the means of reloading untill I reached camp; I therefore returned
 leasurely towards camp, on my way I met with Drewyer who having heared
 the report of the guns had returned in surch of me and left the Fieldes
 to pursue the indians, I desired him to haisten to the camp with me and
 assist in catching as many of the indian horses as were necessary and
 to call to the Fieldes if he could make them hear to come back that we
 still had a sufficient number of horses, this he did but they were too
 far to hear him. we reached the camp and began to catch the horses and
 saddle them and put on the packs. the reason I had not my pouch with me
 was that I had not time to return about 50 yards to camp after geting
 my gun before I was obliged to pursue the indians or suffer them to
 collect and drive off all the horses. we had caught and saddled the
 horses and began to arrange the packs when the Fieldses returned with
 four of our horses; we left one of our horses and took four of the best
 of those of the indian's; while the men were preparing the horses I put
 four sheilds and two bows and quivers of arrows which had been left on
 the fire, with sundry other articles; they left all their baggage at
 our mercy. they had but 2 guns and one of them they left the others
 were armed with bows and arrows and eyedaggs. the gun we took with us.
 I also retook the flagg but left the medal about the neck of the dead
 man that they might be informed who we were. we took some of their
 buffaloe meat and set out ascending the bluffs by the same rout we had
 decended last evening leaving the ballance of nine of their horses
 which we did not want. the Feildses told me that three of the indians
 whom they pursued swam the river one of them on my horse. and that two
 others ascended the hill and escaped from them with a part of their
 horses, two I had pursued into the nitch one lay dead near the camp and
 the eighth we could not account for but suppose that he ran off early
 in the contest. having ascended the hill we took our course through a
 beatiful level plain a little to the S of East. my design was to hasten
 to the entrance of Maria's river as quick as possible in the hope of
 meeting with the canoes and party at that place having no doubt but
 that they would pursue us with a large party and as there was a band
 near the broken mountains or probably between them and the mouth of
 that river we might expect them to receive inteligence from us and
 arrive at that place nearly as soon as we could, no time was therefore
 to be lost and we pushed our horses as hard as they would bear. at 8
 miles we passed a large branch 40 yds. wide which I called battle
 river. at 3 P.M. we arrived at rose river about 5 miles above where we h
 ad passed it as we went out, having traveled by my estimate compared
 with our former distances and couses about 63 ms. here we halted an
 hour and a half took some refreshment and suffered our horses to
 graize; the day proved warm but the late rains had supplyed the little
 reservors in the plains with water and had put them in fine order for
 traveling, our whole rout so far was as level as a bowling green with
 but little stone and few prickly pears. after dinner we pursued the
 bottoms of rose river but finding inconvenient to pass the river so
 often we again ascended the hills on the S. W. side and took the open
 plains; by dark we had traveled about 17 miles further, we now halted
 to rest ourselves and horses about 2 hours, we killed a buffaloe cow
 and took a small quantity of the meat. after refreshing ourselves we
 again set out by moon light and traveled leasurely, heavy thunderclouds
 lowered arround us on every quarter but that from which the moon gave
 us light. we continued to pass immence herds of buffaloe all night as
 we had done in the latter part of the day. we traveled untill 2 OCk in
 the morning having come by my estimate after dark about 20 ms. we now
 turned out our horses and laid ourselves down to rest in the plain very
 much fatiegued as may be readily conceived. my indian horse carried me
 very well in short much better than my own would have done and leaves
 me with but little reason to complain of the robery.
 [Lewis, July 28, 1806]
 July 28th 1806 Monday.
 The morning proved fair, I slept sound but fortunately awoke as day
 appeared, I awaked the men and directed the horses to be saddled, I was
 so soar from my ride yesterday that I could scarcely stand, and the men
 complained of being in a similar situation however I encourged them by
 telling them that our own lives as well as those of our friends and
 fellow travellers depended on our exertions at this moment; they were
 allert soon prepared the horses and we again resumed our march; the men
 proposed to pass the missouri at the grog spring where rose river
 approaches it so nearly and pass down on the S. W. side, to this I
 objected as it would delay us almost all day to reach the point by this
 circuetous rout and would give the enemy time to surprise and cut off
 the party at the point if they had arrived there, I told them that we
 owed much to the safety of our friends and that we must wrisk our lives
 on this occasion, that I should proceed immediately to the point and if
 the party had not arrived that I would raft the missouri a small
 distance above, hide our baggage and march on foot up the river through
 the timber untill I met the canoes or joined them at the falls; I now
 told them that it was my determination that if we were attacked in the
 plains on our way to the point that the bridles of the horses should be
 tied together and we would stand and defend them, or sell our lives as
 dear as we could. we had proceeded about 12 miles on an East course
 when we found ourselves near the missouri; we heared a report which we
 took to be that of a gun but were not certain; still continuing down
 the N. E. bank of the missouri about 8 miles further, being then within
 five miles of the grog spring we heared the report of several rifles
 very distinctly on the river to our right, we quickly repared to this
 joyfull sound and on arriving at the bank of the river had the
 unspeakable satisfaction to see our canoes coming down. we hurried down
 from the bluff on which we were and joined them striped our horses and
 gave them a final discharge imbrarking without loss of time with our
 baggage. I now learned that they had brought all things safe having
 sustaned no loss nor met with any accident of importance. Wiser had cut
 his leg badly with a knife and was unable in consequence to work. we
 decended the river opposite to our principal cash which we proceeded to
 open after reconnoitering the adjacent country. we found that the cash
 had caved in and most of the articles burried therin were injured; I
 sustained the loss of two very large bear skins which I much regret;
 most of the fur and baggage belonging to the men were injured. the
 gunpowder corn flour poark and salt had sustained but little injury the
 parched meal was spoiled or nearly so. having no time to air these
 things which they much wanted we droped down to the point to take in
 the several articles which had been buried at that place in several
 small cashes; these we found in good order, and recovered every article
 except 3 traps belonging to Drewyer which could not be found. here as
 good fortune would have it Sergt. Gass and Willard who brought the
 horses from the falls joined us at 1 P.M. I had ordered them to bring
 down the horses to this place in order to assist them in collecting
 meat which I had directed them to kill and dry here for our voyage,
 presuming that they would have arrived with the perogue and canoes at
 this place several days before my return. having now nothing to detain
 us we passed over immediately to the island in the entrance of Maria's
 river to launch the red perogue, but found her so much decayed that it
 was impossible with the means we had to repare her and therefore mearly
 took the nails and other ironwork's about her which might be of service
 to us and left her. we now reimbarked on board the white peroge and
 five small canoes and decended the river about 15 ms. and encamped on
 the S. W. side near a few cottonwood trees, one of them being of the
 narrow leafed speceis and was the first of that kind which we had
 remarked on our passage up the river. we encamped late but having
 little meat I sent out a couple of hunters who soon returned with a
 sufficient quantity of the flesh of a fat cow. there are immence
 quantities of buffaloe and Elk about the junction of the Missouri and
 Maria's rivers.--during the time we halted at the er.crance of Maria's
 river we experienced a very heavy shower of rain and hail attended with
 violent thunder and lightning.
 [Lewis, July 29, 1806]
 Tuesday July 29th 1806.
 Shortly after dark last evening a violent storm came on from N. W.
 attended with rain hail Thunder and lightning which continued the
 greater part of the night. no having the means of making a shelter I
 lay in the water all night. the rain continued with but little
 intermission all day. I intend halting as soon as the weather proves
 fair in order to dry our baggage which much wants it. I placed the two
 Fieldses and Colter and Collins in the two smallest canoes with orderes
 to hunt, and kill meat for the party and obtain as many Elkskins as are
 necessary to cover our canoes and furnish us with shelters from the
 rain. we set out early and the currant being strong we proceeded with
 great rapidity. at 11 A.M. we passed that very interesting part of the
 Missouri where the natural walls appear, particularly discribed in my
 outward bound journey. we continued our rout untill late in the evening
 and encamped on the N. E. side of the river at the same place we had
 encamped on the 29th of May 1805. on our way today we killed 9 bighorns
 of which I preserved the skins and skeletons of 2 females and one male;
 the flesh of this aninmal is extreemly delicate tender and well
 flavored, they are now in fine order. their flesh both in colour and
 flavor much resembles mutton though it is not so strong as our mutton.
 the eye is large and prominant, the puple of a pale sea green and iris
 of a light yellowish brown colour. these animals abound in this quarter
 keeping themselves principally confined to the steep clifts and bluffs
 of the river. we saw immence hirds of buffaloe in the high plains today
 on either hand of the river. saw but few Elk. the brown Curloo has left
 the plains I presume it has raised it's young and retired to some other
 climate and country. as I have been very particular in my discription
 of the country as I ascended this river I presume it is unnecesssesary
 here to add any-thing further on that subject. the river is now nearly
 as high as it has been this season and is so thick with mud and sand
 that it is with difficulty I can drink it. every little rivulet now
 discharges a torrant of water bringing down immece boddies of mud sand
 and filth from the plains and broken bluffs.-
 [Lewis, July 30, 1806]
 Wednesday July 30th 1806.
 The rain still continued this morning it was therefore unnecessary to
 remain as we could not dry our baggage I Consequently set out early as
 usual and pursued my rout downwards. the currant being strong and the
 men anxious to get on they plyed their oars faithfully and we went at
 the rate of about seven miles an hour. we halted several times in the
 course of the day to kill some bighorns being anxious to procure a few
 more skins and skeletons of this animal; I was fortunate enough to
 procure one other malle and female for this purpose which I had
 prepared accordingly. seven others were killed by the party also 2
 buffaloe one Elk 2 beaver with & a female brown bear with tallons 61/4
 inches in length. I preserved the skin of this bear also with the
 tallons; it was not large and in but low order. we arrived this evening
 at an island about 2 ms. above Goodriches Island and encamped on it's
 N. E. side. the rain continued with but little intermission all day;
 the air is cold and extreemly disagreeable. nothing extraordinary
 happened today
 [Lewis, July 31, 1806]
 Thursday July 31st 1806.
 The rain still continuing I set out early and proceeded on as fast as
 possible. at 9 A.M. we fell in with a large herd of Elk of which we
 killed 15 and took their skins. the bottoms in the latter part of the
 day became wider better timbered and abound in game. the party killed
 14 deer in the course of the day without attempting to hunt but little
 for them. we also killed 2 bighorns and 1 beaver; saw but few buffaloe.
 the river is still rising and excessively muddy more so I think than I
 ever saw it. we experienced some very heavy showers of rain today. we
 have been passing high pine hills all day. late in the evening we came
 too on the N. E. side of the river and took sheter in some indian
 lodges built of sticks, about 8 ms. below the entrance of North
 mountain creek. these lodges appeared to have been built in the course
 of the last winter. these lodges with the addition of some Elk skins
 afforded us a good shelter from the rain which continued to fall
 powerfully all night. I think it probable that the minnetares of Fort
 de Prarie visit this part of the river; we meet with their old lodges
 in every bottom.-
 [Lewis, August 1, 1806]
 Friday August 1st 1806.
 The rain still continuing I set out early as usual and proceeded on at
 a good rate. at 9 A.M. we saw a large brown bear swiming from an island
 to the main shore we pursued him and as he landed Drewyer and myself
 shot and killed him; we took him on board the perogue and continued our
 rout. at 11 A.M. we passed the entrance of Mussel shell river. at 1 in
 the evening we arrived at a bottom on S. W. side where there were
 several spacious Indian lodges built of sticks and an excellent
 landing. as the rain still continued with but little intermission and
 appearances seemed unfavorable to it's becomeing fair shortly, I
 determined to halt at this place at least for this evening and
 indeavour to dry my skins of the bighorn which had every appearance of
 spoiling, an event which I would not should happen on any consideration
 as we have now passed the country in which they are found and I
 therefore could not supply the deficiency were I to loose these I have.
 I halted at this place being about 15 ms. below Missel shell river, had
 fires built in the lodges and my skins exposed to dry. shortly after we
 landed the rain ceased tho it still continued cloudy all this evening.
 a white bear came within 50 paces of our camp before we perceived it;
 it stood erect on it's hinder feet and looked at us with much apparent
 unconsern, we seized our guns which are always by us and several of us
 fired at it and killed it. it was a female in fine order, we fleesed it
 and extracted several gallons of oil. this speceis of bar are rearly as
 poor at this season of the year as the common black bear nor are they
 ever as fat as the black bear is found in winter; as they feed
 principally on flesh, like the wolf, they are most fatt when they can
 procure a sufficiency of food without rispect to the season of the
 year. the oil of this bear is much harder than that of the black bear
 being nearly as much so as the lard of a hog. the flesh is by no means
 as agreeable as that of the black bear, or Yahkah or partycoloured bear
 of the West side of the rocky mountains. on our way today we killed a
 buck Elk in fine order the skins and a part of the flesh of which we
 preserved. after encamping this evening the hunters killed 4 deer and a
 beaver. The Elk are now in fine order particularly the males. their
 horns have obtained their full growth but have not yet shed the velvet
 or skin which covers them. the does are found in large herds with their
 young and a few young bucks with them. the old bucks yet herd together
 in parties of two to 7 or 8.-
 [Lewis, August 2, 1806]
 Saturday August 2cd 1806.
 The morning proved fair and I determined to remain all day and dry the
 baggage and give the men an opportunity to dry and air their skins and
 furr. had the powder parched meal and every article which wanted drying
 exposed to the sun. the day proved warm fair and favourable for our
 purpose. I permitted the Fieldses to go on a few miles to hunt. by
 evening we had dryed our baggage and repacked it in readiness to load
 and set out early in the morning. the river fell 18 inches since
 yesterday evening. the hunters killed several deer in the course of the
 day. nothing remarkable took place today. we are all extreemly anxious
 to reach the entrance of the Yellowstone river where we expect to join
 Capt. Clark and party.
 [Lewis, August 3, 1806]
 Saturday August 3rd 1806.
 I arrose early this morning and had the perogue and canoes loaded and
 set out at half after 6 A.M. we soon passed the canoe of Colter and
 Collins who were on shore hunting, the men hailed them but received no
 answer we proceeded, and shortly after overtook J. and R. Fields who
 had killed 25 deer since they left us yesterday; deer are very abundant
 in the timbered bottoms of the river and extreemly gentle. we did not
 halt today to cook and dine as usual having directed that in future the
 party should cook as much meat in the evening after encamping as would
 be sufficient to serve them the next day; by this means we forward our
 journey at least 12 or 15 miles Pr. day. we saw but few buffaloe in the
 course of this day, tho a great number of Elk, deer, wolves, some bear,
 beaver, geese a few ducks, the party coloured covus, one Callamet
 Eagle, a number of bald Eagles, redheaded woodpeckers &c. we encamped
 this evening on N. E. side of the river 2 ms. above our encampment of
 the 12th of May 1805 soon after we encamp Drewyer killed a fat doe. the
 Fieldses arrived at dark with the flesh of two fine bucks, besides
 which they had killed two does since we passed them making in all 29
 deer since yesterday morning. Collins and Colter did not overtake us
 this evening.
 [Lewis, August 4, 1806]
 Monday August 4th 1806.
 Set out at 4 A.M. this morning. permited Willard and Sergt. Ordway to
 exchange with the Feildses and take their small canoe to hunt to-day.
 at 1/2 after eleven O'Ck. passed the entrance of big dry river; found
 the water in this river about 60 yds. wide tho shallow. it runs with a
 boald even currant. at 3 P.M. we arrived at the entrance of Milk river
 where we halted a few minutes. this stream is full at present and it's
 water is much the colour of that of the Missouri; it affords as much
 water at present as Maria's river and I have no doubt extends itself to
 a considerable distance North. during our halt we killed a very large
 rattlesnake of the speceis common to our country. it had 176 scuta on
 the abdomen and 25 on the tail, it's length 5 feet. the scutae on the
 tail fully formed. after passing this river we saw several large herds
 of buffaloe and Elk we killed one of each of these animals and took as
 much of the flesh as we wished. we encamped this evening two miles
 below the gulph on the N. E. side of the river. Tonight for the first
 time this season I heard the small whippoorwill or goatsucker of the
 Missouri cry. Colter and Collins have not yet overtaken us. Ordway and
 Willard delayed so much time in hunting today that they did not
 overtake us untill about midnight. they killed one bear and 2 deer. in
 passing a bend just below the gulph it being dark they were drawn by
 the currant in among a parsel of sawyers, under one of which the canoe
 was driven and throwed Willard who was steering overboard; he caught
 the sawyer and held by it; Ordway with the canoe drifted down about
 half a mile among the sawyers under a falling bank, the canoe struck
 frequently but did not overset; he at length gained the shore and
 returned by land to learn the fate of Willard whom he found was yet on
 the sawyer; it was impossible for him to take the canoe to his relief
 Willard at length tied a couple of sticks together which had lodged
 against the sawyer on which he was and set himself a drift among the
 sawyers which he fortunately escaped and was taken up about a mile
 below by Ordway with the canoe; they sustained no loss on this
 occasion. it was fortunate for Willard that he could swim tolerably
 [Lewis, August 5, 1806]
 Tuesday August 5th 1806.
 Colter and Collins not having arrived induced me to remain this morning
 for them. the hunters killed four deer this morning near our
 encampment. I remained untill noon when I again reimbarked and set out
 concluding that as Colter and Collins had not arrived by that time that
 they had passed us after dark the night of the 3rd inst. as Sergt
 Ordway informed me he should have done last evening had not the
 centinel hailed him. we continued our rout untill late in the evening
 when I came too and encamped on the South side about 10 miles below
 little dry river. on our way we killed a fat cow and took as much of
 the flesh as was necessary for us. The Feildses killed 2 large bear
 this evening one of them measured nine feet from the extremity of the
 nose to that of his tail, this is the largest bear except one that I
 have seen. we saw several bear today as we passed but did not kill any
 of them. we also saw on our way immence herds of buffaloe & Elk, many
 deer Antelopes, wolves, geese Eagles &c. but few ducks or prarie hens.
 the geese cannot fly at present; I saw a solitary Pillacon the other
 day in the same situation. this happens from their sheding or casting
 the fathers of the wings at this season.
 [Lewis, August 6, 1806]
 Wednesday August 6th 1806.
 A little after dark last evening a violent storm arrose to the N. E.
 and shortly after came on attended with violent Thunder lightning and
 some hail; the rain fell in a mere torrant and the wind blew so
 violently that it was with difficulty I could have the small canoes
 unloaded before they filled with water; they sustained no injury. our
 situation was open and exposed to the storm. in attending to the canoes
 I got wet to the skin and having no shelter on land I betook myself to
 the orning of the perogue which I had, formed of Elkskin, here I
 obtained a few hours of broken rest; the wind and rain continued almost
 all night and the air became very cold. we set out early this morning
 and decended the river about 10 miles below Porcupine river when the
 wind became so violent that I laid by untill 4 P.M. the wind then
 abaiting in some measure we again resumed our voyage, and decended the
 river about 5 miles below our encampment of the 1st of May 1805 where
 we halted for the night on the S. W. side of the river. after halting
 we killed three fat cows and a buck. we had previously killed today 4
 deer a buck Elk and a fat cow. in short game is so abundant and gentle
 that we kill it when we please. the Feildses went on ahead this evening
 and we did not overtake them. we saw several bear in the course of the
 [Lewis, August 7, 1806]
 Thursday August 7th 1806.
 It began to rain about midnight and continued with but little
 intermission until 10 A.M. today. the air was cold and extreemly
 unpleasant. we set out early resolving if possible to reach the
 Yelowstone river today which was at the distance of 83 ms. from our
 encampment of the last evening; the currant favoured our progress being
 more rapid than yesterday, the men plyed their oars faithfully and we
 went at a good rate. at 8 A.M. we passed the entrance of Marthy's river
 which has changed it's entrance since we passed it last year, falling
 in at preasent about a quarter of a mile lower down. at or just below
 the entrance of this river we meet with the first appearance of Coal
 birnt hills and pumicestone, these appearances seem to be coextensive.
 here it is also that we find the first Elm and dwarf cedar on the
 bluffs, the ash first appears in the instance of one solletary tree at
 the Ash rapid, about the Elk rapid and from thence down we occasionly
 meet with it scattered through the bottoms but it is generally small.
 from Marthy's river to Milk river on the N. E. side there is a most
 beautifull level plain country; the soil is much more fertile here than
 above. we overtook the Feildses at noon. they had killed 2 bear and
 seen 6 others, we saw and fired on two from our perogue but killed
 neither of them. these bear resort the river where they lie in wate at
 the crossing places of the game for the Elk and weak cattle; when they
 procure a subject of either they lie by the carcase and keep the wolves
 off untill they devour it. the bear appear to be very abundant on this
 part of the river. we saw a number of buffaloe Elk &c as we passed but
 did not detain to kill any of them. we also saw an unusual flight of
 white gulls about the size of a pigeon with the top of their heads
 black. at 4 P.M. we arrived at the entrance of the Yellowstone river. I
 landed at the point and found that Capt. Clark had been encamped at
 this place and from appearances had left it about 7 or 8 days. I found
 a paper on a pole at the point which mearly contained my name in the
 hand wrighting of Capt. C. we also found the remnant of a note which
 had been attatched to a peace of Elk's horns in the camp; from this
 fragment I learned that game was scarce at the point and musquetoes
 troublesome which were the reasons given for his going on; I also
 learnt that he intended halting a few miles below where he intended
 waiting my arrival. I now wrote a note directed to Colter and Collins
 provided they were behind, ordering them to come on without loss of
 time; this note I wraped in leather and attatced onto the same pole
 which Capt. C. had planted at the point; this being done I instantly
 reimbarked and decended the river in the hope of reaching Capt. C's
 camp before night. about 7 miles below the point on the S. W. shore I
 saw some meat that had been lately fleased and hung on a pole; I
 directed Sergt. Ordway to go on shore examine the place; on his return
 he reported that he saw the tracks of two men which appeared so resent
 that he beleived they had been there today, the fire he found at the
 plce was blaizing and appeared to have been mended up afresh or within
 the course of an hour past. he found at this place a part of a Chinnook
 hat which my men recognized as the hat of Gibson; from these
 circumstances we included that Capt. C's camp could not be distant and
 pursued our rout untill dark with the hope of reaching his camp in this
 however we were disappointed and night coming on compelled us to encamp
 on the N. E. shore in the next bottom above our encampment of the 23rd
 and 24th of April 1805. as we came too a herd of buffaloe assembled on
 the shore of which we killed a fat cow.-
 [Lewis, August 8, 1806]
 Friday August 8th 1806.
 Beleiving from the recent appearances about the fire which we past last
 evening that Capt Clark could be at no great distance below I set out
 early; the wind heard from the N. E. but by the force of the oars and
 currant we traveled at a good rate untill 10 A.M. by which time we
 reached the center of the beaver bends about 8 ms. by water and 3 by
 land above the entrance of White earth river. not finding Capt. Clark I
 knew not what calculation to make with rispect to his halting and
 therefore determined to proceed as tho he was not before me and leave
 the rest to the chapter of accedents. at this place I found a good
 beach for the purpose of drawing out the perogue and one of the canoes
 which wanted corking and reparing. the men with me have not had leasure
 since we left the West side of the Rocky mountains to dress any skins
 or make themselves cloaths and most of them are therefore extreemly
 bare. I therefore determined to halt at this place untill the perogue
 and canoe could be repared and the men dress skins and make themselves
 the necessary cloathing. we encamped on the N. E. side of the river; we
 found the Musquetoes extreemly troublesome but in this rispect there is
 but little choise of camps from hence down to St. Louis. from this
 place to the little Missouri there is an abundance of game I shall
 therefore when I leave this place travel at my leasure and avail myself
 of every opportunity to collect and dry meat untill I provide a
 sufficient quantity for our voyage not knowing what provision Capt C.
 has made in this rispect. I formed a camp unloaded the canoes and
 perogue, had the latter and one of the canoes drawn out to dry, fleased
 what meat we had collected and hung it on poles in the sun, after which
 the men busied themselves in dressing skins and making themselves
 cloaths. Drewyer killed 2 Elk and a deer this evening. the air is cold
 yet the Musquetoes continue to be troublesome.-
 [Lewis, August 9, 1806]
 Saturday August 9th 1806.
 The day proved fair and favourable for our purposes. the men were all
 engaged dressing skins and making themselves cloathes except R & J.
 Fields whom I sent this morning over the river with orders to proceed
 to the entrance of the White earth river in surch of Capt. C. and to
 hunt and kill Elk or buffaloe should they find any convenient to the
 river. in the evening these men returned and informed me that they saw
 no appearance of Capt. Clark or party. they found no game nor was there
 a be seen in the plains as far as the eye could reach.
 nothing remarkable took place in the course of the day. Colter and
 Collins have not yet overtaken us I fear some missfortune has happened
 them for their previous fidelity and orderly deportment induces me to
 beleive that they would not thus intentionally delay. the Perogue is
 not yet sufficiently dry for reparing. we have no pitch and will
 therefore be compelled to use coal and tallow.
 [Lewis, August 10, 1806]
 Sunday August 10th 1806.
 The morning was somewhat cloudy I therefore apprehended rain however it
 shortly after became fair. I hastened the repairs which were necessary
 to the perogue and canoe which were compleated by 2 P.M. those not
 engaged about this business employed themselves as yester-day. at 4 in
 the evening it clouded up and began to rain which puting a stop to the
 opperation of skindressing we had nothing further to detain us, I
 therefore directed the vessels to be loaded and at 5 P.M. got under way
 the wind has blown very hard all day but did not prove so much so this
 evening as absolutely to detain us. we decended this evening as low
 nearly as the entrance of white Earth river and encamped on the S. W.
 side. the musquetoes more than usually troublesome this evening.
 [Lewis, August 11, 1806]
 Monday August 11th 1806.
 We set out very early this morning. it being my wish to arrive at the
 birnt hills by noon in order to take the latitude of that place as it
 is the most northern point of the Missouri, enformed the party of my
 design and requested that they would exert themselves to reach the
 place in time as it would save us the delay of nearly one day; being as
 anxious to get forward as I was they plyed their oars faithfully and we
 proceeded rapidly. I had instructed the small canoes that if they saw
 any game on the river to halt and kill it and follow on; however we saw
 but little game untill about 9 A.M. when we came up with a buffaloe
 swiming the river which I shot and killed; leaving the small canoes to
 dress it and bring on the meat I proceeded. we had gone but little way
 before I saw a very large grizzly bear and put too in order to kill it,
 but it took wind of us and ran off. the small canoes overtook us and
 informed that the flesh of the buffaloe was unfit for uce and that they
 had therefore left it half after 11 A.M. we saw a large herd of Elk on
 the N. E. shore and I directed the men in the small canoes to halt and
 kill some of them and continued on in the perogue to the birnt hills;
 when I arrived here it was about 20 minutes after noon and of course
 the observation for the O's meridian Altitude was lost; jus opposite to
 the birnt hills there happened to be a herd of Elk on a thick willow
 bar and finding that my observation was lost for the present I
 determined to land and kill some of them accordingly we put too and I
 went out with Cruzatte only. we fired on the Elk I killed one and he
 wounded another, we reloaded our guns and took different routs through
 the thick willows in pursuit of the Elk; I was in the act of firing on
 the Elk a second time when a ball struck my left thye about an inch
 below my hip joint, missing the bone it passed through the left thye
 and cut the thickness of the bullet across the hinder part of the right
 thye; the stroke was very severe; I instantly supposed that Cruzatte
 had shot me in mistake for an Elk as I was dressed in brown leather and
 he cannot see very well; under this impression I called out to him damn
 you, you have shot me, and looked towards the place from whence the
 ball had come, seeing nothing I called Cruzatte several times as loud
 as I could but received no answer; I was now preswaded that it was an
 indian that had shot me as the report of the gun did not appear to be
 more than 40 paces from me and Cruzatte appeared to be out of hearing
 of me; in this situation not knowing how many indians there might be
 concealed in the bushes I thought best to make good my retreat to the
 perogue, calling out as I ran for the first hundred paces as loud as I
 could to Cruzatte to retreat that there were indians hoping to allarm
 him in time to make his escape also; I still retained the charge in my
 gun which I was about to discharge at the moment the ball struck me.
 when I arrived in sight of the perogue I called the men to their arms
 to which they flew in an instant, I told them that I was wounded but I
 hoped not mortally, by an indian I beleived and directed them to follow
 me that I would return & give them battle and releive Cruzatte if
 possible who I feared had fallen into their hands; the men followed me
 as they were bid and I returned about a hundred paces when my wounds
 became so painfull and my thye so stiff that I could scarcely get on;
 in short I was compelled to halt and ordered the men to proceed and if
 they found themselves overpowered by numbers to retreat in order
 keeping up a fire. I now got back to the perogue as well as I could and
 prepared my self with a pistol my rifle and air-gun being determined as
 a retreat was impracticable to sell my life as deerly as possible. in
 this state of anxiety and suspense remained about 20 minutes when the
 party returned with Cruzatte and reported that there were no indians
 nor the appearance of any; Cruzatte seemed much allarmed and declared
 if he had shot me it was not his intention, that he had shot an Elk in
 the willows after he left or seperated from me. I asked him whether he
 did not hear me when I called to him so frequently which he absolutely
 denied. I do not beleive that the fellow did it intentionally but after
 finding that he had shot me was anxious to conceal his knowledge of
 having done so. the ball had lodged in my breeches which I knew to be
 the ball of the short rifles such as that he had, and there being no
 person out with me but him and no indians that we could discover I have
 no doubt in my own mind of his having shot me. with the assistance of
 Sergt. Gass I took off my cloaths and dressed my wounds myself as well
 as I could, introducing tents of patent lint into the ball holes, the
 wounds blead considerably but I was hapy to find that it had touched
 neither bone nor artery. I sent the men to dress the two Elk which
 Cruzatte and myself had killed which they did in a few minutes and
 brought the meat to the river. the small canoes came up shortly after
 with the flesh of one Elk. my wounds being so situated that I could not
 without infinite pain make an observation I determined to relinquish it
 and proceeded on. we came within eight miles of our encampment of the
 15th of April 1805 and encamped on N. E. side. as it was painfull to me
 to be removed I slept on board the perogue; the pain I experienced
 excited a high fever and I had a very uncomfortable night. at 4 P.M. we
 passed an encampment which had been evacuated this morning by Capt.
 Clark, here I found a note from Capt. C. informing me that he had left
 a letter for me at the entrance of the Yelow stone river, but that
 Sergt. Pryor who had passed that place since he left it had taken the
 letter; that Sergt. Pryor having been robed of all his horses had
 decended the Yelowstone river in skin canoes and had over taken him at
 this encampment. this I fear puts an end to our prospects of obtaining
 the Sioux Cheifs to accompany us as we have not now leasure to send and
 enjage Mr. Heney on this service, or at least he would not have time to
 engage them to go as early as it is absolutely necessary we should
 decend the river.
 [Lewis, August 12, 1806]
 Thursday August 12th 1806.
 Being anxious to overtake Capt. Clark who from the appearance of his
 camps could be at no great distance before me, we set out early and
 proceeded with all possible expedition at 8 A.M. the bowsman informed
 me that there was a canoe and a camp he beleived of whitemen on the N.
 E. shore. I directed the perogue and canoes to come too at this place
 and found it to be the camp of two hunters from the Illinois by name
 Joseph Dickson and Forest Hancock. these men informed me that Capt. C.
 had passed them about noon the day before. they also informed me that
 they had left the Illinois in the summer 1804 since which time they had
 been ascended the Missouri, hunting and traping beaver; that they had
 been robed by the indians and the former wounded last winter by the
 Tetons of the birnt woods; that they had hitherto been unsuccessfull in
 their voyage having as yet caught but little beaver, but were still
 determined to proceed. I gave them a short discription of the Missouri,
 a list of distances to the most conspicuous streams and remarkable
 places on the river above and pointed out to them the places where the
 beaver most abounded. I also gave them a file and a couple of pounds of
 powder with some lead. these were articles which they assured me they
 were in great want of. I remained with these men an hour and a half
 when I took leave of them and proceeded. while I halted with these men
 Colter and Collins who seperated from us on the 3rd ist. rejoined us.
 they were well no accedent having happened. they informed me that after
 proceeding the first day and not overtaking us that they had concluded
 that we were behind and had delayed several days in waiting for us and
 had thus been unable to join us untill the present momet. my wounds
 felt very stiff and soar this morning but gave me no considerable pain.
 there was much less inflamation than I had reason to apprehend there
 would be. I had last evening applyed a poltice of peruvian barks at 1
 P.M. I overtook Capt. Clark and party and had the pleasure of finding
 them all well. as wrighting in my present situation is extreemly
 painfull to me I shall desist untill I recover and leave to my frind
 Capt. C. the continuation of our journal. however I must notice a
 singular Cherry which is found on the Missouri in the bottom lands
 about the beaverbends and some little distance below the white earth
 river. this production is not very abundant even in the small tract of
 country to which it seems to be confined. the stem is compound erect
 and subdivided or branching without any regular order it rises to the
 hight of eight or ten feet seldom puting up more than one stem from the
 same root not growing in cops as the Choke Cherry dose. the bark is
 smooth and of a dark brown colour. the leaf is peteolate, oval accutely
 pointed at it's apex, from one and a 1/4 to 11/2 inches in length and
 from 1/2 to 3/4 of an inch in width, finely or minutely serrate, pale
 green and free from bubessence. the fruit is a globular berry about the
 size of a buck-shot of a fine scarlet red; like the cherries cultivated
 in the U States each is supported by a seperate celindric flexable
 branch peduncle which issue from the extremities of the boughs the
 peduncle of this cherry swells as it approahes the fruit being largest
 at the point of insertion. the pulp of this fruit is of an agreeable
 ascid flavour and is now ripe. the style and stigma are permanent. I
 have never seen it in blume.
 [Clark, July 3, 1806]
 Thursday July 3rd 1806
 we colected our horses and after brackfast I took My leave of Capt
 Lewis and the indians and at 8 A M Set out with ____ men interpreter
 Shabono & his wife & child (as an interpreter & interpretess for the
 Crow Inds and the latter for the Shoshoni) with 50 horses. we proceeded
 on through the Vally of Clarks river on the West Side of the river
 nearly South 18 Miles and halted on the upper Side of a large Creek,
 haveing Crossed 8 Streams 4 of which were Small. this vally is from 10
 to 15 Ms. in width tolerably leavel and partially timberd with long
 leaf & pitch pine, Some cotton wood, Birch, and Sweet willow on the
 borders of the Streams. I observed 2 Species of Clover in this vally
 one the white Clover Common in the Western parts of the U. States, the
 other Species which is much Smaller than either the red or white both
 it's leaf & blossom the horses are excessively fond of this Species.
 after letting our horses graze a Sufficient length of time to fill
 themselves, and taking dinner of Venison we again resumed our journey
 up the Vally which we found more boutifully versified with Small open
 plains covered with a great variety of Sweet cented plants, flowers &
 grass. this evening we Crossed 10 Streams 8 of which were large Creeks
 which comes roleing their Currents with Velocity into the river. those
 Creeks take their rise in the mountains to the West which mountains is
 at this time Covered with Snow for about 1/5 of the way from their tops
 downwards. Some Snow is also to be Seen on the high points and hollows
 of the Mountains to the East of us. our Course this evening was nearly
 South 18 Ms. makeing a total of 36 miles today. we encamped on the N.
 Side of a large Creek where we found tolerable food for our horses.
 Labeish killed a Deer this evening. We Saw great numbers of deer and 1
 bear today. I also observed the burring Squirel of the Species Common
 about the quawmarsh flatts West of the Rocky Mountains. Musquetors very
 troublesom.--one man Jo. Potts very unwell this evening owing to
 rideing a hard trotting horse; I give him a pill of Opiom which Soon
 releve him.
 [Clark, July 4, 1806]
 Friday July 4th 1806
 I order three hunters to Set out early this morning to hunt & kill Some
 meat and by 7 A.M. we Collected our horses took braekfast and Set out
 proceeded on up the Vally on the West Side of Clarks river crossing
 three large deep and rapid Creeks, and two of a Smaller Size to a Small
 branch in the Spurs of the mountain and dined. the last Creek or river
 which we pass'd was So deep and the water So rapid that Several of the
 horses were Sweped down Some distance and the Water run over Several
 others which wet Several articles. after Crossing this little river, I
 observed in the road the tracks of two men whome I prosume is of the
 Shoshone nation. our hunters joined us with 2 deer in tolerable order.
 on the Side of the Hill near the place we dined Saw a gange of Ibex or
 big horn Animals I Shot at them running and missed. This being the day
 of the decleration of Independence of the United States and a Day
 commonly Scelebrated by my Country I had every disposition to Selebrate
 this day and therefore halted early and partook of a Sumptious Dinner
 of a fat Saddle of Venison and Mush of Cows (roots) after Dinner we
 proceeded on about one mile to a very large Creek which we assended
 Some distance to find a foard to cross in crossing this creek Several
 articles got wet, the water was So Strong, alto the debth was not much
 above the horses belly, the water passed over the backs and loads of
 the horses. those Creeks are emensely rapid has great decnt the bottoms
 of the Creek as well as the low lands on each Side is thickly covered
 with large Stone after passing this Creek I inclined to the left and
 fell into the road on which we had passed down last fall near the place
 we had dined on the 7th of Sept. and continued on the road passing up
 on the W. Side of Clarks river 13 miles to the West fork of Sd. river
 and Encamped on an arm of the same I Sent out 2 men to hunt, and 3 in
 Serch of a foard to pass the river. at dark they all returned and
 reported that they had found a place that the river might be passed but
 with Some risque of the loads getting wet I order them to get up their
 horses and accompany me to those places &c. our hunters killed 4 deer
 to day. we made 30 ms. to day on a course nearly South Vally from 8 to
 10 mes. wide. contains a good portion of Pitch pine. we passed three
 large deep rapid Creeks this after noon
 [Clark, July 5, 1806]
 Saturday July 5th 1806
 I rose at day light this morning despatched Labeash after a Buck which
 he killed late last evening; and I with the three men who I had Sent in
 Serch of a ford across the West fork of Clarks river, and examined each
 ford neither of them I thought would answer to pass the fork without
 wetting all the loads. near one of those places pointed out by Colter I
 found a practiable foard and returned to Camp, ordered everything
 packed up and after Brackfast we Set out passed 5 Chanels of the river
 which is divided by Small Islands in passing the 6th & last Chanel
 Colter horse Swam and with Some dificuelty he made the Opposite Shore,
 Shannon took a different derection from Colter rained his horse up the
 Stream and passed over very well I derected all to follow Shannon and
 pass quartering up the river which they done and passed over tolerably
 well the water running over the back of the 2 Smaller horses only.
 unfortunately my trunk & portmantue Containing Sea otter Skins flags
 Some curiosites & necessary articles in them got wet, also an esortment
 of Medicine, and my roots. about 1 mile we struk the East fork which
 had fallen and was not higher than when we passed it last fall we had
 not proceeded up this fork more than 1 mile eer we struck the road by
 which we passed down last fall and kept it at one mile we crossed the
 river at a very good foard and continued up on the East Side to the
 foot of the Mountain nearly opposite flour Crek & halted to let our
 horses graze and dry our wet articles. I saw fresh Sign of 2 horses and
 a fire burning on the side of the road. I prosume that those indians
 are spies from the Shoshones. Shannon & Crusat killed each a deer this
 morning and J. Shields killed a female Ibex or bighorn on the side of
 the Mountain, this Animal was very meager. Shannon left his tomahawk at
 the place he killed his deer. I derect him to return for it and join me
 in the Vally on the East Side of this mountain. gave Shields permission
 to proceed on over to the 1st Vally and there hunt untill my arival
 this evening at that place, after drying every article which detained
 us untill 1/2 past 4 P.M. we packed up and Crossed the Mountain into
 the vally where we first met with the flatheads here I overtook Shields
 he had not killed any thing. I crossed the river which heads in a high
 peecked mountain Covered with Snow N. E. of the Vally at about 20
 Miles. Shields informed me that the Flat head indians passed up the
 Small Creek which we came down last fall about 2 miles above our
 Encampment of the 4th & 5th of, Septr. I proceeded up this South branch
 2 Miles and encamped on the E. side of the Creek, and Sent out several
 men to examine the road. Shields returned at dark and informed me that
 the best road turned up the hill from the creek 3 Miles higher up, and
 appeared to be a plain beaten parth. as this rout of the Oat lash
 shoots can be followed it will evidently Shorten our rout at least 2
 days and as the indians informed me last fall a much better rout than
 the one we came out. at all events I am deturmined to make the attempt
 and follow their trail if possible if I can prosue it my rout will be
 nearer and much better than the one we Came from the Shoshones, & if I
 should not be able to follow their road; our rout can't possibly be
 much wors. The hunters killed two deer this evening. The after part of
 the day we only come 8 miles makeing a total of 20 Miles-. Shannon Came
 up about Sunset haveing found his tomahawk.
 [Clark, July 6, 1806]
 Sunday 6th July 1806
 Some frost this morning the last night was so cold that I could not
 Sleep. we Collected our horses which were much scattered which detained
 us untill 9 A.M. at which time we Set out and proceeded up the Creek on
 which we camped 3 Miles and left the road which we came on last fall to
 our right and assended a ridge with a gentle Slope to the dividing
 mountain which Seperates the waters from the Middle fork of Clarks
 river from those and Lewis's river and passed over prosueing the rout
 of the Oat lash shute band which we met last fall to the head of a
 branch of Wisdom R and down the Said branch crossing it frequently on
 each Side of this handsom glades in which I observe great quantities of
 quawmash just beginning to blume on each side of those glades the
 timber is small and a great propotion of it Killed by the fires. I
 observe the appearance of old buffalow roads and some heads on this
 part of the mountain. The Snow appears to lying in considerable masses
 on the mountain from which we decended on the 4th of Septr. last. I
 observe great numbers of the whistleing Squirel which burrows their
 holes Scattered on each Side of the glades through which we passed.
 Shields killed a hare of the large mountain Species. the after part of
 the day we passed on the hill Side N of the Creek for 6 Ms. Creek and
 entered an extensive open Leavel plain in which the Indian trail
 Scattered in Such a manner that we Could not pursue it. the Indian
 woman wife to Shabono informed me that she had been in this plain
 frequently and knew it well that the Creek which we decended was a
 branch of Wisdom river and when we assended the higher part of the
 plain we would discover a gap in the mountains in our direction to the
 Canoes, and when we arived at that gap we would See a high point of a
 mountain covered with snow in our direction to the canoes. we proceeded
 on 1 mile and Crossd. a large Creek from the right which heads in a
 Snow Mountain and Fish Creek over which there was a road thro a gap. we
 assended a Small rise and beheld an open boutifull Leavel Vally or
 plain of about 20 Miles wide and near 60 long extending N & S. in every
 direction around which I could see high points of Mountains Covered
 with Snow. I discovered one at a distance very high covered with Snow
 which bore S. 80° E. The Squar pointed to the gap through which she said
 we must pass which was S. 56° E. She said we would pass the river before
 we reached the gap. we had not proceeded more than 2 Miles in the last
 Creek, before a violent Storm of wind accompand. with hard rain from
 the S W. imediately from off the Snow Mountains this rain was Cold and
 lasted 11/2 hours. I discovd. the rain wind as it approached and halted
 and formd. a solid column to protect our Selves from the Violency of
 the gust. after it was over I proceeded on about 5 Miles to Some Small
 dry timber on a Small Creek and encampd. made large fires and dryed our
 Selves. here I observed Some fresh Indian Signs where they had been
 gathering quawmash.
 [Clark, July 7, 1806]
 Monday 7th July 1806
 This morning our horses were very much Scattered; I Sent out men in
 every direction in Serch of them. they brought all except 9 by 6 oClock
 and informed me that they could not find those 9. I then ordered 6 men
 to take horses and go different directions and at a greater distance
 those men all returned by 10 A.M. and informed me that they had circles
 in every direction to 6 or 8 miles around Camp and could not See any
 Signs of them, that they had reasons to believe that the indians had
 Stolen them in the course of the night, and founded their reasons on
 the quallity of the horses, all being the most valuable horses we had,
 and Several of them so attached to horses of inferior quallity which we
 have they could not be Seperated from each other when driveing with
 their loads on in the course of the day. I thought it probable that
 they might be stolen by Some Skulking Shoshones, but as it was yet
 possible that they may have taken our back rout or rambled to a greater
 distance I deturmined to leave a Small party and hunt for them to day,
 and proceed on with the main party and all the baggage to the Canoes,
 raise them out of the water and expose them to the sun to dry by the
 time this party Should overtake me. I left Sergt. Ordway, Shannon,
 Gibson Collins & Labeech with directions to hunt this day for the
 horses without they Should discover that the Inds. had taken them into
 the Mountains, and prosue our trail &c. at 1/2 past 10 A M I set out
 and proceeded on through an open rich vally crossing four large Creeks
 with extensive low and mirey bottoms, and a Small river keeping the
 Course I had set out on S. 56° E after crossing the river I kept up on
 the N E. side, Sometimes following an old road which frequently
 disappeared, at the distance of 16 miles we arived at a Boiling Spring
 Situated about 100 paces from a large Easterly fork of the Small river
 in a leavel open vally plain and nearly opposit & E. of the 3 forks of
 this little river which heads in the Snowey Mountains to the S E. & S W
 of the Springs. this Spring contains a very considerable quantity of
 water, and actually blubbers with heat for 20 paces below where it
 rises. it has every appearance of boiling, too hot for a man to endure
 his hand in it 3 seconds. I directt Sergt. Pryor and John Shields to
 put each a peice of meat in the water of different Sises. the one about
 the Size of my 3 fingers Cooked dun in 25 minits the other much thicker
 was 32 minits before it became Sufficiently dun. this water boils up
 through some loose hard gritty Stone. a little sulferish after takeing
 dininer and letting our horses graize 1 hour and a half we proceeded on
 Crossed this easterly branch and up on the N. Side of this middle fork
 9 miles crossed it near the head of an Easterly branch and passed
 through a gap of a mountain on the Easterly Side of which we encamped
 near some butifull which fall into Willards Creek. I directed that the
 rambling horses should be hobbled, and the Sentinal to examine the
 horses after the moon rose. Emence beaver sign.
 This extensive vally Surround with covered with snow is extreemly
 fertile covered esculent plants &c and the Creeks which pass through it
 contains emence numbers of beaver &c. I now take my leave of this
 butifull extensive vally which I call the hot spring Vally, and behold
 one less extensive and much more rugid on Willards Creek for near 12
 miles in length. remarkable Cold night
 [Clark, July 8, 1806]
 Tuesday July 8th 1806
 Our horses being Scattered we were detained unill 8 A. M before we Set
 out. we proceeded on down Willards Creek on the S.W. Side about 11
 miles near which the Creek passes through the mountain we then Steared
 S. 20° E. to the West branch of Jeffersons river in Snake Indian cove
 about 7 miles and halded two hours to let the horses graize. after
 dinner we proceeded on down the forke which is here but Small 9 Miles
 to our encampment of 17 Augt. at which place we Sunk our Canoes &
 buried Some articles, as before mentioned the most of the Party with me
 being Chewers of Tobacco become So impatient to be chewing it that they
 Scercely gave themselves time to take their Saddles off their horses
 before they were off to the deposit. I found every article Safe, except
 a little damp. I gave to each man who used tobacco about two feet off a
 part of a role took one third of the ballance myself and put up 2/3 in
 a box to Send down with the most of the articles which had been left at
 this place, by the Canoes to Capt. Lewis. as it was late nothing Could
 be done with the Canoes this evening. I examined them and found then
 all Safe except one of the largest which had a large hole in one Side &
 Split in bow. The Country through which we passed to day was
 diversified high dry and uneaven Stoney open plains and low bottoms
 very boggy with high mountains on the tops and North sides of which
 there was Snow, great quantities of the Species of hysoop & shrubs
 common to the Missouri plains are Scattered in those Vallys and hill
 Sides. The road which we have traveled from travellers rest Creek to
 this place an excellent road. and with only a few trees being cut out
 of the way would be an excellent waggon road one Mountain of about 4
 miles over excepted which would require a little digging The distance
 is 164 Miles-. Shields killed an antelope
 [Clark, July 9, 1806]
 Wednesday 9th July 1806
 rose early had the horses brought up. after which I had the Canoes
 raised washed, brough down and drawn up on Shore to dry and repard. Set
 Several men to work digging for the Tobacco Capt. Lewis informed me he
 had buried in the place the lodge Stood when we lay here last Summer,
 they Serched diligently without finding anything. at 10 A M Sergt.
 Ordway and party arrived with the horses we had lost. he reported that
 he found those horses near the head of the Creek on which we encamped,
 makeing off as fast as they could and much Scattered. nothing material
 took place with his party in their absence. I had the Canoes repared
 men & lodes appotioned ready to embark tomorrow morning. I also formd.
 the party to accomp me to the river Rejhone from applicants and
 apportioned what little baggage I intended to carry as also the Spear
 horses. this day was windy and Cold. The Squar brought me a Plant the
 root of which the nativs eat. this root most resembles a Carrot in form
 and Size and Something of its colour, being of a pailer yellow than
 that of our Carrot, the Stem and leaf is much like the Common Carrot,
 and the taste not unlike. it is a native of moist land.--John Sheilds
 and Collins each killed a Deer this morning. the wind dried our Canoes
 very much they will be Sufficiently dry by tomorrow morning to Set out
 in them down the river.
 [Clark, July 10, 1806]
 Thursday July 10th 1806
 last night was very cold and this morning everything was white with
 frost and the grass Stiff frozend. I had Some water exposed in a bason
 in which the ice was 3/4 of an inch thick this morning. I had all the
 Canoes put into the water and every article which was intended to be
 Sent down put on board, and the horses collected and packed with what
 fiew articles I intend takeing with me to the River Rochejhone, and
 after brackfast we all Set out at the Same time & proceeded on Down
 Jeffersons river on the East Side through Sarviss Vally and rattle
 snake mountain and into that butifull and extensive Vally open and
 fertile which we Call the beaver head Vally which is the Indian name in
 their language Har na Hap pap Chah. from the No. of those animals in it
 & a pt. of land resembling the head of one this Vally extends from the
 rattle Snake Mountain down Jeffersons river as low as fraziers Creek
 above the big horn mountain and is from 12 to 30 miles in width and
 ____ miles on a direct line in length and Jeffersons river in passing
 through this Vally reives McNeals Creek, Track Creek, Phalanthrophy
 river, Wisdom river, Fields river and Fraziers Creek each throw in a
 considerable quantity of water and have innoumerable beaver and otter
 on them; the bushes in their low bottoms are the resort for great
 numbers of Deer, and in the higher parts of the Vally we see Antelopes
 scattered feeding. I saw also on the Sides of the rock in rattle snake
 mountain 15 big horn animals, those animals feed on the grass which
 grow on the Sides of the mountn. and in the narrow bottoms on the Water
 courses near the Steep Sides of the mountains on which they can make
 their escape from the pursute of wolves Bear &c. at Meridian I halted
 to let the horses Graze having Come 15 Miles I ordered the to land.
 Sergt. Ordway informed me that the party with him had Come on very
 well, and he thought the Canoes could go as farst as the horses &c. as
 the river now become wider and not So Sholl, I deturmined to put all
 the baggage &c. which I intend takeing with me to the river Rochejhone
 in the canoes and proceed on down with them myself to the 3 forks or
 Madisons & galletens rivers. leaveing the horses to be taken down by
 Sergt. Pryor and 6 of the men of the party to accompany me to the river
 Rochejhone and directed Sergt. Pryor to proceed on moderately and if
 possible encamp with us every night. after dinner had my baggage put on
 board and Set out, and proceeded on tolerable well to the head of the
 3000 Mile Island on which we had encamped on the 11th of Augt last. the
 Canoes passed Six of my encampments assending, opposit this island I
 encamped on the East side. the Musquetors were troublesom all day and
 untill one hour after Sunset when it became Cool and they disappeared.
 in passing down in the Course of this day we saw great numbers of
 beaver lying on the Shores in the Sun. wild young Gees and ducks are
 common in this river. we killed two young gees this evening. I saw
 several large rattle Snakes in passing the rattle Snake Mountain they
 were fierce.
 [Clark, July 11, 1806]
 Friday 11th July 1806
 Sent on 4 of the best hunters in 2 Canoes to proceed on a fiew miles a
 head and hunt untill I came up with them, after an early brackfast I
 proceeded on down a very crooked Chanel, at 8 a. m I overtook one Canoe
 with a Deer which Collins had killed, at meridian passed Sergt. Pryors
 Camp near a high point of land on the left Side which the Shoshones
 call the beavers head. the wind rose and blew with great violence from
 the S W imediately off Some high mountains Covered with Snow. the
 violence of this wind retarded our progress very much and the river
 being emencly Crooked we had it imediately in our face nearly every
 bend. at 6 P M I passed Phalanthrophy river which I proceved was very
 low. the wind Shifted about to the N. E. and bley very hard tho much
 wormer than the forepart of the day. at 7 P M I arrived at the
 Enterance of Wisdom River and Encampd. in the Spot we had encamped the
 6th of August last. here we found a Bayonet which had been left & the
 Canoe quite safe. I directed that all the nails be taken out of this
 Canoe and paddles to be made of her Sides & here I came up with Gibson
 & Colter whome I had Sent on a head for the purpose of hunting this
 morning, they had killed a fat Buck and 5 young gees nearly grown.
 Wisdom river is very high and falling. I have Seen great Nos. of Beaver
 on the banks and in the water as I passed down to day, also some Deer
 and great numbers young gees, Sand hill cranes &c. &c. Sgt. Pryor left
 a deer on the shore
 [Clark, July 12, 1806]
 Saturday 12th,July 1806
 Sergt. Pryor did not join me last night he has proceeded on down. the
 beaver was flacking in the river about us all the last night. this
 Morning I was detained untill 7 A M makeing Paddles and drawing the
 nails of the Canoe to be left at this place and the one we had before
 left here. after completing the paddles &c and takeing Some Brackfast I
 set out the Current I find much Stronger below the forks than above and
 the river tolerably streight as low as panther Creek when it became
 much more Crooked the Wind rose and blew hard off the Snowey mountains
 to the N. W. and renderd it very difficuelt to keep the canoes from
 running against the Shore at 2 P.M. the Canoe in which I was in was
 driven by a Suden puff of wind under a log which projected over the
 water from the bank, and the man in the Stern Howard was Caught in
 between the Canoe and the log and a little hurt after disingaging our
 selves from this log the canoe was driven imediately under a drift
 which projected over and a little abov the Water, here the Canoe was
 very near turning over we with much exertion after takeing out Some of
 the baggage hauled her out, and proceeded on without receving any
 damage. the men in the other Canoes Seeing our Situation landed and
 come with as much Speed as possible through the briers and thick brush
 to our assistance. but from the thickness of the brush did not get up
 to our assistance untill we had got Clear. at 3 P M we halted at the
 enterance of Fields Creek and dined here Willard and Collins over took
 us with two deer which they had killd. this morning and by takeing a
 different Side of an Island from which we Came, we had passed them.
 after dinner I proceeded on and Encamped a little below our encampmt.
 of the 31st of July last. the Musquetoes very troublesome this evening
 Some old buffalow Signs. I killed 4 young gees and Collins killed 2
 bever this evening.
 [Clark, July 13, 1806]
 Sunday 13th July 1806
 Set out early this morning and proceded on very well to the enterance
 of Madicines river at our old Encampment of the 27th July last at 12
 where I found Sergt. Pryor and party with the horses, they had arived
 at this place one hour before us. his party had killed 6 deer & a white
 bear I had all the horses driven across Madicine & gallitines rivers
 and halted to dine and let the horses feed imediately below the
 enterance of Gallitine. had all the baggage of the land party taken out
 of the Canoes and after dinner the 6 Canoes and the party of 10 men
 under the direction of Sergt. Ordway Set out. previous to their
 departur I gave instructions how they were to proceed &c. I also wrote
 to Capt Lewis by Sergt. Ordway-. my party now Consists of the following
 persons Viz: Serjeant N. Pryor, Jo. Shields, G. Shannon William
 Bratton, Labiech, Windsor, H. Hall, Gibson, Interpreter Shabono his
 wife & Child and my man york; with 49 horses and a colt. the horses
 feet are very sore and Several of them can Scercely proceed on. at 5.
 P. M I Set out from the head of Missouri at the 3 forks, and proceeded
 on nearly East 4 miles and Encamped on the bank of Gallitines River
 which is a butifull navigable Stream. Saw a large Gange of Elk in the
 plains and Deer in the river bottoms. I also observe beaver and Several
 otter in galletines river as I passed along. Gibson killed an otter the
 fur of which was much longer and whiter than any which I had Seen.
 Willard killed 2 deer this morning. all the meat I had put into the
 Canoes except a Sufficiency for Supper. The Country in the forks
 between Gallitins & Madisens rivers is a butifull leavel plain Covered
 with low grass.--on the lower or N E. Side of Gallitins river the
 Country rises gradually to the foot of a mountain which runs nearly
 parrelal. those plains are indefferant or the Soil of which is not very
 rich they are Stoney & Contain Several Stratas of white rock. the
 Current of the river is rapid and near the mouth contains Several
 islands, it is navigable for Canoes. I saw Several Antelope Common
 Deer, wolves, beaver, Otter, Eagles, hawks, Crows, wild gees both old
 and young, does &c. &c. I observe Several leading roads which appear to
 pass to a gap of the mountain in a E. N E. direction about 18 or 20
 miles distant. The indian woman who has been of great Service to me as
 a pilot through this Country recommends a gap in the mountain more
 South which I shall cross.-.
 [Clark, July 14, 1806]
 Monday 14th July 1806
 Sent Sheilds a head to kill a deer for our brackfast and at an early
 hour Set out with the party Crossed Gallitines river which makes a
 Considerable bend to the N. E. and proceeded on nearly S. 78° E through
 an open Leavel plain at 6 miles I Struck the river and crossed a part
 of it and attemptd to proceed on through the river bottoms which was
 Several Miles wide at this place, I crossed Several chanels of the
 river running through the bottom in defferent directions. I proceeded
 on about two miles crossing those defferent chanels all of which was
 damed with beaver in Such a manner as to render the passage
 impracticable and after Swamped as I may Say in this bottom of beaver I
 was compelled to turn Short about to the right and after Some
 difficuelty made my way good to an open low but firm plain which was an
 Island and extended nearly the Course I wished to proceed. here the
 Squar informed me that there was a large road passing through the upper
 part of this low plain from Madicins river through the gap which I was
 Stearing my Course to. I proceeded up this plain 4 miles and Crossed
 the main Chanel of the river, having passed through a Skirt of cotton
 timber to an open low plain on the N E. Side of the river and nooned
 it. the river is divided and on all the small Streams inoumerable
 quantities of beaver dams, tho the river is yet navagable for Canoes. I
 overtook Shields Soon after I set out; he had killed a large fat Buck.
 I saw Elk deer & Antelopes, and great deel of old Signs of buffalow.
 their roads is in every direction. The Indian woman informs me that a
 fiew years ago Buffalow was very plenty in those plains & Vallies quit
 as high as the head of Jeffersons river, but flew of them ever come
 into those Vallys of late years owing to the Shoshones who are fearfull
 of passing into the plains West of the mountains and Subsist on what
 game they Can Catch in the Mountains principally and the fish which
 they take in the E. fork of Lewis's river. Small parties of the
 Shoshones do pass over to the plains for a few days at a time and kill
 buffalow for their Skins and dried meat, and return imediately into the
 Mountains. after Dinner we proceeded on a little to the South of East
 through an open leavel plain to the three forks of the E branch of
 Gallitines River at about 12 miles, crossed the most Southerly of those
 forks and Struck an old buffalow road which I kept Continuing nearly
 the Same Course up the middle fork Crossed it and Camped on a small
 branch of the middle fork on the N E. Side at the commencement of the
 gap of the mountain--the road leading up this branch, Several other
 roads all old Come in from the right & left. emence quantities of
 beaver on this Fork quit down, and their dams very much impeed the
 navigation of it from the 3 forks down, tho I beleive it practicable
 for Small Canoes by unloading at a fiew of the worst of those dams.
 Deer are plenty. Shannon Shields and Sergt. Pryor each killed one which
 were very fat much more So than they are Commonly at this Season of the
 year. The Main fork of Galletins River turn South and enter them
 mountains which are yet Covered with Snow. Madisens river makes a Great
 bend to the East and enters the Same mountain. a leavel plain between
 the two rivers below the mountain.
 [Clark, July 15, 1806]
 Tuesday 15th July 1806
 we collected our horses and after an early brackft at 8 A M Set out and
 proceeded up the branch to the head thence over a low gap in the
 mountain thence across the heads of the N E. branch of the fork of
 Gallitins river which we Camped near last night passing over a low
 dividing ridge to the head of a water Course which runs into the
 Rochejhone, prosueing an old buffalow road which enlargenes by one
 which joins it from the most Easterly branch of the East fork of
 Galetins R. proceeding down the branch a little to the N. of East
 keeping on the North Side of the branch to the River rochejhone at
 which place I arrived at 2 P M. The Distance from the three forks of
 the Easterly fork of Galletines river (from whence it may be navigated
 down with Small Canoes) to the river Rochejhone is 18 miles on an
 excellent high dry firm road with very incoiderable hills. from this
 river to the nearest part of the main fork of Gallitine is 29 miles
 mostly through a leavel plain. from the head of the Missouri at the 3
 forks 48 miles through a leavel plain the most of the way as may be
 seen by the remarks in the evening after the usial delay of 3 hours to
 give the horses time to feed and rest and allowing our Selves time also
 to Cook and eate Dinner, I proceeded on down the river on an old
 buffalow road at the distance of 9 miles below the mountains Shield
 River discharges itself into the Rochejhone on it's N W. side above a
 high rocky Clift, this river is 35 yards wide deep and affords a great
 quantity of water it heads in those Snowey Mountains to the N W with
 Howards Creek, it contains some Timber Such as Cotton & willow in it's
 bottoms, and Great numbers of beaver the river also abounds in those
 animals as far as I have Seen.
 passed the creek and over a high rocky hill and encamped in the upper
 part of a large bottom. The horses feet are very sore many of them Can
 Scercely proceed on over the Stone and gravel in every other respect
 they are Sound and in good Sperits. I saw two black bear on the side of
 the mountains this morning. Several gangs of Elk from 100 to 200 in a
 gangue on the river, great numbers of Antelopes. one Elk only killed to
 The Roche passes out of a high rugid mountain covered with Snow. the
 bottoms are narrow within the mountains but widen from 1/2 a m. to 2
 ms. in the Vally below, those bottoms are Subject to over flow, they
 contain Some tall Cotton wood, and willow rose bushes & rushes Honey
 suckle &c. a Second bottom on the N E. Side which rises to about 20
 feet higher the first & is 1 m. wide this bottom is coars gravel pebils
 & Sand with Some earth on which the grass grow very Short and at this
 time is quit dry this 2d bottom over flows in high floods on the
 opposit Side of the river the plain is much higher and extendes quite
 to the foot of the mountain. The mountains to the S. S. E on the East
 side of the river is rocky rugid and on them are great quantities of
 Snow. a bold Snow mountain which bears East & is imediately at & N W of
 the 3 forks of the East fork of Gallitins river may be Seen, there is
 also a high rugid Mtn. on which is Snow bearing North 15 or 20 miles.
 but fiew flowers to be Seen in those plains. low grass in the high
 plains, and the Common corse grass, rushes and a species of rye is the
 growth of the low bottoms. the mountains have Some scattering pine on
 them, and on the Spurs and hill Sides there is some scrubby pine. I can
 See no timber Sufficient large for a Canoe which will Carry more than 3
 men and Such a one would be too Small to answer my purpose
 [Clark, July 16, 1806]
 Wednesday 16th July 1806
 I gave Labeech promission to proceed on early this morning a head and
 kill a fat Elk or Buffalow. our horses haveing rambled to a long
 distance down the river detained us much later than Common. we did not
 Set out untill 9 A M. we had not proceeded on far before I saw a
 buffalow & Sent Shannon to kill it this buffalow provd. to be a very
 fat Bull I had most of the flesh brought on an a part of the Skin to
 make mockersons for Some of our lame horses. proceeded on down the
 river without finding any trees Sufficently large for a Canoe about 10
 miles and halted having passed over to an Island on which there was
 good food for our horses to let them graze & Dine. I have not Seen
 Labeech as yet. Saw a large gangue of about 200 Elk and nearly as many
 Antilope also two white or Grey Bear in the plains, one of them I
 Chased on horse back about 2 miles to the rugid part of the plain where
 I was compelled to give up the Chase two of the horses was So lame
 owing to their feet being worn quit Smooth and to the quick, the hind
 feet was much the worst I had Mockersons made of green Buffalow Skin
 and put on their feet which Seams to releve them very much in passing
 over the Stoney plains. after dinner I proceeded on Soon after I had
 set Out Labeech joined us with part of a fat Elk which he had killed. I
 passed over a Stoney point at which place the river runs Close to the
 high land on the N W. side crossed a small Creek and Encamped on the
 river a little below its Enterance. Saw emence heards of Elk feeding on
 the opposit side of the river. I saw a great number of young gees in
 the river. one of the men brought me a fish of a species I am
 unacquainted; it was 8 inches long formed like a trout. it's mouth was
 placed like that of the Sturgeon a red streak passed down each Side
 from the gills to the tail. The rocks which the high lands are faced
 with and which may also be seen in perpendicular Straters in the high
 plains, is a dark freestone. the greater part of this rock is of an
 excellent grit for Grindstones hard and sharp. observe the Silkgrass
 Sunflower & Wild indigo all in blume. but fiew other flowers are to be
 Seen in those plains. The river and Creek bottoms abound in Cotton wood
 trees, tho none of them Sufficiently large for Canoes. and the current
 of the Rochejhone is too rapid to depend on Skinn canoes. no other
 alternetive for me but to proceed on down untill I can find a tree
 Sufficently large &c. to make a Canoe.-
 [Clark, July 17, 1806]
 Thursday 17th July 1806
 The rain of last night wet us all. I had the horses all Collected early
 and Set out, proceeded ove the point of a ridge and through an open low
 bottom crossed a large Creek which heads in a high Snow toped Mountain
 to the N W. imediately opposit to the enterance of the Creek one
 Something larger falls in from the high Snow mountains to the S W. &
 South those Creeks I call Rivers across they contain Some timber in
 their Vallys at the distance of ____ Miles by water we arive at the
 enterance of two Small rivers or large Creeks which fall in nearly
 opposit to each other the one on the N E side is 30 yards wide. I call
 it Otter River the other Beaver R below the enterance of this Creek I
 halted as usial to let the Horses graze &c. I saw a Single Pelicon
 which is the first which I have Seen on this river. after Dinner I
 proceeded on Down the Rochejhone passing over a low ridge through a
 Small bottom and on the Side of a Stoney hill for 2 miles and through a
 Small bottom and again on the Side of a high hill for 11/2 M. to a
 bottom in which we Incamped opposit a Small Island. The high lands
 approach the river on either side much nearer than it does above and
 their Sides are partially covered with low pine & Cedar, none of which
 are Sufficently large for Canoes, nor have I Seen a Cotton tree in the
 low bottoms Sufficently large for that purpose. Buffalow is getting
 much more plenty than they were above. not so many Elk & more deer
 Shannon killed one deer. I Saw in one of those Small bottoms which I
 passed this evening an Indian fort which appears to have been built
 last Summer. this fort was built of logs and bark. the logs was put up
 very Closely capping on each other about 5 feet and Closely chinked.
 around which bark was Set up on end so as to Cover the Logs. the
 enterance was also guarded by a work on each Side of it and faceing the
 river. this work is about 50 feet Diameter & nearly round. the Squaw
 informs me that when the war parties find themselves pursued they make
 those forts to defend themselves in from the pursuers whose Superior
 numbers might other wise over power them and cut them off without
 receiveing much injurey on hors back &c.
 [Clark, July 18, 1806]
 Friday 18th July 1806
 as we were about Setting out this morning two Buffalow Bulls came near
 our Camp Several of the men Shot at one of them. their being near the
 river plunged in and Swam across to the opposit Side and there died.
 Shabono was thrown from his horse to day in pursute of a Buffaloe, the
 hose unfortunately Steping into a Braroe hole fell and threw him over
 his head. he is a good deel brused on his hip Sholder & face. after
 brackfast I proceeded on as usial, passd. over points of ridges So as
 to cutoff bends of the river crossed a Small Muddy brook on which I
 found great quantities of the Purple, yellow & black currents ripe.
 they were of an excellent flavour. I think the purple Superior to any I
 have ever tasted. The river here is about 200 yards wide rapid as usial
 and the water gliding over corse gravel and round Stones of various
 sizes of an excellent grite for whetestones. the bottoms of the river
 are narrow. the hills are not exceeding 200 feet in hight the sides of
 them are generally rocky and composed of rocks of the same texture of a
 dark Colour of Grit well Calculated for grindstones &c. The high
 bottoms is composed of gravel and Stone like those in the Chanel of the
 river, with a mixture of earth of a dark brown colour The Country back
 from the river on each Side is generally open wavering plains. Some
 pine is to be Seen in every direction in those plains on the Sides of
 hills &c. at 11 A.M. I observed a Smoke rise to the S. S. E in the
 plains towards the termonation of the rocky mountains in that direction
 (which is Covered with Snow) this Smoke must be raisd. by the Crow
 Indians in that direction as a Signal for us, or other bands. I think
 it most probable that they have discovered our trail and takeing us to
 be Shoshone &c. in Serch of them the Crow Indians to trade as is their
 Custom, have made this Smoke to Shew where they are-or otherwise
 takeing us to be their Enemy made this Signal for other bands to be on
 their guard. I halted in a bottom of fine grass to let the horses graze.
 Shields killed a fat Buck on which we all Dined. after dinner and a
 delay of 3 hours to allow the horses time to feed, we Set out at 4 P.M.
 I set out and proceeded down the river through a butifull bottom,
 passing a Indian fort on the head of a Small island near the Lard Shore
 and Encamped on a Small Island Seperated from the Lard Shore by a very
 narrow Chanel. Shields killed a Buffalow this evening which Caused me
 to halt sooner than Common to Save Some of the flesh which was So rank
 and Strong that we took but very little. Gibson in attempting to mount
 his horse after Shooting a deer this evening fell and on a Snag and
 sent it nearly two inches into the Muskeler part of his thy. he informs
 me this Snag was about 1 inch in diamuter burnt at the end. this is a
 very bad wound and pains him exceedingly. I dressed the wound.
 [Clark, July 19, 1806]
 Saturday 19th July 1806.
 I rose early and dressed Gibsons wound. he Slept but very little last
 night and complains of great pain in his Knee and hip as well as his
 thy. there being no timber on this part of the Rochjhone sufficintly
 large for a Canoe and time is pracious as it is our wish to get to the
 U States this Season, conclude to take Gibson in a litter if he is not
 able to ride on down the river untill I can find a tree Sufficently
 large for my purpose. I had the Strongest and jentlesst Horse Saddled
 and placed Skins & blankets in Such a manner that when he was put on
 the horse he felt himself in as easy a position as when lying. this was
 a fortunate circunstance as he Could go much more at his ease than in a
 litter. passed Rose bud river on Sd Side I proceeded on about 9 miles,
 and halted to let the horses graze and let Gibson rest. his leg become
 So numed from remaining in one position, as to render extreemly
 painfull to him. I derected Shields to keep through the thick timber
 and examine for a tree sufficently large & Sound to make a Canoe, and
 also hunt for Some Wild Ginger for a Poltice for Gibsons wound. he
 joined me at dinner with 2 fat Bucks but found neither tree or Ginger.
 he informed me that 2 white bear Chased him on horsback, each of which
 he Shot from his horse &c. Currents are ripe and abundant, i, e, the
 Yellow, black & purple spcies. we passed over two high points of Land
 from which I had a View of the rocky Mounts. to the W. & S. S. E. all
 Covered with Snow. I also Saw a low mountain in an Easterly direction.
 the high lands is partially Covered with pine and form purpendcular
 Clifts on either side. afer dinner I proceeded on the high lands become
 lower on either Side and those of the Stard Side form Bluffs of a
 darkish yellow earth; the bottom widens to Several Ms. on the Stard
 Side. the timber which cotton wood principally Scattered on the borders
 of the river is larger than above. I have Seen Some trees which would
 make very Small Canoes. Gibsons thy became So painfull that he could
 not Set on the horse after rideing about 2 hours and a half I directed
 Sergt Pryor and one man to continue with him under the Shade of a tree
 for an hour and then proceed on to the place I Should encamp which
 would be in the first good timber for canoes for the below. It may be
 proper to observe that the emence Sworms of Grass hoppers have
 distroyed every Sprig of Grass for maney miles on this Side of the
 river, and appear to be progressing upwards. about 4 Miles below the
 place I left Sergt. Pryor with Gibson found some large timber near
 which the grass was tolerably good I Encamped under a thick grove of
 those trees which was not Sufficiently large for my purpose, tho two of
 them would mak small Canoes. I took Shields and proceeded on through a
 large timbered bottom imediately below in Serch of better trees for
 Canoes, found Several about the Same Size with those at my Camp. at
 dark I returned to Camp
 Sergt. Pryor had arived with gibson. after my arival at this place the
 hunters killed Seven Elk, four Deer, and I wounded a Buffalow very
 badly near the Camp imediately after I arived. in the forepart of the
 day the hunters killed two deer an Antelope & Shot two Bear. Shabono
 informed me that he Saw an Indian on the high lands on the opposit Side
 of the river, in the time I was absent in the woods. I saw a Smoke in
 the Same direction with that which I had Seen on the 7th inst. it
 appeared to be in the Mountains.
 [Clark, July 20, 1806]
 Sunday 20th July 1806
 I directed Sergt. Pryor and Shields each of them good judges of timber
 to proceed on down the river Six or 8 miles and examine the bottoms if
 any larger trees than those near which we are encamped can be found and
 return before twelve oClock. they Set out at daylight. I also Sent
 Labech Shabono & hall to Skin & some of the flesh of the Elk Labeech
 had killed last evening they returned with one Skin the wolves haveing
 eaten the most of the other four Elk. I also Sent two men in Serch of
 wood Soutable for ax handles. they found some choke cherry which is the
 best wood which Can be precured in this Country. Saw a Bear on an
 Island opposit and Several Elk. Sergt. Pryor and Shields returned at
 half past 11 A M. and informed me that they had proceeded down the
 timbered bottoms of the river for about 12 miles without finding a tree
 better than those near my Camp. I deturmined to have two Canoes made
 out of the largest of those trees and lash them together which will
 Cause them to be Study and fully Sufficient to take my Small party &
 Self with what little baggage we have down this river. had handles put
 in the 3 Axes and after Sharpening them with a file fell the two trees
 which I intended for the two Canoes. those trees appeared tolerably
 Sound and will make Canoes of 28 feet in length and about 16 or 18
 inches deep and from 16 to 24 inches wide. the men with the three axes
 Set in and worked untill dark. Sergt. Pryor dressed Some Skins to make
 him Clothes. Gibsons wound looks very well. I dressed it. The horses
 being fatigued and their feet very Sore, I Shall let them rest a fiew
 days. dureing which time the party intended for to take them by land to
 the Mandans will dress their Skins and make themselves Clothes to bare,
 as they are nearly naked. Shields killed a Deer & Buffalow & Shannon a
 faun and a Buffalow & York an Elk one of the buffalow was good meat. I
 had the best of him brought in and cut thin and Spread out to dry.
 [Clark, July 21, 1806]
 Monday 21st July 1806
 This morning I was informed that Half of our horses were absent. Sent
 out Shannon Bratten, and Shabono to hunt them. Shabono went up the
 river Shanon down and Bratten in the bottom near Camp, Shabono and
 Bratten returned at 10 A M and informed me that they Saw no Signs of
 the horses. Shannon proceeded on down the river about 14 miles and did
 not return untill late in the evening, he was equally unsuckcessfull.
 Shannon informed me that he Saw a remarkable large Lodge about 12 miles
 below, covered with bushes and the top Deckorated with Skins &c and had
 the appearance of haveing been built about 2 years. I Sent out two men
 on hors back to kill a fat Cow which they did and returned in 3 hours
 the men work very diligiently on the Canoes one of them nearly finished
 ready to put in the water. Gibsons wound is beginning to heal. I am in
 great hope that it will get well in time for him to accompany Sgt.
 Pryor with the horses to the Mandans. This evening late a very black
 Cloud from the S. E. accompanied with Thunder and lightning with hard
 winds which Shifted about and was worm and disagreeable. I am
 apprehensive that the indians have Stolen our horses, and probably
 those who had made the Smoke a fiew days passed towards the S. W. I
 deturmined to have the ballance of the horses guarded and for that
 purpose sent out 3 men, on their approach near the horses were So
 alarmed that they ran away and entered the woods and the men returned-
 a Great number of Geese which raise their young on this river passed
 down frequently Since my arival at this place. we appear to be in the
 beginning of the buffalow Country. the plains are butifull and leavel
 but the Soil is but thin Stoney and in maney parts of the plains &
 bottoms there are great quantity of prickly pears. Saw Several herds of
 buffalow Since I arived at this Camp also antilops, wolves, pigions,
 Dovs, Hawks, ravins, Crows, larks, Sparrows, Eagles & bank martins &c.
 &c. The wolves which are the constant attendants of the Buffalow are in
 great numbers on the Scerts of those large gangues which are to be Seen
 in every direction in those praries
 [Clark, July 22, 1806]
 Tuesday 22nd of July 1806.
 The wind continued to blow very hard from the N. E. and a little before
 day light was moderately Cool. I Sent Sergt. Pryor and Shabono in Serch
 of the horses with directions to proceed up the river as far as the 1st
 narrows and examine particularly for their tracks, they returned at 3 P
 M and informed me that they had proceeded up the distance I derected
 them to go and could See neither horses nor tracks; the Plains
 imediately out from Camp is So dry and hard that the track of a horse
 Cannot be Seen without close examination. I therefore derected Sergt.
 Pryor Shannon Shabono & Bratten to incircle the Camp at Some distance
 around and find the tracks of the horses and prosue them, they Serched
 for tracks all the evening without finding which Course the horses had
 taken, the plains being so remarkably hard and dry as to render it
 impossible to See a track of a horse passing through the hard parts of
 them. begin to Suspect that they are taken by the Indians and taken
 over the hard plains to prevent our following them. my Suspicions is
 grounded on the improbibility of the horses leaveing the grass and
 rushes of the river bottoms of which they are very fond, and takeing
 imediately out into the open dry plains where the grass is but Short
 and dry. if they had Continued in the bottoms either up or down, their
 tracks Could be followed very well. I directed Labeech who understands
 traking very well to Set out early in the morning and find what rout
 the horses had taken if possible
 [Clark, July 23, 1806]
 Wednesday 23rd July 1806.
 last night the wolves or dogs came into our Camp and eat the most of
 our dryed meat which was on a scaffold Labeech went out early agreeable
 to my directions of last evening. Sergt. Pryor and Windser also went
 out. Sgt. pryor found an Indian Mockerson and a Small piece of a roab,
 the mockerson worn out on the bottom & yet wet, and have every
 appearance of haveing been worn but a fiew hours before. those Indian
 Signs is Conclusive with me that they have taken the 24 horses which we
 lost on the night of the 10th instant, and that those who were about
 last night were in Serch of the ballance of our horses which they could
 not find as they had fortunately got into a Small Prarie Serounded with
 thick timber in the bottom. Labeech returned haveing taken a great
 Circle and informed me that he Saw the tracks of the horses makeing off
 into the open plains and were by the tracks going very fast. The
 Indians who took the horses bent their course reather down the river.
 the men finished both Canoes by 12 oClock to day, and I sent them to
 make Oars & get poles after which I sent Shields and Labeech to kill a
 fat Buffalow out of a gangue which has been in a fiew miles of us all
 day. I gave Sergt Pryor his instructions and a letter to Mr. Haney and
 directed that he G. Shannon & Windser take the remaining horses to the
 Mandans, where he is to enquire for Mr. H. Heney if at the
 establishments on the Assinniboin river to take 12 or 14 horses and
 proceed on to that place and deliver Mr. Heney the letter which is with
 a view to engage Mr. Heney to provale on some of the best informed and
 most influential Chiefs of the different bands of Sieoux to accompany
 us to the Seat of our Government with a view to let them See our
 population and resourses &c. which I believe is the Surest garentee of
 Savage fidelity to any nation that of a Governmt. possessing the power
 of punishing promptly every aggression. Sergt. Pryor is directed to
 leave the ballance of the horses with the grand Chief of the Mandans
 untill our arival at his village also to keep a journal of the of his
 rout courses distances water courss Soil production, & animals to be
 particularly noted. Shields and Labeech killed three buffalow two of
 them very fat I had as much of the meat Saved as we could Conveniently
 Carry. in the evening had the two Canoes put into the water and lashed
 together ores and everything fixed ready to Set out early in the
 morning, at which time I have derected Sergt. Pryor to Set out with the
 horses and proceed on to the enterance of the big horn river at which
 place the Canoes will meat him and Set him across the Rochejhone below
 the enterance of that river.
 [Clark, July 23, 1806]
 Speech for Yellowstone Indians
 Children. The Great Spirit has given a fair and bright day for us to
 meet together in his View that he may inspect us in this all we say and
 Children I take you all by the hand as the children of your Great
 father the President of the U. States of America who is the great chief
 of all the white people towards the riseing sun.
 Children This Great Chief who is Benevolent, just, wise & bountifull
 has sent me and one other of his chiefs (who is at this time in the
 country of the Blackfoot Indians) to all his read children on the
 Missourei and its waters quite to the great lake of the West where the
 land ends and the sun sets on the face of the great water, to know
 their wants and inform him of them on our return.
 Children We have been to the great lake of the west and are now on our
 return to my country. I have seen all my read children quite to that
 great lake and talked with them, and taken them by the hand in the name
 of their great father the Great Chief of all the white people.
 Children We did not see the ____ or the nations to the North. I have
 come across over high mountains and bad road to this river to see the
 ____ Natn. I have come down the river from the foot of the great snowey
 mountain to see you, and have looked in every detection for you,
 without seeing you untill now
 Children I heard from some of your people ____ nights past by my horses
 who complained to me of your people haveing taken 24 of their cummerads.
 Children The object of my comeing to see you is not to do you injurey
 but to do you good the Great Chief of all the white people who has more
 goods at his command than could be piled up in the circle of your camp,
 wishing that all his read children should be happy has sent me here to
 know your wants that he may supply them.
 Children Your great father the Chief of the white people intends to
 build a house and fill it with such things as you may want and exchange
 with you for your skins & furs at a very low price. & has derected me
 to enquire of you, at what place would be most convenient for to build
 this house. and what articles you are in want of that he might send
 them imediately on my return
 Children The people in my country is like the grass in your plains
 noumerous they are also rich and bountifull. and love their read
 brethren who inhabit the waters of the Missoure
 Children I have been out from my country two winters, I am pore necked
 and nothing to keep of the rain. when I set out from my country I had a
 plenty but have given it all to my read children whome I have seen on
 my way to the Great Lake of the West. and have now nothing.
 Children Your Great father will be very sorry to here of the ____
 stealing the horses of his Chiefs warrors whome he sent out to do good
 to his red children on the waters of Missoure.
 _____ their ears to his good counsels he will shut them and not let any
 goods & guns be brought to the red people. but to those who open their
 Ears to his counsels he will send every thing they want into their
 country. and build a house where they may come to and be supplyed
 whenever they wish.
 Children Your Great father the Chief of all the white people has
 derected me to inform his red children to be at peace with each other,
 and the white people who may come into your country under the
 protection of the Flag of your great father which you. those people who
 may visit you under the protection of that flag are good people and
 will do you no harm
 Children Your great father has detected me to tell you not to suffer
 your young and thoughtless men to take the horses or property of your
 neighbours or the white people, but to trade with them fairly and
 honestly, as those of his red children below.
 Children The red children of your great father who live near him and
 have opened their ears to his counsels are rich and hapy have plenty of
 horses cows & Hogs fowls bread &c.&c. live in good houses, and sleep
 sound. and all those of his red children who inhabit the waters of the
 Missouri who open their ears to what I say and follow the counsels of
 their great father the President of the United States, will in a fiew
 years be as hapy as those mentioned &c.
 Children It is the wish of your Great father the Chief of all the white
 people that some 2 of the principal Chiefs of this ____ Nation should
 Visit him at his great city and receive from his own mouth. his good
 counsels, and from his own hands his abundant gifts, Those of his red
 children who visit him do not return with empty hands, he send them to
 their nation loaded with presents
 Children If any one two or 3 of your great chiefs wishes to visit your
 great father and will go with me, he will send you back next Summer
 loaded with presents and some goods for the nation. You will then see
 with your own eyes and here with your own years what the white people
 can do for you. they do not speak with two tongues nor promis what they
 can't perform
 Children Consult together and give me an answer as soon as possible
 your great father is anxious to here from (& see his red children who
 wish to visit him) I cannot stay but must proceed on & inform him &c.
 [Clark, July 24, 1806]
 Thursday 24th July 1806.
 had all our baggage put on board of the two Small Canoes which when
 lashed together is very Study and I am Convinced will the party I
 intend takeing down with me. at 8 A M. we Set out and proceeded on very
 well to a riffle about 1 mile above the enterance of Clarks fork or big
 horn river at this riffle the Small Canoes took in a good deel of water
 which obliged us to land a little above the enterance of this river
 which the ____ has called Clarks fork to dry our articles and bail the
 Canoes. I also had Buffalow Skin tacked on So as to prevent the waters
 flacking in between the Two canoes. This last River is 150 yards wide
 at it's Mouth and 100 a Short destance up the water of a light Muddy
 Colour and much Colder than that of the Rochejhone a Small Island is
 Situated imediately in its mouth, the direction of this river is South
 and East of that part of the rocky mountains which Can be seen from its
 enterance and which Seem to termonate in that direction.--I thought it
 probable that this might be the big horn river, and as the Rochejhone
 appeared to make a great bend to the N. I deturmined to Set the horses
 across on S. Side. one Chanel of the river passes under a high black
 bluff from one mile below the place we built the Canoes to within 3
 miles of the enterance of Clarks fork when the bottoms widen on each
 side those on the Stard Side from 1/2 to a mile in width. river much
 divided by Islands. at 6 ms. below the fork I halted on a large Island
 Seperated from the Stard. Shore by a narrow Channel, on this This being
 a good place to Cross the river I deturmined to wait for Sergt. pryor
 and put him across the river at this place. on this Island I observd a
 large lodge the Same which Shannon informed me of a fiew days past.
 this Lodge a council lodge, it is of a Conocil form 60 feet diamuter at
 its base built of 20 poles each pole 21/2 feet in Secumpheranc and 45
 feet Long built in the form of a lodge & covered with bushes. in this
 Lodge I observed a Cedar bush Sticking up on the opposit side of the
 lodge fronting the dore, on one side was a Buffalow head, and on the
 other Several Sticks bent and Stuck in the ground. a Stuffed Buffalow
 skin was Suspended from the Center with the back down. the top of those
 poles were deckerated with feathers of the Eagle & Calumet Eagle also
 Several Curious pieces of wood bent in Circleler form with sticks
 across them in form of a Griddle hung on tops of the lodge poles others
 in form of a large Sturrip. This Lodge was errected last Summer. It is
 Situated in the Center of a butifull Island thinly Covered with Cotton
 wood under which the earth which is rich is Covered with wild rye and a
 Species of grass resembling the bluegrass, and a mixture of Sweet grass
 which the Indian plat and ware around their necks for its cent which is
 of a Strong sent like that of the Vinella after Dinner I proceeded on
 passed the enterance of a Small Creek and Some wood on the Stard. Side
 where I met with Sergt. Pryor, Shannon & Windser with the horses they
 had but just arived at that place. Sergt. Pryor informed me that it
 would be impossible for the two men with him to drive on the horses
 after him without tireing all the good ones in pursute of the more
 indifferent to keep them on the Course. that in passing every gangue of
 buffalow Several of which he had met with, the loos horses as Soon as
 they Saw the Buffalow would imediately pursue them and run around them.
 All those that Speed suffient would head the buffalow and those of less
 Speed would pursue on as fast as they Could. he at length found that
 the only practiacable method would be for one of them to proceed on and
 when ever they Saw a gang of Buffalow to Scear them off before the
 horses got up. This disposition in the horses is no doubt owing to
 their being frequently exercised in chasing different animals by their
 former owners the Indians as it is their Custom to chase every Speces
 of wild animal with horses, for which purpose they train all their
 horses. I had the horses drove across the river and Set Sergt. Pryor
 and his party across. H. Hall who cannot Swim expressed a Wiliness to
 proceed on with Sergt. Pryor by land, and as another man was necessary
 to assist in driveing on the horses, but observed he was necked, I gave
 him one of my two remaining Shirts a par of Leather Legins and 3 pr. of
 mockersons which equipt him Completely and Sent him on with the party
 by land to the Mandans. I proceeded on the river much better than above
 the enterance of the Clarks fork deep and the Current regularly rapid
 from 2 to 300 yards in width where it is all together, much divided by
 islands maney of which are large and well Supplyed with Cotton wood
 trees, Some of them large, Saw emenc number of Deer Elk and buffalow on
 the banks. Some beaver. I landed on the Lard Side walked out into the
 bottom and Killd the fatest Buck I every Saw, Shields killed a deer and
 my man York killed a Buffalow Bull, as he informed me for his tongue
 and marrow bones. for me to mention or give an estimate of the
 differant Spcies of wild animals on this river particularly Buffalow,
 Elk Antelopes & Wolves would be increditable. I shall therefore be
 silent on the Subject further. So it is we have a great abundance of
 the best of meat. we made 70 ms. to day Current rapid and much divided
 by islands. Campd a little below Pryers river of 35 yds. on S E.
 [Clark, July 25, 1806]
 Friday 25th July 1806.
 We Set out at Sunrise and proceeded on very well for three hours. Saw a
 large gange of Buffalow on the Lard Bank. I concluded to halt and kill
 a fat one, dureing which time Some brackfast was ordered to be Cooked.
 we killed 2 Buffalow and took as much of their flesh as I wished.
 Shields killed two fat deer and after a delay of one hour and a half we
 again proceeded on. and had not proceeded far before a heavy shower of
 rain pored down upon us, and the wind blew hard from the S W. the wind
 increased and the rain continued to fall. I halted on the Stard. Side
 had Some logs set up on end close together and Covered with deerskins
 to keep off the rain, and a large fire made to dry ourselves.
 the rain continued moderately untill near twelve oClock when it Cleared
 away and become fair. the wind Contined high untill 2 P M. I proceeded
 on after the rain lay a little and at 4 P M arived at a remarkable rock
 Situated in an extensive bottom on the Stard. Side of the river & 250
 paces from it. this rock I ascended and from it's top had a most
 extensive view in every direction. This rock which I shall Call Pompy's
 Tower is 200 feet high and 400 paces in secumphrance and only
 axcessable on one Side which is from the N. E the other parts of it
 being a perpendicular Clift of lightish Coloured gritty rock on the top
 there is a tolerable Soil of about 5 or 6 feet thick Covered with Short
 grass. The Indians have made 2 piles of Stone on the top of this Tower.
 The nativs have ingraved on the face of this rock the figures of
 animals &c. near which I marked my name and the day of the month &
 year. From the top of this Tower I Could discover two low Mountains &
 the Rocky Mts. covered with Snow S W. one of them appeard to be
 extencive and bore S. 15° E. about 40 miles. the other I take to be what
 the indians Call the Little wolf Mtn. I can only see the Southern
 extremity of it which bears N 55° W about 35 Miles. The plains to the
 South rise from the distance of about 6 miles the width of the bottom
 gradually to the mountains in that derection. a large Creek with an
 extencive Vally the direction of which is S. 25° E. meanders boutifully
 through this plain. a range of high land Covered with pine appears to
 run in a N. & S. direction approaching the river below. on the
 Northerly Side of the river high romantic Clifts approach &jut over the
 water for Some distance both above and below. a large Brooks which at
 this time has Some running muddy water falls in to the Rochejhone
 imediately opposit Pompys Tower. back from the river for Some distance
 on that Side the hills are ruged & some pine back the plains are open
 and extensive. after Satisfying my Self Sufficiently in this
 delightfull prospect of the extensive Country around, and the emence
 herds of Buffalow, Elk and wolves in which it abounded, I decended and
 proceeded on a fiew miles, Saw a gang of about 40 Big horn animals
 fired at them and killed 2 on the Sides of the rocks which we did not
 get. I directed the Canoes to land, and I walked up through a crevis in
 the rocks almost inaxcessiable and killed 2 of those animals one a
 large doe and the other a yearlin Buck. I wished very much to kill a
 large buck, had there been one with the gang I Should have killd. him.
 dureing the time the men were getting the two big horns which I had
 killed to the river I employed my Self in getting pieces of the rib of
 a fish which was Semented within the face of the rock this rib is about
 3 inchs in Secumpherance about the middle it is 3 feet in length tho a
 part of the end appears to have been broken off I have Several peces of
 this rib the bone is neither decayed nor petrified but very rotten. the
 part which I could not get out may be Seen, it is about 6 or 7 Miles
 below Pompys Tower in the face of the Lard. Clift about 20 feet above
 the water. after getting the big horn on board &c I proceeded on a
 Short distance and encamped, an earlyer than I intended on accout of a
 heavy cloud which was comeing up from the S. S W. and Some appearance
 of a Violent wind. I walked out and killed a Small Buck for his Skin
 which the party are in want of for Clothes. about Sunset the wind blew
 hard from the W. and Some little rain. I encamped on the Stard. Side
 imediately below the enteranc Shannons River about 22 Yards wide, and
 at this time discharges a great portion of water which is very Muddy.
 emence herds of Buffalow about our as it is now running time with those
 animals the bulls keep Such a grunting nois which is very loud and
 disagreeable Sound that we are compelled to Scear them away before we
 can Sleep. the men fire Several Shot at them and Scear them away.
 [Clark, July 26, 1806]
 Saturday 26th July 1806.
 Set out this morning very early proceeded on Passed Creeks very well.
 the Current of the river reagulilarly Swift much divided by Stoney
 islands and bars also handsome Islands Covered with Cotton wood the
 bottoms extensive on the Stard. Side on the Lard. the Clifts of high
 land border the river, those clifts are composed of a whitish rock of
 an excellent grit for Grindstones. The Country back on each Side is
 wavering lands with Scattering pine. passed 2 Small Brooks on the
 Stard. Side and two large ones on the Lard. Side. I shot a Buck from
 the Canoe and killed one other on a Small Island. and late in the
 evening passed a part of the river which was rock under the Lard.
 Clifts fortunately for us we found an excellent Chanel to pass down on
 the right of a Stony Island half a mile below this bad place, we arived
 at the enterance of Big Horn River on the Stard. Side here I landed
 imediately in the point which is a Sof mud mixed with the Sand and
 Subject to overflow for Some distance back in between the two rivers. I
 walked up the big horn 1/2 a mile and crossed over to the lower Side,
 and formed a Camp on a high point. I with one of my men Labeech walked
 up the N E Side of Big horn river 7 miles to th enterance of a Creek
 which falls in on the N E. Side and is 28 yds wide Some running water
 which is very muddy this Creek I call Muddy Creek Some fiew miles above
 this Creek the river bent around to the East of South. The Courses as I
 assended it as follows Viz:
 The bottoms of the Big Horn river are extencive and Covered with timber
 principally Cotton. it's Current is regularly Swift, like the Missouri,
 it washes away its banks on one Side while it forms extensive Sand bars
 on the other. Contains much less portion of large gravel than the R.
 Rochjhone and its water more mudy and of a brownish colour, while that
 of the rochejhone is of a lightish Colour. the width of those two
 rivers are very nearly the Same imediately at their enterances the
 river Rochejhone much the deepest and contain most water. I measured
 the debth of the bighorn quit across a 1/2 a mile above its junction
 and found it from 5 to 7 feet only while that of the River is in the
 deepest part 10 or 12 feet water on the lower Side of the bighorn is
 extencive boutifull and leavil bottom thinly covered with Cotton wood
 under which there grows great quantities of rose bushes. I am informed
 by the Menetarres Indians and others that this River takes its rise in
 the Rocky mountains with the heads of the river plate and at no great
 distance from the river Rochejhone and passes between the Coat Nor or
 Black Mountains and the most Easterly range of Rocky Mountains. it is
 very long and Contains a great perpotion of timber on which there is a
 variety of wild animals, perticularly the big horn which are to be
 found in great numbers on this river. Buffalow, Elk, Deer and Antelopes
 are plenty and the river is Said to abound in beaver. it is inhabited
 by a great number of roveing Indians of the Crow Nation, the paunch
 Nation and the Castahanas all of those nations who are Subdivided rove
 and prosue the Buffalow of which they make their principal food, their
 Skins together with those of the Big horn and Antilope Serve them for
 Clothes. This river is Said to be navagable a long way for perogus
 without falls and waters a fine rich open Country. it is 200 yds water
 & 1/4 of a Me. wd. I returned to Camp a little after dark, haveing
 killed one deer, finding my Self fatigued went to bead without my
 Supper. Shields killed 2 Bull & 3 Elk.
 [Clark, July 27, 1806]
 Sunday 27th July 1806
 I marked my name with red paint on a Cotton tree near my Camp, and Set
 out at an early hour and proceeded on very well the river is much wider
 from 4 to 600 yards much divided by Islands and Sand bars, passed a
 large dry Creek at 15 miles and halted at the enterance of River 50
 yards wide on the Lard Side I call R. Labeech killed 4 Buffalow and
 Saved as much of their flesh as we could Carry took brackfast. The
 Buffalow and Elk is estonishingly noumerous on the banks of the river
 on each Side, particularly the Elk which lay on almost every point in
 large gang and are So jintle that we frequently pass within 20 or 30
 paces of them without their being the least alarmd. the buffalow are
 Generally at a greater distance from the river, and keep a continueing
 bellowing in every direction, much more beaver Sign than above the
 bighorn. I Saw Several of those animals on the bank to day. the
 antilopes are Scerce as also the bighorns and the deer by no means So
 plenty as they were near the Rocky mountains. when we pass the Big horn
 I take my leave of the view of the tremendious chain of Rocky Mountains
 white with Snow in view of which I have been Since the 1st of May last.
 about Sunset I Shot a very large fat buck elk from the Canoe near which
 I encamped, and was near being bit by a rattle Snake. Shields killed a
 Deer & a antilope to day for the Skins which the party is in want of
 for Clothes. this river below the big horn river resembles the Missouri
 in almost every perticular except that it's islands are more noumerous
 & Current more rapid, it's banks are generally low and falling in the
 bottoms on the Stard. Side low and exteneive and Covered with timber
 near the river such as Cotton wood willow of the different Species rose
 bushes and Grapevines together with the red berry or Buffalow Grees
 bushes & a species of shoemake with dark brown back of those bottoms
 the Country rises gradually to about 100 feet and has Some pine. back
 is leavel plains. on the Lard Side the river runs under the clifts and
 Bluffs of high which is from 70 to 150 feet in hight and near the river
 is Some Scattering low pine back the plains become leavel and
 extencive. the Clifts are Composed of a light gritty Stone which is not
 very hard. and the round stone which is mixed with the Sand and formes
 bars is much Smaller than they appeared from above the bighorn, and may
 here be termed Gravel. the Colour of the water is a yellowish white and
 less muddy than the Missouri below the mouth of this river.
 [Clark, July 28, 1806]
 Monday 28th July 1806.
 Set out this morning at day light and proceeded on glideing down this
 Smooth Stream passing maney Isld. and Several Creeks and brooks at 6
 miles passed a Creek or brook of 80 yards wide on the N W. Side
 Containing but little water. 6 miles lower passed a small Creek 20 yds
 wide on the Stard Side 18 Miles lower passed a large dry creek on the
 Lard Side 5 Miles lower passed a river 70 yards wide Containing but
 little water on the Lard Side which I call Table Creek from the tops of
 Several mounds in the Plains to the N W. resembling a table. four miles
 Still lower I arived at the enterance of a river 100 yards wide back of
 a Small island on the South Side. it contains Some Cotton wood timber
 and has a bold Current, it's water like those of all other Streams
 which I have passed in the Canoes are muddy. I take this river to be
 the one the Indians Call the Little Big Horn river. The Clifts on the
 South Side of the Rochejhone are Generally compd. of a yellowish Gritty
 Soft rock, whilest those of the N. is light Coloured and much harder in
 the evening I passd. Straters of Coal in the banks on either Side those
 on the Stard. Bluffs was about 30 feet above the water and in 2 vanes
 from 4 to 8 feet thick, in a horozontal position. the Coal Contained in
 the Lard Bluffs is in Several vaines of different hights and thickness.
 this Coal or Carbonated wood is like that of the Missouri of an
 inferior quallity. passed a large Creek on the Stard. Side between the
 1st and 2nd Coal Bluffs passed Several Brooks the chanel of them were
 wide and contained but little running water, and encamped on the upper
 point of a Small island opposit the enterance of a Creek 25 Yards wide
 on the Stard. Side with water.
 The Elk on the banks of the river were So abundant that we have not
 been out of Sight of them to day. J Shields killed 2 deer & Labeech
 killed an Antilope to day. the antilopes and deer are not Abundant.
 Beaver plenty
 [Clark, July 29, 1806]
 Tuesday 29th July 1806
 a Slight rain last night with hard thunder and Sharp lightening
 accompanied with a violent N. E. wind. I Set out early this morning
 wind So hard a head that w made but little way. in the fore part of the
 day, I saw great numbers of Buffalow on the banks. the country on
 either Side is like that of yesterday. passed three large dry Brooks on
 the Stard. Side and four on the Lard Side. great quantities of Coal in
 all the hills I passed this day. late in the evening I arived at the
 enterance of a River which I take to be the Lazeka or Tongue River it
 discharges itself on the Stard. Side and is 150 yards wide of water the
 banks are much wider. I intended to encamp on an eligable Spot
 imediately below this river, but finding that its water So muddy and
 worm as to render it very disagreeable to drink, I crossed the
 rochejhone and encamped on an island close to the Lard. Shore. The
 water of this river is nearly milk worm very muddy and of a lightish
 brown Colour. the Current rapid and the Chanel Contains great numbers
 of Snags. near its enterance there is great quantities of wood Such as
 is common in the low bottoms of the Rochejhone and Missouri. tho I
 believe that the Country back thro which this river passes is an open
 one where the water is exposed to the Sun which heats it in its
 passage. it is Shallow and throws out great quantities of mud and Some
 cors gravel. below this river and on the Stard Side at a fiew Miles
 from the Rochejhone the hills are high and ruged Containing Coal in
 great quantities. Beaver is very plenty on this part of the Rochejhone.
 The river widens I think it may be generally Calculated at from 500"
 yards to half a mile in width more Sand and gravelly Bars than above.
 cought 3 cat fish. they wer Small and fat. also a Soft Shell turtle.
 [Clark, July 30, 1806]
 Friday 30th July 1806
 Set out early this morning at 12 miles arived at the Commencement of
 Shoals the Chanel on the Stard Side near a high bluff. passed a
 Succession of those Shoals for 6 miles the lower of which was quit
 across the river and appeared to have a decent of about 3 feet. here we
 were Compeled to let the Canoes down by hand for fear of their
 Strikeing a rock under water and Splitting. This is by far the wost
 place which I have Seen on this river from the Rocky mountains to this
 place a distance of 694 miles by water. a Perogu or large Canoe would
 with Safty pass through the worst of those Shoals, which I call the
 Buffalow Sholes from the Circumstance of one of those animals being in
 them. the rock which passes the river at those Sholes appear hard and
 gritty of a dark brown Colour. the Clifts on the Stard. Side is about
 100 feet in hight, on the Lard Side the Country is low and the bottom
 rises gradually back. here is the first appearance of Birnt hills which
 I have Seen on this river they are at a distance from the river on the
 Lard Side. I landed at the enterance of a dry Creek on the Lard side
 below the Shoals and took brackfast. Those Dry Rivers, Creeks &c are
 like those of the Missouri which take their rise in and are the
 Conveyance of the water from those plains. they have the appearanc of
 dischargeing emence torrents of water. the late rains which has fallen
 in the plains raised Sudenly those Brooks which receive the water of
 those plains on which those Suden & heavy Showers of rain must have
 fallen, Several of which I have Seen dischargeing those waters, whiles
 those below heading or takeing their rise in the Same neighbourhood, as
 I passed them appears to have latterly been high. those Broods
 discharge emencely of mud also, which Contributes much to the muddiness
 of the river. after Brackfast proceeded on the river much narrower than
 above from 3 to 400 yards wide only and only a fiew scattering trees to
 be Seen on the banks. at 20 miles below the Buffalow Shoals passed a
 rapid which is by no means dangerous, it has a number of large rocks in
 different parts of the river which Causes high waves a very good Chanel
 on the Lard. Side. this rapid I call Bear rapid from the Circumstance
 of a bears being on a rock in the Middle of this rapid when I arived at
 it. a violent Storm from the N. W. obliged us to land imediately below
 this rapid, draw up the Canoes and take Shelter in an old Indian Lodge
 above the enterance of a river which is nearly dry it has laterly been
 very high and Spread over nearly 1/4 a mile in width. its Chanel is 88
 yards and in this there is not more water than could pass through an
 inch auger hole. I call it Yorks dry R. after the rain and wind passed
 over I proceeded on at 7 Miles passed the enterance of a river the
 water of which is 100 yds wide, the bead of this river nearly 1/4 of a
 mile this river is Shallow and the water very muddy and of the Colour
 of the banks a darkish brown. I observe great quantities of red Stone
 thrown out of this river that from the appearance of the hills at a
 distance on its lower Side induced me to call this red Stone river. as
 the water was disagreeably muddy I could not Camp on that Side below
 its mouth. however I landed at its enteranc and Sent out and killed two
 fat Cows, and took as much of the flesh as the Canoes would
 conveniently Carry and Crossed the river and encamped at the enterance
 of a Brook on the Lard. Side under a large Spredding Cotton tree. The
 river on which we passed to day is not So wide as above containing but
 fiew islands with a Small quantity of Cotton timber. no timber of any
 kind to be Seen on the high lands on either Side.
 In the evening below the enterance of redstone river I observed great
 numbers of Buffalow feeding on the plains, elk on the points and
 antilopes. I also Saw Some of the Bighorn animals at a distance on the
 hills. Gibson is now able to walk, he walked out this evening and
 killed an antilope.
 [Clark, July 31, 1806]
 Saturday 31st of July 1806
 I was much disturbed last night by the noise of the buffalow which were
 about me. one gang Swam the river near our Camp which alarmed me a
 little for fear of their Crossing our Canoes and Splitting them to
 pieces. Set out as usial about Sun rise passed a rapid which I call
 wolf rapid from the Circumstance of one of those animals being at the
 rapid. here the river approaches the high mountanious Country on the N
 W. Side those hills appear to be composed of various Coloured earth and
 Coal without much rock I observe Several Conical mounds which appear to
 have been burnt. this high Country is washed into Curious formed mounds
 & hills and is cut much with reveens. the Country again opens and at
 the distance of 23 miles below the Redston or War-har-sah River I
 landed in the enterance of a Small river on the Stard. Side 40 yards
 wid Shallow and muddy. it has lately been very high. haveing passed the
 Enterance of a River on the Lard Side 100 yards wide which has running
 water this river I take to be the one the Menetarries Call little wolf
 or Sa-a-shah River The high Country is entirely bar of timber. great
 quantities of Coal or carbonated wood is to be seen in every Bluff and
 in the high hills at a distance on each Side. Saw more Buffalow and Elk
 and antilopes this evening than usial. 18 Miles below the last river on
 the Stard. Side, I passed one 60 yards wide which had running water.
 this Stream I call oak-tar-pon-er or Coal River has very steep banks on
 each side of it. passed Several large Brooks Some of them had a little
 running water, also Several Islands Some high black looking Bluffs and
 encamped on the Stard. Side on a low point. the country like that of
 yesterday is open extencive plains. as I was about landing this evening
 Saw a white bear and the largest I ever Saw eating a dead buffalow on a
 Sand bar. we fired two Shot into him, he Swam to the main Shore and
 walked down the bank. I landed and fired 2 more Shot into this
 tremendious animal without killing him. night comeing on we Could not
 pursue him he bled profusely. Showers all this day