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[Lewis, May 1, 1806]
 Thursday May 1st 1806.
 We collected our horses tolerably early this morning took and set out a
 little after 7 A.M. we pursued the indian road which led us up the
 creek about nine miles, here the Chopunnish man wo was in front with me
 informed that an old unbeaten tract which he pointed out to the left
 was our nearest rout. we halted the party and directed them to unload
 and let their horses graize untill our guide came up who was at some
 distance behind. I wished to obtain good information of this newly
 recommended tract before I could consent to leave the present road
 which seemed to lead us in the proper direction was level and furnished
 with wood and water. when the guide arrived he seemed much displeased
 with the other, he assured us that the rout up the creek was the
 nearest, and much the best, that if we took the other we would be
 obliged to remain here untill tomorrow morning, and then travel a whole
 day before we could reach water, and that there was no wood; the other
 agreed that this was the case. we therefore did not hesitate to pursue
 the rout recommended by the guide. the creek, it's bottom lands, and
 the appearance of the plains were much as those of esterday only with
 this difference that the latter were not so sandy. we had sent out four
 hunters this morning two on foot and 2 on horseback they joined us
 while we halted here. Drewyer had killed a beaver. at 1 P.M. we resumed
 our march, leaving the Chopunnish man and his family; he had determined
 to remain at that place untill the next morning and then pursue the
 rout he had recommended to us. he requested a small quantity of powder
 and lead which we gave him. we traveled 17 miles this evening, making a
 total of 26 Ms. and encamped. the first 3 miles of our afternoons march
 was through a similar country with that of the forenoon; the creek
 bottoms then became higher and widened to the extent of from 2 to 3 Ms.
 the hills on the N. side were low but those on the opposite side
 retained their hight. we saw a number of deer of which Labuish killed
 one. the timber on the creek becomes more abundant and it's extensive
 bottoms affords a pleasent looking country. the guide informs us that
 we shall now find a plenty of wood water and game quite to the
 Kooskooske. we saw a great number of the Curloos, some Grains, ducks,
 prarie larks and several speceis of sparrows common to the praries. I
 see very little difference between the apparent face of the country
 here and that of the plains of the Missouri only that these are not
 enlivened by the vast herds of buffaloe Elk &c which ornament the
 other. the courses and distances of this day are N. 45 E. 9 M. and N.
 75 E. 17 M. along the Northern side of this creek to our encampment.
 some time after we had encamped three young men arrived from the
 Wallahwollah village bringing with them a steel trap belonging to one
 of our party which had been neglegently left behind; this is an act of
 integrity rarely witnessed among indians. during our stay with them
 they several times found the knives of the men which had been
 carelessly lossed by them and returned them. I think we can justly
 affirm to the honor of these people that they are the most hospitable,
 honest, and sincere people that we have met with in our voyage.
 
 
 [Clark, May 1, 1806]
 Thursday May 1st 1806.
 This morning we collected our horses and made an early Start, haveing
 preveously Sent a hed 4 hunters with derections to proceed up the Creek
 and kill every Species of game which they might meet with. the Small
 portion of rain which fell last night Caused the road to be much furmer
 and better than yesterday. the morning Cloudy and Cool. we proceeded up
 the Creek on the N. E. Side through a Countrey of less sand and Some
 rich bottoms on the Creek which is partially Supplyed with Small Cotton
 trees, willow, red willow, choke Cherry, white thorn, birch, elder,
 ____ rose & honey suckle. Great portion of these bottoms has been
 latterly burnt which has entirely distroyed the timbered growth. at the
 distance of nine miles we over took our hunters, they had killed one
 bever only at this place the road forked, one leaveing the Creek and
 the Corse of it is nearly North. the Chopunnish who had accompanied us
 with his family informed us that this was our best way. that it was a
 long distance without water. and advised us to Camp on the Creek at
 this place and in the morning to Set out early. This information
 perplexed us a little, in as much as the idea of going a days march
 without water thro an open Sandy plain and on a Course 50° out of our
 derection. we deturmined to unlode and wate for our Guide, or the
 Chopunnish man who had accompanied us from the long Narrows, who was in
 the rear with Drewyer our interpreter. on his arrival we enquired of
 him which was the best and most direct roade for us to take. he
 informed us that the road pointed out by his cumerade was through a
 open hilly and Sandy Countrey to the river Lewis's River, and was a
 long ways around, and that we Could not git to any water to day. the
 other roade up the creek was a more derect Course, plenty of water wood
 and only one hill in the whole distance and the road which he had
 always recomended to us. Some words took place between those two men
 the latter appeared in great pation Mounted his horse and Set out up
 the Creek. we Sent a man after him and brought him back informed him
 that we believed what he Said and Should imedeately after dinner
 proceed on the road up the Creek with him. we gave the former man Some
 powder and ball which had been promised him, and after an early dinner
 Set out up the Creek with our guide leaveing the Chopunnish man and his
 family encamped at the forks of the road where they intended to Stay
 untill the morning and proceed on the rout he had recommended to us. we
 traviled 17 miles this evening makeing a total of 26 mls. and encamped.
 the first 3 miles of our afternoons march was through a Simaler Country
 of that of the fore noon; the Creek bottoms then became higher and
 wider; to the extent of from 2 to 3 miles. we Saw Several Deer of which
 Labiech killed one. the timber on the Creek become more abundant and
 less burnt, and its extensive bottoms afford a pleasent looking
 Country. we Saw a Great number of Curloos, Some Crains, Ducks, prarie
 cocks, and Several Species of Sparrows common to the praries. I See
 Very little difference between the apparant face of the Country here
 and that of the plains of the Missouri. only that those are not
 enlivened by the vast herds of Buffalow, Elk &c. which animated those
 of the Missouri. The Courses & distances of this day are N. 45° E. 9 mls.
 & N. 75° E. 17 Miles allong the North Side of this Creek to our
 encampment. Sometime after we had encamped three young men arrived from
 the Wallah wallah Village bringing with them a Steel trap belonging to
 one of our party which had been negligently left behind; this is an act
 of integrity rearly witnessed among Indians. dureing our Stay with them
 they Several times found the knives of the men which had been Carefully
 lossed by them and returned them. I think we can justly affirm to the
 honor of those people that they are the most hospitable, honist and
 Sencere people that we have met with on our Voyage.-
 
 
 [Lewis, May 2, 1806]
 Friday May 2cd 1806.
 This morning we dispatched two hunters a head. we had much difficulty
 in collecting our horses. at 8 A.M. we obtained them all except the
 horse we obtained from the Chopunnish man whom we seperated from
 yesterday. we apprehended that this horse would make some attempts to
 rejoin the horses of this man and accordingly had him as we thought
 securely bubbled both before and at the side, but he broke the strings
 in the course of the night and absconded. we sent several men in
 different directions in surch of him. I engaged one of the young
 indians who overtook us last evening to return in surch of him. at half
 after 1 P.M. The indian and Joseph Feilds returned with the horse, they
 had found him on his way back about 17 Ms. I paid the indian the price
 stipulated for his services and we immediately loaded up and set
 forward. steered East 3 M. over a hilly road along the N. side of the
 Creek, wide bottom on S. side. a branch falls in on S. side which runs
 south towards the S. W. mountains which appear to be about 25 Ms.
 distant low yet covered with snow N. 75 E. 7 through an extensive level
 bottom. more timber than usual on the creek, some pine of the long
 leafed kind appears on the sides of the creek hills, also about 50
 acres of well timbered pine land where we passed the creek at 4 m. on
 this course N. 45 E. 9 ms. repassed the creek at 4 M. and continued up
 a N. E. branch of the same which falls in about a mile below where we
 passed the main creek. the bottoms though which we passed were wide.
 the main creek boar to the S. and heads in the Mountains; it's bottoms
 are much narrower above where we passed it and the hills appear high.
 we passed the small creek at 83/4 from the commencement of this course
 and encamped on the N. side in a little bottom, having traveled 19
 miles today. at this place the road leaves the creek and takes the open
 high plain. this creek is about 4 yds. wide and bears East as far as I
 could observe it. I observed considerable quantities of the qua-mash in
 the bottoms through which we passed this evening now in blume. there is
 much appearance of beaver and otter along these creeks. saw two deer at
 a distance; also observed many sandhill crains Curloos and other fowls
 common to the plains. the soil appears to improve as we advance on this
 road. our hunters killed a duck only. the three young men of the
 Wollahwollah nation continued with us. in the course of the day I
 observed them eat the inner part of the young and succulent stem of a
 large coarse plant with a ternate leaf, the leafets of which are three
 loabed and covered with a woolly pubersence. the flower and
 fructification resembles that of the parsnip this plant is very common
 in the rich lands on the Ohio and it's branches the Mississippi &c. I
 tasted of this plant found it agreeable and eat heartily of it without
 feeling any inconvenience.
 
 
 [Clark, May 2, 1806]
 Friday May 2nd 1806
 This morning we dispatched two hunters a head. we had much dificuelty
 in Collecting our horses. at 8 A.M. we obtained them all except the
 horse we obtained from the Chopunnish man whome we Seperated from
 yesterday. we apprehended that this horse would make Some attempts to
 rejoin the horses of this man and accordingly had him as we thought
 Scurely hobbled both before and at the Side, but he broke the Strings
 in the Course of the night and absconded. we Sent Several men in
 different directions in Serch of him. and hired one of the men who
 joined us last night to prosue him and over take us & at 4 after 1 P.M.
 the indian and Joseph Fields returned with the horse they had found him
 on his way back about 17 miles. I paid the Indian the price Stipulated
 for his Services and we imediately loaded up and Set forward. East 3
 miles over a hilly road along the N. Side of the Creek. wide bottoms on
 the S. Side. a branch falls in on the S. side which runds from the S W.
 Mountains, which appear to be about 25 m. distant low yet Covered with
 Snow. N. 75° E. 7 m. through an extencive leavel bottom. more timber than
 usial on the Creek. Some pine of the long leaf kind appear on the Creek
 hills. also about 50 acres of well timbered pine land where we passed
 the Creek at 4 m. on the Course. N. 45° E. 9 m. passed the Creek at 4 M.
 and Continued up on the N. E. Side. the bottoms wide. the main creek
 bear to the S. and head in the Mountains. we passed a Small Creek at
 83/4 m. from the Commencement of this Course and encamped on the N.
 Side in a little bottom. haveing traviled 19 miles to day. at this
 place the road leaves the Creek and passes through the open high
 plains. this creek is 5 yds wide and bears East towards the Mts. I
 observed a Considerable quantity of the qua mash in the bottoms through
 which we passed this evening now in blume. there is much appearance of
 beaver & otter along these creeks. Saw two deer at a distance, also
 Sand hill Cranes, Curloos and fowls common to the plains. the Soil
 appears to improve as we advance on this road. our hunters killed a
 deer only. The three young men of the Wallah wallah nation Continue
 with us in the Course of this day. I observed them cut the inner part
 of the young and succulent Stem of a large Corse plant with a ternate
 leaf, the leafets of which are three loabes and Covered with woolly
 pubersence. the flower and fructification resembles that of the
 parsnip. this plant is very common in the rich lands on the Ohio and
 its branches. I tasted of this plant found it agreeable and eate
 hartily of it without feeling any inconveniance.
 
 
 [Lewis, May 3, 1806]
 Saturday May 3rd 1806.
 This morning we set out at 7 A.M. steered N. 25 E 12 ms. to Kimooenem
 Creek through a high level plain. this creek is about 12 yds. wide
 pebbly bottom low banks and discharges a considerable body of water it
 heads in the S. W. mountains and discharges itself into Lewis's river a
 few miles above the narrows. the bottoms of this creek are narrow with
 some timber principally Cottonwood and willow. the under brush such as
 mentioned on N. East Creek. the hills are high and abrupt. the land of
 the plains is much more fertile than below, less sand and covered with
 taller grass; very little of the aromatic shrubs appear in this part of
 the plain. we halted and dined at this creek; after which we again
 proceeded N. 45 E. 3 M. through the high plain to a small creek 5 yds.
 wide branch of the Kimooenem C. this stream falls into the creek some
 miles below. the hills of this creek like those of the Kimooenem are
 high it's bottoms narrow and possess but little timber, lands of a good
 quality, a dark rich loam. we continued our rout up this creek, on it's
 N. side. N. 75 E. 7 Ms. the timber increases in quantity the hills
 continue high. East 4 Ms. up the creek. here we met with We-ark-koomt
 whom we have usually distinguished by the name of the bighorn Cheif
 from the circumstance of his always wearing a horn of that animal
 suspended by a cord to he left arm. he is the 1st Cheif of a large band
 of the Chopunnish nation. he had 10 of his young men with him. this man
 went down Lewis's river by land as we decended it by water last fall
 quite to the Columbia and I beleive was very instrumental in procuring
 us a hospitable and friendly reception among the natives. he had now
 come a considerable distance to meet us. after meeting this cheif we
 continued still up the creek bottoms N. 75. E. 2 m to the place at
 which the road leaves the creek and ascends the hills to the plain here
 we encamped in small grove of cottonwood tree which in some measure
 broke the violence of the wind. we came 28 ms. today. it rained hailed
 snowed and blowed with great violence the greater portion of the day.
 it was fortunate for us that this storm was from the S. W. and of
 course on our backs. the air was very cold. we divided the last of our
 dryed meat at dinner when it was consumed as well as the ballance of
 our dogs nearly we made but a scant supper and had not anything for
 tomorrow; however We-arkkoomt consoled us with the information that
 there was an indian lodge on the river at no great distance where we
 might supply ourselves with provision tomorrow. our guide and the three
 young Wallahwollahs left us this morning reather abruptly and we have
 seen nothing of them since. the S. W. mountains appear to become lower
 as they proceede to the N. E. this creek reaches the mountains. we are
 nearer to them than we were last evening
 
 
 [Clark, May 3, 1806]
 Saturday 3rd May 1806
 This morning we Set out at 7 A.M. Steared N. 25° E 12 m. to Kimoo e nimm
 Creek through a high leavel plain this Creek is 12 yds. wide pebbly
 bottom low banks and discharges a Considerable quanty of water it head
 in the S W. Mountains and discharges it Self into Lewis's river a fiew
 miles Above the narrows. the bottoms of this Creek is narrow with Some
 timber principally Cotton wood & Willow. the under brush Such as
 mentioned in the N. E. Creek. The hills are high and abrupt. the lands
 of the plains is much more furtile than below, less Sand and Covered
 with taller grass; very little of the aramatic Shrubs appear in this
 part of the plain. we halted and dined at this Creek. after which we
 again proceeded N. 45° E. 3 mes. through a high plain to a Small Creek 5
 yds. wide, a branch of the Kimooenimm Creek. the hills of this Stream
 like those of the Ki moo enimm are high its bottoms narrow and possess
 but little timber. the land of a good quallity dark rich loam. we
 Continued our rout up this Creek on it's N. Side N. 75° E 7 mes. the
 timber increas in quantity the hills continue high. we met with the We
 arh koont whome we have usially distinguished by the name of the big
 horn Chief from the circumstance of his always wareing a horn of that
 animal Suspended by a Cord to his left arm. he is a 1st Chief of a
 large band of the Chopunnish Nation. he had ten of his young men with
 him. this man Went down Lewis's river by Land as we decended it by
 water last fall quite to the Columbia, and I believe was very
 instremental in precureing us a hospital and friendly reception among
 the nativs. he had now come a Considerable distance to meet us. after
 meeting this Cheif we Continued Still up the Creek bottoms N. 75° E. 2 m.
 to the place at which the roade leaves the Creek and assends the hill
 to the high plains: here we Encamped in a Small grove of Cotton trees
 which in some measure broke the violence of the wind. we Came 28 miles
 today. it rained, hailed, Snowed & blowed with Great Violence the
 greater portion of the day. it was fortunate for us that this Storm was
 from the S. W. and of Course on our backs. the air was very cold. we
 devided the last of our dried meat at dinner when it was Consumed as
 well as the ballance of our Dogs nearly we made but a Scant Supper, and
 had not any thing for tomorrow; however We-ark-koomt Consoled us with
 the information that there was an Indian Lodge on the river at no great
 distance where we might Supply our Selves with provisions tomorrow. our
 Guide and the three young Wallah wallah's left us this morning reather
 abruptly and we have Seen nothing of them Sence. the S W. Mountains
 appear to become lower as they receed to the N, E. This Creek reaches
 the mountains. we are much nearer to them than we were last evening.
 they are Covered with timber and at this time Snow.
 
 
 [Lewis, May 4, 1806]
 Sunday May 4th 1806.
 Collected our horses and set out early; the morning was cold and
 disagreeable. we ascended the Lard. hills of the creek and steered N. 60°
 E. 4 miles through a high level plain to a ravine which forms the
 source of a small creek, thence down this creek N. 75° E. 8 ms. to it's
 entrance into Lewis's river 71/2 ms. below the entrance of the
 Kooskooske. on the river a little above this creek we arrived at a
 lodge of 6 families of which Weark-koomt had spoken. we halted here for
 breakfast and with much difficulty purchase 2 lean dogs. the
 inhabitants were miserably poor. we obtained a few large cakes of half
 cured bread made of a root which resembles the sweet potatoe, with
 these we made some scope and took breakfast. the lands through which we
 passed today are fertile consisting of a dark rich loam the hills of
 the river are high and approach it nearly on both sides. no timber in
 the plains. the S. W. Mountains which appear to be about 15 Ms. above
 us still continue to become lower they are covered with snow at present
 nearly to their bases. Lewis's river appeas to pass through these mots.
 near their N. Eastern extremity. these hills terminate in a high level
 plain between the Kooskooske and Lewis's river. these plains are in
 many places well covered with the Longleafed pine, with some Larch and
 balsom fir. the soil is extreemly fertile no dose it appear so thisty
 as that of the same apparent texture of the open plains. it produces
 great quantities of the quawmash a root of which the natives are
 extreemly fond. a great portion of the Chopunnish we are informed are
 now distributed in small vilages through this plain collecting the
 quawmash and cows; the salmon not yet having arrived to call them to
 the river. the hills of the creek which we decended this morning are
 high and in most parts rocky and abrupt. one of our pack horses sliped
 from one of those hights and fell into the creek with it's load
 consisting principally of ammunition but fortunately neith the horse
 nor load suffered any material injury. the amunition being secured in
 canesters the water did not effect it.--after dinner we continued our
 rout up the West side of the river 3 Ms. opposite to 2 lodges the one
 containing 3 and the other 2 families of the Chopunnish nation; here we
 met with Te-toh, ar sky, the youngest of the two cheifs who accompanied
 us last fall the great falls of the Columbia here we also met with our
 pilot who decended the river with us as far as the Columbia. these
 indians recommended our passing the river at this place and ascending
 the Kooskooske on the N. E. side. they said it was nearer and a better
 rout to the forkes of that river where the twisted hair resided in
 whose charge we had left our horses; thither they promised to conduct
 us. we determined to take the advice of the indians and immediately
 prepared to pass the river which with the assistance of three indian
 canoes we effected in the course of the evening, purchased a little
 wood and some bread of cows from the natives and encamped having
 traveled 15 Ms. only today. We-ark-koomt whose people resided on the
 West side of Lewis's river above left us when we determined to pass the
 river and went on to his lodg. the evening was cold and disagreeable,
 and the natives crouded about our fire in great numbers insomuch that
 we could scarcely cook of keep ourselves warm. at all these lodges of
 the Chopunnish I observe an appendage of a small lodg with one fire
 which seems to be the retreat of their women in a certain situation.
 the men are not permitted to approach this lodge within a certain
 distance and if they have any thing to convey to the occupants of this
 little hospital they stand at the distance of 50 or 60 paces and throw
 it towards them as far as they can and retire.
 
 
 [Clark, May 4, 1806]
 Sunday May 4th 1806
 Collected our horses and Set out early; the morning was Cold and
 disagreeable. we assended the Larboard Hill of the Creek and Steared N
 60° E 4 M. through a high leavil plain to a revine which forms the Source
 of a small creek, thence down the Creek N 75° E. 8 Ms. to it's enterance
 into Lewis's river 71/2 ms. below the enterance of Koos koos ke. on the
 river a little above this Creek we arived at a lodge of 6 families of
 which We-ark'-koomt had Spoken. We halted here for brackfast and with
 much dificuelty purchased 2 lean dogs. the inhabitents were miserably
 pore. we obtained a fiew large cakes of half cured bread made of a root
 which resembles the Sweet potatoe, with these we made Some Soope and
 took brackfast. the lands through which we passed to day are fertile
 consisting of a dark rich loam. the hills of the river are high and
 abrupt approaching it nearly on both Sides. no timber in the plains.
 the S. W. Mountains which appear to be about 15 Miles from us Still
 Continue to become lower, they are Covered with Snow at present nearly
 to their bases. Lewis's river appear to pass through those Mountains
 near the N Eastern extremity. those hills termonate in a high leavil
 plain between the Kooskoske & Lewis's river. these plains are in maney
 places well covered with the long leafed pine and Some balsom fir. the
 Soil is extreamly fertile. no does it appear So thirsty as that of the
 Same apparrant texture of the open plains. it produces great quantities
 of the quawmash a root of which the nativs are extreemly fond. a Great
 portion of the Chopunnish we are informed are now distributed in Small
 villages through this plain Collecting the Cowse a white Meley root
 which is very fine in Soup after being dried and pounded; the Salmon
 not yet haveing arived to Call them to the river-. The hills of the
 Creek which we decended this morning are high and in most parts rocky
 and abrupt. one of our pack horses Sliped from one of those hights and
 fell into the Creek with it's load Consisting principally of amunition,
 but fortunately neither the horse nor load Suffered any Matereal
 injury. the ammunition being Secured in Canesters the water did not
 effect it.
 after dinner we Continued our rout up the West Side of the river 3 ms.
 opposit 2 Lodges the one Containing 3 and the other 2 families of the
 Chopunnish Nation; here we met with Te-toh-ar-sky the oldest of the two
 Chiefs who accompanied us last fall to the Great falls of the Columbia.
 here we also met with our old pilot who decended the river with us as
 low as the Columbia these indians recommended our passing the river at
 this place and going up on the N E Side of the Kooskoske. they Sayed it
 was nearer and a better rout to the forks of that river where the
 twisted hair resided in whose charge we had left our horses; thither
 they promised to Conduct us. we determined to take the advise of the
 indians and imediately prepared to pass the river which with the
 assistance of three indian Canoes we effected in the Course of the
 evening, purchased a little Wood, Some Cows bread and encamped, haveing
 traveled 15 miles to day only. We ark koomt whose people reside on the
 West Side of Lewis's river above left us when we deturmined to pass the
 river. before he left us he expressed his concern that his people would
 be deprived of the pleasure of Seeing us at the forks at which place
 they had assimbled to Shew us Sivilities &c. I gave him a Small piece
 of tobacco and he went off Satisfied. the evening was Cold and
 disagreeable, and the nativs Crouded about our fire in great numbers in
 so much that we Could Scercely Cook or keep ourselves worm. at all
 those Lodges of the Chopunnish I observe an appendage of a Small lodge
 with one fire, which Seames to be the retreat of their women in a
 certain Situation. the men are not permited to approach this Lodge
 within a certain distance, and if they have any thing to Convey to the
 Occupents of this little hospital they Stand at the distance of 50 or
 60 paces and throw it towards them as far as they Can and retire.
 
 
 [Lewis, May 5, 1806]
 Monday May 5th 1806.
 Collected our horses and set out at 7 A.M. at 41/2 miles we arrived at
 the entrance of the Kooskooske, up the N. Eastern side of which we
 continued our march 12 ms. to a large lodge of 10 families having
 passed two other large mat lodges the one at 5 and the other at 8 Ms.
 from the mouth of the Kooskooske but not being able to obtain any
 provision at either of those lodges continued our march to the third
 where we arrived at 1 P.M. & with much difficulty obtained 2 dogs and a
 small quanty of root bread and dryed roots. at the second lodge we
 passed an indian man gave Capt. C. a very eligant grey mare for which
 he requested a phial of eye-water which was accordingly given him.
 while we were encamped last fall at the entrance of the Chopunnish
 river Capt. C. gave an indian man some volitile linniment to rub his
 kee and thye for a pain of which he complained, the fellow soon after
 recovered and has never ceased to extol the virtues of our medecines
 and the skill of my friend Capt C. as a phisician. this occurrence
 added to the benefit which many of them experienced from the eyewater
 we gave them about the same time has given them an exalted opinion of
 our medicine. my friend Capt. C. is their favorite phisician and has
 already received many applications. in our present situation I think it
 pardonable to continue this deseption for they will not give us any
 provision without compensation in merchandize and our stock is now
 reduced to a mere handfull. we take care to give them no article which
 can possibly oinjure them. we foud our Chopunnish guide at this lodge
 with his family. the indians brought us Capt. Clark's horse from the
 oposite side of the river and delivered him to us while here. this
 horse had by some accedent seperated from our other horses above and
 had agreeably to indian information been in this neighbourhood for some
 weeks. while at dinner an indian fellow verry impertinently threw a
 poor half starved puppy nearly into my plait by way of derision for our
 eating dogs and laughed very heartily at his own impertinence; I was so
 provoked at his insolence that I caught the puppy and thew it with
 great violence at him and struk him in the breast and face, siezed my
 tomahawk and shewed him by signs if he repeated his insolence I would
 tommahawk him, the fellow withdrew apparently much mortifyed and I
 continued my repast on dog without further molestation. after dinner we
 continued our rout 4 miles to the entrance of Colter's Creek about 1/2
 a mile above the rapid where we sunk the 1st canoe as we decended the
 river last fall. we encamped on the lower side of this creek at a
 little distance from two lodges of the Chopunnish nation having
 traveled 201/2 ms. today. one of these lodges contained eight families,
 the other was much the largest we have yet seen. it is 156 feet long
 and about 15 wide built of mats and straw. in the form of the roof of a
 house having a number of small doors on each side, is closed at the
 ends and without divisions in the intermediate space this lodge
 contained at least 30 families. their fires are kindled in a row in the
 center of the house and about 10 feet assunder.
 all the lodges of these people are formed in this manner. we arrived
 here extreemly hungry and much fatiegued, but no articles of
 merchandize in our possession would induce them to let us have any
 article of provision except a small quantity of bread of cows and some
 of those roots dryed. we had several applications to assist their sick
 which we refused unless they would let us have some dogs or horses to
 eat. a man whose wife had an absess formed on the small of her back
 promised a horse in the morning provided we would administer to her
 accordingly Capt. C. opened the absess introduced a tent and dressed it
 with basilicon; I prepared some dozes of the flour of sulpher and creem
 of tarter which were given with directions to be taken on each morning.
 a little girl and sundry other patients were offered for cure but we
 posponed our operations untill morning; they produced us several dogs
 but they were so poor that they were unfit for use. This is the
 residence of one of 4 principal Cheifs of the nation whom they call
 Neesh-ne,-park-ke-ook or the cut nose from the circumstance of his nose
 being cut by the snake indians with a launce in battle. to this man we
 gave a medal of the small size with the likeness of the President. he
 may be a great cheif but his countenance has but little inteligence and
 his influence among his people seems but inconsiderable. a number of
 indians beside the inhabitants of these lodges geathered about us this
 evening and encamped in the timbered bottom on the creek near us. we
 met with a snake indian man at this place through whome we spoke at
 some length to the natives this evening with rispect to the objects
 which had induced us to visit their country. this address was induced
 at this moment by the suggestions of an old man who observed to the
 natives that he thought we were bad men and had come most probably in
 order to kill them. this impression if really entertained I beleive we
 effaced; they appeared well satisfyed with what we said to them, and
 being hungry and tired we retired to rest at 11 oClock.--We-ark-koomt
 rejoined us this evening. this man has been of infinite service to us
 on several former occasions and through him we now offered our address
 to the natives.
 
 
 [Clark, May 5, 1806]
 Monday May 5th 1806
 Collected our horses and Set out at 7 A M. at 41/2 ms. we arived at the
 enterance of Kooskooske, up the N E. Side of which we continued our
 March 12 Miles to a large lodge of 10 families haveing passed two other
 large mat lodges the one at 5 and the other at 8 Miles from the Mouth
 of the Kooskooske, but not being able to obtain provisions at either of
 those Lodges continued our March to the 3rd where we arived at 1 P.M.
 and with much dificuelty obtained 2 dogs and a Small quantity of bread
 and dryed roots. at the Second Lodge of Eight families Capt L. & my
 self both entered Smoked with a man who appeared to be a principal man.
 as we were about to leave his lodge and proceed on our journey he
 brought foward a very eligant Gray mare and gave her to me, requesting
 Some eye water. I gave him a phial of Eye water a handkerchief and some
 Small articles of which he appeared much pleased-. While we were
 encamped last fall at the enterance of Chopunnish river, I gave an
 Indian man some volitile leniment to rub his knee and thye for a pain
 of which he Complained. the fellow Soon after recovered and have never
 Seased to extol the virtue of our medicines. near the enterance of the
 Kooskooske, as we decended last fall I met with a man, who Could not
 walk with a tumure on his thye. this had been very bad and recovering
 fast. I gave this man a jentle pirge cleaned & dressed his Sore and
 left him Some Casteel Soap to wash the Sore which Soon got well. this
 man also assigned the restoration of his leg to me. those two cures has
 raised my reputation and given those nativs an exolted oppinion of my
 Skill as a phician. I have already received maney applications. in our
 present Situation I think it pardonable to continue this deception for
 they will not give us any provisions without Compensation in
 merchendize, and our Stock is now reduced to a mear handfull. we take
 Care to give them no article which Can possibly injure them. and in
 maney Cases can administer & give Such Medicine & Sergical aid as will
 effectually restore in Simple Cases &c. We found our Chopunnish Guide
 with his family. the Indians brought my horse which was left at the
 place we made Canoes, from the opposit Side and delivered him to me
 while here. this horse had by Some accident Seperated from our other
 horses above, and agreeably to indian information had been in this
 neighbourhood Some weeks. while at dinner an indian fellow very
 impertinently threw a half Starved puppy nearly into the plate of Capt.
 Lewis by way of derision for our eating dogs and laughed very heartily
 at his own impertinence; Capt L.--was So provoked at the insolence that
 he cought the puppy and threw it with great violence at him and Struck
 him in the breast and face, Seazed his tomahawk, and Shewed him by Sign
 that if he repeeted his insolence that he would tomahawk him, the
 fellow withdrew apparently much mortified and we continued our Dinner
 without further Molestation. after dinner we continued our rout 4 miles
 to the enterance of Colter's Creek about 1/2 a mile above the rapid
 where we Sunk the 1st Canoe as we decended the river last fall. We
 encamped on the lower Side of this Creek a little distance from two
 Lodges of the Chopunnish nation haveing traviled 201/2 miles to day one
 of those Lodges Contained 8 families, the other was much the largest we
 have yet seen. it is 156 feet long and about 15 feet wide built of mats
 and Straw, in the form of the roof of a house haveing a number of Small
 dores on each Side, is closed at the ends and without divisions in the
 intermediate Space. this lodge at least 30 families. their fires are
 kindled in a row in the Center of the Lodge and about 10 feet assunder.
 all the Lodges of these people are formed in this manner. we arrived
 here extreemly hungary and much fatigued, but no articles of
 merchindize in our possession would induce them to let us have any
 article of Provisions except a Small quantity of bread of Cows and some
 of those roots dryed. We had Several applications to assist their Sick
 which we refused unless they would let us have Some dogs or horses to
 eat. a man whose wife had an absess formed on the Small of her back
 promised a horse in the morning provided we would administer to her, I
 examined the absess and found it was too far advanced to be cured. I
 told them her case was desperate. agreeably to thir request I opened
 the absess. I then introduced a tent and dressed it with bisilican; and
 prepared Some dozes of the flour of Sulpher and Creem of tarter which
 were given with directions to be taken on each morning. a little girl
 and Sundery other patients were brought to me for Cure but we posponed
 our opperations untill the morning; they produced us Several dogs but
 they were So pore that they were unfit to eat. This is the residence of
 one of four principal Cheafs of the nation whome they call
 Neesh-ne-park-ke-ook or the Cut nose from the circumstance of his nose
 being Cut by the Snake Indians with a launce in battle. to this man we
 gave a Medal of the Small Size with a likeness of the President. he may
 be a great Chief but his Countinance has but little inteligence and his
 influence among his people appears very inconsiderable. a number of
 Indians besides the inhabitents of these Lodges gathered about us this
 evening and encamped in the timbered bottom on the Creek near us. We
 met with a Snake indian man at this place through whome we Spoke at
 Some length to the nativs this evening with respect to the object which
 had enduced us to visit their Country. this address was induced at this
 moment by the Suggestions of an old man who observed to the nativs that
 he thought we were bad men and had Come most probably in order to kill
 them.--this impression if really entertained I believe we effected;
 they appeared well Satisfied with what we Said to them, and being
 hungary and tired we retired to rest at 11 oClock.--We-ark-koomt
 rejoined us this evening. this man has been of infinate Service to us
 on Several former occasions and through him we now offered our address
 to the nativs-.
 
 
 [Lewis, May 6, 1806]
 Tuesday May 6th 1806.
 This morning the husband of the sick woman was as good as his word, he
 produced us a young horse in tolerable order which we immediately
 killed and butchered. the inhabitants seemed more accomodating this
 morning; they sold us some bread. we received a second horse for
 medecine and prescription for a little girl with the rheumatism. Capt.
 C. dressed the woman again this morning who declared that she had
 rested better last night than she had since she had been sick. sore
 eyes is an universal complaint with all the natives we have seen on the
 west side of the Rocky mountains. Capt. C. was busily engaged for
 several hours this morning in administering eye-water to a croud of
 applicants. we once more obtained a plentifull meal, much to the
 comfort of all the party. I exchanged horses with We-ark'-koomt and
 gave him a small flag with which he was much gratifyed. the sorrel I
 obtained is an eligant strong active well broke horse perfictly
 calculated for my purposes. at this place we met with three men of a
 nation called the Skeets-so-mish who reside at the falls of a large
 river disharging itself into the Columbia on it's East side to the
 North of the entrance of Clark's river. this river they informed us
 headed in a large lake in the mountains and that the falls below which
 they resided was at no great distance from the lake. these people are
 the same in their dress and appearance with the Chopunnish, tho their
 language is intirely different a circumstance which I did not learn
 untill we were about to set out and it was then too late to take a
 vocabulary. The river here called Clark's river is that which we have
 heretofore called the Flathead river, I have thus named it in honour of
 my worthy friend and fellow traveller Capt. Clark. for this stream we
 know no indian name and no whiteman but ourselves was ever on it's
 principal branches. the river which Fidler calls the great lake river
 may possibly be a branch of it but if so it is but a very
 inconsiderable branch and may as probably empty itself into the
 Skeetssomish as into that river. the stream which I have heretofore
 called Clark's river has it's three principal sources in mountains
 Hood, Jefferson & the Northern side of the S. W. Mountains and is of
 course a short river. this river I shall in future call the
 To-wannahiooks river it being the name by which it is called by the
 Eneshur nation. The Kooskooske river may be safely navigated at present
 all the rocks of the shoals and rapids are perfectly covered; the
 current is strong, the water clear and cold. this river is rising
 fast.The timber of this river which consists principally of the long
 leafed pine commences about 2 miles below our present camp on Colter's
 Creek. it was two oclock this evening before we could collect our
 horses. at 3 P.M. we set out accompanyed by the brother of the twisted
 hair and We arkkoomt. I directed the horse which we had obtained for
 the purpose of eating to be led as it was yet unbroke, in performing
 this duty a quarrel ensued between Drewyer and Colter. we continued our
 march this evening along the river 9 miles to a lodge of 6 families,
 built of sticks mats & dryed hay in the same form of those heretofore
 discribed. we passed a lodge of 3 families at 4 ms. on the road. no
 provision of any discription was to be obtained of these people. a
 little after dark our young horse broke the rope by which he was
 confined and made his escape much to the chagrine of all who
 recollected the keenness of their appetites last evening. the brother
 of the twisted hair and Wearkkoomt with 10 or 12 others encamped with
 us this evening.-
 the natives have a considerable salmon fishery up Colter's Creek. this
 stream extends itself to the pirs of the rocky mountain and in much the
 greater part of it's course passes through a well timbered pine country
 it is 25 yds. wide and discharges a large body of water. the banks low
 and bed formed of pebbles.--had a small shower of rain this evening.
 
 
 [Clark, May 6, 1806]
 Tuesday May 6th 1806
 This morning the Susband of the Sick woman was as good as his word. he
 produced us a young horse in tolerable order which we imedeately had
 killed and butchered. the inhabitents Seemed more accommodating this
 morning. they Sold us Some bread. we received a Second horse for
 Medecine & procription to a little girl with the rhumitism whome I had
 bathed in worm water, and anointed her a little with balsom Capivia. I
 dressed the woman again this morning who declared that She had rested
 better last night than She had Since She had been sick. Sore Eyes is an
 universal Complaint among all the nations which we have Seen on the
 West Side of the rocky Mountains. I was busily imployed for several
 hours this morning in administering eye water to a Croud of applicants.
 we once more obtained a plentiful meal, much to the Comfort of all the
 party. Capt Lewis exchanged horses with We ark koomt and gave him a
 small flag with which he was much pleased and gratifyed. the Sorrel
 which Cap L. obtained is a Strong active well broke horse-. At this
 place we met with three men of a nation Called the Skeetsso-mish who
 reside at the falls of a Small river dischargeing itself into the
 Columbia on its East Side to the South of the enterance of Clarks
 river. this river they informed us headed in a large lake in the
 mountains and that the falls below which they reside was at no great
 distance from the lake. these people are the Same in their dress and
 appearance with the Chopunnish, tho their language is entirely
 different. one of them gave me his whip which was a twisted Stick 18
 Ins. in length at one end a pice of raw hide Split So as to form two
 Strings about 20 inches in length as a lash, to the other end a String
 passed through a hole and fastened at each end for a loope to Slip over
 the wrist. I gave in return for this whip a fathom of narrow binding.
 The River here Calld. Clarks river is that which we have heretofore
 Called Flathead river. Capt. Lewis has thought proper to Call this
 after myself for this Stream we know no Indhan name and no white man
 but our Selves was ever on this river. The river which Fiddler call's
 the great Lake river may possiably be a branch of it, but if So it is
 but a very inconsiderable branch, and may as probably empty itself into
 the Columbia above as into Clarks river. the Stream which the party has
 heretofore Called Clarks river imedeately above the great falls, has
 it's three principal branches in Mountains Jefferson, Hood and the
 Northern Side of the S. W. Mountains and is of course a Short river.
 this river is Called by the Skillutes & Eneshure Nations Towannahhiooks
 which is also the name they Call those bands of Snake indians who Come
 on this river every Spring to Catch the Salmon-. The Kooskooske river
 may be Safely navigated at present all the rocks of the Sholes and
 rapids are perfectlly Covered; the Current is Strong, the water Clear
 and Cold. this river is riseing fast-. The timber of this river which
 consists principally of the long leafed pine which commences about 2
 miles below our present encampment on Colters Creek. it was 2 P M. this
 evening before we could collect our horses. at 3 P M. we Set out
 accompanied by the brother of the twisted hair and We-ark-koomt. we
 derected the horse which I had obtained for the purpose of eateing to
 be led as it was unbroke, in performing this duty a quarrel ensued
 between Drewyer and Colter-. We Continued our march along the river on
 its North Side 9 miles to a lodge of 6 families built of Sticks mats
 and dryed Hay. of the Same form of those heretofore discribed. we
 passed a Lodge of 3 families at 4 ms. on the river, no provisions of
 any discription was to be obtained of these people. a little after dark
 our young horse broke the rope by which he was Confined and made his
 escape much to the chagrine of all who recollected the keenness of
 their appetites last evening. the brother of the twisted hair &
 wearkkoomt with 10 others encamped with us this evening
 The nativs have a Considerable Salmon fishery up Colters Creek. this
 Stream extends itself to the Spurs of the Rocky Mountain and in much
 the greater part of its Course passes through a well timbered pine
 Country. it is 25 yds. wide and discharges a large body of water. the
 banks low and bead formed of pebbles-. had a Small Shower of rain this
 evening. The Chopunnish about the Mouth of the Kooskooske bury their
 dead on Stoney hill Sides generally, and as I was informed by an Indian
 who made Signs that they made a hole in the Grown by takeing away the
 Stones and earth where they wished to deposit the dead body after which
 they laid the body which was previously raped in a robe and Secured
 with Cords. over the body they placed Stones So as to form a Sort of
 arch on the top of which they put Stones and earth So as to Secure the
 body from the wolves and birds &c. they Sometimes inclose the grave
 with a kind of Sepulcher like the roof of a house formed of the canoes
 of the disceased. they also Sacrifice the favorite horses of the
 disceased. the bones of many of which we See on and about the graves.
 
 
 [Lewis, May 7, 1806]
 Wednesday May 7th 1806.
 This morning we collected our horses and set out early accompanyed by
 the brother of the twisted hair as a guide; Wearkkoomt and his party
 left us. we proceeded up the river 4 miles to a lodge of 6 families
 just below the entrance of a small creek, here our guide recommended
 our passing the river. he informed us that the road was better on the
 South side and that game was more abundant also on that side near the
 entrance of the Chopunnish river. we determined to pursue the rout
 recommended by the guide and accordingly unloaded our horses and
 prepared to pass the river which we effected by means of one canoe in
 the course of 4 hours. a man of this lodge produced us two canisters of
 powder which he informed us he had found by means of his dog where they
 had been buried in a bottom near the river some miles above, they were
 the same which we had buryed as we decended the river last fall. as he
 had kept them safe and had honesty enough to return them to us we gave
 him a fire steel by way of compensation. during our detention at the
 river we took dinner, after which or at 3 P.M. we renewed our march
 along the river about 2 ms. over a difficult stony road, when we left
 the river and asscended the hills to the wright which are here
 mountains high. the face of the country when you have once ascended the
 river hills is perfectly level and partially covered with the
 longleafed pine. the soil is a dark rich loam thickly covered with
 grass and herbatious plants which afford a delightfull pasture for
 horses. in short it is a beautifull fertile and picteresque country.
 Neeshneparkeeook overtook us and after riding with us a few miles
 turned off to the wright to visit some lodges of his people who he
 informed me were geathering roots in the plain at a little distance
 from the road. our guide conducted us through the plain and down a
 steep and lengthey hill to a creek which we called Musquetoe Creek in
 consequence of being infested with swarms of those insects on our
 arrival at it. this is but an inconsiderable stream about 6 yds. wide
 heads in the plains at a small distance and discharges itself into the
 Kooskooke 9 miles by water below the entrance of the Chopunnish river.
 we struck this creek at the distance of 5 ms. from the point at which
 we left the river our cours being a little to the S. of East. ascending
 the creek one mile on the S. E. side we arrived at an indian incampment
 of six lodges which appeared to have been recently evacuated. here we
 remained all night having traveled 12 miles only. the timbered country
 on this side of the river may be said to commence near this creek, and
 on the other side of the river at a little distance from it the timber
 reaches as low as Colter's Creek. the earth in many parts of these
 plains is thrown up in little mounds by some animal whose habits are
 similar to the Sallemander, like that animal it is also invisible;
 notwithstanding I have observed the work of this animal thoughout the
 whole course of my long tract from St. Louis to the Pacific ocean I
 have never obtained a view of this animal. the Shoshone man of whom I
 have before made mention evertook us this evening with Neeshneparkeeook
 and remained with us this evening.--we suped this evening as we had
 dined on horse-beef. we saw several deer this evening and a great
 number of the tracks of these animals we determined to remain here
 untill noon tomorrow in order to obtain some venison and accordingly
 gave orders to the hunters to turn out early in the morning.--he Spurs
 of the rocky Mountains which were in view from the high plain today
 were perfectly covered with snow. the Indians inform us that the snow
 is yet so deep on the mountains that we shall not be able to pass them
 untill the next full moon or about the first of June; others set the
 time at still a more distant period. this unwelcom inteligence to men
 confined to a diet of horsebeef and roots, and who are as anxious as we
 are to return to the fat plains of the Missouri and thence to our
 native homes. The Chopunnish bury their dead in Sepulchres formed of
 boards like the roofs of houses. the corps is rolled in skins and laid
 on boards above the surface of the earth. they are laid in several teer
 one over another being seperated by a board only above and below from
 other corps. I did observe some instances where the body was laid in an
 indifferent woden box which was placed among other carcased rolled in
 skin in the order just mentioned. they sacrifice horses canoes and
 every other speceis of property to their ded. the bones of many horses
 are seen laying about those sepulchres. this evening was cold as usual.
 
 
 [Clark, May 7, 1806]
 Wednesday May 7th 1806
 This morning we collected our horses and Set out early accompanied by
 the brother of the twisted hair as a guide; Wearkkoomt and his party
 left us. we proceeded up the river 4 miles to a lodge of 6 families
 just below the enterance of a Small Creek, here our guide recommended
 our passing the river, he informed us that the road was better on the
 South Side, and that game was more abundant also on that Side near the
 enterance of Chopunnish river. we deturmined to pursue the rout
 recommended by the guide, and accordingly unloaded our horses and
 prepared to pass the river which we effected by means of one Canoe in
 the Course of 4 hours. a man of this lodge produced us two Canisters of
 Powder which he informed us he had found by means of his dog where they
 had been berried in the bottom near the river a fiew miles above. they
 were the Same which we had burried as we decended the river last fall.
 as he had kept them Safe and had honisty enough to return them to us,
 we gave him a fire Steel by way of Compensation. dureing our detention
 at the river we took dinner. after which we renewed our march along the
 S. E. Side of the river about 2 miles over a dificuelt Stoney road,
 when we left the river and assended the hills to the right which are
 here mountains high. the face of the Country when you have once
 assended the river hills, is perfectly level and partially Covered with
 the long leafed pine. the Soil is a dark rich loam, thickly Covered
 with grass and herbatious plants which afford a delightfull pasture for
 horses. in Short it is a butifull fertile picteresque Country.
 Neeshneparkeeook over took us and after rideing with us a fiew miles
 turned off to the right to visit some lodges of his people who he
 informed us were gathering roots in the plains at a little distance
 from the road. our guide Conducted us through the plain and down a
 Steep and lengthy hill to a Creek which we Call Musquetoe Creek in
 consequence of being infested with Sworms of those insects on our
 arival at it. this is but an inconsiderable Stream about 6 yards wide
 heads in the plains at a Short distance and discharges itself into the
 Kooskooske 9 ms. by water below the forks. we Struck this Creek at the
 distance of 5 miles from the point at which we left the river our
 course being a little to the S. of East. we proceeded up the Creek one
 Mile and on the S. E. Side we arived at an old Indian incampment of Six
 Lodges which appeared to have been recently evacuated. here we remained
 all night haveing traveled 12 ms. only. the timbered Country on this
 Side of the river may be Said to Commence a Short distance below this
 Creek, and on the other Side of the river at a little distance from it
 the timber reaches as low as Colter's Creek. the earth in maney parts
 of those plains is thown up in little mounds by Some animal whose
 habits are Similar to the Sallemander, like that animal it is also
 invisible; notwithstanding I have observed the work of this animal
 throughout the whole course of my trail from St. Louis to the Pacific
 Ocian, I have never obtained a View of this animal. The Shoshone man of
 whome I have before mentioned over took us this evening with Neesh
 neparkeeook or Cut nose and remained with us this evening. we Suped
 this evening as we had done on horse beef. we Saw Several deer this
 evening, and a great number of the tracks of these animals we
 deturmined to remain here untill noon tomorrow in order to obtain some
 venison, and accordingly gave orders to the hunters to turn out early
 in the morning. The Spurs of the rocky mountains which were in view
 from the high plain to day were perfectly Covered with Snow. The
 Indians inform us that the Snow is yet So deep on the Mountains that we
 Shall not be able to pass them untill after the next full moon or about
 the first of June. others Set the time at a more distant period. this
 unwelcom intiligence to men confined to a diet of horsebeef and roots,
 and who are as anxious as we are to return to the fat plains of the
 Missouri, and thence to our native homes. The Chopunnish bury their
 dead in different ways as I have obseved, besides that already
 discribed they scaffold Some and deposit others in Sepulchers, those
 are rearly to be Seen in this upper part of the Columbian Waters. the
 one already discribed is the most Common. they all Sacrifice horses,
 Canoes and every Species of property to the dead. the bones of maney
 horses are Seen lyeing about those repositaries of the dead &c.-.
 I observed in all the Lodges which we have passed Since we Crossed
 Lewis's river decoys, or Stocking heads as they are Sometimes called.
 these decoys are for the deer and is formed of the Skin of the head and
 upper portion of the neck of that animale extended in the nateral Shape
 by means of a fiew little Sticks placed within. the hunter when he Sees
 a deer conseals himself and with his hand givs to the decoy the action
 of a deer at feed, and this induces the deer within arrowshot; in this
 mode the Indians near the woody country hunt on foot in Such places
 where they cannot pursue the deer with horses which is their favourite
 method when the grounds will permit-.-. The orniments worn by the
 Chopunnish are, in their nose a Single Shell of wampom, the pirl &
 beeds are Suspended from the ears. beads are worn arround their wrists,
 neck and over their Sholders crosswise in the form of a double Sash-.
 the hair of the men is Cewed in two rolls which hang on each side in
 front of the body. Collars of bears Claws are also Common; but the
 article of dress on which they appear to bestow most pains and
 orniments is a kind of collar or brestplate; this is most Commonly a
 Strip of otter skins of about Six inches Wide taken out of the Center
 of the Skin it's whole length including the head. this is dressed with
 the hair on, this is tied around the neck & hangs in front of the body
 the tail frequently reaching below their knees; on this Skin in front
 is attatched pieces of pirl, beeds, wampom, pices of red Cloth and in
 Short whatever they conceive most valuable or ornamental-.-.
 
 
 [Lewis, May 8, 1806]
 Thursday May 8th 1806.
 Most of the hunters turned out by light this morning a few others
 remained without our permission or knoledge untill late in the morning,
 we chid them severely for their indolence and inattention to the order
 of last evening. about 8 OCk. Sheilds returned with a small deer on
 which we breakfasted. by 11 A.M. all our hunters returned, Drewyer and
 Cruzatte brought each a deer, Collins wounded another which my dog
 caught at a little distance from the camp. our stock of provision now
 consisted of 4 deer and the remnant of the horse which we killed at
 Colter's Creek. Sheilds killed a duck of an uncommon kind. the head
 beak and wing of which I preserved. the beak is remarkably wide and
 obtusely pointed, on it's edges it is furnished with a sceries of teeth
 very long and fine not unlike the teeth of a comb. the belley is of a
 brick red, the lower part of the neck white, the upper part or but of
 the wing is a sky blue, underneath which a narrow stripe of white
 succeeds marking the wing transversly, the large feathers are of a dark
 colour. tail short and pointed and consists of 12 dark brown feathers.
 the back is black and sides white; legs yellow and feet formed like the
 Duckinmallard which it also resembles in size and form. the eye is
 moderately large, puple black and iris of an orrange colour. the
 colours and appearance of the female is precisely that of the
 duckinmallard only, reather smaller. we are informed that the natives
 in this quarter were much distressed for food in the course of the last
 winter; they were compelled to collect the moss which grows on the pine
 which they boiled and eat; near this camp I observed many pine trees
 which appear to have been cut down about that season which they inform
 us was done in order to collect the seed of the longleafed pine which
 in those moments of distress also furnishes an article of food; the
 seed of this speceis of pine is about the size and much the shape of
 the seed of the large sunflower; they are nutricious and not unpleasent
 when roasted or boiled, during this month the natives also peal this
 pine and eat the succulent or inner bark. in the creek near our
 encampment I observed a falling trap constructed on the same plan with
 those frequent seen in the atlantic states for catching the fish
 decending the stream Capt. C. took several small trout from this trap.
 Neesh-ne-park-kee-ook and several other indians joined us this morning.
 we gave this cheif and the indians with us some venison, horsebeef, the
 entrels of the four deer, and four fawns which were taken from two of
 the does that were killed, they eat none of their food raw, tho the
 entrals had but little preperation and the fawns were boiled and
 consumed hair hide and entrals. these people sometimes eat the flesh of
 the horse tho they will in most instances suffer extreem hunger before
 they will kill their horses for that purpose, this seems reather to
 proceede from an attatchment to this animal, than a dislike to it's
 flesh for I observe many of them eat very heartily of the horsebeef
 which we give them. The Shoshone man was displeased because we did not
 give him as much venison as he could eat and in consequence refused to
 interpret, we took no further notice of him and in the course of a few
 hours he became very officious and seemed anxious to reinstate himself
 in our good opinons. the relation of the twisted hair and
 Neeshneparkkeook gave us a sketch of the principall watercourses West
 of the Rocky Mountains a copy of which I preserved; they make the main
 Southwardly branch of Lewis's river much more extensive than the other,
 and place many villages of the Shoshonees on it's western side. at half
 after 3 P.M. we departed; for the lodge of the Twisted hair accompanyed
 by the Cheif and sundry other indians. the relation of the twisted hair
 left us. the road led us up a steep and high hill to a high and level
 plain mostly untimbered, through which we passed parrallel with the
 river about 4 miles when we met the Twisted hair and a party of six
 men. to this Cheif we had confided the care of our horses and a part of
 our saddles when we decended the river last fall. the Twisted hair
 received us very coolly an occurrence as unexpected as it was
 unaccountable to us. he shortly began to speak with a loud voice and in
 a angry manner, when he had ceased to speak he was answered by the
 Cutnose Cheif or Neeshneparkkeook; we readily discovered that a violet
 quarrel had taken place between these Cheifs but at that instant knew
 not the cause; we afterwards learnt that it was on the subject of our
 horses. this contreversy between the cheifs detained us about 20
 minutes; in order to put an end to this dispute as well as to releive
 our horses from the embarasment of their loads, we informed the Cheifs
 that we should continue our march to the first water and encamp
 accordingly we moved on and the Indians all followed. about two miles
 on the road we arrived at a little branch which run to the wright. here
 we encamped for the evening having traveled 6 miles today. the two
 cheifs with their little bands formed seperate camps at a short
 distance from ours, they all appeared to be in an ill humour. we had
 been informed some days since that the natives had discovered the
 deposit of our saddles and taken them away and that our horses were
 much scattered. we were very anxious to learn the particulars or truth
 of these reports from the twisted hair, as it must in some measure
 govern us in the establishment of our perminent camp which in
 consequence of our detention by the snow of the mountains has become
 necessary. to obtain our horses and saddles as quickly as possible is
 our wish, and we are somewhat apprehensive that this difference which
 has taken place between these Chiefs may millitate against our
 operations in this rispect. we were therefore desireous to bring about
 a good understanding between them as soon as possible. The Shoshone boy
 refused to speak, he aledged it was a quarrel between two Cheifs and
 that he had no business with it; it was in vain that we urged that his
 interpreting what we said on this subject was not taking the responsibil
 ity of the inteference on himself, he remained obstenately silent.
 about an hour after we had encamped Drewyer returned from hunting we
 sent him to the Twisted hair to make some enquiries relative to our
 horses and saddles and to ask him to come and smoke with us. The
 Twisted hair accepted the invitation and came to our fire. The twisted
 hair informed us that accordingly to the promis he had made us when he
 seperated from us at the falls of the Columbia he collected our horses
 on his return and took charge of them, that about this time the Cutnose
 or Neeshneparkkeook and Tun-nach'-emoo-tools or the broken arm returned
 from a war excurtion against the Shoshonees on the South branch of
 Lewis's river which had caused their absence when we were in this
 neighbourhood. that these men became dissatisfyed with him in
 consequence of our having confided the horses to his care and that they
 were eternally quarreling with him insomuch that he thought it best as
 he was an old man to relinquish any further attention to the horses,
 that they had consequently become scattered; that most of the horses
 were near this place, a part were in the forks between the Chopunnish
 and Kooskooske rivers and three or four others were at the lodge of the
 broken Arm about half a days march higher up the river. he informed us
 with rispect to our saddles that on the rise of the water this spring
 the earth had fallen from the door of the cash and exposed the saddles,
 he being informed of their situation had taken them up and placed them
 in another cash where they were at this time; he said it was probable
 that a part of them had fallen into the water but of this he was not
 certain. The Twisted hair said if we would spend the day tomorrow at
 his lodge which was a few miles only from hence and on the road leading
 to the Broken arm's lodge, he would collect such of our horses as were
 near this place and our saddles, that he would also send some young men
 over the Kooskooske to collect those in the forks and bring them to the
 lodge of the broken Arm to met us. he advised us to go to the lodge of
 the broken Arm as he said he was a Cheif of great emenence among them,
 and promised to accompany us thither if we wished him. we told him that
 we should take his advice in every particular, that we had confided the
 horses to his care and expected that he would collect them and deliver
 them to us which when he performed we should pay him the two guns and
 amunition we had promised him for that service. he seemed much pleased
 and promised his utmost exertions. we sent Drewyer to the Cutnose who
 also came to our fire and smoked with ourselves and the Twisted hair we
 took occasion in the course of the evening to express our regret that
 there should be a misunderstanding between these Cheifs; the Cutnose
 told us in the presents of the Twisted hair that he the twisted hair
 was a bad old man that he woar two faces, that in stead of taking care
 of our horses as he had promised us that he had suffered his young men
 to ride them hunting and had injured them very much; that this was the
 cause why himself and the Broken arm had forbid his using them. the
 other made no reply. we informed the Cutnose of our intention of
 spending tomorrow at the Twisted hair's lodge in order to collect our
 horses and saddles and that we should proceede the next day to the
 Broken Arm's lodge, he appeared well satisfyed with this arrangement
 and said he would continue with us, and would give us any assistance in
 his power; he said he knew the broken arm expected us at his lodge and
 that he had two bad horses for us, metaphorically speaking a present of
 two good horses. he said the broken arm had learnt our want of
 provision and had sent four of his young men with a supply to meet us
 but that they had taken a different road and had missed us.--about 10
 P.M. our guests left us and we layed down to rest.
 
 
 [Clark, May 8, 1806]
 Thursday 8th of May 1806.
 This morning our hunters was out by the time it was light. about 8
 oClock Shields brought in a Small deer, on which we brackfast by 11
 A.M. all our hunters returned Drewyer & P. Crusat brought in a Deer
 each & Collins wounded one which our Dog Caught near our Camp. Total of
 our Stock of provisions 4 deer & Some horse flesh. on the Small Creek
 which passes our Camp, the nativs have laterly encamped and as we are
 informed have been much distressed for provisions, they have fallen a
 number of Small pine in the vicinity of this Encampment for the Seed
 which is in the bur of which they eate. we are informed that they were
 Compelled to Collect the moss off the pine boil & eate it in the latter
 part of the last Winter. on the Creek near our Camp I observed a kind
 of trap which was made with great panes to catch the Small fish which
 pass down with the Stream This was a dam formed of Stone So as to
 Collect the water in a narrow part not exceeding 3 feet wide from which
 place the water Shot with great force and Scattered through Some Small
 willows Closely connected and fastened with bark. this mat of willow
 Switches was about 4 feet wide and 6 long lying in a horozontal
 position, fastened at the extremety. the Small fish which fell on those
 willows was washed on the Willows where they untill taken off &c. I
 cought or took off those willows 9 Small trout from 3 to 7 Inches in
 length. Soon after I returned from the fishery an Indian came from a
 fishery of a Similar kind a little above with 12 Small fish which he
 offered me which I declined axcepting as I found from his Signs that
 his house was a Short distance above, and that those fisheries afforded
 the principal part of the food for his Children. The Great Chief of the
 Bands below who has a cut nose joined us this morning. we gave the
 interals with 4 young fauns which was in two of the deer killed to day
 to the Indians also some of our deer & horse flesh. the Paunch of the
 deer they eate without any preperation further than washing them a
 little. the fauns they boiled and eate every part of them even the
 Skins with the hair. The Snake Indian was much displeased that he was
 not furnished with as much Deer as he could eate. he refused to Speake
 to the wife of Shabono, through whome we Could understand the nativs.
 we did not indulge him and in the after part of the day he Came too and
 Spoke verry well. one of the Indians drew me a Sketch of the river (See
 the latter part of this book) in this Sketch he makes the 1st large
 Southerly fork of Lewis's river much the longest and on which great
 numbers of the Snake Indians reside &c. at ____ P.M. we loaded up and
 Set on on the roade leading as we were informed to the lodge of the
 twisted hair, the Chief in whoes Care we had left our horses. we were
 accompanied by the Cut nose Chief our old Chief who had accompanied us
 down the river and Several men. we assended the hills which was Steep
 and emencely high to a leavel rich Country thinly timbered with pine.
 we had not proceeded more than 4 miles before we met the twisted hair
 and Several men meeting of us. we were verry coolly recved by the
 twisted hair. he Spoke aloud and was answered by the Cut Nose. we Could
 not learn what they Said. but plainly discovered that a
 missunderstanding had taken place between them. we made Signs to them
 that we Should proceed on to the next water and encamp. accordingly I
 set out and they all followed. we had not proceeded far before the road
 Crossed a Small handsom Stream on which we encamped. The parties of
 those two Chiefs took different positions at Some distance from each
 other and all appeared Sulkey. after we had formed our Camp we Sent
 Drewyer with a pipe to Smoke with the twisted hair and lern the Cause
 of the dispute between him and the Cut nose, and also to invite him to
 our fire to Smoke with us. The twisted hair came to our fire to Smoke
 we then Sent drewyer to the Cut Noses fire with the Same directions. he
 returned and informed us that the Cut nose Said he would join us in a
 fiew minits. it appears that the Cause of the quarrel between those two
 men is about our horses. and we cannot lern the particulars of this
 quarrel which probably originated through jelousy on the part of the
 Cut nose who blames the twisted hair for Suffer our horses to be rode,
 and want water dureing the Winter &c. twisted hair Says the horses were
 taken from him &c. The Cut nose joined us in a Short time We Smoked
 with all the party of both Chiefs, and told them that we were Sorry to
 find them at varience with each other the cut nose said that the
 twisted hair was a bad man and wore two fases, that he had not taken
 care of our horses as was expected. that himself an the broken arm had
 Caused our horses to be Watered in the winter and had them drove
 together, and that if we would proceed on to the village of the great
 Chief whome we had left a flag last fall the broken arm he would Send
 for our horses, that he had himself three of them. he also informed us
 that the great Chief hering of our distressed Situation had Sent his
 Son and 4 men to meet us and have us furnished on the way &c. that the
 young men had missed us and Could never over take us untill this time.
 that the great chief had 2 bad horses for us and expected us to go to
 his lodge which was near the river and about half a days march above
 &c. The twisted hair told us that he wished to Smoke with us at his
 lodge which was on the road leading to the Great Chiefs lodge, and but
 a fiew miles a head. if we would delay at his lodge tomorrow he would
 go after our Saddles and horses which was near the place we made our
 Canoes last fall. we deturmined to Set out early in the morning and
 proceed on to the lodge of the twisted hair and Send for our Saddles
 and powder which we had left burried mear the forks. and the day after
 tomorrow to proceed on to the lodge of the Grand Chief. accordingly we
 informed the Indians of our intentions. we all Smoked and conversed
 untill about 10 P M. the Indians retired and we lay down. Derected 5
 hunters to turn out early in the morning to hunt and meet us at the
 twisted hair's lodge.
 
 
 [Lewis, May 9, 1806]
 Friday May 9th 1806.
 We sent out several hunters early this morning with instructions to
 meet us at the lodge of the Twisted hair. Collecting our horses
 detained us untill 9 A.M. when we charged our packhorses and set out.
 our rout lay through a level rich country similar to that of yesterday;
 at the distance of 6 miles we arrived at the lodge of the twisted hair;
 this habitation was built in the usual form with sticks mats and dryed
 hay, and contained 2 firs and about 12 persons. even at this small
 habitation there was an appendage of the soletary lodge, the retreat of
 the tawny damsels when nature causes them to be driven into coventry;
 here we halted as had been previously concerted, and one man with 2
 horses accompayed the twisted hair to the canoe camp, about 4 ms. in
 quest of the saddles. the Twisted hair sent two young men in surch of
 our horses agreeably to his promis. The country along the rocky
 mountains for several hundred miles in length and about 50 in width is
 level extreemly fertile and in many parts covered with a tall and open
 growth of the longleafed pine. near the watercouses the hills are steep
 and lofty tho are covered with a good soil not remarkably stony and
 possess more timber than the level country. the bottom lands on the
 watercourses are reather narrow and confined tho fertile & seldom
 inundated. this country would form an extensive settlement; the climate
 appears quite as mild as that of similar latitude on the Atlantic coast
 if not more so and it cannot be otherwise than healthy; it possesses a
 fine dry pure air. the grass and many plants are now upwards of knee
 high. I have no doubt but this tract of country if cultivated would
 produce in great abundance every article essentially necessary to the
 comfort and subsistence of civillized man. to it's present inhabitants
 nature seems to have dealt with a liberal hand, for she has distributed
 a great variety of esculent plants over the face of the country which
 furnish them a plentiful) store of provision; these are acquired with
 but little toil, and when prepared after the method of the natives
 afford not only a nutricious but an agreeable food. among other roots
 those called by them the Quawmash and Cows are esteemed the most
 agreeable and valuable as they are also the most abundant. the cows is
 a knobbed root of an irregularly rounded form not unlike the Gensang in
 form and consistence. this root they collect, rub of a thin black rhind
 which covers it and pounding it expose it in cakes to the sun. these
 cakes ate about an inch and 1/4 thick and 6 by 18 in width, when dryed
 they either eat this bread alone without any further preperation, or
 boil it and make a thick muselage; the latter is most common and much
 the most agreeable. the flavor of this root is not very unlike the
 gensang.--this root they collect as early as the snows disappear in the
 spring and continue to collect it until) the quawmash supplys it's
 place which happens about the latter end of June. the quawmash is also
 collected for a few weaks after it first makes it's appearance in the
 spring, but when the scape appears it is no longer fit for use untill
 the seed are ripe which happens about the time just mentioned, and then
 the cows declines. the latter is also frequently dryed in the sun and
 pounded afterwards and then used in making soope.--I observed a few
 trees of the larch and a few small bushes of the balsam fir near the
 lodge of the Twisted hair. at 2 P.M. our hunters joined us Drewyer
 killed a deer but lost it in the river. a few pheasants was the produce
 of the hunt. we procured a few roots of cows of which we made scope.
 late in the evening The Twisted hair and Willard returned; they brought
 about half of our saddles, and some powder and lead which had been
 buried at that place. my saddle was among the number of those which
 were lost. about the same time the young men arrived with 21 of our
 horses. the greater part of our horses were in fine order. five of them
 appeared to have been so much injured by the indians riding them last
 fall that they had not yet recovered and were in low order. three
 others had soar backs. we had these horses caught and hubbled. the
 situation of our camp was a disagreeable one in an open plain; the wind
 blew violently and was cold. at seven P.M. it began to rain and hail,
 at 9 it was succeeded by a heavy shower of snow which continued untill
 the next morning.--several indians joined us this evening from the
 village of the broken arm or Tunnachemootoolt and continued all night.
 The man who had imposed himself on us as a relation of the twisted hair
 rejoined us this evening we found him an impertinent proud supercilious
 fellow and of no kind of rispectability in the nation, we therefore did
 not indulge his advances towards a very intimate connection. The
 Cutnose lodged with the twisted hair I beleive they have become good
 friends again. several indians slept about us.
 
 
 [Clark, May 9, 1806]
 Friday 9th May 1806
 The hunters Set out very early agreeable to their derections. we were
 detained untill 9 A.M. for our horses which were much Scattered at
 which time we Collected our horses and Set out and proceeded on through
 a butifull open rich Country for 6 miles to the Camp of the twisted
 hair. this Campment is formed of two Lodges built in the usial form of
 mats and Straw. the largest and principal Lodge is Calculated for 2
 fires only and Contains about ____ persons. the Second lodge is Small &
 appears to be intended for the Sick women who always retire to a
 Seperate lodge when they have the ____ this Custom is Common to all the
 nations on this river as well as among all other Indian nations with
 whom I am acquainted. at the distance of 2 miles we passd. a lodge of 2
 fires on a fork of the road which leads to the right Situated on a
 Small branch which falls into Musquetor Creek. before 2 P M all our
 hunters joined us haveing killed only one deer which was lost in the
 river and a pheasent. Soon after we halted at the lodge of the twisted
 hair he Set out with two boys and Willard with a pack horse down to the
 river near the place we made the Canoes for our Saddles and a Cannister
 of powder and Some lead buried there, also a part of our horses which
 resorted near that place. late in the evening they returned with 21 of
 our horse and about half of our Saddles with the powder and ball. The
 greater part of the horses were in fine order, tho five of them had
 been rode & worsted in Such a manner last fall by the Inds. that they
 had not recovered and are in very low order, and 3 with Sore backs. we
 had all the recovered horses Cought & hobbled. we precured Some pounded
 roots of which a Supe was made thick on which we Suped. the wind blew
 hard from the S. W. accompanied with rain untill from 7 oClock untill 9
 P.M. when it began to Snow and Continued all night. Several Indians
 Came from the village of the Chief with whome we had left a flag and
 Continued with us all night. they slept in the house of the twisted
 hair and two of them along Side of us.
 
 
 [Lewis, May 10, 1806]
 Saturday May 10th 1806.
 This morning the snow continued falling 1/2 after 6 A.M. when it
 ceased, the air keen and cold, the snow 8 inches deep on the plain; we
 collected our horses and after taking a scant breakfast of roots we set
 out for the village of Tunnachemootoolt; our rout lay through an open
 plain course S. 35 E. and distance 16 ms. the road was slippery and the
 snow clogged to the horses feet, and caused them to trip frequently.
 the mud at the sources of the little ravines was deep black and well
 supplyed with quawmash. Drewyer turned off to the left of the road in
 order to hunt and did not join us this evening. at 4 in the afternoon
 we decended the hills to Commearp Creek and arrived at the Village of
 Tunnachemootoolt, the cheeif at whos lodge we had left a flag last
 fall. this flag was now displayed on a staff placed at no great
 distance from the lodge. underneath the flag the Cheif met my friend
 Capt. C. who was in front and conducted him about 80 yds. to a place on
 the bank of the creek where he requested we should encamp; I came up in
 a few minutes and we collected the Cheifs and men of consideration
 smoked with them and stated our situation with rispect to provision.
 the Cheif spoke to his people and they produced us about 2 bushels of
 the Quawmas roots dryed, four cakes of the bread of cows and a dryed
 salmon trout. We thanked them for this store of provision but informed
 them that our men not being accustomed to live on roots alone we feared
 it would make them sick, to obviate which we proposed exchangeing a
 good horse in reather low order for a young horse in tolerable order
 with a view to kill. the hospitality of the cheif revolted at the aydea
 of an exchange, he told us that his young men had a great abundance of
 young horses and if we wished to eat them we should by furnished with
 as many as we wanted. accordingly they soon produced us two fat young
 horses one of which we killed, the other we informed them we would
 pospone killing untill we had consumed the one already killed. This is
 a much greater act of hospitality than we have witnessed from any
 nation or tribe since we have passed the Rocky mountains. in short be
 it spoken to their immortal honor it is the only act which deserves the
 appellation of hospitallity which we have witnessed in this quarter. we
 informed these people that we were hungry and fatiegued at this moment,
 that when we had eaten and refreshed ourselves we would inform them who
 we were, from whence we had come and the objects of our resurches. a
 principal Cheif by name Ho-hast,-ill-pilp arrived with a party of fifty
 men mounted on eligant horses. he had come on a visit to us from his
 village which is situated about six miles distant near the river. we
 invited this man into our circle and smoked with him, his retinue
 continued on horseback at a little distance. after we had eaten a few
 roots we spoke to them as we had promised; and gave Tinnachemootoolt
 and Hohastillpilp each a medal; the former one of the small size with
 the likeness of Mr. Jefferson and the latter one of the sewing medals
 struck in the presidency of Washington, we explained to them the
 desighn and the importance of medals in the estimation of the whites as
 well as the red men who had been taught their value. The Cheif had a
 large conic lodge of leather erected for our reception and a parsel of
 wood collected and laid at the door after which he invited Capt. C. and
 myself to make that lodge our home while we remained with him. we had a
 fire lighted in this lodge and retired to it accompanyed by the Cheifs
 and as many of the considerate men as could croud in a circcle within
 it. here after we had taken a repast on some horsebeef we resumed our
 council with the indians which together with smoking the pipe occupyed
 the ballance of the evening. I was surprised to find on decending the
 hills of Commearp Cr. to find that there had been no snow in the
 bottoms of that stream. it seems that the snow melted in falling and
 decended here in rain while it snowed on the plains. the hills are
 about six hundred feet high about one fourth of which distance the snow
 had decended and still lay on the sides of the hills. as these people
 had been liberal with is with rispect to provision I directed the men
 not to croud their lodge surch of food in the manner hunger has
 compelled them to do at most lodges we have passed, and which the
 Twisted hair had informed me was disgreeable to the natives. but their
 previous want of hospitality had induced us to consult their
 enclinations but little and suffer our men to obtain provision from
 them on the best terms they could. The village of the broken arm as I
 have heretofore termed it consists of one house only which is 150 feet
 in length built in the usual form of sticks matts and dry grass. it
 contains twenty four fires and about double that number of families.
 from appearances I presume they could raise 100 fighting men. the noise
 of their women pounding roots reminds me of a nail factory. The indians
 seem well pleased, and I am confident that they are not more so than
 our men who have their somachs once more well filled with horsebeef and
 mush of the bread of cows.--the house of coventry is also seen here.-
 
 
 [Clark, May 10, 1806]
 Saturday 10th of May 1806
 This morning the Snow continued falling untill 1/2 past 6 A M when it
 Seased. the air keen and Cold the Snow 8 inches deep on the plain. we
 Collected our horses and after takeing a Scanty brackfast of roots, we
 Set out for the Village of the Chief with a flag, and proceeded on
 through an open plain. the road was Slipry and the Snow Cloged and
 caused the horses to trip very frequently. the mud at heads of the
 Streams which we passed was deep and well Supplied with the Car mash.
 Drewyer turned off the road to hunt near the river to our lef and did
 not join us to day. at 4 P M we arrived at the Village of Tin
 nach-e-moo-toolt the Chief whome We had left a flag. this flag was
 hoisted on a pole unde the flag the Chief met me and Conducted me to a
 Spot near a Small run about 80 paces from his Lodges where he requested
 me to halt which I did. Soon after Cap Lewis who was in the rear Came
 up and we Smoked with and told this Chief our Situation in respect to
 provisions. they brought foward about 2 bushels of quawmash 4 Cakes of
 bread made of roots and a dried fish. we informed the Chief that our
 Party was not accustomed to eate roots without flesh & proposed to
 exchange Some of our oald horses for young ones to eate. they Said that
 they would not exchange horses, but would furnish us with Such as we
 wished, and produced 2 one of which we killed and informd. them that we
 did not wish to kill the other at this time. we gave Medals to the
 broken arm or Tin-nach-e-moo tolt and Hoh-halt-ill-pitp two principal
 Chiefs of the Chopunnish Natn. and was informed that there was one
 other Great Chief (in all 4) who had but one eye. he would be here
 tomorrow. a large Lodge of Leather was pitched and Capt. Lewis and my
 Self was envited into it. we entered and the Chief and principal men
 came into the lodge and formed a Circle a parcel of wood was Collected
 and laid at the dore and a fire made in this Conic lodge before we
 entered it. the Chief requested that we might make the Lodge our homes
 while we remained with him. here after we had taken a repast on roots &
 horse beef we resumed our Council with the indians which together with
 Smokeing took up the ballance of the evening. I was Supprised to find
 decending the hill to Commearp Creek to find that there had been no
 snow in the bottoms of that Stream. it seams that the Snow melted in
 falling and decended here in rain while it snowed in the plain. the
 hills are about Eight hundred feet high about 1/4 of which distance the
 Snow had decended and Still lay on the Sides of the hill. as those
 people had been liberal I directed the men not to croud their Lodge in
 serch of food the manner hunger has Compelled them to do, at most
 lodges we have passed, and which the Twisted Hair had informed us was
 disagreeable to the nativs. but their previous want of hospitality had
 enduced us to consult their enclinations but little and Suffer our men
 to obtain provisions from them on the best terms they could.
 The Village of the broken Arm consists of one house or Lodge only which
 is 150 feet in length built in the usial form of Sticks, Mats and dry
 grass. it contains 24 fires and about double that number of families.
 from appearance I prosume they could raise 100 fighting men. the noise
 of their women pounding the cows roots remind me of a nail factory. The
 Indians appear well pleased, and I am Confident that they are not more
 so than our men who have their Stomach once more well filled with horse
 beef and the bread of cows. Those people has Shewn much greater acts of
 hospitallity than we have witnessed from any nation or tribe Since we
 have passed the rocky Mountains. in Short be it Spoken to their
 immortal honor it is the only act which diserves the appelation of
 hospitallity which we have witnessed in this quarter.
 
 
 [Lewis, May 11, 1806]
 Sunday May 11th 1806.
 The last evening we were much crouded with the indians in our lodge,
 the whole floor of which was covered with their sleeping carcases. we
 arrose early and took breakfast. at 8 A.M. a Cheif of great note among
 these people arrived from his village or lodge on the S. side of
 Lewis's River. this is a stout fellow of good countenance about 40
 years of age and has lost the left eye. his name is Yoom-park'-kar-tim.
 to this man we gave a medal of the smal kind. those with the likeness
 of Mr. Jefferson have all been disposed of except one of the largest
 size which we reserve for some great Cheif on the Yellow rock river. we
 now pretty fully informed ourselves that Tunnachemootoolt,
 Neeshneparkkeeook, Yoomparkkartim and Hohastillpilp were the principal
 Cheif of the Chopunnish nation and ranked in the order here mentioned;
 as all those cheifs were present in our lodge we thought it a
 favourable time to repeat what had been said yesterday and to enter
 more minutely into the views of our government with rispect to the
 inhabitants of this western part of the continent, their intention of
 establishing trading houses for their releif, their wish to restore
 peace and harmony among the natives, the strength power and wealth of
 our nation &c. to this end we drew a map of the country with a coal on
 a mat in their way and by the assistance of the snake boy and our
 interpretters were enabled to make ourselves understood by them altho
 it had to pass through the French, Minnetare, Shoshone and Chopunnish
 languages. the interpretation being tedious it ocupyed nearly half the
 day before we had communicated to them what we wished. they appeared
 highly pleased. after this council was over we amused ourselves with
 shewing them the power of magnetism, the spye glass, compass, watch,
 air-gun and sundry other articles equally novel and incomprehensible to
 them. they informed us that after we had left the Minnetares last
 spring that three of their people had visited that nation and that they
 had informed them of us and had told them that we had such things in
 our possession but that they could not place confidence in the
 information untill they had now witnessed it themselves.--A young man,
 son of a conspicuous Cheif among these people who was killed not long
 since by the Minnetares of Fort de Prarie, brought and presented us a
 very fine mare and colt. he said he had opened his ears to our councils
 and would observe them strictly, and that our words had made his heart
 glad. he requested that we would accept this mear and colt which he
 gave in token of his determination to pursue our advise.--about 3 P.M.
 Drewyer arrived with 2 deer which he had killed. he informed us that
 the snow still continued to cover the plain. many of the natives apply
 to us for medical aid which we gave them cheerfully so far as our skill
 and store of medicine would enable us. schrofela, ulsers, rheumatism,
 soar eyes, and the loss of the uce of their limbs are the most common
 cases among them. the latter case is not very common but we have seen
 thee instances of it among the Chopunnish. it is a very extraordinary
 complaint. a Cheif of considerable note at this place has been
 afflicted with it for three years, he is incapable of moving a single
 limb but lies like a corps in whatever position he is placed, yet he
 eats heartily, digests his food perfectly, injoys his understanding,
 his pulse are good, and has retained his flesh almost perfectly, in
 short were it not that he appears a little pale from having lain so
 long in the shade he might well be taken for a man in good health. I
 suspect that their confinement to a diet of roots may give rise to all
 those disorders except the rheumatism & soar eyes, and to the latter of
 these, the state of debility incident to a vegetable diet may
 measureably contribute.--The Chopunnish notwithstanding they live in
 the crouded manner before mentioned are much more clenly in their
 persons and habitations than any nation we have seen since we left the
 Ottoes on the river Platte.--The Twisted hair brought us six of our
 horses.
 
 
 [Clark, May 11, 1806]
 Sunday 11th May 1806
 Some little rain last night. we were Crouded in the Lodge with Indians
 who continued all night and this morning Great numbers were around us.
 The One Eyed Chief Yoom-park-kar-tim arived and we gave him a medal of
 the Small Size and Spoke to the Indians through a Snake boy Shabono and
 his wife. we informed them who we were, where we Came from & our
 intentions towards them, which pleased them very much. a young man Son
 to the great Chief who was killed not long Sence by the Indians from
 the N. E. brought an elegant mare and Coalt and Gave us. and Said he
 had opend. his ears to what we had Said and his heart was glad and
 requested us to take this mare and Coalt as a token of his
 deturmination to pursue our Councels &c. The twisted hair brough Six of
 our horses all in fine order. Great numbers of Indians apply to us for
 medical aide which we gave them Cherfully So far as our Skill and Store
 of Medicine would enable us. Schrofla, ulsers, rhumitism, Sore eyes,
 and the loss of the use of their Limbs are the most common cases among
 them. the latter Case is not very common but We have Seen 3 instances
 of it among the Chopunnish. a very extroadinery complnt. about 3 P.M.
 Geo. drewyer arived with 2 deer which he had killed. he informed us
 that the Snow Still Continued to cover the plains. We are now pretty
 well informed that Tunnachemootoolt, Hohastillpilp, Neshneparkkeeook,
 and Yoomparkkartim were the principal Chiefs of the Chopunnish Nation
 and ranked in the order here mentioned; as all those chiefs were
 present in our lodge we thought it a favourable time to repeet what had
 been said and to enter more minutely into the views of our government
 with respect to the inhabitents of this Western part of the Continent,
 their intention of establishing tradeing houses for their relief, their
 wish to restore peace and harmony among the nativs, the Strength welth
 and powers of our Nation &c. to this end we drew a map of the Country
 with a coal on a mat in their way, and by the assistance of the Snake
 boy and our intrepeters were enabled to make ourselves under stood by
 them altho it had to pass through French, Minnetare, Shoshone and
 Chopunnish languages. the interpretation being tegious it occupied the
 greater part of the day, before we had communicated to them what we
 wished. they appeared highly pleased. after this Council was over we
 amused ourselves with Shewing them the power of Magnetism, the Spye
 glass, compass, watch, air gun and Sundery other articles equally novel
 and incomprehensible to them. they informed us that after we left the
 Menetares last Spring that 3 of their people had visited that nation,
 and that they had informed them of us, and had told them that we had
 Such things in our possession but that they Could not place Confidence
 in the information untill they had now witnessed it themselves
 In the evening a man was brought in a robe by four Indians and laid
 down near me. they informed me that this man was a Chief of
 Considerable note who has been in the Situation I see him for 5 years.
 this man is incapable of moveing a single limb but lies like a corps in
 whatever position he is placed, yet he eats hartily, dejests his food
 perfectly, enjoys his under standing, his pulse are good, and has
 retained his flesh almost perfectly; in Short were it not that he
 appears a little pale from having been So long in the Shade, he might
 well be taken for a man in good health. I Suspect that their
 Confinement to a deet of roots may give rise to all the disordes of the
 Nativs of this quarter except the Rhumitism & Sore eyes, and to the
 latter of those, the State of debility incident to a vegitable diet may
 measureably contribute.-. The Chopunnish not withstanding they live in
 the Crouded manner before mentioned are much more clenly in their
 persons and habitations than any nation we have Seen Sence we left the
 Illinois. These nativs take their fish in the following manner to wit.
 a Stand Small Stage or warf consisting of Sticks and projecting about
 10 feet into the river and about 3 feet above the water on the
 extremity of this the fisherman stands with his guilt or a Skooping Net
 which differ but little in their form those Commonly used in our
 Country it is formed thus with those nets they take the Suckers and
 also the Salmon trout and I am told the Salmon also.
 
 
 [Lewis, May 12, 1806]
 Monday May 12th 1806.
 This morning a great number of indians collected about us as usual. we
 took an early breakfast and Capt. C. began to administer eyewater to a
 croud of at least 50 applicants. The Indians held a council among
 themselves this morning with rispect to the subjects on which we had
 spoken to them yesterday. the result as we learnt was favourable. they
 placed confidence in the information they had received and resolved to
 pusue our advise. after this council was over the principal Cheif or
 the broken Arm, took the flour of the roots of cows and thickened the
 scope in the kettles and baskets of all his people, this being ended he
 made a harangue the purport of which was making known the deliberations
 of their council and impressing the necessity of unanimity among them
 and a strict attention to the resolutions which had been agreed on in
 councill; he concluded by inviting all such men as had resolved to
 abide by the decrees of the council to come and eat and requested such
 as would not be so bound to shew themselves by not partaking of the
 feast. I was told by one of our men who was present, that there was not
 a dissenting voice on this great national question, but all swallowed
 their objections if any they had, very cheerfully with their mush.
 during the time of this loud and animated harangue of the Cheif the
 women cryed wrung their hands, toar their hair and appeared to be in
 the utmost distress. after this cerimony was over the Cheifs and
 considerate men came in a body to where we were seated at a little
 distance from our tent, and two young men at the instance of the
 nation, presented us each with a fine horse. we caused the cheifs to be
 seated and gave them each a flag a pound of powder and fifty balls. we
 also gave powder and ball to the two young men who had presented the
 horses. Neeshneeparkkeeook gave Drewyer a good horse. The band of
 Ten-nach-e-moo-toolt have six guns which they acquired from the
 Minnetaries and appear anxious to obtain arms and amunition. after they
 had received those presents the Cheifs requested we would retire to the
 tent whither they accompanied us, they now informed us that they wished
 to give an answer to what we had said to them the preceeding day, but
 also informed us that there were many of their people waiting in great
 pain at that moment for the aid of our medecine. it was agreed between
 Capt. C. and myself that he should attend the sick as he was their
 favorite phisician while I would here and answer the Cheifs. The father
 of Hohastillpilp was the orrator on this occasion. he observed that
 they had listened with attention to our advise and that the whole
 nation were resolved to follow it, that they had only one heart and one
 tongue on this subject. he said they were fully sensible of the
 advantages of peace and that the ardent desire which they had to
 cultivate peace with their neighbours had induced his nation early last
 summer to send a pipe by 3 of their brave men to the Shoshonees on the
 S. side of Lewis's river in the Plains of Columbia, that these people
 had murdered these men, which had given rise to the war expedition
 against that nation last fall; that their warriors had fallen in with
 the shoshonees at that time and had killed 42 of them with the loss of
 3 only on their part; that this had satisfyed the blood of their
 disceased friends and that they would never again make war against the
 Shoshonees, but were willing to receive them as friends. that they
 valued the lives of their young men too much to wish them to be engaged
 in war. That as we had not yet seen the black foot Indians and the
 Minnetares of Fort de Prarie they did not think it safe to venture over
 to the Plains of the Missouri, where they would fondly go provided
 those nations would not kill them. that when we had established our
 forts on the Missouri as we had promised, they would come over and
 trade for arms Amunition &c. and live about us. that it would give them
 much pleasure to be at peace with these nations altho they had shed
 much of their blood. he said that the whitemen might be assured of
 their warmest attatchment and that they would alwas give them every
 assistance in their power; that they were poor but their hearts were
 good. he said that some of their young men would go over with us to the
 Missouri and bring them the news as we wished, and that if we could
 make a peace between themselves and their enimies on the other side of
 the mountain their nation would go over to the Missouri in the latter
 end of the summer. on the subject of one of their cheifs accompanying
 us to the Land of the whitemen they could not yet determine, but that
 they would let us know before we left them. that the snow was yet so
 deep in the mountain if we attempted to pass we would certainly perish,
 and advised us to remain untill after the next full moon when the said
 the snow would disappear and we could find grass for our horses.--when
 the oald man had concluded I again spoke to them at some length with
 which they appeared highly gratifyed. after smoking the pipe which was
 about 2 P.M. they gave us another fat horse to kill which was
 thankfully received by the party. Capt C. now joined us having just
 made an end of his medical distrabution. we gave a phiol of eyewater to
 the Broken Arm, and requested that he would wash the eyes of such as
 might apply for that purpose, and that when it was exhausted we would
 replenish the phiol. he was much pleased with this present. we now gave
 the Twisted hair one gun and a hundred balls and 2 lbs. of powder in
 part for his attention to our horses and promised the other gun and a
 similar quantity of powder and lead when we received the ballance of
 our horses. this gun we had purchased of the indians below for 2
 Elkskins. this evening three other of our original stock of horses were
 produced, they were in fine order as well as those received yesterday.
 we have now six horses out only, as our old guide Toby and his son each
 took a horse of ours when they returned last fall. these horses are
 said to be on the opposite side of the river at no great distance from
 this place. we gave the young men who had delivered us the two horses
 this morning some ribbon, blue wampum and vermillion, one of them gave
 me a hansome pare of legings and the Broken Arm gave Capt. C. his
 shirt, in return for which we gave him a linin shirt.--we informed the
 indians of our wish to pass the river and form a camp at some proper
 place to fish, hunt, and graize our horses untill the snows of the
 mountains would permit us to pass. they recommended a position a few
 miles distant from hence on the opposite side of the river, but
 informed us that there was no canoe at this place by means of which we
 could pass our baggage over the river, but promised to send a man early
 in the morning for one which they said would meet us at the river by
 noon the next day. The indians formed themselves this evening into two
 large parties and began to gamble for their beads and other ornaments.
 the game at which they played was that of hiding a stick in their hands
 which they frequently changed acompanying their opperations with a
 song. this game seems common to all the nations in this country, and
 dose not differ from that before discribed of the Shoshonees on the S.
 E. branch of Lewis's river. we are anxious to procure some guides to
 accompany us on the different routs we mean to take from Travellers
 rest; for this purpose we have turned our attention to the Twisted hair
 who has several sons grown who are well acquainted as well as himself
 with the various roads in those mountains. we invited the old fellow to
 remove his family and live near us while we remained; he appeared
 gratifyed with this expression of our confidence and promissed to do
 so.--shot at a mark with the indians, struck the mark with 2 balls.
 distn. 220 yds.
 
 
 [Clark, May 12, 1806]
 Monday 12th May 1806
 a fine Morning great number of Indians flock about us as usial. after
 brackfast I began to administer eye water and in a fiew minits had near
 40 applicants with Sore eyes, and maney others with other Complaints
 most Common Rhumatic disorders & weaknesses in the back and loins
 perticularly the womin. the Indians had a grand Council this morning
 after which we were presented each with a horse by two young men at the
 instance of the nation. we caused the chiefs to be Seated and gave then
 each a flag a pint of Powder and 50 balls to the two young men who had
 presented the horses we also gave powder and ball. The broken arm or
 Tun na the mootoolt pulled off his leather Shirt and gave me. I in
 return gave him a Shirt. we retired into the Lodge and the natives
 Spoke to the following purpote, i e they had listened to our advice and
 that the whole nation were deturmined to follow it, that they had only
 one heart and one tongue on this Subject. explained the Cause of the
 War with the Shoshones. they wished to be at peace with all nations &
 Some of their Men would accompany us to the Missouri &c. &c. as a great
 number of men women & Children were wateing and requesting medical
 assistance maney of them with the most Simple Complaints which Could be
 easily releived, independent of maney with disorders intirely out of
 the power of Medison all requesting Some thing, we agreed that I Should
 administer and Capt L--to here and answer the Indians. I was closely
 employed until 12 P.M. administering eye water to about 40 grown
 persons. Some Simple Cooling Medicenes to the disabled Chief, to
 Several women with rhumatic effections & a man who had a Swelled hip
 &c. &c-. in the evening three of our horses were brought all in fine
 order. we have now only Six remaining out. we gave to each a Chief a
 pint of Powder and 50 Balls a Small flag and to the two young men who
 delivered us the horses we gave also powder & Ball and Some blue wompom
 & ribin. all appeared much pleased-. Those people are much affraid of
 the black foot indians, and the Big bellies of Fort deprarie
 establishment. those indians kill great numbers of this nation whenever
 they pass over to hunt on the Missouri. one of our men bought a horse
 for a fiew Small articles of an Indian. The Indians brought up a fat
 horse and requested us to kill and eate it as they had nothing else to
 offer us to eate. The Cut nose made a present of a horse to Drewyer at
 the Same time the two horses were offered to Capt. Lewis & my self. The
 horses of those people are large well formed and active. Generally in
 fine order. Sore backs Caused by rideing them either with out Saddles,
 or with pads which does not prevent the wate of the rider pressing
 imedeately on the back bone, and weathers of the horse. the Indians
 formed two partis and plaied for their heeds. we gave the twisted hair
 a gun, powder & 100 ball in part for takeing care of our horses &c.
 and wish him to Camp near us untill we Crossed the Mountains which he
 agreeed to do, and was much pleased we have turned our attentions
 towards the twisted hair who has Several Sons grown who are well
 acquainted as well as himself with the various roads through the rocky
 Mountains and will answer very well as guides to us through those
 Mountains-In the Council to day the father of Hohastillpelp Said the
 Chopunnish were fully Convinced of the advantages of peace and ardently
 wished to cultivate peace with their neighbours. early last Summer 3 of
 their brave men were Sent with a pipe to the Shoshones on the S E. fork
 of Lewis's river in the Plains of Columbia, their pipe was disreguarded
 and their 3 men murdered, which had given rise to the War expedition
 against that nation last fall; that their warriers had fallen in with
 and killed 42 of the Shoshones with the loss of 3 men only on their
 part; that this had Satisfied the blood of the deceased friends and
 they would never again make war against the Shoshones, but were willing
 to receve them as friends-. That as we had not Seen the Indians towards
 Fort de prere they did not think it Safe to venture over to the Plains
 of the Missouri, where they would fondly go provided those nations
 would not kill them. I gave a vial of eye water to the Broken arm for
 to wash the eyes of all who applied to him and told him when it was out
 we would replenish it again
 
 
 [Lewis, May 13, 1806]
 Tuesday May 13th 1806.
 This morning Capt. C. as usual was busily engaged with his patients
 untill eleven OCk. at 1 P.M. we collected our horses and set out for
 the river escorted by a number of the natives on horseback. we followed
 the creek downwards about two miles, passing a stout branch at 1 m.
 which flowed in on the wright. our course S. E. we now entered an
 extensive open bottom of the Kooskooske R. through which we passed
 nearly N. about 11/2 miles and halted on the bank of the river at the
 place appointed to meet the canoe. the man had set out early this
 morning for the purpose but had not yet arrived with the canoe we
 therefore unloaded our horses and turned them out to graize. as the
 canoe did not arrive untill after sunset we remained here all night; a
 number of the natives continued with us. in the evening we tryed the
 speed of several of our horses. these horses are active strong and well
 formed. these people have immence numbers of them 50, 60 or a hundred
 hed is not unusual for an individual to possess. The Chopunnish are in
 general stout well formed active men. they have high noses and many of
 them on the acqueline order with cheerfull and agreeable countenances;
 their complexions are not remarkable. in common with other savage
 nations of America they extract their beards but the men do not
 uniformly extract the hair below, this is more particularly confined to
 the females. I observed several men among them whom I am convinced if
 they had shaved their beards instead of extracting it would have been
 as well supplyed in this particular as any of my countrymen. they
 appear to be cheerfull but not gay; they are fond of gambling and of
 their amusements which consist principally in shooting their arrows at
 a bowling target made of willow bark, and in riding and exercising
 themselves on horseback, racing &c. they are expert marksmen and good
 riders. they do not appear to be so much devoted to baubles as most of
 the nations we have met with, but seem anxious always to obtain
 articles of utility, such as knives, axes, tommahawks, kettles blankets
 and mockerson alls. blue beads however may form an exception to this
 remark; this article among all the nations of this country may be
 justly compared to goald or silver among civilized nations. They are
 generally well cloathed in their stile. their dress consists of a long
 shirt which reaches to the middle of thye, long legings which reach as
 high as the waist, mockersons, and robes. these are formed of various
 skins and are in all rispects like those particularly discribed of the
 Shoshones. their women also dress like the Shoshones. their ornaments
 consist of beads shells and peices of brass variously attatched to
 their dress, to their ears arrond their necks wrists arms &c. a bando
 of some kind usually surrounds the head, this is most frequently the
 skin of some fir animal as the fox otter &c. tho they have them also of
 dressed skin without the hair. the ornament of the nose is a single
 shell of the wampum. the pirl and beads are suspended from the ears.
 beads are woarn arround their wrists necks and over their sholders
 crosswise in the form of a double sash. the hair of the men is cewed in
 two rolls which hang on each side in front of the body as before
 discribed of other inhabitants of the Columbia. collars of bears claws
 are also common; but the article of dress on which they appear to bstow
 most pains and ornaments is a kind of collar or brestplate; this is
 most commonly a strip of otterskin of about six inches wide taken out
 of the center of the skin it's whole length including the head. this is
 dressed with the hair on; a hole is cut lengthwise through the skin
 near the head of the animal sufficiently large to admit the head of the
 person to pass. thus it is placed about the neck and hangs in front of
 the body the tail frequently reaching below their knees; on this skin
 in front is attatched peices of pirl, beads, wampum peices of red cloth
 and in short whatever they conceive most valuable or ornamental. I
 observed a tippit woarn by Hohastillpilp, which was formed of human
 scalps and ornamented with the thumbs and fingers of several men which
 he had slain in battle. their women brade their hair in two tresses
 which hang in the same position of those of the men. they also wear a
 cap or cup on the head formed of beargrass and cedar bark. the men also
 frequently attatch some small ornament to a small plat of hair on the
 center of the crown of their heads.
 
 
 [Clark, May 13, 1806]
 Tuesday 13th May 1806.
 a fine morning I administered to the Sick and gave directions. we
 collected all our horses and Set out at 1 P.M. and proceeded down the
 Creek to the Flat head River a Short distance below the enterance of
 the Creek at the distance of 3 miles from the Village. at this place we
 expected to have met the Canoe which was promised to be furnished us,
 and for which an indian Set out very early this morning. we halted at
 the Flat Head River unloaded our horses and turnd. them out to feed.
 Several Indians accompanied us to the river and Continued untill
 evening. The man who Set out early this morning to the forks of this
 river for a Canoe and was to meet us at this place. as the Canoe did
 not arive untill after Sun set we remained all night; in the evening we
 tried the Speed of Several of our horses. these horses are strong
 active and well formed. Those people have emence numbers of them 50 or
 60 or a Hundred head is not unusial for an individual to possess.
 The Chopunnish are in general Stout well formd active men. they have
 high noses and maney of them on the acqueline order with chearfull and
 agreeable countinances; their complexions are not remarkable. in common
 with other Indian Nations of America they extract their beard, but the
 men do not uniformly extract the hair below, this is more particularly
 confined to the females. they appear to be cheerfull but not gay; they
 are fond of gambling and of their amusements which consists principally
 in shooting their arrows at a targit made of Willow bark, and in
 rideing and exersiseing themselves on horsback, raceing &c. they are
 expirt marks men & good riders. they do not appear to be So much
 devoted to baubles as most of the nations we have met with, but Seen
 anxious always to riceve articles of utility, Such as knives, axes,
 Kittles, blankets & Mockerson awls. blue beeds however may form an
 exception to this remark; This article among all the nations of this
 Country may be justly compared to gold and Silver among civilized
 nations. They are generally well clothed in their Stile. their dress
 Consists of a long shirt which reaches to the middle of leg, long
 legins which reach as high as the waist, mockersons & robe. those are
 formed of various skins and are in all respects like those of the
 Shoshone. Their orniments consists of beeds, Shells and peices of brass
 variously attached to their dress, to their ears arround theire necks
 wrists arms &c. a band of Some kind usially Serounds the head, this is
 most frequently the Skin of Some fer animal as the fox otter &c.; I
 observed a tippet worn by Hohastillpilp, which was formed of Humane
 Scalps and ornemented with the thumbs and fingers of Several men which
 he had Slain in battle. they also were a coller or breast plate of
 otter Skin orniminted with Shells beeds & quills. the women brade their
 hair in two tresses which hang in the same position of those of the
 men, which ar Cewed and hang over each sholder. &c
 
 
 [Lewis, May 14, 1806]
 Wednesday May 14th 1806.
 The morning was fair, we arrose early and dispatched a few of our
 hunters to the opposite side of the river, and employed a part of the
 men in transporting our baggage to the opposite shore wile others were
 directed to collect the horses; at 10 A.M. we had taken our baggage
 over and collected our horses, we then took breakfast, after which we
 drove our horses into the river which they swam without accedent and
 all arrived safe on the opposite shore. the river is 150 yds. wide at
 this place and extreemly rapid. tho it may be safely navigated at this
 season, as the water covers all the rocks which lie in it's bed to a
 considerable debth. we followed our horses and again collected them,
 after which we removed our baggage to a position which we had
 previously selected for our permanent camp about half a mile below.
 this was a very eligible spot for defence it had been an ancient
 habitation of the indians; was sunk about 4 feet in the ground and
 raised arround it's outer edge about three 1/2 feet with a good wall of
 eath. the whole was a circle of about 30 feet in diameter. arround this
 we formed our tents of sticks and grass facing outwards and deposited
 our baggage within the sunken space under a shelter which we
 constructed for the purpose. our situation was within 40 paces of the
 river in an extentsive level bottom thinly timbered with the longleafed
 pine. here we are in the vicinity of the best hunting grounds from
 indian information, are convenient to the salmon which we expect daily
 and have an excellent pasture for our horses. the hills to the E and
 North of us are high broken and but partially timbered; the soil is
 rich and affords fine grass. in short as we are compelled to reside a
 while in this neighbourhood I feel perfectly satisfyed with our
 position.immediately after we had passed the river Tunnachemootoolt and
 Hosastillpilp arrived on the south side with a party of a douzen of
 their young men; they began to sing in token of friendship as is their
 custom, and we sent the canoe over for them. they left their horses and
 came over accompanyed by several of their party among whom were the 2
 young men who had presented us with two horses in behalf of the nation;
 one of these was the son of Tunnachemootoolt and the other the son of
 the Cheif who was killed by the Minnetares of Fort de Prarie last year
 and the same who had given us the mare and Colt. we received them at
 our camp and smoked with them; after some hours Hohastillpilp with much
 cerimony presented me with a very eligant grey gelding which he had
 brought for that purpose. I gave him in return a handkercheif 200 balls
 and 4 lbs. of powder. with which he appeared perfectly satisfyed.
 Collins killed two bear this morning and was sent with two others in
 quest of the meat; with which they returned in the evening; the mail
 bear was large and fat the female was of moderate size and reather
 meagre. we had the fat bear fleaced in order to reserve the oil for the
 mountains. both these bear were of the speceis common to the upper part
 of the missouri. they may be called white black grzly brown or red bear
 for they are found of all those colours. perhaps it would not be
 unappropriate to designate them the variagated bear. we gave the
 indians who were about 15 in number half the female bear, with the
 sholder head and neck of the other. this was a great treat to those
 poor wretches who scarcely taist meat once a month. they immediately
 prepared a brisk fire of dry wood on which they threw a parsel of
 smooth stones from the river, when the fire had birnt down and heated
 the stones they placed them level and laid on a parsel of pine boughs,
 on these they laid the flesh of the bear in flitches, placing boughs
 between each course of meat and then covering it thickly with pine
 boughs; after this they poared on a small quantity of water and covered
 the whoe over with earth to the debth of four inches. in this situation
 they suffered it to remain about 3 hours when they took it out. I
 taisted of this meat and found it much more tender than that which we
 had roasted or boiled, but the strong flavor of the pine distroyed it
 for my pallate. Labuish returned late in the evening and informed us
 that he had killed a female bear and two large cubbs, he brought with
 him several large dark brown pheasants which he had also killed.
 Shannon also returned with a few pheasants and two squirrells. we have
 found our stone horses so troublesome that we indeavoured to exchange
 them with the Chopunnish for mears or gelings but they will not
 exchange altho we offer 2 for one; we came to a resolution to castrate
 them and began the operation this evening one of the indians present
 offered his services on this occasion. he cut them without tying the
 string of the stone as is usual, and assures us that they will do much
 better in that way; he takes care to scrape the string very clean and
 to seperate it from all the adhereing veigns before he cuts it. we
 shall have an opportunity of judging whether this is a method
 preferable to that commonly practiced as Drewyer has gelded two in the
 usual way. The indians after their feast took a pipe or two with us and
 retired to rest much pleased with their repast. these bear are
 tremendious animals to them; they esteem the act of killing a bear
 equally great with that of an enimy in the field of action.--I gave the
 claws of those which Collins killed to Hohastillpilp.
 
 
 [Clark, May 14, 1806]
 Wednesday 14th of May 1806
 a fine day. we had all our horses Collected by 10 a.m. dureing the time
 we had all our baggage Crossed over the Flat head River which is rapid
 and about 150 yards wide. after the baggage was over to the North Side
 we Crossed our horss without much trouble and hobbled them in the
 bottom after which we moved a Short distance below to a convenient
 Situation and formed a Camp around a very conveniant Spot for defence
 where the Indiands had formerly a house under ground and hollow circler
 Spot of about 30 feet diamieter 4 feet below the Serfce and a Bank of 2
 feet above this Situation we Concluded would be Seffiently convenient
 to hunt the wood lands for bear & Deer and for the Salmon fish which we
 were told would be here in a fiew days and also a good Situation for
 our horses. the hills to the E. & N. of us are high broken & but
 partially timbered; the soil rich and affords fine grass. in Short as
 we are Compelled to reside a while in this neighbourhood I feel
 perfectly Satisfied with our position. imediately after we had Crossed
 the river the Chief Called the broken Arm or Tin nach-e-moo toll
 another principal Chief Hoh-host'-ill-pitp arived on the opposite Side
 and began to Sing. we Sent the Canoe over and those Chiefs, the Son of
 the broken arm and the Sone of a Great Chief who was killed last year
 by the Big bellies of Sas kas she win river. those two young men were
 the two whome gave Capt Lewis and my self each a horse with great
 serimony in behalf of the nation a fiew days ago, and the latter a most
 elligant mare & colt the morning after we arived at the Village. Hohast
 ill pilt with much Serimoney presented Capt. Lewis with an elegant Gray
 horse which he had brought for that purpose. Capt Lewis gave him in
 return a Handkerchief two hundred balls and four pouds of powder with
 which he appeared perfictly Satisfyed, and appeared much pleased.
 Soon after I had Crossed the river and during the time Cap Lewis was on
 the opposit Side John Collins whome we had Sent out verry early this
 morning with Labiech and Shannon on the North Side of the river to
 hunt, Came in and informed me, that he had killed two Bear at about 5
 miles distant on the up lands. one of which was in good order. I
 imediately depatched Jo. Fields & P. Wiser with him for the flesh. we
 made Several attempts to exchange our Stalions for Geldings or mars
 without success we even offered two for one. those horses are
 troublesom and Cut each other very much and as we Can't exchange them
 we think it best to Castrate them and began the opperation this evening
 one of the Indians present offered his Services on this occasion. he
 Cut them without tying the String of the Stone as is usial. he Craped
 it very Clean & Seperate it before he Cut it. about Meredian Shannon
 Came in with two Grows & 2 Squireles Common to this Country. his
 mockersons worn out obliged to come in early.
 Collins returned in the evening with the two bears which he had killed
 in the morning one of them an old hee was in fine order, the other a
 female with Cubs was Meagure. we gave the Indians about us 15 in number
 two Sholders and a ham of the bear to eate which they cooked in the
 following manner. to wit on a brisk fire of dryed wood they threw a
 parcel of Small Stones from the river, when the fire had burnt down and
 heated the Stone, they placed them level and laid on a parsel of pine
 boughs, on those they laid the flesh of the bear in flitches, placeing
 boughs between each course of meat and then Covering it thickly with
 pine boughs; after this they poared on a Small quantity of water, and
 Covered the whole over with earth to the debth of 4 inches. in this
 Situation they Suffered it to remain about 3 hours when they took it
 out fit for use. at 6 oClock P M Labiech returned and informed us that
 he had killed a female Bear and two Cubs, at a long distance from Camp
 towards the mountains. he brought in two large dark brown pheasents
 which he had also killed Shannon also returned also with a few black
 Pheasents and two squirels which he had killed in the wood land towards
 Collins Creek. This nation esteem the Killing of one of those
 tremendeous animals (the Bear) equally great with that of an enemy in
 the field of action-. we gave the Claws of those bear which Collins had
 killed to Hohastillpelp.
 
 
 [Lewis, May 15, 1806]
 Thursday May 15th 1806.
 This morning early Reubin Fields in surching for his horse saw a large
 bear at no great distance from camp; several men went in pursuit of the
 bear, they followed his trail a considerable distance but could not
 come up with him. Labuish and Shannon set out with a view to establish
 a hunting camp and continuing several days, two others accompanyed them
 in order to bring in the three bear which Labuish had killed. Drewyer
 and Cruzatte were sent up the river; Sheilds R. Feilds and Willard
 hunted in the hills near the camp they returned in the evening with a
 few pheasants only and reported that there was much late appearance of
 bear, but beleived that they had gone off to a greater distance. at 11
 A.M. the men returned with the bear which Labuich had killed. These
 bear gave me a stronger evidence of the various coloured bear of this
 country being one speceis only, than any I have heretofore had. The
 female was black with a considerable proportion of white hairs
 intermixed and a white spot on the breast, one of the young bear was
 jut black and the other of a light redish brown or bey colour. the poil
 of these bear were infinitely longer finer and thicker than the black
 bear their tallons also longer and more blont as if woarn by diging
 roots. the white and redish brown or bey coloured bear I saw together
 on the Missouri; the bey and grizly have been seen and killed together
 here for these were the colours of those which Collins killed
 yesterday. in short it is not common to find two bear here of this
 speceis precisely of the same colour, and if we were to attempt to
 distinguish them by their collours and to denominate each colour a
 distinct speceis we should soon find at least twenty. some bear nearly
 white have also been seen by our hunters at this place. the most
 striking differences between this speceis of bear and the common black
 bear are that the former are larger, have longer tallons and tusks,
 prey more on other animals, do not lie so long nor so closely in winter
 quarters, and will not climb a tree tho eversoheardly pressed. the
 variagated bear I beleive to be the same here with those on the
 missouri but these are not as ferocious as those perhaps from the
 circumstance of their being compelled from the scarcity of game in this
 quarter to live more on roots and of course not so much in the habit of
 seizing and devouring living animals. the bear here are far from being
 as passive as the common black bear they have attacked and faught our
 hunters already but not so fiercely as those of the Missouri. there are
 also some of the common black bear in this neighbourhood. Frazier, J.
 Fields and Wiser complain of violent pains in their heads, and Howard
 and York are afflicted with the cholic. I attribute these complaints to
 their diet of roots which they have not been accustomed.
 Tunnachemootoolt and 12 of his young men left us this morning on their
 return to their village. Hohastillpilp and three old men remained
 untill 5 in the evening when they also departed. at 1 P.M. a party of
 14 natives on horseback passed our camp on a hunting excurtion; they
 were armed with bows and arrows and had decoys for the deer these are
 the skins of the heads and upper portions of the necks of the deer
 extended in their natural shape by means of a fraim of little sticks
 placed within. the hunter when he sees a deer conceals himself and with
 his hand gives to the decoy the action of a deer at feed; and thus
 induces the deer within arrowshot; in this mode the indians hunt on
 foot in the woodlands where they cannot pursue the deer with horses
 which is their favorite method when the ground will permit.--we had all
 of our horses driven together today near our camp, which we have
 directed shall be done each day in order to familiarize them to each
 other. several of the horses which were gelded yesterday are much
 swolen particularly those cut by Drewyer, the others bled most but
 appear much better today than the others.
 we had our baggage better secured under a good shelter formed of grass;
 we also strengthened our little fortification with pine poles and
 brush, and the party formed themselves very comfortable tents with
 willow poles and grass in the form of the orning of a waggon, these
 were made perfectly secure as well from the heat of the sun as from
 rain. we had a bower constructed for ourselves under which we set by
 day and sleep under the part of an old sail now our only tent as the
 leather lodge has become rotten and unfit for use. about noon the sun
 shines with intense heat in the bottoms of the river. the air on the
 tom of the river hills or high plain forms a distinct climate, the air
 is much colder, and vegitation is not as forward by at least 15 or
 perhaps 20 days. the rains which fall in the river bottoms are snows on
 the plain. at the distance of fifteen miles from the river and on the
 Eastern border of this plain the Rocky Mountains commence and present
 us with winter it it's utmost extreem. the snow is yet many feet deep
 even near the base of these mountains; here we have summer spring and
 winter within the short space of 15 or 20 miles.--Hohastillpilp and the
 three old men being unable to pass the river as the canoe had been
 taken away, returned to our camp late in the evening and remained with
 us all night.
 
 
 [Clark, May 15, 1806]
 Thursday 15th of May 1806
 This morning Reubin Fields went out to hunt his horse very early and
 Saw a large bear and no great distance from Camp. Several men went in
 pursute of the bear, and prosued his trail Some time without gitting
 Sight of this Monster. Shannon went out with Labeach to hunt and
 continue out 3 days, Gibson and Hall accompanied them for the meat
 Labeech killed yesterday which they brought in by 11 A M. this Morning
 the female was black with white hares intermixed and a white Spot on
 the breast the Cubs were about the Size of a dog also pore. one of them
 very black and the other a light redish brown or bey colour. These bear
 give me a Stronger evidence of the various Coloured bear of this
 Country being one Specie only, than any I have heretofore had. Several
 other Colours have been seen. Drewyer and Peter Crusat went up the
 river. John Shields, R. Fields and Willard hunted in the hills near
 Camp and returned before 2 P. M without killing any thing except a fiew
 Grows. they saw but few deer. Some bear Sign. Frazur Jo. Fields and
 Peter Wizer Complain of a violent pain in their heads. Howard and York
 with violent Cholicks. the Cause of those disorders we are unable to
 account for. their diet and the Sudin Change of Climate must
 contribute. The Great Chief Tin nach-e-moo-tolt (or broken Arm) and 12
 of the young men of his nation left us today about 11 oClock and
 Crossed the river to his Village Hoh-hast-ill-pilt and 3 old men
 Continued with us untill about 5 P. M when they left us and returnd. to
 their Village. a party of 14 Indians passed our Camp about 1 P.M. on
 their way to the leavel uplands to run and kill the deer with their
 horses and Bows and arrows. Some of them were also provided with deers
 heads Cased for the purpose of decoying the deer. those men continued
 withus but a fiew minits and proceeded on. Those people hunt most
 Commonly on horse back Seround the Deer or Goat which they find in the
 open plains & kill them with their arrows. tho they Sometimes hunt the
 deer on foot & decoy them. we had all of our horses drove together to
 day with a view to fermilurize them to each other. those that were Cut
 yesterday are Stiff and Several of them much Swelled. we had all our
 baggage Secured and Covered with a rouf of Straw. our little
 fortification also completely Secured with brush around which our Camp
 is formed. the Greater part of our Security from the rains &c. is the
 grass which is formed in a kind of ruff So as to turn the rain
 Completely and is much the best tents we have. as the days are worm &c.
 we have a bowry made to write under which we find not only comfortable
 but necessary, to keep off the intence heet of the Sun which has great
 effect in this low bottom. on the high plains off the river the Climate
 is entirely different cool. Some Snow on the north hill Sides near the
 top and vegetation near 3 weeks later than in the river bottoms. and
 the rocky Mountains imedeately in view covered Several say 4 & 5 feet
 deep with Snow. here I behold three different Climats within a fiew
 miles a little before dark Hoh-hast-ill-pilt and the 3 old men & one
 other returned to our Camp and informed us the Canoe was a great way
 off and they could not cross this evening.
 
 
 [Lewis, May 16, 1806]
 Friday May 16th 1806.
 Drewyer's horse left his camp last night and was brought to us this
 morning by an indian who informed us he had found him a considerable
 distance towards the mountains. Hohastillpilp and all the natives left
 us about noon and informed us that they were going up the river some
 distance to a place at which they expected to fine a canoe, we gave
 them the head and neck of a bear, a part of which they eat and took the
 ballance with them. these people sometimes kill the variagated bear
 when they can get them in the open plain where they can pursue them on
 horseback and shoot them with their arrows. the black bear they more
 frequently kill as they are less ferocious. our sick men are much
 better today. Sahcargarmeah geathered a quantity of the roots of a
 speceis of fennel which we found very agreeable food, the flavor of
 this root is not unlike annis seed, and they dispell the wind which the
 roots called Cows and quawmash are apt to create particularly the
 latter. we also boil a small onion which we find in great abundance,
 with other roots and find them also an antidote to the effects of the
 others. the mush of roots we find adds much to the comfort of our
 diet.--we sent out several hunters this morning but they returned about
 11 A.M. without success; they killed a few pheasants only. at 5 P.M.
 Drewyer and Cruzatte returned having killed one deer only. Drewyer had
 wounded three bear which he said were as white as sheep but had
 obtained neither of them. they informed us that the hunting was but bad
 in the quarter they had been, the Country was broken and thickly
 covered in most parts with underbrush. a little after dark Shannon and
 Labuish returned with one deer; they informed us that game was wild and
 scarce, that a large creek (Collins Creek) ran parallel with the river
 at the distance of about 5 or 6 miles which they found impracticable to
 pass with their horses in consequence of the debth and rapidity of it's
 current. beyond this creek the Indians inform us that there is great
 abundance of game. Sergt. Pryor and Collins who set out this morning on
 a hunting excurtion did not return this evening.--I killed a snake near
 our camp, it is 3 feet 11 Inches in length, is much the colour of the
 rattlesnake common to the middle atlantic states, it has no poisonous
 teeth. it has 218 scutae on the abdomen and fifty nine squamae or half
 formed scutae on the tail. the eye is of moderate size, the iris of a
 dark yellowish brown and puple black. there is nothing remarkable in
 the form of the head which is not so wide across the jaws as those of
 the poisonous class of snakes usually are.--I preserved the skin of
 this snake.
 
 
 [Clark, May 16, 1806]
 Friday 16th May 1806
 a cloudy morning with Some rain which continued untill Meridean at
 intervales, but very moderately. a man and boy Came to our Camp at 11
 A. M with Drewyers Horse which he informed us he found at a long
 distance towards the Mtns. this horse must have Strayed from Drewyers
 Camp last night. Hohhastillpelt and all the nativs left us at merdn.
 and went up the river with a view to Cross at Some distance above where
 they expected to find a Canoe.
 we gave those people a head and Neck of the largest bear a part of
 which they eate and the balance they Carefully took with them for their
 children. The Indians of this Country Seldom kill the bear they are
 very much afraid of them and the killing of a white or Grzley bear, is
 as great a feet as two of their enimy. the fiew of those Animals which
 they Chance to kill is found in the leavel open lands and pursued on
 horses & killed with their Arrows. they are fond of the flesh of this
 animal and eate emoderately of it when they have a Sufficiency to
 indulge themselves. The men who were complaining of the head ake and
 Cholicks yesterday and last night are much better to day. Shabonos
 Squar gatherd a quantity of fenel roots which we find very paleatiable
 and nurishing food. the Onion we also find in abundance and boil it
 with our meat. Shields rode out and hunted in the morning without
 Suckcess he returned at 11 A.M. having killed only a black wood pecker
 with a red breast as discribed hereafter. A snake which resembles the
 rattle Snake in colour and Spots on the Skin, longer and inosent. at 5
 P M Drewyer and Crusat returned haveing killed only one Deer only. D.
 Shot 3 White bear but Could get neither of them. they inform us that
 the hunting in the derection they were is very bad. the country hilly &
 brushey. a little after dark Shannon & Labiech came in from the Chass.
 Shannon killed one deer which he brought in. this deer being the only
 animal they Could kill. they informed that a large Creek (Collens's
 Creek) run parrelal with the river at about 5 or 6 miles distant
 between which there was but little game, and the Creek being high rapid
 and the Smothe rocks in the bottom rendered it impossible for them to
 pass it on hors back. Sergt. Pryor and Collins who Set out early this
 morning hunting have not returned. we derected that the horses be drove
 up in future at 12 oClock on each day
 
 
 [Lewis, May 17, 1806]
 Saturday May 17th 1806.
 It rained the greater part of the last night and this morning untill 8
 OCk. the water passed through flimzy covering and wet our bed most
 perfectly in shot we lay in the water all the latter part of the night.
 unfortunately my chronometer which for greater security I have woarn in
 my fob for ten days past, got wet last night; it seemed a little
 extraordinary that every part of my breechies which were under my head,
 should have escaped the moisture except the fob where the time peice
 was. I opened it and founded it nearly filled with water which I
 carefully drained out exposed it to the air and wiped the works as well
 as I could with dry feathers after which I touched them with a little
 bears oil. several parts of the iron and steel works were rusted a
 little which I wiped with all the care in my power. I set her to going
 and from her apparent motion hope she has sustained no material
 injury.--at 9 A.M. Sergt. Pryor and Collins returned, Sergt. Pryor
 brought the Skin and flesh of a black bear which he had killed; Collins
 had also killed a very large variegated bear but his horse having
 absconded last evening was unable to bring it. they had secured this
 meat perfectly from the wolves or birds and as it was at a considerable
 distance we did not think proper to send for it today. neither of these
 bear were in good order. as the bear are reather ferocious and we are
 obliged to depend on them pincipally for our subsistence we thought it
 most advisable to direct at least two hunters to go together, and they
 accordingly peared themselves out for this purpose. we also apportioned
 the horses to the several hunters in order that they should be equally
 rode and thereby prevent any horse being materially injured by being
 too constantly hunted. we appointed the men not hunters to take charge
 of certain horses in the absence of the hunters and directed the
 hunters to set out in different directions early in the morning and not
 return untill they had killed some game. it rained moderately the
 greater part of the day and snowed as usual on the plain. Sergt. Pryor
 informed me that it was shoe deep this morning when he came down. it is
 somewhat astonishing that the grass and a variety of plants which are
 now from a foot to 18 inches high on these plains sustain no injury
 from the snow or frost; many of those plants are in blume and appear to
 be of a tender susceptable texture. we have been visited by no indians
 today, and occurrence which has not taken place before since we left
 the Narrows of the Columbia.--I am pleased at finding the river rise so
 rapidly, it now doubt is attributeable to the meting snows of the
 mountains; that icy barier which seperates me from my friends and
 Country, from all which makes life esteemable.--patience, patience
 
 
 [Clark, May 17, 1806]
 Saturday 17th May 1806
 rained moderately all the last night and this morning untill we are
 wet. The little river on which we are encamped rise Sepriseingly fast.
 at 9 A.M. Sergt. Pryor and Collins returned with the flesh and Skin of
 a Black bear on Sgt. Pryors horse. Collins's horse haveing run off from
 him yesterday. they informed us that they had each killed a Bear
 neither of which were fat. the one which they left in the woods was of
 the white Species and very large we did not think it necessary in the
 cours of this day to Send for the flesh of the bear left in the woods.
 the rains of the last night unfortunately wet the Crenomuter in the fob
 of Capt. L. breaches. which has never before been wet Since we Set out
 on this expedition. her works were cautiously wiped and made dry by
 Capt. L. and I think She will recive no injury from this misfortune &c.
 we arranged the hunters and horses to each hunter and directed them to
 turn out in the morning early and continue out untill they Killed
 Something. others arranged so as to take care of the hunters horses in
 their absence. rained moderately all day. at the Same time Snowed on
 the mountains which is in to the S. E. of us. no Indians visit us to
 day which is a Singular circumstance as we have not been one day
 without Indians Since we left the long narrows of the Columbia. the
 fiew worm days which we have had has melted the Snows in the Mountains
 and the river has rose considerably. that icy barier which Seperates me
 from my friends and Country, from all which makes life estimable, is
 yet white with the Snow which is maney feet deep. I frequently Consult
 the nativs on the subject of passing this tremendious barier which now
 present themselves to our view for great extent, they all appear to
 agree as to the time those Mountains may be passed which is about the
 Middle of June.
 Sergt. pryor informs me that the Snow on the high plains from the river
 was Shoe deep this morning when he Came down. it is somewhat
 estonishing that the grass and a variety of Plants Sustain no injurey
 from the Snow or frost; Maney of those plants are in blume and appear
 to be of tender susceptable texture. At the distance of 18 Miles from
 the river and on the Eastern border of the high Plain the Rocky
 Mountain Commences and presents us with Winter here we have Summer,
 Spring and Winter in the Short Space of twenty or thirty miles
 
 
 [Lewis, May 18, 1806]
 Sunday May 18th 1806.
 Twelve hunters turned out this morning in different directions
 agreeably to the order of last evening. Potts and Whitehouse
 accompanied Collins to the bear he had killed on the 16th inst. with
 which they returned in the afternoon. the colours of this bear was a
 mixture of light redish brown white and dark brown in which the bey or
 redish brown predominated, the fur was bey as well as the lower pertion
 of the long hairs, the white next succeeded in the long hairs which at
 their extremites were dark brown, this uncommon mixture might be termed
 a bey grizzle.
 our indian woman was busily engaged today in laying in a store of the
 fennel roots for the Rocky mountains. these are called by the Shoshones
 year-pah. at 2 P.M. 3 Indians who had been hunting towards the place at
 which we met with Chopunnish last fall, called by them the quawmash
 grounds, called at our camp; they informed us that they had been
 hunting several days and had killed nothing; we gave them a small peice
 of meat which they told us they would reserve for their small children
 who were very hungary; we smoked with them and they shortly after
 departed. early this morning the natives erected a lodge on the
 opposite side of the river near a fishing stand a little above us. no
 doubt to be in readiness for the salmon, the arrival of which they are
 so ardently wishing as well as ourselves. this stand is a small stage
 are warf constructed of sticks and projecting about 10 feet into the
 river and about 3 feet above the surface of the water on the extremity
 of this the fisherman stands with his scooping net, which differ but
 little in their form from those commonly used in our country it is
 formed thus. the fisherman exercised himself some hours today but I
 believe without success. at 3 P.M. J. Fields returned very unwell
 having killed nothing. shortly after an old man and woman arrived; the
 former had soar eyes and the latter complained of a lax and rheumatic
 effections. we gave the woman some creem of tartar and flour of
 sulpher, and washed the old man's eyes with a little eyewater. a little
 before dark Drewyer R. Fields and LaPage returned having been also
 unsuccessfull they had killed a hawk only and taken the part of a
 salmon from an Eagle, the latter altho it was of itself not valuable
 was an agreeable sight as it gave us reason to hope that the salmon
 would shortly be with us. these hunters had scowered the country
 between the Kooskooske and Collins's Creek from hence to their junction
 about 10 miles and had seen no deer or bear and but little sign of
 either. shortly after dark it began to rain and continued raining
 moderately all night. the air was extreemly cold and disagreeable and
 we lay in the water as the preceeding night.
 
 
 [Clark, May 18, 1806]
 Sunday 18th May 1806
 Cloudy morning 12 hunters turned out this morning in different
 directions agreeably to the order of yesterday. Potts and Whitehouse
 accompanied Collins to the bear which he had killed on the 16th and
 brought in the flesh and Skin. this bear was not large but remarkably
 light coloured the hair of it as also the hair of all those which has
 been killed is very thick and long. The Squar wife to Shabono busied
 her Self gathering the roots of the fenel Called by the Snake Indians
 Year-pah for the purpose of drying to eate on the Rocky mountains.
 those roots are very paliatiable either fresh rosted boiled or dried
 and are generally between the Size of a quill and that of a mans fingar
 and about the length of the latter. at 2 P.M. 3 Indians who had been
 out hunting towards the place we met with the Chopunnish last fall,
 which place they Call the quarmash grounds. those men had been out
 Several days and killed nothing. we gave them a Small piece of meat
 which they told us they would reserve for their Small Children who was
 very hungary. we Smoked with them and they departed. The nativs made a
 lodge on the opposit bank of the river a little above us at a fishing
 place. as all communication is cut off between us and the nativs on the
 opposit Side of the river, we cannot Say by whome or for what service
 that lodge has been errected as no one has been near it Since it was
 errected this morning. at 3 P M Jo. Field returned from the chase
 without killing any thing he complains of being unwell. Son after an
 old man and a woman arived the man with Sore eyes, and the woman with a
 gripeing and rhumatic effections. I gave the woman a dose of creme of
 tarter and flour of Sulphur, and the man Some eye water. a little
 before night Rueben Field Drewyer and LaPage returned haveing killed
 nothing but a large hawk they had hunted in the point between the
 Kooskooske and Collins's Creek and Saw but little Sign of either deer
 or Bear. the evening Cloudy, Soon after dark it began to rain and
 rained moderately all night-. LaPage took a Salmon from an Eagle at a
 Short distance below our Camp. this is induces us to believe that the
 Salmon is in this river and most probably will be here in great numbers
 in the Course of a fiew days.
 
 
 [Lewis, May 19, 1806]
 Monday May 19th 1806.
 It continued to rain this morning untill 8 OCk. when it became fair. We
 sent Charbono, Thompson, Potts, Hall and Wiser over the river to a
 village above in order to purchase some roots to eat with our lean bear
 meat. for this purpose we gave them a few awls, Kniting pins and
 Armbands. we were informed that there was a canoe at the village in
 which they could pass the river. I sent Joseph and R. Feilds up the
 river in surch of the horse which I rode over the Rocky mountains last
 fall. he had been seen yesterday with a parse) of indian horses and has
 become almost wild. at 11 A.M. Thompson returned from the village
 accompanied by a train of invalids consisting of 4 men 8 women and a
 child. The men had soar eyes and the women in addition to soar eyes had
 a variety of other complaints principally rheumatic; a weakness and
 pain in the loins is a common complaint with their women. eyewater was
 administered to all; to two of the women cathartics were given, to a
 third who appeared much dejected and who from their account of her
 disease we supposed it to be histerical, we gave 30 drops of Laudanum.
 the several parts of the others where the rheumatic pains were seated
 were well rubed with volitile linniment. all of those poor wretches
 thought themselves much benefited and all returned to their village
 well satisfyed. at 5 P.M. or marketers returned with about 6 bushels of
 the cows roots and a considerable quanty of bread of the same
 materials. late in the evening Reubin and Joseph Feilds returned with
 my horse; we had him immediately castrated together with two others by
 Drewyer in the ordinary. we amused ourselves about an hour this
 afternoon in looking at the men running their horses. several of those
 horses would be thought fleet in the U States. a little after dark
 Sheilds and Gibson returned unsuccessful) from the chase. they had seen
 some deer but no bear.
 
 
 [Clark, May 19, 1806]
 Monday 19th May 1806
 Rained this morning untill 8 oClock when it Cleared off and became
 fair-. we Sent Shabono, Thomson, Potts, Hall & Wizer over to the
 Villages above to purchase Some roots to eate with our pore bear meat,
 for which purchase we gave them a fiew Awls, Knitting pins, & arm bans
 and directed them to proceed up on this Side of the river opposit to
 the Village and Cross in the Cano which we are informed is at that
 place. Sent Jo. & Reuben Field up the river a Short distance after the
 horse which Capt. Lewis rode over the mountains last fall, which horse
 was Seen yesterday with a gangue of Indian horses, and is Very wild-.
 about 11 oClock 4 men and 8 Women Came to our Camp with Thompson who
 went to the Village very early this morning. those Men applyed for Eye
 water and the Women had a Variety of Complaints tho the most general
 Complaint was the Rhumitism, pains in the back and the Sore eyes, they
 also brought fowd. a very young Child whome they Said had been very
 Sick-. I administered eye water to all, two of the women I gave a
 carthartic, one whose Spirets were very low and much hipedz I gave 30
 drops of Lodomem, and to the others I had their backs hips legs thighs
 & arms well rubed with Volitile leniment all of those pore people
 thought themselves much benifited by what had been done for them, and
 at 3 P.M. they all returned to their Villages well satisfied. at 5 P.M.
 Potts, Shabono &c. returned from the Village with about 6 bushels of
 the root the nativs Call Cowse and Some bread of the Same root. Rubin &
 Jos. Fields returned with the horse Capt. Lewis rode across the rocky
 mountains we had this horse imedeately Cut with 2 others which we had
 not before thought proper to Castrate. we amused ourselves about an
 hour this after noon looking at the men run their horses, Several of
 them would be thought Swift horses in the atlantic States. a little
 after dark John Shields and Gibson returned haveing killed nothing.
 they Saw Some deer but Saw no bear.
 
 
 [Lewis, May 20, 1806]
 Tuesday May 20th 1806.
 It rained the greater part of last night and continued this morning
 untill noon when it cleared away about an hour and then rained at
 intervals untill 4 in the evening. our covering is so indifferent that
 Capt C. and myself lay in the water the greater part of the last night.
 Drewyer, and the two Feildses set out on a hunting excurtion towards
 the mountains. Shannon and Colter came in unsuccessfull, they had
 wounded a bear and a deer last evening but the night coming on they
 were unable to pursue them, and the snow which fell in the course of
 the night and this morning had covered the blood and rendered all
 further pursuit impracticable. at 2 P.M. Labuish arrived with a large
 buck of the Mule deer speceis which he had killed on Collins's Creek
 yesterday. he had left Cruzatte and Collins on the Creek where they
 were to wait his return. he informed us that it was snowing on the
 plain while it was raining at our camp in the river bottom. late in the
 evening Labuish and LaPage set out to join Collins and Cruzatte in
 order to resume their hunt early tomorrow morning. this evening a party
 of indians assembled on the opposite bank of the river and viewed our
 camp with much attention for some time and retired.--at 5 P.M. Frazier
 who had been permitted to go to the village this morning returned with
 a pasel of Roots and bread which he had purchased. brass buttons is an
 article of which these people are tolerably fond, the men have taken
 advantage of their prepossession in favour of buttons and have devested
 themselves of all they had in possesson which they have given in
 exchange for roots and bread.
 
 
 [Clark, May 20, 1806]
 Tuesday 20th May 1806
 rained the greater part of the last night and this morning untill
 meridean when it Cleared away for an hour and began to rain and rained
 at entervals untill 4 P.M. our Covering was so indefferent that Capt
 Lewis and my self was wet in our bed all the latter part of the night.
 Drewyer, Jos. & R. Fields Set out to towards the mountains. Shannon &
 Colter Came in without any thing. they had Seen and Shot at a Bear and
 a Deer neither of which they Could get. both of those Animals they must
 have Wounded Mortally, but the night Comeing on prevented their
 following them, and this morning the Snow had Covered the tracks and
 hid the blood and prevented their getting either of them.
 at 2 P.M. Labiech Came in with a large Buck of the Mule Deer Speces
 which he had killed on Collins's Creek yesterday. he left Collins and
 Peter Crusat on the Creek at which place they would Continue untill his
 return. he informd. us that it was Snowing on the leavel plains on the
 top of the hill all the time it was raining in the bottom at our Camp.
 Labiech & Lapage returned to Collins & Crusat in the evening late for
 the purpose of Pursueing the hunt in the Morning early. Several Indians
 came to the opposit side of the River and viewed us some time. at 5 P M
 Frazur who had leave to go to the Village returned with Some roots
 which he had purchased. cloudy &c.
 
 
 [Lewis, May 21, 1806]
 Wednesday May 21st 1806.
 It rained a few hours this morning. Sheilds and Gibson set out to hunt
 towards the mountains. Collins came to camp at noon and remained about
 2 hours; he has killed nothing since he left us last. we set five men
 at work to make a canoe for the purpose of fishing and passing the
 river. the Indians have already promised us a horse for this canoe when
 we have no longer any uce for her. as our tent was not sufficient to
 shelter us from the rain we had a lodge constructed of willow poles and
 grass in the form of the orning of a waggon closed at one end. this we
 had made sufficiently large to sleep in and to shelter the most
 important part of our baggage. it is perfectly secure against the rain
 sun and wind and affords us much the most comfortable shelter we have
 had since we left Fort Clatsop. today we divided the remnant of our
 store of merchandize among our party with a view that each should
 purchase therewith a parsel of roots and bread from the natives as his
 stores for the rocky mountains for there seems but little probability
 that we shall be enabled to make any dryed meat for that purpose and we
 cannot as yet form any just idea what resource the fish will furnish
 us. each man's stock in trade amounts to no more than one awl, one
 Kniting pin, a half an ounce of vermillion, two nedles, a few scanes of
 thead and about a yard of ribbon; a slender stock indeed with which to
 lay in a store of provision for that dreary wilderness. we would make
 the men collect these roots themselves but there are several speceis of
 hemlock which are so much like the cows that it is difficult to
 discriminate them from the cows and we are affraid that they might
 poison themselves. the indians have given us another horse to kill for
 provision which we keep as a reserved store. our dependence for
 subsistence is on our guns, the fish we may perhaps take, the roots we
 can purchase from the natives and as the last alternative our horses.
 we eat the last morsel of meat which we had for dinner this evening,
 yet nobody seems much conserned about the state of provision. Willard,
 Sergt. Ordway and Goodrich were permitted to visit the village today;
 the former returned in the evening with some roots and bread, the two
 last remaining all night. one of our party brought in a young sandhill
 crain it was about the size of a pateridge and of a redish brown
 colour, it appeared to be about 5 or six days old; these crains are
 abundant in this neighbourhood.
 
 
 [Clark, May 21, 1806]
 Wednesday 21st May 1806
 rained this morning. Shields and Gibson Set out to hunt towards the
 mountains. Collins Came in to day and Stayed in about two hours, he has
 killed nothing Since he went out last. we Set 5 Men at work to build a
 Canoe for the purpose of takeing fish and passing the river and for
 which we can get a good horse. as our tent is not Sufficient to keep
 off the rain we are Compelled to have Some other resort for a Security
 from the repeeted Showers which fall. we have a small half circular
 place made and Covered with grass which makes a very Secure Shelter for
 us to Sleep under. We devided our Store of merchindize amongst our
 party for the purpose of precureing Some roots &c. of the nativs to
 each mans part amounted to about an awl Knitting pin a little paint and
 Some thread & 2 Needles which is but a Scanty dependance for roots to
 take us over those Great Snowey Barriers (rocky mountains) which is and
 will be the Cause of our Detention in this neighbourhood probably
 untill the 10 or 15 of June. they are at this time Covered deep with
 Snow. the plains on the high Country above us is also covered with
 Snow. Serjt. Ordway, Goodrich, & Willard went to the village to day to
 precure a fiew roots. we eate the last of our meat for Dinner to day,
 and our only Certain dependance is the roots we Can precure from the
 nativs for the fiew articles we have left those roots with what Game we
 Can precure from the wods will probably last us untill the arival of
 the Salmon. if they Should not; we have a horse in Store ready to be
 killed which the indians have offered to us. Willard returned from the
 Village. Sergt. Ordway and Goodrich Continued all night. one of the men
 brought me a young Sandhill Crain which was about 5 or 6 days old it
 was of a yellowish brown Colour, about the Size of a partridge. Those
 Crains are very abundant in every part of this country in pars of two,
 and Sometimes three together.
 the party had gathered roots with leaves still attached they probably
 could have been sorted with Indian assistance. However, the parsley
 family (Apiaceae) is one of the most diverse and confusing plant
 families in the region, and Lewis could not be sure that the men would
 not bring back some other poisonous species not well known to the
 Indians. The decision to purchase roots was probably prudent.
 
 
 [Lewis, May 22, 1806]
 Thursday May 22ed 1806.
 A fine morning we exposed all our baggage to air and dry as well as our
 store of roots and bread purchased from the natives. permited Windsor
 and McNeal to go to the indian village. Sergt. Ordway and Goodrich
 returned this morning with a good store of roots and bread. about noon
 2 indian men came down the river on a raft and continued at our camp
 about 3 hours and returned to their village. we.sent out Shannon and
 Colter to hunt towards the mountains. we sent Sergt. Pryor down to the
 entrance of Collins's Creek to examine the country and look out for a
 good position for an encampment on the river below that Creek, having
 determined to remove our camp below that crek if it continues high, as
 soon as we have completed our canoe, as the country to which we are
 confined to hunt at present is limited by this creek and river to a
 very narrow tract, and game have already become scarce. if we can
 obtain a good situation below the entrance of this creek it will be
 much more eligible as the hunting country is more extensive and game
 more abundant than above. The horse which the indians have given us to
 kill was driven away yesterday by the natives with a gang of their
 horses I presume in mistake; being without meat at noon we directed one
 of the largest of our colts to be killed. we found the flesh of this
 animal fat tender and by no means illy flavoured. we have three others
 which we mean to reserve for the rocky mountains if we can subsist here
 without them. my horse which was castrated the day before yesterday
 wounded his thigh on the inner side with the rope by which he was
 confined that evening and is now so much swolen with the wound the
 castraiting and the collection of vermen that he cannot walk, in short
 he is the most wretched specticle; I had his wounds clensed of the
 vermen by washing them well with a strong decoction of the bark of the
 roots & leaves of elder but think the chances are against his recovery.
 at 3 P.M. we observed a large party of Indians on horseback in pursuit
 of a deer which they ran into the river opposite to our camp; Capt. C.
 Myself & three of our men shot and killed the deer in the water; the
 indians pursued it on a raft and caught it. it is astonishing to see
 these people ride down those steep hills which they do at full speed.
 on our return to camp we found Drewyer the Two Feildses Gibson and
 Sheilds just arrived with five deer which they had killed at a
 considerable distance towards the mountains. they also brought with
 them two red salmon trout which they had purchased from some indians
 whom they had met with on their return to camp.--Two Indians who were
 just arrived at our camp informed us that these salmon trout remained
 in this river the greater part of the winter, that they were not good
 at this season which we readily discovered, they were very meagre.
 these indians also informed us that there were at this time a great
 number of salmon at no great distance from hence in Lewis's river which
 had just arrived and were very fat and fine, they said it would be some
 yet before they would ascend this river as high as this place. a party
 of the natives on the opposite shore informed those with us that a
 party of the Shoshones had two nights past surrounded a lodge of their
 nation on the South side of Lewis's river, that the inhabitants having
 timely discovered the enimy effected their retreat in the course of the
 night and escaped. Charbono's Child is very ill this evening; he is
 cuting teeth, and for several days past has had a violent lax, which
 having suddonly stoped he was attacked with a high fever and his neck
 and throat are much swolen this evening. we gave him a doze of creem of
 tartar and flour of sulpher and applyed a poltice of boiled onions to
 his neck as warm as he could well bear it. Sergt. Pryor returned late
 in the evening and informed us that he had been down the river eight
 miles and that the clifts set in so abruptly to the river he could get
 no further without returning several miles back and ascending the hills
 and that he had thought it best to return and ride down tomorrow on the
 high plain as he believed the mouth of the creek was a considerable
 distance. Drewyer who has been at the place informs us that it is about
 10 ms. and that there is no situation on the river for some distance
 below this creek which can possibly answer our purposes.--we dryed our
 baggage &c perfectly and put it up.-
 
 
 [Clark, May 22, 1806]
 Thursday 22nd May 1806
 a fine day we exposed all our baggage to the Sun to air and dry, also
 our roots which we have precured of the nativs. gave promission to
 Windser & McNeal to go to the Indian Villages. Sergt. Ordway and
 goodrich returned at 11 A.M. Soon after 2 Indian men Came down on a
 raft and Continued with us about 3 hours and then returned to their
 Village. Shannon & Colter went out to day to hunt towards the
 mountains. Sergt. Pryor went out to hunt down the river, and examine
 the mouth of Collins Creek, if a good Situation was below that Creek
 for a Camp. this Creek which Cannot be passed owing to it's debth &
 rapidity is a great beariore in our way to the best hunting Country. it
 confines us to a narrow scope between this Creek and the river on which
 we are Camped. If a Situation can be found imedeately below the Creek
 it will answer us better than our present one as from thence we Can get
 out to Some distance to hunt, and be convenient also to the fish Should
 they pass up &c. The horse the Indian's left with us to kill has been
 drove to their village with a gang of horses which I suppose belonged
 to another man. as the greater part of our men have not had any Meat to
 eate for 2 days, and the roots they Complain of, not being accustiomed
 to live on them altogether we derected a large Coalt which was given to
 us by a young man with an elegant mare on the ____ instant. this Coalt
 was fat and was handsom looking meat. late in the evening we were
 informed that the horse which Capt L. rode over the rocky mountains and
 which was Cut day before yesterday had his hip out of place Since that
 time, and Could not walk. Capt. Lewis examined him and thought he Could
 not recover. at 3 P.M. we observed a number of Indians in chase of a
 deer on their horses on the opposit hill Sides. Soon after the deer
 took the water I Capt L. and 3 men run down on this Side, and killed
 the deer in the water, the deer floated down and the Indians took it by
 means of a raft which they had ready. on my return to Camp found
 Drewyer Jos. & Reuben Fields, Shields and gibson just arrived from the
 Chass with 5 Deer which they had killed on the high lands toward the
 mountains. they also brought with them two Salmon trout which they had
 purchased of Indians which they Saw on their return to Camp. at 5 p. M.
 two young men highly decurated in their way Came to our camp and
 informed us that the fat fish were in great numbers in Lewis's river.
 that those Salmon trout which our hunters brought were pore and Such as
 were Cought in the Winter in this river and were not the kind which
 Comes up in the Spring of the year. great number of Indians Come to the
 opposit bank and inform those on this Side that the Snake Indians had
 come to a Lodge on Lewis's river at night. the inhabitents previously
 discovering them abandened the house. Shabonoes Son a Small child is,
 dangerously ill. his jaw and throat is much Swelled. we apply a poltice
 of Onions. after giveing him Some creem of tarter &c. this day proved
 to be fine fair which afforded us an oppertunety of drying our baggage
 which had got a little wet.
 
 
 [Lewis, May 23, 1806]
 Friday May 23rd 1806.
 Sergt. Pryor wounded a deer early this morning in a lick near camp; my
 dog pursud it into the river; the two young Indian men who had remained
 with us all night mounted their horses swam the river and drove the
 deer into the water again; Sergt. Pryor killed it as it reached the
 shore on this side, the indians returned as they had passed over. we
 directed half this deer to be given to the indians, they immediately
 made a fire and cooked their meat, 4 others joined them from the
 village with the assistance of whom they consumed their portion of the
 spoil in less than 2 hours and took their leave of our camp. The Creem
 of tartar and sulpher operated several times on the child in the course
 of the last night, he is considerably better this morning, tho the
 swelling of the neck has abated but little; we still apply polices of
 onions which we renew frequently in the course of the day and night. at
 noon we were visited by 4 indians who informed us they cad come from
 their village on Lewis's river at the distance of two days ride in
 order to see us and obtain a little eyewater, Capt. C. washed their
 eyes and they set out on their return to their village. our skill as
 phisicans and the virture of our medecines have been spread it seems to
 a great distance. I sincerely wish it was in our power to give releif
 to these poor afficted wretches. at 1 P.M. Shannon, Colter, Labuish,
 Cruzatte, Collins, and LaPage returned from hunting without having
 killed anything except a few pheasants of the dark brown kind, which
 they brought with them.These hunters informed us that they had hunted
 the country deligently between the river and Creek for some distance
 above and below our camp and that there was no game to be found. all
 the horses which have been castrated except my poor unfortunate horse
 appear as if they would do very well. I am convinced that those cut by
 the indians will get well much soonest and they do not swell nor appear
 to suffer as much as those cut in the common way.
 
 
 [Clark, May 23, 1806]
 Friday 23rd May 1806
 a fair morning. Sergt. Pryor wounded a Deer at a lick near our Camp and
 our dog prosued it into the river. two Indians which happened to be at
 our Camp Mounted their horses and Swam across the river chased the deer
 into the water again and pursued it across to the Side on which we
 were, and as the Deer Came out of the Water Sgt. Pryor killed it. we
 derected half of this deer to be given to those two indians. they
 imediately made a fire and Cooked the meat. 4 others joined them from
 the Village and they Soon consumed their portion. The Child is
 Something better this morning than it was last night. we apply a fresh
 poltice of the wild Onion which we repeeted twice in the Course of the
 day. the Swelling does not appear to increas any Since yesterday. The 4
 Indians who visited us to day informed us that they Came from their
 village on Lewis's river two days ride from this place for the purpose
 of Seeing of us and getting a little eye water I washed their eyes with
 Some eyewater and they all left us at 2 P.M. and returned to the
 Villages on the opposit Side of this river. at 1 oClock Shannon,
 Colter, Labiech, Crusatt Lapage and Collins all returned from hunting
 without haveing killed any thing except a fiew heath hens & black
 Pheasants two of which they brought with them. Labiech also brought a
 whisteling squerel which he had killed on it's hole in the high plains.
 this squerel differs from those on the Missouri in their Colour, Size,
 food and the length tal and from those found near the falls of Columbia
 Our hunters brought us a large hooting owl which differ from those of
 the atlantic States. The plumage of this owl is an uniform mixture of
 dark yellowish brown and white, in which the dark brown prodominates.
 it's Colour may be properly termed a dark Iron gray. the plumage is
 very long and remarkably Silky and Soft. those have not the long
 feathers on the head which give it the appearance of ears, or horns,
 remarkable large eyes
 the hunters informed us that they had hunted with great industry all
 the Country between the river and for Some distance above and below
 without the Smallest Chance of killing any game. they inform us that
 the high lands are very cold with snow which has fallen for every day
 or night for Several past. our horses which was Cut is like to doe well.
 
 
 [Lewis, May 24, 1806]
 Saturday May 24th 1806.
 The child was very wrestless last night; it's jaw and the back of it's
 neck are much more swolen than they were yesterday tho his fever has
 abated considerably. we gave it a doze of creem of tartar and applyed a
 fresh poltice of onions. we ordered some of the hunters out this
 morning and directed them to pass Collins's creek if possible and hunt
 towards the quawmash feilds. William Bratton still continues very
 unwell; he eats heartily digests his food well, and his recovered his
 flesh almost perfectly yet is so weak in the loins that he is scarcely
 able to walk nor can he set upwright but with the greatest pain. we
 have tryed every remidy which our engenuity could devise, or with which
 our stock of medicines furnished us, without effect. John Sheilds
 observed that he had seen men in a similar situation restored by
 violent sweats. Bratton requested that he might be sweated in the
 manner proposed by Sheilds to which we consented. Sheilds sunk a
 circular hole of 3 feet diamiter and four feet deep in the earth. he
 kindled a large fire in the hole and heated well, after which the fire
 was taken out a seat placed in the center of the hole for the patient
 with a board at bottom for his feet to rest on; some hoops of willow
 poles were bent in an arch crossing each other over the hole, on these
 several blankets were thrown forming a secure and thick orning of about
 3 feet high. the patient being striped naked was seated under this
 orning in the hole and the blankets well secured on every side. the
 patient was furnished with a vessell of water which he sprinkles on the
 bottom and sides of the hole and by that means creates as much steam or
 vapor as he could possibly bear, in this situation he was kept about 20
 minutes after which he was taken out and suddonly plunged in cold water
 twise and was then immediately returned to the sweat hole where he was
 continued three quarters of an hour longer then taken out covered up in
 several blankets and suffered to cool gradually. during the time of his
 being in the sweat hole, he drank copious draughts of a strong tea of
 horse mint. Sheilds says that he had previously seen the tea of
 Sinnecca snake root used in stead of the mint which was now employed
 for the want of the other which is not be found in this country.--this
 experiment was made yesterday; Bratton feels himself much better and is
 walking about today and says he is nearly free from pain.--at 11 A.M. a
 canoe arrived with 3 of the natives one of them the sick man of whom I
 have before made mentions as having lost the power of his limbs. he is
 a cheif of considerable note among them and they seem extreemly anxious
 for his recovery. as he complains of no pain in any particular part we
 conceive it cannot be the rheumatism, nor do we suppose that it can be
 a parelitic attack or his limbs would have been more deminished. we
 have supposed that it was some disorder which owed it's origine to a
 diet of particular roots perhaps and such as we have never before
 witnessed. while at the village of the broken arm we had recommended a
 diet of fish or flesh for this man and the cold bath every morning. we
 had also given him a few dozes of creem of tarter and flour of sulpher
 to be repeated every 3rd day. this poor wretch thinks that he feels
 himself of somewhat better but to me there appears to be no visible
 alteration. we are at a loss what to do for this unfortunate man. we
 gave him a few drops of Laudanum and a little portable soup. 4 of our
 party pased the river and visited the lodge of the broken Arm for the
 purpose of traiding some awls which they had made of the links of small
 chain belonging to one of their steel traps, for some roots. they
 returned in the evening having been very successfull, they had obtained
 a good supply of roots and bread of cows.--this day has proved warmer
 than any of the preceeding since we have arrived here.
 
 
 [Clark, May 24, 1806]
 Saturday 24th May 1806
 a fine morning the Child was very restless last night its jaw and back
 of its neck is much more Swelled than it was yesterday. I gave it a
 dost of Creme of Tarter and a fresh Poltice of Onions. ordered Shields,
 Gibson, Drewyer, Crusat, Collins, and Jo. & rubin Fields to turn out
 hunting and if possible Cross Collins Creek and hunt towards the quar
 mash fields. W. Brattin is yet very low he eats hartily but he is So
 weak in the Small of his back that he Can't walk. we have made use of
 every remidy to restore him without it's haveing the desired effect.
 one of our party, John Shields observed that he had Seen men in Similar
 Situations restored by Violent Swets. and bratten requested that he
 might be Swetted in the way Sheilds purposed which we agreed to.
 Shields dug a round hole 4 feet deep & 3 feet Diamuter in which he made
 a large fire So as to beet the hole after which the fire was taken out
 a Seet placed in the hole. the patent was then Set on the Seat with a
 board under his feet and a can of water handed him to throw on the
 bottom & Sides of the hole So as to create as greate a heat as he Could
 bear. and the hole covered with blankets supported by hoops. after
 about 20 minits the patient was taken out and put in Cold water a few
 minits, & returned to the hole in which he was kept about 1 hour. then
 taken out and Covered with Several blankets, which was taken off by
 degrees untill he became Cool. this remedy took place yesterday and
 bratten is walking about to day and is much better than he has been. at
 11 A.M. a canoe came down with the Indian man who had applyed for
 medical assistance while we lay at the broken arms village. this man I
 had given a fiew doses of Flower of Sulpher & Creme of Tarter and
 derected that he Should take the Cold bath every morning. he Conceited
 himself a little better than he was at that time. he had lost the use
 of all his limbs and his fingers are Contracted. We are at a loss to
 deturmine what to do for this unfortunate man. I gave him a few drops
 of Lodman and Some portable Supe as medisine. 4 of our men Crossed the
 river and went to the broken arms Village and returned in the evening
 with a Supply of bread and roots which they precured in exchange for
 Awls which were made of pieces of a chane--we were visited to day by
 the 2 young men who gave Capt. L. and my Self a horse each at the
 village. those men Stayed about two hours and returned to their
 village. this day proved to be very worm.
 
 
 [Lewis, May 25, 1806]
 Sunday May 25th 1806.
 It rained the greater part of last night and continued untill 6 A.M.
 our grass tent is impervious to the rain. the Child is more unwell than
 yesterday. we gave it a doze of creem of tartar which did not operate,
 we therefore gave it a clyster in the evening. we caused a sweat to be
 prepared for the indian Cheif in the same manner in which Bratton had
 been sweated, this we attempted but were unable to succeed, as he was
 unable to set up or be supported in the place. we informed the indians
 that we knew of no releif for him except sweating him in their sweat
 houses and giving him a plenty of the tea of the horsemint which we
 shewed them. and that this would probably nos succeed as he had been so
 long in his present situation. I am confident that this would be an
 excellent subject for electricity and much regret that I have it not in
 my power to supply it.--Drewyer Labuish and Cruzatte set out this
 morning to hunt towards the quawmash grounds if they can possibly pass
 Collins's Creek. Joseph and Reuben Feilds passed the river in order to
 hunt on the opposite side some miles above where the natives inform us
 that there is an abundance of bear and some deer. Goodrich visited a
 village about 8 ms. above on the opposite side of the river and
 returned in the evening; he procured but few roots, he informed us that
 there were but 8 persons at home; the others were either hunting,
 diging roots or fishing on Lewis's river. he saw several salmon in
 their lodges which they informed him came from that river these fish
 were remarkably fat and fine. Gibson and shields returned this evening
 having killed a Sandhill Crain only. they had wounded a female bear and
 a deer but got neither of them. Gibson informed me that the bear had
 two cubbs one of which was white and other as black as jett. four
 indians remained with us this evening.-
 
 
 [Clark, May 25, 1806]
 Sunday 25th May 1806
 rained moderately the greater part of last night and this morning
 untill 6 A.M. The child is not So well to day as yesterday. I repeeted
 the Creem of tarter and the onion poltice. I caused a Swet to be
 prepared for the Indn. in the Same hole which bratten had been Sweeten
 in two days past Drewyer Labiech and Peter crusatt Set out hunting
 towards the quarmash grounds if they can cross the Creek which is
 between this and that place, which has been the bearrer as yet to our
 hunters. Jos. & R Fields crossed the river to hunt on the opposit side.
 Goodrich went to the 2d village to purchase roots a fiew of which he
 precured. he informed us that only 8 persons remained in the Village.
 the men were either hunting on Lewis's river fishing, & the women out
 digging roots. he saw Several fresh Salmon which the nativs informed
 him Came from Lewis's river and were fat and fine. one of our men
 purchased a Bear Skin of the nativs which was nearly of a Cream
 Coloured white. this Skin which was the Skin of an animal of the middle
 Size of bears together with the defferent Sizes colours &c. of those
 which have been killed by our hunters give me a Stronger evidence of
 the various Coloured bear of this country being one Species only, than
 any I have heretofore had. the poil of these bear were infinately
 longer finer & thicker than the black bear their tallons also longer &
 more blunt as worn by digging roots. the white redish brown and bey
 Coloured bear I saw together on the Missouri; the bey & Grizly have
 been Seen and killed together here. for these were the Colours of those
 which Collins killed on the 14th inst. in short it is not common to
 find two bear here of this Species presisely of the same colour, and if
 we were to attempt to distinguish them by their colours and to
 denomonate each colour a distinct Species we Should Soon find at least
 twenty. the most Strikeing difference between this Species of bear and
 the Common black bear are that the former are large and have longer
 tallens, hair, and tushes, prey more on other animals, do not lie so
 long or so closely in winter quarters, and will not Climb a tree, tho
 ever so hardly pursued. the varigated bear I believe to be the Same
 here with those of the Missouri but these are not so ferocious as those
 on the Missouri perhaps from the Circumstance of their being compeled
 from the scercity of game in this quarter to live more on roots and of
 course not so much in the habit of Seizing and debowering liveing
 animals. the bear here is far from being as passive as the common black
 bear, they have atacked and fought our hunters already but not so
 feircely as those of the Missouri. There are also some of the Common
 black bear in this neghbourhood tho no So Common as the other Species.
 we attempted to swet the sick indian but could not Suckceed. he was not
 able either to Set up or be Supported in the place prepared for him. I
 therefore deturmined to inform the Nativs that nothing but Sefere
 Swetts would restore this disabled man, and even that doubtfull in his
 present Situation. in the evening Shields & gibson returned haveing
 killed a Sandhill Crane only. they Saw a female bear, & 2 Cubs &
 Several deer. they Shot the bear and a deer both of which made their
 escape. Gibson told me that the Cubs were of different Colours one jut
 black and the other of a whiteish Colour-. 4 indians Continue with us,
 one return to their village to daey
 
 
 [Lewis, May 26, 1806]
 Monday May 26th 1806.
 Had frequent showers in the course of the last night. Collins, Shannon
 and Colter set out to hunt on the high lands some distance up on the N.
 E. side of Collins's Creek. The Clyster given the Child last evening
 operated very well. it is clear of fever this evening and is much
 better, the swelling is considerably abated and appears as if it would
 pass off without coming to a head. we still continue fresh poltices of
 onions to the swolen part. we directed the indians in what manner to
 treat the dieased Cheif, gave him a few dozes of flour of sulpher and
 Creem of tartar & some portable soupe and directed them to take him
 home. they seemed unwilling to comply with the latter part of the
 injunction for they consumed the day and remained with us all night. at
 1 P.M. Joseph and R. Feilds returned, accompanyed by Hohastillpilp
 several other inferior Cheifs and some young men. These hunters
 informed us they were unable to reach the grounds to which they had
 been directed in consequence of the debth and rapidity of a large creek
 which falls in about 10 Ms. above. they passed Commearp Creek at about
 11/2 Ms. and a second creek reather larger at 3 Ms. further. at the
 distance of 4 Ms. up this last creek on their return they called at a
 village which our traders have never yet visited, here they obtained a
 large quantity of bread and roots of Cows on very moderate terms. we
 permitted Sergt. Pryor and four men to pass the river tomorrow morning
 with a view to visit this village we also directed Charbono York and
 LePage to set out early for the same place and procure us some roots.
 our meat is again exhausted, we therefore directed R. Fields to hunt
 the horse in the morning which the Indians have given us to kill. one
 of our men saw a salmon in the river today. in the afternoon we
 compleated our canoe and put her in the water; she appears to answer
 very well and will carry about 12 persons.--the river still rising fast
 and snows of the mountains visibly diminish
 
 
 [Clark, May 26, 1806]
 Monday 26th May 1806
 Some Small Showers of rain last night, and continued Cloudy this
 morning untill 7 A. M when it Cleared away and became fair and worm.
 Collins Shannon & Colter set out to hunt on the high lands to the N E
 of us towards Collins Creek. The Child Something better this morning
 tho the Swelling yet continues. we Still apply the onion poltice. I
 detected what Should be done for the disabled man, gave him a fiew
 doses of Creem of tarter & flour Sulphur, and Some portable Supe and
 directed that he Should be taken home & Swetted &c. at 1 P.M. Joseph &
 R. Fields returned accompanied by Hoh hast ill pilt and an Second Chief
 and 4 men Several young men also rode down on this Side. Jo & R Fields
 informed us that they were at a village 4 Miles up the 2nd Creek from
 this place on the opposit side above at which place on the opposit side
 above at which place they precured roots on very reasonable terms. they
 Could not proceed higher up to hunt as the creeks were too high for
 them to Cross, &c. we gave permission to Serjt. Pryor and 4 men to
 cross the river and trade with nativs of the village the Field's were
 at yesterday for roots &c. we also directed Shabono & york to proceed
 on to the Same Village and precure Some roots for our Selves if
 possible. one of our men Saw a Salmon in the river to day. and two
 others eat of Salmon at the near Village which was brought from Lewis's
 river. our Canoe finished and put into the water. it will Carry 12 men.
 the riseing very fast and Snow appear to melt on the Mountains.
 
 
 [Lewis, May 27, 1806]
 Tuesday May 27th 1806.
 Early this morning we sent Reubin Fields in surch of the horse which
 the indians had given us to kill. at 10 in the morning he returned with
 the horse and we killed and butchered him; he was large and in good
 order. Hohastillpilp told us that most of the horses we saw runing at
 large in this neighbourhood belonged to himself and his people, and
 whenever we were in want of meat he requested that we would kill any of
 them we wished; this is a peice of liberallity which would do honour to
 such as host of civilization; indeed I doubt whether there are not a
 great number of our countrymen who would see us fast many days before
 their compassion would excite them to a similar act of liberallity.
 Sergt. Pryor and the party ordered to the indian Village set out early
 this morning. in the evening he returned with Gibson and Sheilds. the
 others remained at the village all night; they brought a good store of
 roots and bread. we also sent Sergt. ordway and 2 men this morning over
 to Lewis's river for salmon, which the indians inform us may be
 procured in abundance at that place, and that it is but half a days
 ride, nearly south.--Drewyer, Cruzatte, and Labuish returned at 4 P.M.
 with five deer which they had killed at some distance up Collins's
 Creek on this side; that stream still continues so high that they could
 not pass it.--Charbono's son is much better today, tho the swelling on
 the side of his neck I beleive will terminate in an ugly imposthume a
 little below the ear. the indians were so anxious that the sick Cheif
 should be sweated under our inspection that they requested we would
 make a second attept today; accordingly the hole was somewhat enlarged
 and his father a very good looking old man, went into the hole with him
 and sustained him in a proper position during the operation; we could
 not make him sweat as copiously as we wished. after the operation he
 complained of considerable pain, we gave him 30 drops of laudanum which
 soon composed him and he rested very well.--this is at least a strong
 mark of parental affection. they all appear extreemly attentive to this
 sick man nor do they appear to relax in their asceduity towards him
 notwithstand he has been sick and helpless upwards of three years. the
 Chopunnish appear to be very attentive and kind to their aged people
 and treat their women with more rispect than the nations of the
 Missouri.--There is a speceis of Burrowing squirrel common in these
 plains which in their habits somewhat resemble those of the missouri
 but are a distinct speceis. this little animal measures one fot five
 and 1/2 inches from the nose to the extremity of the tail, of which the
 tail occupys 21/4 inches only; in the girth it is 11 In. the body is
 proportionably long, the neck and legs short; the ears are short,
 obtusely pointed, and lie close to the head; the aperture of the ear is
 larger proportionably than most animals which burrow. the eyes are of
 moderate size, the puple black and iris of a dark sooty brown. the
 teeth are like those of the squirrel as is it's whole contour. the
 whiskers are full, long and black; it also has some long black hairs
 above the eyes. it has five toes on each foot; the two inner toes of
 the fore feet are remarkably short, and have short blont nails. the
 remaining toes on those feet are long, black, slightly curved, and
 sharply pointed. the outer and inner toes of the hind feet are not
 short yet they are by no means as long as the three toes in the center
 of the foot which are remarkably long but the nails are not as long as
 those of the fore feet tho of the same form and colour. the hair of the
 tail tho of the same form and colour. the hair of the tail tho thickly
 inserted on every part rispects the two sides only. this gives it a
 flat appearance and a long ovol form. the tips of the hair which form
 the outer edges of the tail are white. the base of the hairs are either
 black or a fox red. the under disk of the tail is an iron grey, the
 upper a redish brown. the lower part of the jaws, under part of the
 neck, legs and feet from the body down and belley are of a light brick
 red. the nose as high as the eyes is of a darker brick red. the upper
 part of the head neck and body are of a curious brownish grey colour
 with a cast of the brick red. the longer hair of these parts being of a
 redish white colour at their extremities, fall together in such manner
 as to give it the appearance of being speckled at a little distance.
 these animals form large ascociations as those of the Missouri,
 occupying with their burroughs one or sometimes 200 acres of land. the
 burrows are seperate and are each occupyed perhaps by ten or 12 of
 those animals. there is a little mound in front of the hole formed of
 the earth thrown out of the burrow and frequently there are three or
 four distinct holes forming what I term one burrow with their mouths
 arround the base of this little mound which seems to be occupyed as a
 watch-tower in common by the inhabitants of those several holes. these
 mounds are sometimes as much as 2 feet high and 4 feet in diameter, and
 are irregularly distributed over the tract they occupy at the distance
 of from ten to thirty or 40 yds. when you approach a burrow the
 squirrels, one or more, usually set erect on these mounds and make a
 kind of shrill whistleing nois, something like tweet, tweet, tweet, &c.
 they do not live on grass as those of the missouri but on roots. one
 which I examined had in his mouth two small bulbs of a speceis of
 grass, which resemble very much what is sometimes called the grassnut.
 the intestins of those little animals are remarkably large for it's
 size. fur short and very fine.--the grass in their villages is not cut
 down as in those of the plains of the missouri. I preserved the skins
 of several of these animals with the heads feet and legs entire. The
 Black woodpecker which I have frequently mentioned and which is found
 in most parts of the roky Mountains as well as the Western and S. W.
 mountains. I had never an opportunity of examining untill a few days
 since when we killed and preserved several of them. this bird is about
 the size of the lark woodpecker of the turtle dove, tho it's wings are
 longer than either of those birds. the beak is black, one inch long,
 reather wide at the base, somewhat curved, and sharply pointed; the
 chaps are of equal length. arround the base of the beak including the
 eye and a small part of the throat is of a fine crimson red. the neck
 and as low as the croop in front is of an iron grey. the belly and
 breast is a curious mixture of white and blood reed which has much the
 appearance of having been artifically painted or stained of that
 colour. the red reather predominates. the top of the head back, sides,
 upper surface of the wings and tail are black, with a gossey tint of
 green in a certain exposure to the light. the under side of the wings
 and tail are of a sooty black. it has ten feathers in the tail, sharply
 pointed, and those in the center reather longest, being 21/2 inches in
 length. the tongue is barbed, pointed, and of an elastic cartelaginous
 substance. the eye is moderately large, puple black and iris of a dark
 yellowish brown. this bird in it's actions when flying resembles the
 small redheaded woodpecke common to the Atlantic states; it's note also
 somewhat resembles that bird. the pointed tail seems to assist it in
 seting with more eas or retaining it its resting position against the
 perpendicular side of a tree. the legs and feet are black and covered
 with wide imbricated scales. it has four toes on each foot of which two
 are in rear and two in front; the nails are much curved long and
 remarkably keen or sharply pointed. it feeds on bugs worms and a
 variety of insects.
 
 
 [Clark, May 27, 1806]
 Tuesday 27th May 1806
 A cloudy morning Serjt. Pryor and party Set out at 7 A.M. Serjt. Ordway
 and two men are ordered to cross this river and proceed on through the
 plains to Lewis's and precure Some Salmon on that river, and return
 tomorrow if possible he Set out at 8 A.M. we Sent Rub. Field in Serch
 of the horse which the indians had given us to kill. at 10 A. M he
 returned with the horse and he was killed and butchered; he was large
 and in good order. hohastillpilp told us that most of the horses which
 we Saw running in those plains in this neighbourhood at large belonged
 to himself and his people, and whenever we were in want of meet, he
 requested that would kill any of them we wished; this is a piece of
 liberallity which would do honour to Such as host of civilization.
 Serjt. Pryor, Gibson & Shields returned from the Village with a good
 Stock of roots and bread. Shabono Lapage & Yourk whome we had Sent to
 purchase roots for ourselves remained at the Village all night.
 Drewyer, Labiech & Crusat return at 4 P.M. with 5 Deer which they had
 killed at Some distance up Collin's Creek on this Side, that Stream
 Still continue So high that they could not pass it.
 Shabono's child is much better to day; tho the Swelling on the Side of
 his neck I believe will termonate in an ugly imposthume a little below
 the ear. The Indians were so anxious that the Sick Chief (who has lost
 the use of his limbs) Should be Sweted under our inspection they
 requested me to make a 2d attempt to day; accordingly the hole was
 enlargened and his father a very good looking old man performed all the
 drugery &c. we could not make him Swet as copously as we wished. being
 compelled to keep him erect in the hole by means of Cords. after the
 oppiration he complained of Considerable pain, I gave him 30 drops of
 Laudnom which Soon composed him and he rested very well-. I observe the
 Strongest marks of parental affection. they all appear extreemly
 attentive to this Sick man, no do they appear to relax in their
 ascituity towards him not withstanding he has been Sick and helpless
 for near 5 years. The Chopunnish appeare to be very attentive & kind to
 their aged people and treat their women with more respect than the
 nativs on the Missouri.
 There is a Species of whistleing Squirel common in these plains which
 in their habit Somewhat resembles those of the Missouri but are a
 distinct Species. this little animale measures 1 foot 5 inches & a half
 from the nose to the extremity of the tail, of which the tail occupies
 21/4 inches only; in the girth it is 11 inches the body is
 perpotionably long, the neck and legs Short; the ears are Short,
 obtusely pointed, and lye close to the head; the aperture of the ear is
 larger proportionably than most animals which burrow. the eyes are of
 Moderate Size, the puple black and iris of a dark dusky brown. the
 teeth are like those of the Squirel as is it's whole contour. the
 whiskers are full, long and black; it has also Some long black hars
 above the eye-. it has five toes on each foot; the 2 iner toes of the
 fore feet are remarkably Short, and have Short blunt nails. the
 remaining toes on these feet are long Slightly Curved, black and
 Sharply pointed. the outer and inner toes of the hind feet are not
 Short yet they are by no means as long as the three toes in the Center
 of the foot which are remarkably long but the nails are not as long as
 those of the fore feet tho of the Same form and colour. the bars of the
 tail tho thickly inserted on every part respects the two Sides only.
 this givs it a flat appearance and a long oval form. the tips of the
 hair which forms the outer edges of the tail are white. the bace of the
 hair are either black or a fox red. the under disk of the tail is an
 iron gray, the upper a redish brown. the lower part of the jaws, under
 part of the neck, legs and feet from the body down and belly are of a
 light brick red. the nose as high as the eyes is of a darker brick red.
 the upper part of the head neck and body are of a curious brownish gray
 colour with a cast of the brick red. the longer hairs of these parts
 being of a redish white colour at their extremities fall together in
 Such a Manner as to give it to the appearance of being Spekled at a
 little distance. these animals form large ascoations as those of the
 Missouri, occupying with their burroughs one or Sometimes 200 acres of
 Land. the burrows are Seperate and are each occupyed perhaps by 10 or
 12 of those Animals. there is a little Mound in front of the hole
 formed of the earth thrown out of the burrow and frequently there are
 three or four distinct holes forming what I call one burrow, around the
 base of the mound, which Seams to be occupied as a watch tower in
 common by the inhabitents of those Several holes. these Mounds are
 Sometimes as much as 2 feet high, and 4 feet in diameter, and are
 irregularly distributed over the tract they occupy at the distance of
 from ten to 30 or forty yards. When you approach a burrow the Squirels
 one, or more, usially Set erect on these Mounds and make a kind of
 Shrill whistleing nois, Something like tweet, tweet, tweet &c. they do
 not live on grass as those of the Missouri but on roots. one which I
 examoned had in his mouth two Small bulbs of a Species of grass, which
 resembles very much what is Sometimes Called the Grass Nut. the
 intestins of these little animals are remarkably large for it's Size;
 fur Short and very fine. the grass in their village is not Cut down as
 in these of the plains of the Missouri. I preserved the Skins of
 Several of these animals with the heads feet and legs entire-.-. The
 Black Wood pecker which is found in most parts of the rocky Mountains
 as will as the Western and S W. mountains, I had never an oppertunity
 of examineing, untill a fiew days Since when we killed and preserved
 Several of them. this bird is about the Size of the lark woodpecker or
 the turtle dove, tho it's wings are longer than either of these birds.
 the beak is black, one inch long reather wide at the base, Somewhat
 cirved, and Sharply pointed; the chaps are of equal length. around the
 bace of the beak including the eye and a Small part of the throat is of
 a crimson red. the neck and as low as the croop in front is of an iron
 gray. the belly and breast is of a curious mixture of white and blood
 red which has much the appearance of haveing been artifically painted
 or Stained of that colour, the red reather predominates. the top of the
 head, back, Sides, upper Surface of the wings and tail are black, the
 under Side of the wings and tail are black. it has ten feathers in the
 tail, Sharply pointed, and those in the center reather longest, being
 21/2 inches in length. the tongue is barbed, pointed, and of an elastic
 cartalaginous Substance. the eye is moderately large, puple black and
 iris of a dark yellowish brown. this bird in it's actions when flying
 resemble the Small redish woodpecker common to the altantic States;
 it's note also Somewhat resembles that bird. the pointed tail Seems to
 assist it in sitting with more ease or retaining it, in it's resting
 position against the perpendicular Side of a tree. the legs and feet
 are black, and covered with imbricated scales. it has four toes on each
 foot, of which two are in rear and two in front; the nails are much
 curved long and remarkably Keen or Sharply pointed. it feeds on bugs,
 worms and a variety of insects.-.
 
 
 [Lewis, May 28, 1806]
 Wednesday May 28th 1806.
 We sent Goodrich to the village of the broken arm this morning he
 returned in the evening with some roots bread and a parsel of
 goats-hair for making our saddle pads. Reubin and Joseph Feilds set out
 this morning to hunt high up on a creek which discharges itself into
 this river about 8 miles above us. at Noon Charbono, York and Lapage
 returned; they had obtained four bags of the dryed roots of Cows and
 some bread. in the evening Collins Shannon and Colter returned with
 eight deer. they had fortunately discovered a ford on Collins's Creek
 where they were enabled to pass it with their horses and had hunted at
 the quawmash ground where we first met with the Chopunnish last fall.
 deer were very abundant they informed us, but there were not many bear.
 The sick Cheif was much better this morning he can use his hands and
 arms and seems much pleased with the prospect of recovering, he says he
 feels much better than he has for a great number of months. I sincerely
 wish these sweats may restore him; we have consented that he should
 still remain with us and repeat these sweats. he set up a great
 proportion of the day.--The Child is also better, he is free of fever,
 the imposthume is not so large but seems to be advancing to maturity.-
 since my arrival here I have killed several birds of the corvus genus
 of a kind found only in the rocky mountains and their neighbourhood. I
 first met with this bird above the three forks of the Missouri and saw
 them on the hights of the rocky Mountains but never before had an
 opportunity of examining them closely. the small corvus discribed at
 Fort Clatsop is a different speceis, tho untill now I had taken it to
 be the same, this is much larger and has a loud squawling note
 something like the mewing of a cat. the beak of this bird is 11/2
 inches long, is proportionably large, black and of the form which
 characterizes this genus. the upper exceeds the under chap a little.
 the head and neck are also proportionably large. the eye full and
 reather prominent, the iris dark brown and puple black. it is about the
 size and somewhat the form of the Jaybird tho reather rounder or more
 full in the body. the tail is four and a half inches in length,
 composed of 12 feathers nearly of the same length. the head neck and
 body of this bird are of a dove colour. the wings are black except the
 extremities of six large fathers ocupying the middle joint of the wing
 which are white. the under disk of the wing is not of the shining or
 grossy black which marks it's upper surface. the two feathers in the
 center of the tail are black as are the two adjacent feathers for half
 their width the ballance are of a pure white. the feet and legs are
 black and imbricated with wide scales. the nails are black and
 remarkably long and sharp, also much curved. it has four toes on each
 foot of which one is in the rear and three in front. the toes are long
 particularly that in the rear. this bird feeds on the seed of the pine
 and also on insects. it resides in the rocky mountains at all seasons
 of the year, and in many parts is the only bird to be found.--our
 hunters brought us a large hooting Owl which differs considerably from
 those of the Atlantic States which are also common here. the plumage of
 this owl is an uniform mixture of dark yellowish brown and white, in
 which the dark brown predominates. it's colour may be properly termed a
 dark iron grey. the plumage is very long and remarkably silky and soft.
 these have not the long feathers on the head which give it the
 appearance of ears or horns. the leathers of the head are long narrow
 and closely set, they rise upwright nearly to the extremity and then
 are bent back sudonly as iff curled. a kind of ruff of these feathers
 incircle the thoat. the head has a flat appearance being broadest
 before and behind and is 1 foot 10 Is. in circumference. incircling the
 eyes and extending from them like rays from the center a tissue of open
 hairy long feathers are placed of a light grey colour, these conceal
 the ears which are very large and are placed close to the eyes behind
 and extending below them. these feathers meet over the beak which they
 nearly conceal and form the face of the owl. they eyes are remarkably
 large and prominant, the iris of a pale goald colour and iris circular
 and of a deep sea green. the beak is short and wide at it's base. the
 upper chap is much curved at the extremity and comes down over and in
 front of the under chap. this bird is about the size of the largest
 hooting Owl. the tail is composed of eleven feathers, of which those in
 the center are reather the longest. it is booted to the extremity of
 the toes, of which it has four on each foot, one in the rear one on the
 outer side and two in front. the toes are short particularly that in
 rear, but are all armed with long keen curved nails of a dark brown
 colour. the beak is white and nostrils circular large and unconnected.
 the habits and the note of this owl is much that of the common large
 hooting owl.
 
 
 [Clark, May 28, 1806]
 Wednesday May 28th 1806
 We sent Goodrich to the Village of the broken Arm for hair to Stuff
 Saddle pads. Jo. & R. Fields Set out this morning to hunt towards the
 mountains. at noon Shabono York and Lapage returned. they had obtained
 4 bags of the dried roots of Cowse and Some bread. in the evening
 Collins, Shannon & Cotter returned with 8 deer. they fortunately
 discovered a ford on Collin's Creek where they were enable to pass it
 with there horses and had hunted at the quawmash Grounds where we first
 met with the Chopunnish last fall. deer were verry abundant they
 informed us, but there was not many bear. The Sick Chief is much better
 this morning he can use his hands and arms and Seems much pleased with
 the prospects of recovering, he Says he feels much better than he has
 done for a great Number of Months. I Sincerly wish that the Swetts may
 restore him. I have Consented to repeet the Sweets.
 The Country along the rocky mountains for Several hundred Miles in
 length and about 50 in width is leavel extremely fertile and in many
 parts Covered with a tall and opult. growth of the long leafed pine.
 near the Watercourses the hills are lofty tho are covered with a good
 Soil and not remarkably Stoney and possess more timber than the leavel
 country. the bottom lands on the Water courses are reather narrow and
 confined tho fertile and Seldom inundated. this Country would form an
 extensive Settlement; the Climate appears quit as mild as that of a
 Similar latitude on the Atlantic Coast; & it cannot be otherwise than
 healthy; it possesses a fine dry pure air. the grass and maney plants
 are now upwards of Knee high. I have no doubt that this tract of
 Country if Cultivated would produce in great abundance every article
 esentially necessary to the comfort and Subsistence of civillized man.
 to it's present inhabitents nature Seems to have dealt with a liberal
 hand, for she has distributed a great variety of esculent plants over
 the face of the Country which furnish them a plentiful Store of
 provisions; those are acquired but little toil; and when prepared after
 the method of the nativs afford not only a nutricious but an agreeable
 food. among other roots those Called by them the Quawmash and Cows are
 esteemd. the most agreeable and valuable as they are also the most
 abundant in those high plains.
 The Cows is a knobbed root of an erregularly rounded form not unlike
 the Gensang in form and Consistence; this root they Collect, rub off a
 thin black rhind which Covers it and pounding it exposes it in cakes to
 the Sun. these Cakes are about an inch and 1/4 thick and 6 by 18 in
 wedth, when dry they either eat this bread alone without any further
 preperation, or boil it and make a thick Musilage; the latter is most
 common & much the most agreeable. the flower of this root is not very
 unlike the gensang-. this root they Collect as early as the Snow
 disappears in the Spring, and Continues to collect it untill the
 Quawmash Supplies it's place which happins about the Middle of June.
 the quawmash is also Collected for a fiew weeks after it first makes
 it's appearance in the Spring, but when the scape appears it is no
 longer fit for use untill the Seed are ripe which happens about the
 time just mentioned. and then the Cows declines. The Cows is also
 frequently dried in the Sun and pounded afterwards and used in
 thickening Supe and Makeing Mush.
 The Chopunnish held a Council in the morning of the 12th among
 themselves in respect to the Subject on which we had Spoken to them the
 day before, the result as we learnt was favourable, they placed
 Confidence in the information they had recived and resolved to pursue
 our advise. after this Council was over the principal Chief or the
 broken arm, took the flour of the roots of Cows and thickened the Soup
 in the Kitiles and baskets of all his people, this being ended he made
 a harangue the purpote of which was makeing known the deliberations of
 their councils and impressing the necessity of unanimity among them,
 and a strict attention to the resolution which had been agreed on in
 Councell; he concluded by enviting all such men as had resolved to
 abide by the decree of the councill to come and eat, and requested Such
 as would not be So bound to Show themselves by not partakeing of the
 feast. I was told by one of our men who was present in the house, that
 there was not a decenting voice on this great National question, but
 all Swallowed their objections if any they had, very cheerfully with
 their mush-. dureing the time of this loud animated harangue of the
 Chief the women Cryed wrung their hands, tore their hair and appeared
 to be in the utmost distress. after this cerimoney was over, the Chiefs
 and considerate men came in a body to where we were Seated at a little
 distance from our tent, and two young men at the instance of the nation
 presented Capt L. and myself each a fine horse. and informed us that
 they had listened with attentioned to what we had Said and were
 resolved to pursue our Counsels &c.--That as we had not seen the Black
 foot Indians and the Minetarries of Fort dePrarie they did not think it
 safe to venter over to the plains of the Missouri, where they would
 fondly go provided those nations would not kill them. that when we had
 established a tradeing house on the Missouri as we had promised they
 would Come over and trade for arms Amunition &c. and live about us.
 that it would give them much pleasure to be at peace with those nations
 altho they had Shed much of their blood-. They Said that they were pore
 but their hearts were good. we might be assured of their sincerety.
 Some of their brave men would go over with us to the Missouri and bring
 them the news as we wished, and if we Could make a peace between them
 and their enimies on the other Side of the mountains their nation would
 go over to the Missouri in the latter end of the Summer. on the Subject
 of one of their Chiefs accompanying us to the land of the White men
 they Could not yet determine, but that they would let us know before we
 left them. that the Snow was yet so deep in the Mountains that if we
 attempted to pass, we would Certainly perish, and advised us to remain
 untill after the next full Moon when the Snow would disappear on the
 South hill sides and we would find grass for our horses.-. Shabonos
 Child is better this day that he was yesterday. he is free from fever.
 the imposthume is not So large but Seems to be advanceing to meturity-.
 
 
 [Lewis, May 29, 1806]
 Thursday May 29th 1806.
 No movement of the party today worthy of notice. we have once more a
 good stock of meat and roots. Bratton is recovering his strength very
 fast; the Child and the Indian Cheif are also on the recovery. the
 cheif has much more uce of his hands and arms. he washed his face
 himself today which he has been unable to do previously for more than
 twelvemonths. we would have repeated the sweat today had not been
 cloudy and frequently raining. a speceis of Lizzard called by the
 French engages prarie buffaloe are native of these plains as well as of
 those of the Missouri. I have called them the horned Lizzard. they are
 about the size and a good deel the figure of the common black lizzard.
 but their bellies are broader, the tail shorter and their action much
 slower; they crawl much like the toad. they are of brown colour with
 yellowish and yellowishbrown spots. it is covered with minute scales
 intermixed with little horny prosesses like blont prickles on the upper
 surface of the body. the belley and throat is more like the frog and
 are of a light yelowish brown colour. arround the edge of the belley is
 regularly set with little horney projections which give to those edges
 a serrate figure the eye is small and of a dark colour. above and
 behind the eyes there are several projections of the bone which being
 armed at their extremities with a firm black substance has the
 appearance of horns sprouting out from the head. this part has induced
 me to distinguish it by the apppellation of the horned Lizzard. I
 cannot conceive how the engages ever assimilated this animal with the
 buffaloe for there is not greater analogy than between the horse and
 the frog. this animal is found in greatest numbers in the sandy open
 parts of the plains, and appear in great abundance after a shower of
 rain; they are sometimes found basking in the sunshine but conceal
 themselves in little holes in the earth much the greater preportion of
 their time. they are numerous about the falls of the Missouri and in
 the plains through which we past lately above the Wallahwallahs.--The
 Choke Cherry has been in blume since the 20th inst. it is a simple
 branching ascending stem. the cortex smooth and of a dark brown with a
 redish cast. the leaf is scattered petiolate oval accute at its apex
 finely serrate smooth and of an ordinary green. from 11/2 to 3 inches
 in length and 13/4 to 2 in width. the peduncles are common, cilindric,
 and from 4 to 5 inches in length and are inserted promiscuously on the
 twigs of the preceeding years growth. on the lower portion of the
 common peduncle are frequently from 3 to 4 small leaves being the same
 in form as those last discribed. other peduncles 1/4 of an inch in
 length are thickly scattered and inserted on all sides of the common
 peduncle at wright angles with it each elivating a single flower, which
 has five obtuse short patent white petals with short claws inserted on
 the upper edge of the calyx. the calyx is a perianth including both
 stamens and germ, one leafed fine cleft entire simiglobular, infrior,
 deciduous. the stamens are upwards of twenty and are seated on the
 margin of the flower cup or what I have called the perianth. the
 filaments are unequal in length subulate inflected and superior
 membranous. the anthers are equal in number with the filaments, they
 are very short oblong & flat, naked and situated at the extremity of
 the filaments, is of a yelow colour as is also the pollen. one
 pistillum. the germen is ovate, smooth, superior, sessile, very small;
 the Style is very short, simple, erect, on the top of the germen,
 deciduous. the stigma is simple, flat very short.-
 
 
 [Clark, May 29, 1806]
 Thursday 29th of May 1806
 No movement of the party to day worthy of notice. we have once more a
 good Stock of Meat and roots. Bratten is recovering his Strength very
 fast. the Child, and the Indian Cheaf are also on the recovery. the
 Chief has much more use of his hands and arms. he washed his face
 himself today. Which he has not been able to do previously for more
 than twelve months past. I would have repeeted the Sweat to day had it
 not been Cloudy and frequently raining.-. Sence my arrival here I have
 killed Several birds of the Corvus genus of a kind found only in the
 rocky mountains and their neighbourhood. I first met with bird on
 Jeffersons River. and Saw them on the hights of the rocky mountains.
 but never before had an oppertunity of examineing them Closely. the
 Small Corvus discribed at Fort Clatsop is a different Species, tho
 untill now I had taken it to be the Same, this is much larger and has a
 loud squaling note something like the newing of a Cat. the beak of this
 bird is 11/2 inches long, is proportionably large, black and of the
 form which characterize this genus. the upper exeeds the under Chap a
 little. the head and neck are also propotionably large, the eyes full
 and reather prominant, the iris dark brown and purple black. it is
 about the Size and Some what the form of the jay bird, tho reather
 rounder and more full in the body. the tail is four and a half inches
 in length, composed of 12 feathers nearly of the Same length. the head,
 neck and body of this bird is of a dove Colour. the wings are black
 except the extremities of Six large feathers occupying the middle joint
 of the wings which are White. the under disk of the wings are not of
 the shineing or glossy black which mark it's upper Surface. the two
 feathers in the Center of the tail are black as are the two adjacent
 feathers for half their wedth, the ballance are of a pure White. the
 feet and legs are black, and imbricated with wide Scales, the nails are
 black and remarkably long and Sharp, also much Curved, it has four toes
 on each foot of which one is in the rear and 3 in front. the toes are
 long particular that in the rear. this bird feeds on the Seeds of the
 pine and also on insects. it resides in the rocky Mountains at all
 Seasons of the year, and in many parts is the only bird to be found. a
 Species of Lizzard Called by the French engages, Prarie buffaloe are
 nativs of these plains as well as those of the Missouri. I have Called
 them the horned Lizzard. they are about the Size and a good deel the
 figure of the Common black lizzard. but their bellies are broader, the
 tail Shorter and their action much Slower; they Crawl much like the
 toad. they are of a brown Colour with yellowish and yellowish brown
 Spots. it is covered with minute scales intermixed with little horney
 like blunt prickkles on the upper Surface of the body. the belly and
 throat is more like the frog and are of a light yellowish brown Colour.
 around the edge of the belly is regularly Set with little horney
 prejections which give to those edges a Serrate figure, the eye is
 Small and of a dark colour. above and behind the eyes there are Several
 Projections of the bone which being armed at their extremities with a
 firm black Substance has the appearance of horns Sprouting out from the
 head. this part has induced me to distinguish it by the appellation of
 the Horned Lizard. I cannot conceive how the engagees ever assimilated
 this animal withe Buffalow for there is not grater anology than between
 the Horse and the frog. this Animal is found in greatest numbers in the
 Sandy open parts of the Plains, and appear in great abundance after a
 rain; they are Sometimes found basking in the Sunshine but conceal
 themselves in little holes under the tufts of grass or herbs much the
 greater proportion of their time. they are noumerous about the Falls of
 Missouri, and in the plains through which we passed lately above the
 Falls of Columbia
 The Choke Cherry has been in blume Since the 20th inst. it is a Simple
 branching ascending Stem. the Cortex Smooth and of a dark brown with a
 redish Cast. the leaf is scattered petiolate oval accute at it's apex
 finely Serated Smooth and of an ordinary green, from 21/2 to 3 inches
 in length and from 11/4 to 2 in width. the Peduncles cilindric and
 Common from 4 to 5 inches in length and are inserted promiscuisly on
 the twigs of the proceeding years growth. on the lower portion of the
 Common peduncle are frequently from 3 to 4 Small leaves, being the same
 in form as those last discribed. other peduncles 1/4 of an inch in
 length are Scattered and thickly inserted on all sides of the Common
 peduncle at right-angles with it, each elivateing a Single flower,
 which has five obtuse Short patent white petals with Short claws
 incerted on the upper edge of the calyx. the Calyx is a perianth
 including both Stemes & germ, one leafed five cleft entire, Semi
 globular. the Stamons are upwards of twenty and are Seated on the
 Margin of the flower Cup or what I have Called the perianth. the
 filaments are unequal in length Subulate inflected and Superior
 membranous. the anthers are equal in number with the filaments, they
 are very Short oblong and flat, naked and Situated at the extremity of
 the filaments. is of a yellowish colour asis also the pollen. one
 pistillum. the germin is ovate, Smooth, Superior, sessile, very Small;
 the Style is very Short, Simple, erect, on the top of the germen
 deciduous. the Stigma is Simple, flat very Short. This Shrub rises to
 the hight of from 6 to 8 feet generally but Sometimes rich Situations
 much higher. it is not confined to any particular Situation Capt. L-s
 met with a singular plant in blume of which we preserved a Specimene.
 it grows on the Steep fertile hill Sides near this place the radix is
 fibrous, not much branched, annual, woody, white and nearly Smooth. the
 Stem is Simple branching ascending 21/2 feet high. Celindric, villose
 and of a pale red Colour. the branches are but fiew and those near it's
 upper extremity. the extremities of the branches are flexable and are
 bent down near their extremities with the weight of the flowers. the
 leaf is sessile, scattered thinly, nearly lineor tho Somewhat widest in
 the middle, two inches in length, absolutely entire, villose, obtusely
 pointed and of an Ordinary green. above each leaf a Small Short branch
 protrudes, Supporting a tissue of four or five Small leaves of the Same
 appearance of those discribed. a leaf is placed under neath each branch
 and each flower. the Calyx is one flowered Spatha. the corolla
 Superior, consists of four pale perple petals which are tripartite, the
 Centeral lobe largest and all terminate obtusely; they are inserted
 with a long and narrow claw on the top of the germ, are long, Smooth
 and deciduous. there are two distinct Sets of Stamens the first or
 principal Consists of four, the filaments which are capillary, erect,
 inserted on the top of the germ alternately with the petals, equal
 short, membranus; the anthers are also four each being elivated with
 it's fillaments; they are reather flat, erect sessile, cohering to the
 base, membranous, longitudinally furrowed, twise as long as the
 fillament naked, and of a pale purple colour, the Second Set of Stamens
 are very minute, are also four and placed within and opposit to the
 petals, those are Scercely precptable while the first are large &
 Conspicious, the fillaments are capillary equal, very Short white and
 Smooth. the anthers are four, oblong, beaked, erect Cohering at the
 base, membanous, Shorter than the fillaments, White naked and appear
 not to form pollen, there is one pistillum; the germ of which is also
 one, celindric, villous, inferior, Sessile, as long as the first
 Stamuns, and grooved. the Single Style and Stigma form a perfect mono
 petallous corolla only with this difference that the Style which
 elivates the Stigma or limb is not a tube but solid tho it's outer
 appearance is that of a tube of a Monopetallous corolla swelling as it
 ascends and gliding in such manner into the limb that it Cannot be Said
 where the Style ends or the Stigma begins, jointly they are as long as
 the Gorilla, while the limb is four cleft, Sauser Shaped, and the
 margin of the lobes entire and rounded. this has the appearance of a
 monopetallous flower growing from the Center of the four petalled
 corollar which is rendered more conspicuous in consequence of the first
 being white and the latter of a pale purple. I regret very much that
 the Seed of this plant are not ripe as yet and it is probable will not
 be so dureing our residence in this neighbourhood-. our Horses maney of
 them have become So wild that we Cannot take them without the
 assistance of the indians who are extreemly dextrous in throwing a Rope
 and takeing them with a noose about the neck; as we frequently want the
 use of our horses when we cannot get the use of the indians to take
 them, we had a Strong pound formed to day in order to take them at
 pleasure-
 
 
 [Lewis, May 30, 1806]
 Friday May 30th 1806.
 Lapage and Charbono set out to the indian vilages early this morning
 for the purpose of trading with them for roots; Sergt. Gass was sent
 this morning to obtain some goats hair to stuff the padds of our
 saddles. he ascended the river on this side and being unable to pass
 the river opposite to the village he wished to visit, returned in the
 evening unsuccessfull. Shannon and Collins were permitted to pass the
 river in order to trade with the natives and lay in a store of roots
 and bread for themselves with their proportion of the merchandize as
 the others had done; in landing on the opposite shore the canoe was
 driven broad side with the full forse of a very strong current against
 some standing trees and instantly filled with water and sunk. Potts who
 was with them is an indifferent swimer, it was with much difficulty he
 made the land. they lost three blankets a blanket coat and their
 pittance of merchandize. in our bear state of clootheing this was a
 serious loss. I sent Sergt. Pryor and a party over with the indian
 canoe in order to raise and secure ours but the debth of the water and
 the strength of the current baffled every effort. I fear that we have
 also lost our canoe. all our invalides are on the recovery. we gave the
 sick Cheif a severe sweat today, shortly after which he could move one
 of his legs and thyes and work his toes pretty well, the other leg he
 can move a little; his fingers and arms seem to be almost entirely
 restored. he seems highly delighted with his recovery. I begin to
 entertain strong hope of his restoration by these sweats. in the
 evening Joseph Feild returned in surch of his horses which had left
 them last evening and returned to camp. Feilds informed us that himself
 and his brother whom he had left at their camp 6 ms. distant on
 Collin's creek, had killed 3 deer. The reptiles which I have observed
 in this quarter are the Rattlesnake of the speceis discribed on the
 Missouri, they are abundant in every part of the country and are the
 only poisonous snake which we have yet met with since we left St.
 Louis. the 2 speceis of snakes of an inosent kind already discribed.
 the common black lizzard, the horned lizzard, a smal green tree frog,
 the smal frog which is common to our country which sings in the spring
 of the year, a large speceis of frog which resorts the water
 considerably larger than our bull frog, it's shape seems to be a medium
 between the delicate and lengthy form of our bull frog and that of our
 land frog or toad as they are sometimes called in the U States. like
 the latter their bodies are covered with little pustles or lumps,
 elivated above the ordinary surface of the body; I never heard them
 make any sound or nois. the mockerson snake or coperhead, a number of
 vipers a variety of lizzards, the toad bullfrog &c common to the U
 States are not to be found in this country. most of the insects common
 to the U States are found here. the butterflies, common house and
 blowing flies, the horse flies, except the goald coloured ear fly, tho
 in stead of this fly we have a brown coloured fly about the same size
 which attatches itself to that part of the horse and is equally as
 troublesome. the silkworm is also found here. a great variety of
 beatles common to the Atlantic states are found here likewise. except
 from this order the large cow beatle and the black beatle usually alled
 the tumble bug which are not found here. the hornet, the wasp and
 yellow wasp or yellow jacket as they are frequently called are not met
 with in this quarter. there is an insect which much resembles the
 latter only a vast deel larger which are very numerous particularly in
 the rocky mountains on the waters of the Columbia; these build in the
 ground where they form a nest like the hornet with an outer covering to
 the comb in which they deposit their eggs and raise their young. the
 sheets of this comb are attatched to each other as those of the hornets
 are. their wings are four of a dark brown colour. the head is black,
 the body and abdomen are yellow incircled with transverse rings of
 black, they are ferce and sting very severely, we found them
 troublesome in frightening our horses as we passed those mountains. the
 honey bee is not found here. the bumble bee is. one of the men brought
 me today some onions from the high plain of a different speceis from
 those near the borders of the river as they are also from the shive or
 small onion noticed below the falls of the Columbia. these onions were
 as large as a nutmeg, they generally grow double or two bulbs connected
 by the same tissue of radicles; each bulb has two long liniar flat
 solid leaves. the peduncle is solid celindric and crowned with an umbal
 of from 20 to 30 flowers. this onion is exceedingly crisp and
 delicately flavoured indeed I think more sweet and less strong than any
 I ever taisted. it is not yet perfectly in blow, the parts of the
 flower are not distinct.
 
 
 [Clark, May 30, 1806]
 Friday May 30th 1806.
 Lapage and Shabono Set out early this morning to the Indian Village in
 order to trade with them for roots; Serjt. Gass was Sent this morning
 to obtain Some goats hair to Stuf the pads of our Saddles; he assended
 the river on this Side and being unable to pass the river to the
 village he wished to visit returned in the evening unsucksessfull.
 Shannon and Collins were permited to pass the river in order to trade
 with the nativs and lay in a Store of roots and bread for themselves
 with their proportion of the merchendize as others had done; on landing
 on the opposit Shore the Canoe was driven broad Side with the full
 force of a very Strong Current against Some Standing trees and
 instantly filled with water and Sunk. Potts who was with them is an
 indifferent Swimer, it was with dificuelty he made the land. they lost
 three blankets and a Blanket Cappo and their pittance of Merchindize.
 in our bear State of Clothing this was a Serious loss. I Sent Serjt.
 Pryor and a party over in the Indian Canoe in order to raise and Secure
 ours but the debth of the water and the Strength of the Current baffled
 every effort. I fear that we have also lost our Canoe.all our involedes
 are on the recovery. we gave the Sick Chief a Severe Swet to day,
 Shortly after which he could move one of his legs and thy's and work
 his toes pritty well, the other leg he can move a little; his fingers
 and arms Seem to be almost entirely restored. he Seems highly delighted
 with his recovery. I begin to entertain Strong hope of his recovering
 by these Sweats in the evening Joseph Fields returned in serch of his
 horses which had left them last evening and returned to Camp. Field
 informed us that himself and his brother whome he had left at their
 Camp 6 ms. distant on Collins Creek had killed 3 Deer.--The reptiles
 which I have observed in this quarter are the Rattle Snake of the
 Species discribed on the Missouri, they are abundant in every part of
 the Country and are the only poisonous Snake which we have met with
 Since we left St. Louis. the Second Species of Snake of an inosent kind
 already discribd. the Common black Lizzard, the horned Lizzard, a small
 green tree-frog; the Same frog which is common to our Country which
 Sings in the Spring of the year. a large Species of frog which resorts
 the water considerably larger than our bull-frog, it's Shape Seems to
 be a Medium between the delicate and lengthy form of our bullfrogs and
 that of our land frog or toad as they are Sometimes called in the
 United States. like the latter their bodies are covered with little
 pustles or lumps, elevated above the ordinary Surface of the body; I
 never heard them make any Sound or noise, the Mockerson Snake or Copper
 head, a number of vipers, a variety of Lizzards, the toad bullfrog &c.
 common to the U. States are not to be found in this Country. Most of
 the insects common to the U States are found here. the butterfly,
 common house and blowing flies, the horse flies, except the gold
 coloured ear fly. tho in Stead of this fly we have a brown coloured fly
 about the same Size which attatches itself to that part of the horse
 and is equally as troublesom. the Silk worm is also found here. a great
 variety of beatles common to the atlantic States are Seen here
 likewise. except from this order the large Cow beatle and the black
 beatle usially termed tumble bug which are not found here. the hornet,
 the Wasp and yellow Wasp or yellow jacket as they are frequently Called
 are not met with in this quarter. there is an insect which much
 resembles the latter only a vast deel larger which are very noumerous
 particular in the Rocky mountains on the waters of the Columbia, those
 build in the ground where they form a nest like the hornet with an
 outer covering to the Comb in which they deposit their eggs and raise
 their young. the Sheets of this Comb are attatched to each other as
 those of the hornets are. their wings are four of a dark brown
 Colour--the head is black, the body and abdomin are yellow insercled with
 transverce rings of black, they are firce and Sting very Severely; we
 found them troublesom in frightening our horses as we passed through
 mountains. the honey bee is not found here. the bumblebee is. one of
 the men brought me to day Some Onions from the high plains of a
 different Species from those near the borders of the river as they are
 also from the Shive or Small Onion noticed below the Falls of Columbia.
 these Onions were as large as an nutmeg, they generally grow double or
 two bulbs connected by the same tissue of radicles; each bulb has two
 long liner flat solid leaves. the pedencle is solid celindric and
 cround with an umble of from 20 to 30 flowers. this Onion is
 exceedingly crisp and delicately flavoured indeed. I think more Sweet
 and less strong than any I ever tasted, it is not yet perfectly in
 blume, the parts of the flower are not distinct
 
 
 [Lewis, May 31, 1806]
 Saturday May 31st 1806.
 Goodrich and Willard visited the indian Villages this morning and
 returned in the evening. Willard brought with him the dressed skin of a
 bear which he had purchased for Capt. C. this skin was an uniform pale
 redish brown colour, the indians informed us that it was not the
 Hoh-host or white bear, that it was the Yack-kah. this distinction of
 the indians induced us to make further enquiry relative to their
 opinons of the several speceis of bear in this country. we produced the
 several skins of the bear which we had killed at this place and one
 very nearly white which I had purchased. The white, the deep and plale
 red grizzle, the dark bron grizzle, and all those which had the
 extremities of the hair of a white or frosty colour without regard to
 the colour of the ground of the poil, they designated Hoh-host and
 assured us that they were the same with the white bear, that they
 ascosiated together, were very vicisious, never climbed the trees, and
 had much longer nails than the others. the black skins, those which
 were black with a number of intire white hairs intermixed, the black
 with a white breast, the uniform bey, brown and light redish brown,
 they designated the Yack-kah;-said that they climbed the trees, had
 short nails and were not vicious, that they could pursue them and kill
 them with safety, they also affirmed that they were much smaller than
 the white bear. I am disposed to adopt the Indian distinction with
 rispect to these bear and consider them two distinct speceis. the white
 and the grizzly of this neighbourhood are the same of those found on
 the upper portion of the Missouri where the other speceis are not, and
 that the uniform redish brown black &c of this neighbourhood are a
 speceis distinct from our black bear and from the black bear of the
 Pacific coast which I believe to be the same with those of the Atlantic
 coast, and that the common black bear do not exist here. I had
 previously observed that the claws of some of the bear which we had
 killed here had much shorter tallons than the variagated or white bear
 usually have but supposed that they had woarn them out by scratching up
 roots, and these were those which the indians called Yak-kah. on
 enquiry I found also that a cub of an uniform redish brown colour, pup
 to a female black bear intermixed with entire white hairs had climbed a
 tree. I think this a distinct speceis from the common black bear,
 because we never find the latter of any other colour than an uniform
 black, and also that the poil of this bear is much finer thicker and
 longer with a greater proportion of fur mixed with the hair, in other
 ispects they are much the same.--This evening Joseph and R. Feilds
 returned with the three deer which they had killed. The Indians brought
 us another of our origional Stock of horses; there are only two absent
 now of those horses, and these the indians inform us that our shoshone
 guide rode back when he returned. we have sixty five horses at this
 time, most of them in excellent order and fine strong active horses.-
 The Indians pursued a mule deer to the river opposite to our camp this
 evening; the deer swam over and one of our hunters killed it. there
 being a large party of indians assembled on this occasion on the
 opposite side, Hohast-ill-pilp desired them to raise our canoe which
 was sunk on that side of the river yesterday; they made the attempt but
 were unable to effect it.
 
 
 [Clark, May 31, 1806]
 Saturday May 31st 1806
 Goodrich and Willard visited the indian Village this morning and
 returned in the evening Willard brought with him the dressed Skin of a
 bear which he had purchased for me. this Skin was of a uniform pale
 redish brown colour, the indians inform us that it was not the Hoh-host
 or white bear, that it was the Yack-kah this distinction of the indians
 induced us to make further enquiry relitive to their oppinions of the
 defferent Species of bear in this country. We produced the Several
 Skins of the bear which our hunters had killed at this place and one
 very nearly white which Capt Lewis had purchased. the White, the deep
 and pale red grizzle, the dark brown grizzle, and all those that had
 the extremities of the hair of a White or frosty Colour without reguard
 to the Colour of the ground of the poil, they disignated Hoh-host and
 assured us that they were the Same with the White bear, that they
 associated together, were very vicisious, never climb the trees, and
 had much longer nails than the others. The black skins, those which
 were black with a number of entire white hairs intermixed, the black
 with a White breast, the uniform bey, brown and light redish brown,
 they disignated the Yack-kah-; Said that they Climb the trees had Short
 nails and were not viscisious, that they could prosue them and kill
 them in Safty, they also affirmed that they were much Smaller than the
 white bear. I am disposed to adopt the Indians distinction with respect
 to these bear and consider them two distinct Species. the White and the
 Grizzly of this neighbourhood are the Same as those found on the upper
 part of the Missouri where the other Species are not, and that the
 uniform redish brown black &c. of this neighbourhood are a Species
 distinct from both Species of our black bear and from the black bear of
 the Pacific Coast which I believe to be the Same with those of the
 Atlantic Coast, and that the Common black bear do not exist here. I had
 previously observed that the claws of Some of the bear which we had
 killed here had much Shorter tallons than the varigated or White bear
 usially have but Supposed that they had worn them out by scratching out
 roots, and these were those which the indians call Yahkah. on enquiry I
 found also that a Cub of a uniform redish brown Colour pup to a female
 black bear intermixed with entire white hairs, had climbed a tree. I
 think this a distinct Species from the common black bear becaus we
 never find the latter of any other Colour than a uniform black, and
 also that the poil of this bear is much finer thicker and longer with a
 greater proportion of fur mixed with the hair, in other respects they
 are much the same
 This evening, Joseph and Reuben Fields returned with the three deer
 they had killed. The indians brought us another of our Original Stock
 of Horses; there are only two Absent now of these horses, and these the
 indians inform us that our Sho-Sho-ne guide rode back when he returned.
 we have Sixty five horses at this time, most of them in excellent order
 and fine Strong active horses
 The Indians pursued a Mule deer to the river opposit to our Camp this
 evening; the deer Swam over and one of our hunters killed it. there
 being a large party of indians assembled on this Occasion on the
 opposit Side with Tin-nach-e-moo-tolt they attempted to rais our Canoe
 which was Sunk on that Side of the river yesterday; they made the
 attempt but were unable to effect it-.