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[Lewis, March 1, 1806]
 Saturday March 1st 1806.
 This morning Sergt. Gass and a party set out in quest of the Elk which
 had been killed by the hunters the day before yesterday. they returned
 with the flesh of three of them late in the evening. Thompson was left
 with the hunters in order to jurk and take care of the flesh of the
 remaining two. Kuskelar and wife left us about noon. he had a good
 looking boy of about 10 years of age with him who he informed us was
 his slave. this boy had been taken prisoner by the Killamucks from some
 nation on the Coast to the S. East of them at a great distance. like
 other Indian nations they adopt their slaves in their families and
 treat them very much as their own children. Reubin Fields and Collins
 who have been absent since yesterday morning returned without having
 killed any game. The birds of the Western side of the Rocky Mountain to
 the Pacific Ocean, for convenience I shall divide into two classes,
 which I shal designate from the habits of the birds, Terrestrial and
 Aquatic.
 The Grouse or Prarie hen is peculiarly the inhabitant of the Grait
 Plains of Columbia they do not differ from those of the upper portion
 of the Missouri, the tail of which is pointed or the feathers in it's
 center much longer than those on the sides. this Species differs
 essentially in the construction of this part of their plumage from
 those of the Illinois which have their tails composed of fathers of
 equal length. in the winter season this bird is booted even to the
 first joint of it's toes. the toes are also curiously bordered on their
 lower edges with narrow hard scales which are placed very close to each
 other and extend horizontally about 1/8 of an inch on each side of the
 toes thus adding to the width of the tread which nature seems
 bountifully to have furnished them at this season for passing over the
 snow with more ease. in the summer season those scales fall off. They
 have four toes on each foot. Their colour is a mixture of dark brown
 redish and yellowish brown and white confusedly mixed in which the
 redish brown prevails most on the upper parts of the body wings and
 tail and the white underneath the belley and lower parts of the breast
 and tail. they associate in large flocks in autumn & winter and are
 frequently found in flocks of from five to six even in summer. They
 feed on grass, insects, the leaves of various shrubs in the plains and
 on the seeds of several species of spelts and wild rye which grow in
 the richer parts of the plains. in winter their food is the buds of the
 willow & Cottonwood also the most of the native berries furnish them
 with food.The Indians of this neighbourhood eat the root of the Cattail
 or Cooper's flag. it is pleasantly taisted and appears to be very
 nutricious. the inner part of the root which is eaten without any
 previous preperation is composed of a number of capillary white
 flexable strong fibers among which is a mealy or starch like substance
 which readily desolves in the mouth and separate from the fibers which
 are then rejected. it appears to me that this substance would make
 excellent starch; nothing can be of a purer white than it is.-
 
 
 [Clark, March 1, 1806]
 Saturday March the 1st 1806
 This morning we despatched Sergt. Gass with 12 men in two Canoes in
 quest of the Elk which had been killed by the hunters the day before
 yesterday. they returned with the flesh of three of them late in the
 evening. Thompson was left with the hunters in order to jurk and take
 care of the flesh of the remaining two. Kuskalar &c. left us about
 noon. The boy which this Indian offered to Sell to me is about 10 years
 of age. this boy had been taken prisoner by the Kit a mox from Some
 Nation on the Coast to the S. East of them at a great distance. like
 other Indian nations they adopt their Slaves in their famelies and
 treat them very much like their own Children. Reuben Field and Collins
 who had been absent Since yesterday morning returned without killing
 any thing.
 The birds on the western Side of the Rocky Mountain's to the Pacific
 Ocian for Convenience I Shall devide into from the habit of the birds,
 Terrestrial and Aquatic. i e Fowls of the air, and fowls of the water.
 The Prarie Hen sometimes called the Grouse is peculiarly the inhabitent
 of the Great Plains of Columbia. they do not differ from those of the
 upper portion of the Missouri, the tails of which is pointed or the
 feathers in its center much longer than those on the Sides. this
 Species differ assentially in the construction of this part of their
 plumage from those of the Illinois which have their tail composed of
 feathers of equal length. in the winter Season this berd is booted even
 to the first joint of it's toes. the toes are also curiously bordered
 on their lower edges with narrow hard scales which are placed very
 close to each other and extend horizontally about 1/8 of an inch on
 each Side of the toe, thus adding to the width of the tread which
 nature Seams bountifully to have furnished them with at this Season for
 passing over the Snow with more ease. in the Summer Season those Scales
 fall off. they have four toes on each foot. their colour is a mixture
 of dark brown redish and yellowish brown and white confusedly mixed in
 which the redish brown prevails most on the upper parts of the body
 wings and tail. and the white underneath the belley and lower parts of
 the breast and tail. they associate in large flocks in autumn & winter
 and are frequently found in flocks of from five to Six even in Summer.
 They feed on grass, insects, the leaves of various Shrubs in the
 Praries, and on the Seeds of Several Species of Spelts and wild rye
 which grow in the richer parts of the Plains. in the winter their food
 is the buds of the willow and Cottonwood also the most of the native
 berries furnish them with food. they cohabit in flock & the Cocks fight
 verry much at those Seasons.
 
 
 [Lewis, March 2, 1806]
 Sunday March 2cd
 The diet of the sick is so inferior that they recover their strength
 but slowly. none of them are now sick but all in a state of
 convalessence with keen appetites and nothing to eat except lean Elk
 meat. late this evening Drewyer arrived with a most acceptable supply
 of fat Sturgeon, fresh Anchovies and a bag containing about a bushel of
 Wappetoe. we feasted on Anchovies and Wappetoe.
 The Cock of the Plains is found in the plains of Columbia and are in
 Great abundance from the entrance of the S. E. fork of the Columbia to
 that of Clark's river. this bird is about 2/3rds the size of a turkey.
 the beak is large short curved and convex. the upper exceeding the
 lower chap. the nostrils are large and the beak black. the colour is an
 uniform mixture of dark brown reather bordeing on a dove colour, redish
 and yellowish brown with some small black specks. in this mixture the
 dark brown prevails and has a slight cast of the dove colour at a
 little distance. the wider side of the large feathers of the wings are
 of a dark brown only. the tail is composed of 19 feathers of which that
 in the center is the longest, and the remaining 9 on each side deminish
 by pairs as they receede from the center; that is any one feather is
 equal in length to one equa distant from the center of the tail on the
 oposite side. the tail when foalded comes to a very sharp point and
 appears long in proportion to the body. in the act of flying the tail
 resembles that of a wild pigeon. tho the motion of the wings is much
 that of the pheasant and Grouse. they have four toes on each foot of
 which the hinder one is short. the leg is covered with feathers about
 half the distance between the knee and foot. when the wing is expanded
 there are wide opening between it's feathers the plumeage being so
 narrow that it dose not extend from one quill to the other. the wings
 are also proportionably short, reather more so than those of the
 pheasant or grouse. the habits of this bird are much the same as those
 of the grouse. only that the food of this fowl is almost entirely that
 of the leaf and buds of the pulpy leafed thorn; nor do I ever recollect
 seeing this bird but in the neighbourhood of that shrub. they sometimes
 feed on the prickley pear. the gizzard of it is large and much less
 compressed and muscular than in most fowls; in short it resembles a maw
 quite as much as a gizzard. when they fly they make a cackling noise
 something like the dunghill fowl. the following is a likeness of the
 head and beak. the flesh of the cock of the Plains is dark, and only
 tolerable in point of flavor. I do not think it as good as either the
 Pheasant or Grouse.--it is invariably found in the plains.The feathers
 about it's head are pointed and stif some hairs about the base of the
 beak. feathers short fine and stif about the ears.
 
 
 [Clark, March 2, 1806]
 Sunday March 2nd 1806
 The diet of the Sick is So inferior that they recover their Strength
 but Slowly. none of them are now Sick but all in a State of
 Covelessence with keen appetites and nothing to eate except lean Elk
 meat.
 The nativs of this neighbourhood eate the root of the Cattail or
 Cooper's flag. it is pleasantly tasted and appears to be very
 nutrecious. the inner part of the root which is eaten without any
 previous preperation is Composed of a number of capellary white
 flexable Strong fibers among which is a mealy or Starch like Substance
 which readily disolves in the mouth and Seperates from the fibers which
 are then rejected. it appears to me that this Substance would make
 excellent Starch; nothing Can be of a pureer white than it is
 This evening late Drewyer, Crusat & Wiser returned with a most
 acceptable Supply of fat Sturgen, fresh anchoves and a bag Containing
 about a bushel of Wappato. we feasted on the Anchovies and wappatoe.-.
 The Heath Cock or cock of the Plains is found in the Plains of Columbia
 and are in great abundance from the enterance of Lewis's river to the
 mountains which pass the Columbia between the Great falls and Rapids of
 that river. this fowl is about 3/4ths the Size of a turkey. the beak is
 large Short Curved and convex. the upper exceeding the lower chap. the
 nostrils are large and the back black. the Colour is a uniform mixture
 of dark brown reather bordering on a dove colour, redish and yellowish
 brown with Some Small black Specks. in this mixture the dark brown
 provails and has a Slight cast of the dove colour at a little distance.
 the wider side of the larger feathers of the wings are of a dark brown
 only. the tail is composed of 19 feathers of which that in the center
 is the longest, and the remaining 9 on each Side deminish by pairs as
 they receede from the Center; that is any one feather is equal in
 length to one of an equal distance from the Center of the tail on the
 opposit Side. the tail when folded Comes to a very Sharp point and
 appears long in perpotion to the body in the act of flying the tail
 resembles that of a wild pigeon. tho the motion of the wings is much
 that of the Pheasant and Grouse. they have four toes on each foot of
 which the hinder one is Short. the leg is covered with feathers about
 half the distance between the knee and foot. when the wings is expanded
 there are wide opening between it's feathers, the plumage being So
 narrow that it does not extend from one quill to another. the wings are
 also propotionably Short, reather more So than those of the Pheasant or
 Grouse. the habits of this bird is much the Same as those of the Prarie
 hen or Grouse. only that the food of this fowl is almost entirely that
 of the leaf and buds of the pulpy leafed thorn, nor do I ever recollect
 Seeing this bird but in the neighbourhood of that Shrub. The gizzard of
 it is large and much less compressed and muscular than in most fowls,
 in Short it resembles a maw quite as much as a gizzard. When they fly
 they make a cackling noise Something like the dunghill fowl. the flesh
 of this fowl is dark and only tolerable in point of flavour. I do not
 think it as good as wth the Pheasant or Prarie hen, or Grouse. the
 feathers above it's head are pointed and Stiff Some hairs about the
 base of the beak. feathers Short fine and Stiff about the ears, and
 eye. This is a faint likeness of the Cock of the plains or Heath Cock
 the first of those fowls which we met with was on the Missouri below
 and in the neighbourhood of the Rocky Mountains and from to the
 mountain which passes the Columbia between the Great falls and Rapids
 they go in large gangues or Singularly and hide remarkably close when
 pursued, make Short flights, &c.
 The large Black & White Pheasant is peculiar to that portion of the
 Rocky Mountains watered by the Columbia River. at least we did not See
 them untill we reached the waters of that river, nor Since we have left
 those mountains. they are about the Size of a well grown hen. the
 contour of the bird is much that of the redish brown Pheasant common to
 our country. the tail is proportionably as long and is composed of 18
 feathers of equal length, of a uniform dark brown tiped with black. the
 feathers of the body are of a dark brown black and white. the black is
 that which most prodomonates, and white feathers are irregularly
 intermixed with those of the black and dark brown on every part but in
 greater perpotion about the neck breast and belly. this mixture gives
 it very much the appearance of that kind of dunghill fowl, which the
 henwives of our Countrey Call dommanicker. in the brest of Some of
 those birds the white prodominates most. they are not furnished with
 tufts of long feathers on the neck as other Pheasants are, but have a
 Space on each Side of the neck about 21/2 inches long and one inch in
 width on which no feathers grow, tho it is consealed by the feathers
 which are inserted on the hinder and front part of the neck, this Space
 Seams to Serve them to dilate or contract the feathers of the neck with
 more ease. the eye is dark, the beak black, uncovered Somewhat pointed
 and the upper exceeds the under chap. they have a narrow Strip of
 vermillion colour above each eye which consists of a fleshey Substance
 not protuberant but uneaven, with a number of minute rounded dots. it
 has four toes on each foot of which three are in front, it is booted to
 the toes. it feeds on wild fruits, particularly the berry of the
 Sac-a-com-mis, and much also on the Seed of the pine & fir. this fowl
 is usially found in Small numbers two and three & 4 together on the
 ground. when Supprised flies up & lights on a tree and is easily Shot
 their flesh is Superior to most of the Pheasant Species which we have
 met with. they have a gizzard as other Pheasants &c. feed also on the
 buds of the Small Huckleberry bushes
 
 
 [Lewis, March 3, 1806]
 Monday March 3rd 1806.
 Two of our perogues have been lately injured very much in consequence
 of the tide leaving them partially on shore. they split by this means
 with their own weight. we had them drawn out on shore. our
 convalessents are slowly on the recovery. Lapage is taken sick, gave
 him a doze of Scots pills which did not operate. no movement of the
 party today worthy of notice. every thing moves on in the old way and
 we are counting the days which seperate us from the 1st of April and
 which bind us to fort Clatsop.--The large black and white pheasant is
 peculiar to that portion of the Rocky Mountain watered by the Columbia
 river. at least we did not see them in these mountains until I we
 reached the waters of that river nor since we have left those
 mountains. they are about the size of a well grown hen. the contour of
 the bird is much that of the redish brown pheasant common to our
 country. the tail is proportionably as long and is composed of eighteen
 feathers of equal length, of an uniform dark brown tiped with black.
 the feathers of the body are of a dark brown black and white. the black
 is that which most predominates, and white feathers are irregularly
 intermixed with those of the black and dark brown on every part, but in
 greater proportion about the neck breast and belley. this mixture gives
 it very much the appearance of that kind of dunghill fowl which the
 hen-wives of our country call dom-manicker. in the brest of some of
 these birds the white predominates most. they are not furnished with
 tufts of long feathers on the neck as our pheasants are, but have a
 space on each side of the neck about 21/2 inches long and 1 In. in
 width on which no feathers grow, tho tis concealed by the feathers
 which are inserted on the hinder and front part of the neck; this space
 seems to surve them to dilate or contract the feathers of the neck with
 more ease. the eye is dark, the beak black, curved somewhat pointed and
 the upper exceeds the under chap. they have a narrow stripe of
 vermillion colour above each eye which consists of a fleshey substance
 not protuberant but uneven with a number of minute rounded dots. it has
 four toes on each foot of which three are in front. it is booted to the
 toes. it feeds on wild fruits, particularly the berry of the
 sac-a-commis, and much also on the seed of the pine and fir.
 The small speckled pheasant found in the same country with that above
 discribed, differs from it only in point of size and somewhat in
 colour. it is scarcely half the size of the other; ascociates in much
 larger flocks and is very gentle. the black is more predominant and the
 dark bron feathers less frequent in this than the larger species. the
 mixture of white is also more general on every part of this bird. it is
 considerably smaller than our pheasant and the body reather more round.
 in other particulars they differ not at all from the large black and
 white pheasant. this by way of distinction I have called the speckled
 pheasant. the flesh of both these species of party coloured phesants is
 of a dark colour and with the means we had of cooking them not very
 well flavored.
 The small brown pheasant is an inhabitant of the same country and is of
 the size and shape of the specled pheasant which it also resembles in
 it's economy and habits. the stripe above the eye in this species is
 scarcely perceptable, and is when closely examined of a yellow or
 orrange colour instead of the vermillion of the outhers. it's colour is
 an uniform mixture of dark and yellowish brown with a slight mixture of
 brownish white on the breast belley and the feathers underneath the
 tail. the whol compound is not unlike that of the common quail only
 darker. this is also booted to the toes. the flesh of this is
 preferable to either of the others and that of the breast is as white
 as the pheasant of the Atlantic coast.the redish brown pheasant has
 been previously discribed.--The Crow raven and Large Blackbird are the
 same as those of our country only that the crow is here much smaller
 yet it's note is the same. I observe no difference either between the
 hawks of this coast and those of the Atlantic. I have observed the
 large brown hawk, the small or sparrow hawk, and the hawk of an
 intermediate size with a long tail and blewish coloured wings
 remarkably swift in flight and very firce. sometimes called in the U
 States the hen hawk. these birds seem to be common to every part of
 this country, and the hawks crows & ravens build their nests in great
 numbers along the high and inaccessable clifts of the Columbia river
 and it's S. E. branch where we passed along them.--we also met with the
 large hooting Owl under the Rocky mountain on the Kooskoskee river. it
 did not appear to differ materially from those of our country. I think
 it's colours reather deeper and brighter than with us, particularly the
 redish brown. it is the same size and form.
 
 
 [Clark, March 3, 1806]
 Monday March 3rd 1806
 Two of our Canoes have been lately injured very much in consequence of
 the tide leaveing them partially on Shore. they Split by this means
 with their own weight. we had them drawn out on Shore. our
 convalessents are Slowly on the recovery. La page is taken Sick. gave
 him Some of Scotts Pills which did not opperate. no movement of the
 party to day worthey of notice. every thing moves on in the old way and
 we are Counting the days which Seperate us from the 1st of April, &
 which bind us to Fort Clatsop.-.-.
 The Small Speckled Pheasant found in the Rocky Mountains, and differ
 from the large black and white pheasant only in point of Size, and
 Somewhat in colour. it is scercely half the Size of the other;
 assosiates in much larger flocks and is also very gentle. the black is
 more predominate and the dark brown feathers less frequent in this than
 the larger Species. the mixture of white is also more general on every
 part of this bird. it is considerably Smaller than our Pheasant and the
 body reather more round. in other particulars they differ not at all,
 from the large black and white Pheasant. this by way of distinction I
 have called the Speckled Pheasant. the flesh of both these Species of
 party coloured Pheasant is of a dark colour, and with the means we had
 of cooking them were only tolerably flavoured tho these birds would be
 fine well cooked.
 The small Brown Pheasant is an inhabitant of the Same Country and is of
 the Size and Shape of the Speckled Pheasant, which it also resembles in
 it's economy and habits, the Stripe above the eye in this Species is
 scercely preceptable and is when closely examined of a yellow or
 orrange colour in Sted of the vermillion of the others. it's colour is
 of a uniform mixture of dark and yellowish brown with a Slight mixture
 of brownish white on the breast belley and the feathers under the tail.
 the whole Compound is not unlike that of the Common quaile only darker.
 this is also booted to the toes. the flesh is tolerable and that of the
 breast is as white as the Pheasant of the atlantic coast. the redish
 brown Pheasant has been previously discribed.-.
 The Crow Ravin and large Blackbird are the Same as those of our
 Country, only that the Crow here is much Smaller, yet its note is the
 Same. I observe no difference between the Hawk of this Coast and those
 of the Atlantic. I have observed the large brown Hawk, the Small or
 Sparrow hawk, and a hawk of an intermediate Size with a long tail and
 blewish coloured wings, remarkably Swift in flight and very ferce.
 Sometimes called in the Un. States the hen Hawk. those birds Seam to be
 common to every part of this Country in greater or smaller numbers, and
 the Hawks, Crows, and ravins build their nests in great numbers along
 the high & inaxcessable clifts of the Columbia, and Lewis's rivers when
 we passd along them. we also met with the large hooting Owl under the
 Rocky mountains on the Kooskooske R. it's Colour reather deeper than
 with us, but differ in no other respect from those of the U States.
 
 
 [Lewis, March 4, 1806]
 Tuesday March 4th 1806.
 Not any occurrence today worthy of notice. we live sumptuously on our
 wappetoe and Sturgeon. the Anchovey is so delicate that they soon
 become tainted unless pickled or smoked. the natives run a small stick
 through their gills and hang them in the smoke of their lodges, or
 kindle a small fire under them for the purpose of drying them. they
 need no previous preperation of guting &c and will cure in 24 hours.
 the natives do not appear to be very scrupelous about eating them when
 a little feated.--the fresh sturgeon they keep for many days by
 immersing it in water. they coock their sturgeon by means of vapor or
 steam. the process is as follows. a brisk fire is kindled on which a
 parcel of stones are lad. when the fire birns down and the stones are
 sufficiently heated, the stones are so arranged as to form a tolerable
 level surface, the sturgeon which had been previously cut into large
 fletches is now laid on the hot stones; a parsel of small boughs of
 bushes is next laid on and a second course of the sturgeon thus
 repating alternate layers of sturgeon and boughs untill the whole is
 put on which they design to cook. it is next covered closely with matts
 and water is poared in such manner as to run in among the hot stones
 and the vapor arrising being confined by the mats, cooks the fish. the
 whole process is performed in an hour, and the sturgeon thus cooked is
 much better than either boiled or roasted.
 The turtle dove and robbin are the same of our country and are found as
 well in the plain as open country. the Columbian robbin heretofore
 discribed seems to be the inhabitant of the woody country exclusively.
 the Magpy is most commonly found in the open country and are the same
 with those formerly discribed on the Missouri. the large woodpecker or
 log cock, the lark woodpeckers and the small white woodpecker with a
 read head are the same with those of the Atlantic states and are found
 exclusively in the timbered country. The blue crested Corvus and the
 small white breasted do have been previously discribed and are the
 natives of a piney country invariably, being found as well on the rocky
 mountains as on this coast.--the lark is found in the plains only and
 are the same with those before mentioned on the Missouri, and not very
 unlike what is called in Virginia the old field lark.--The large
 bluefish brown or sandhill Crain are found in the valley of the Rocky
 mountains in Summer and Autumn where they raise their young, and in the
 winter and begining of spring on this river below tidewater and on this
 coast. they are the same as those common to the Southern and Western
 States where they are most generally known by the name of the Sandhill
 crain. The vulture has also been discribed. there are two species of
 the flycatch, a small redish brown species with a short tail, round
 body, short neck and short pointed beak. they have some fine black
 specks intermixed with the uniform redish brown. this the same with
 that which remains all winter in Virginia where it is sometimes called
 the wren. the second species has lately returned and dose not remain
 here all winter. it's colours are a yellowish brown on the back head
 neck wings and tail the breast and belley of a yellowish white; the
 tail is in proportion as the wren but it is a size smaller than that
 bird. it's beak is streight pointed convex reather lage at the base and
 the chaps of equal length. the first species is the smallest, in short
 it is the smalest bird that I have ever seen in America except the
 humming bird. both these species are found in the woody country only or
 at least I have never seen them elsewhere.
 
 
 [Clark, March 4, 1806]
 Tuesday March 4th 1806
 Not any accurrance to day worthy of notice. we live Sumptiously on our
 wappatoe and Sturgeon. the Anchovey is so delicate that they Soon
 become tainted unless pickled or Smoked. the nativs run a Small Stick
 through their gills and hang them in the Smoke of their Lodges, or
 Kindle Small fires under them for the purpose of drying them. they need
 no previous preperation of gutting &c. and will Cure in 24 hours. the
 nativs do not appear to be very Scrupilous about eating them a little
 feated.
 the fresh sturgeon they Keep maney days by immersing it in water. they
 Cook their Sturgeon by means of vapor or Steam. the process is as
 follows. a brisk fire is kindled on which a parcel of Stones are
 Sufficiently heated, the Stones are So arranged as to form a tolerable
 leavel Surface, the Sturgeon which had been previously cut into large
 flaetches is now laid on the hot Stones; a parcel of Small boughs of
 bushes is next laid on, and a Second course of the Sturgeon thus
 repeating alternate layers of Sturgeon & boughs untill the whole is put
 on which they design to Cook. it is next covered closely with mats and
 water is poared in Such manner as to run in among the hot Stones, and
 the vapor arriseing being confind by the mats, cooks the fish. the
 whole process is performd in an hour and the Sturgeon thus Cooked is
 much better than either boiled or roasted. in their usial way of
 bolting of other fish in baskets with hot Stones is not so good.
 The turtle doves and robin are the Same of those of our countrey and
 are found as well as the plains as open countrey. the Columbia robin
 heretofore discribed Seams to be the inhabitent of the woody Country
 exclusively. the magpye is most commonly found in the open Country and
 are the Same with those formerly discribed on the Missouri.
 The large wood pecker or log cock the lark woodpecker and the common
 wood pecker with a red head are the Same with those of the Atlantic
 States, and are found exclusively in the timbered Country. The Blue
 crested Corvus and the Small white brested corvus are the nativs of a
 piney country invariably, being found as well on the Rocky Mountains as
 on this coast-. The lark is found in the plains only and are the Same
 with those on the Missouri and the Illinois and not unlike what is
 Called in Virginia the old field Lark.
 The large bluish brown or Sandhill Crain are found in the Vally's of
 the Rocky Mountain in Summer and autumn when they raise their young and
 in the winter and beginning of Spring on this river below tide water
 and on this coast. they are the Same as those Common to the Southern
 and Western States where they are most generally known by the name of
 the Sand hill Crain. The Vulture has already been discribed.
 There are two Species of fly Catch, a Small redish brown with a Short
 tail, round body, Short neck, and Short pointed beak, and the Same as
 that with us sometimes called the Wren. the 2d Species does not remain
 all winter they have just returned and are of a Yellowish brown Colour.
 
 
 [Lewis, March 5, 1806]
 Wednesday March 5th 1806.
 This morning we were visited by two parties of Clatsops. they brought
 some fish a hat and some skins for sale most of which we purchased.
 they returned to their village in the evening. late in the evening the
 hunters returned from the kil-haw-a-nack-kle River which discharges
 itself into the head of the bay. They had neither killed nor seen any
 Elk. they informed us that the Elk had all gone off to the mountains a
 considerable distance from us. this is unwelcome information and
 reather allarming we have only 2 days provision on hand, and that
 nearly spoiled. we made up a small assortment of articles to trade with
 the Indians and directed Sergt. Pryor to set out early in the morning
 in a canoe with 2 men, to ascend the Columbia to the resort of the
 Indian fishermen and purchase some fish; we also directed two parties
 of hunters to renew the Chase tomorrow early. the one up the Netul and
 the other towards Point Adams. if we find that the Elk have left us, we
 have determined to ascend the river slowly and indeavour to procure
 subsistence on the way, consuming the Month of March in the woody
 country. earlyer than April we conceive it a folly to attempt the open
 plains where we know there is no fuel except a few small dry shrubs. we
 shall not leave our quarters at fort Clatsop untill the first of April,
 as we intended unless the want of subsistence compels us to that
 measure. The common snipe of the marshes and the small sand snipe are
 the same of those common to the Atlantic Coast tho the former are by no
 means as abundant here. the prarrow of the woody country is also
 similar to ours but not abundant. those of the plains of Columbia are
 the same with those of the Missouri, tho they are by no means so
 abundant. I have not seen the little singing lark or the large brown
 Curloo so common to the plains of the Missouri, but I beleive that the
 latter is an inhabitant of this country during summer from Indian
 information. I have no doubt but what many species of birds found here
 in Autumn and Summer had departed before our arrival.
 
 
 [Clark, March 5, 1806]
 Wednesday March 5th 1806.
 This morning we were visited by two parties of Clatsops they brought
 Some fish, a hat and Some Skins for Sale most of which we purchased,
 they returned to their Village in the evening with the returning tide.
 late in the evening the Hunters returned from the Kil-haw-d nack-kle
 River which discharges itself into the head of the Bay. They had
 neither killed nor Seen any Elk. they informed us that the Elk had all
 gorn off to the mountains a considerable distance from us. this is
 unwelcom information and reather alarming. we have only two days
 provisions on hand and that nearly Spoiled. we made up a Small
 assortment of Articles to trade with the Indians, and directed Sergt
 Natl. Pryor to Set out early in the morning in a canoe with two men, to
 assend the Columbia to the resort of the Indians fishermen and purchase
 Some fish; we also derected two parties of hunters to renew the chase
 tomorrow early. the one up the Netul, and the other towards point
 Adams. If we find that the Elk have left us, we have determined to
 assend the river slowly and endeaver to precure Subsistance on the way,
 Consumeing the month of March in the woody Country, earlyer than april
 we conceive it a folly to attempt the Open plains where we know there
 is no fuel except a fiew Small dry Shrubs. we Shall not leave our
 quarters at Fort Clatsop untill the 1st of April as we intended, unless
 the want of Subsistance compels us to that measure.
 The common Snipe of the marshes and the Small sand snipe are the same
 of those Common to the atlantic coast tho the former are by no means as
 abundant here.
 The Sparrow of the woody country is also Similar to ours but not
 abundant. those of the plains of Columbia are the Same with those of
 the Missouri. tho they are by no means So Abundant. I have not Seen the
 little Singing lark or the large brown Curloe So Common to the Plains
 of the Missouri. but believe the Curloe is an inhabitent of this
 Countrey dureing Summer from Indian information and their attemps to
 mimick the notes of this fowl. I have no doubt but what maney Species
 of birds found here in autumn and Summer had departed before our
 arrival.
 The Aquatic Birds of this country or such as obtain their Subsistence
 from the water, are the large blue and brown heron, fishing Hawk, blue
 crested fisher, Gulls of Several Species of the Coast, the large grey
 Gull of the Columbia, Comorant, loons of two Species, white and the
 brown brant, Small and large Geese, small and large Swans, the
 Duckinmallard, canvis back Duck, red headed fishing Duck, black and
 white duck, little brown Duck, Black Duck, two Species of Divers, blue
 winged teal, 14 and Some other Species of Ducks, two Species of Plevers.
 The hunters who were out last informed me that they discovered a very
 Considerable fall in the Kit-haw-a-nack-kle River on its main western
 fork at which place it falls abt. 100 feet from the Side of a mountain
 S. E. about 6 miles from Fort Clatsop and nearly 15 from its enterance
 into the bay by the Meanderings of this river a high mountain is
 Situated S 60° W. about 18 miles from Fort Clatsop on which there has
 been Snow Since Nov.
 
 
 [Lewis, March 6, 1806]
 Thursday March 6th 1806.
 This morning the fishing and hunting parties set out agreeably to their
 instructions given them last evening. at 11 A.M. we were visited by
 Comowoll and two of his children. he presented us with some Anchovies
 which had been well cured in their manner. we foud them excellent. they
 were very acceptable particularly at this moment. we gave the old man
 some small articles in return. this we have found much the most
 friendly and decent savage that we have met with in this neighbourhood.
 Hall had his foot and ankle much injured yesterday by the fall of a
 large stick of timber; the bones were fortunately not broken and I
 expect he will be able to walk again shortly. Bratton is now weaker
 than any of the convalessants, all of whom recover slowly in
 consequence of the want of proper diet, which we have it not in our
 power to procure.-
 The Aquatic birds of this country, or such as obtain their subsistence
 from the water, are the large blue and brown heron, fishing hawk, blue
 crested fisher, gulls of several species of the Coast, the large grey
 gull of the Columbia, Cormorant, loons of two species, white, and the
 brown brant, small and large geese, small and large Swan, the
 Duckinmallard, canvis back duck, red headed fishing duck, black and
 white duck, little brown duck, black duck, two speceis of divers, blue
 winged teal, and some other speceis of ducks.
 
 
 [Clark, March 6, 1806]
 Thursday March 6th 1806
 This morning, the fishing and hunting party's Set out agreeably to
 their instructions given them last evening. At 11 a.m. we were visited
 by Commowoll and two boys Sons of his. he presented us with Some
 Anchovies which had been well Cured in their manner, we found them
 excellent. they were very acceptable perticularly at this moment. we
 gave the old mans Sones a twisted wire to ware about his neck, and I
 gave him a par of old glovs which he was much pleased with. this we
 have found much the most friendly and decent Indian that we have met
 with in this neighbourhood.
 Hall had his foot and ankle much injured yesterday by the fall of a log
 which he had on his Sholder; the bones are fortunately not broken, I
 expect he will be able to walk again Shortly. Bratten is now weaker
 than any of the convalessants, and complains verry much of his back,
 all of them recovering Slowly in consequence of the want of proper
 diet, which we have it not in our power to precure.
 The large Blue and brown Herons or crains as they are usialy called in
 the U States are found below tide water. they are the Same of those of
 the U, States. The Fishing Hawk with the Crown of the head white, and
 back of a milkey white, and the blue crested or king fisher are found
 on every part of the Columbia and its water Along which we passed and
 are the Same with those of the U, States. the fishing hawk is not
 abundant, particularly in the mountains. There are 4 Species of the
 larus or gull on this coast and river. 1st a Small Species the Size of
 a Pegion; white except some black spots about the head and the little
 bone on the but of the wing. 2d a Species Somewhat larger of a light
 brown colour, with a mealy coloured back. 3rd the large Grey Gull, or
 white larus with a greyish brown back, and light grey belly and breast,
 about the Size of a well grown pullet, the wings are remarkably long in
 perpotion to the Size of the body and it's under chap towards the
 extremity is gibbous and protuberant than in either of the other
 Species. a White Gull about the Size of the Second with a remarkable
 beak; adjoining the head and on the base of the upper Chap there is an
 elivated orning of the Same Substance with the beak which forms the
 nostriels at A; it is Somewhat in this form. the feet are webed and the
 legs and feet of a yellow colour. the form of the wings body &c are
 much that of the 2d Species this bird was Seen on Haleys bay.
 The large Grey Gull is found on the Columbian waters as high as the
 enterence of the Koos koos ke and in common with the other Species on
 the coast; the others appear confined to the tidewater, and the 4th
 Species not So common as either of the others. The Comorant is a large
 black duck which feeds on fish; I proceive no difference between it &
 these found in the rivers of the Atlantic Coasts. we met with as high
 up the river as the enterance of the Chopunnish into the Kooskooske
 river. they increased in numbers as we decended, and formed much the
 Greatest portion of waterfowls which we saw on the Columbia untill we
 reached tidewater, where they also abound but do not bear a Similar
 proportion to the fowls found in this quarter. we found this bird fat
 and tolerably flavoured as we decended the Columbia.
 
 
 [Lewis, March 7, 1806]
 Friday March 7th 1806.
 The wind was so high that Comowol did not leave us untill late this
 evening. Labuish and Drewyer returned at sunset having killed one Elk
 only. they report that there are some scattering male Elk in the
 neighbourhood of the place they killed this one or about 5 miles up the
 Netul on this side.--Bratton is much wose today, he complains of a
 violent pain in the small of his back and is unable in consequence to
 set up. we gave him one of our flanel shirts, applyed a bandage of
 flannel to the part and bathed and rubed it well with some vollatile
 linniment which I prepared with sperits of wine, camphor, castile soap
 and a little laudinum. he felt himself better in the evening.--the
 large blue and brown herons, or Crams as they are usually called in the
 U States are found on this river below tidewater. they are the same
 with those of the U States. the fishing hawk with the crown of the head
 White and back of a mealy white, and the blue crested or King fisher
 are found on every part of the Columbia and it's waters and are the
 same with those of the U States. the fishing hawk is not abundant
 particularly in the mountains. there are four speceis of larus or gull
 on this coast and river, 1st a small speceis about the size of a
 pigeon; white except some black spots about the head and a little brown
 on the but of the wings, 2nd a speceis somewhat larger of a light brown
 colour with a whitish or mealy coloured back. 3rd the large grey gull,
 or white larus with a greyish brown back and a light grey belley and
 breast, about the size of a well grown pullet or reather larger. the
 wings are remarkably long in proportion to the size of the body and
 it's under chap towards the extremity is more gibbous and protuberant
 than in either of the other speceis. 4th a white gull about the size of
 the second with a remarkable beak; adjoining the head and at the base
 of the uper Chap there is an elivated orning of the same substance with
 the beak which forms the nostrils; it is some what in this forma the
 feet are webbed and the legs and feet of a yellow colour. the form of
 the wings body &c are much that of the second species. the large grey
 gull is found on the river as high as the entrance of the Kooskooske
 and in common with the other speceis on the coast; the others appear to
 be confined to tidewater; and the fourth speceis not so common as
 either of the others. the cormorant is a large black duck which feeds
 on fish; I perceive no difference between it and those found in the
 Potomac and other rivers on the Atlantic Coast. tho I do not recollect
 seeing those on the atlantic so high up the rivers as those are found
 here. we first met with them on the Kooskooske at the entrance of
 Chopunnish river. they increased in quantity as we decended, and formed
 much the greatest portion of the waterfowl which we saw on the Columbia
 untill we reached tidewater where they also abound but do not bear a
 similar proportion to the other fowls found in this quarter.
 There are two speceis of loons. 1st the Speckled loon found on every
 part of the rivers of this country. they are the same size colours and
 form with those of the Atlantic coast. the second speceis we first met
 with at the great falls of the Columbia and from thence down. this bird
 is not more than half the size of the speckled loon, it's neck is long,
 slender and white in front. the Colour of the body and back of the neck
 and head are of a dun or ash colour, the breast and belley are white.
 the beak is like that of the speckled loon and like them it cannot fly
 but flutters along on the top of the warter or dives for security when
 pursued.
 
 
 [Clark, March 7, 1806]
 Friday March 7th 1806
 The wind was So high that Comowol did not leave us untill late this
 evening. Drewyer & Labiesh returned at Sunset haveing killed one Elk
 only. they report that there are Some Scattering mail Elk in the
 neighbourhood of the place they killed this one or about 5 miles up the
 Netul river on the west Side-. Bratten is much worst to day he
 complains of a violent pain in the Small of his back, and is unable in
 consequence of it to Set up. we gave him one of our flanel Shirts. I
 applied a bandage of flanel to the part and rubed it well with Some
 volatile linniment which was prepared with Sperits of wine, camphire,
 Sastile Soap, and a little laudinum. he felt himself better in the
 evening at which time I repeated the linnement and bathed his feet to
 restore circulation which he complaind of in that part.
 There are two Species of Loons. 1st the Speckled loon found on every
 part of the rivers of this quarter, they are the Same Size Colour and
 form with those of the Ohio, and atlantic coasts. the 2d Species we
 first met with at the great falls of the Columbia and from thence down.
 this bird is not more than half the Size of the Speckled loon, it's
 neck is long, Slender and white in front. the colour of the body and
 back of the neck and head are of a dun or ash Colour, the breast and
 belly are white. the back is like that of the Speckled loon, and like
 them it cannot fly, but flutters along on the top of the water or Dives
 for Security when pursued.
 John Shields Reubin Fields & Robert frasure measured 2 trees of the fur
 kind one 37 feet around, appears sound, has but fiew limbs for 200 feet
 it is East of the Netul abt 280 feet high.
 
 
 [Lewis, March 8, 1806]
 Saturday March 8th 1806.
 Bratton is much better today, his back gives him but little pain.
 Collins returned early in the morning and informed us that he had
 killed three Elk about five miles distant on the edge of the prarie in
 Point Adams. one of them fell in a deep pond of water and could not get
 it, the other two he butcherd and secured. he saw two large herds of
 Elk in that quarter. we sent Drewyer and Joseph Fields to hunt those
 Elk. a party were also sent with Labuish for the flesh of the Elk which
 Drewyer and himself had killed up the netul, they returned with it in
 the evening. Shields, R. Fields and Frazier returned this evening from
 the Kilhawanackkle unsuccessfull having seen no Elk. McNeal and
 Goodrich having recovered from the Louis veneri I directed them to
 desist from the uce of mercury. The white brant is very common in this
 country particularly below tidewater where they remain in vast
 quantities during the winter. they feed like the swan gees &c on the
 grass roots and seeds which they find in the marshes. this bird is
 about the size of the brown brant or a third less than the common
 Canadian or wild goose. the head is proportionably with the goose
 reather large; the beak also thicker shorter and of much the same form,
 being of a yellowish white colour except the edges of the chaps, which
 are frequently of a dark brown. the legs and feet are of the same form
 of the goose and are of a redish white or pale flesh colour. the tail
 is composed of sixteen feathers of equal length as those of the geese
 and brown brant are and bears about the same proportion in point of
 length. the eye is of a dark colour and nothing remarkable as to size.
 the wings are rether longer compared with those of the goose but not as
 much so as in the brown or pided brant. the colour of the plumage of
 this bird is unifomly a pure white except the large feathers of the
 extremities of the wings which are black. the large feathers of the 1st
 joint of the wing next to the body are white. the note of this bird
 differs essentially from that of the goose; it more resembles that of
 the brown brant but is somewhat different. it is like the note of young
 domestic goose which has not perfectly attained it's full note. the
 flesh of this bird is exceedingly fine, preferable to either the goose
 or pided brant.--The Brown or pided brant are much the same size and
 form of the white only that their wings are considerably longer and
 more pointed. the plumage of the upper part of the body neck head and
 tail is much the colour of the canadian goose but reather darker in
 consequence of som dark brown feathers which are distributed and
 irregularly scattered throughout. they have not the white on the neck
 and sides of the head as the goose has nor is the neck darker than the
 body. like the goose there are some white feathers on the rump at the
 joining of the tail. the beak is dark and the legs and feet also dark
 with a greenish cast; the breast and belley are of a lighter colour
 than the back and is also irregularly intermixed with dark brown and
 black feathers which give it a pided appearance. the flesh of this bird
 is dark and in my estimation reather better than that of the goose. the
 habits of this bird are the same nearly with the goose and white brant
 with this difference that they do not remain in this climate in such
 numbers during the winter as the others, and that it sets out earlier
 in the fall season on it's return to the south and arrives later in the
 spring than the goose. I see no difference between this bird and that
 called simply the brant, common to the lakes the Ohio and Mississippi
 &c. The small goose of this country is reather less than the brant;
 it's head and neck like the brant are reather larger than that of the
 goose in proportion; their beak is also thicker and shorter. their
 notes are more like those of our tame gees; in all other rispects they
 are the same with the large goose with which, they so frequently
 ascociate that it was some time after I first observed this goose
 before I could determine whether it was a distinct speceis or not. I
 have now no hesitation in declaring them a distinct speceis. the large
 goose is the same of that common on the Atlantic coast, and known by
 the appellation of the wild, or Canadian goose.
 
 
 [Clark, March 8, 1806]
 Saturday March 8th 1806
 Bratten is much better this morning, his back givs him but little pain.
 Collins returned early in the morning, and informed us that he had
 killed three Elk about five miles distance on the edge of the prarie in
 point Adams. one of them fell in a deep pond of water and he could not
 git to it. the other two he butchered and Saved. he saw two large herds
 of Elk in that quarter. we Sent Drewyer & Jos. Field to hunt these Elk,
 a party was also Sent with Labiesh for the flesh of the Elk which
 Drewyer and himself had killd up the Netul, they returned with it in
 the evening. Shields, R. Field and Frasure returned this evening from
 the Kilhawanackkle unsuccessfull haveing Seen no Elk. McNeal and
 Goodrich haveing recovered from the Louis veneri I detected them to
 desist from takeing the murcury or useing in future. willard is yet
 complaining and is low Spirited.
 The White Brant is very common in this country particularly below tide
 water where they remain in vast quantities dureing the winter. they
 feed like the Swan Goose &c. on the grass and roots & Seeds which they
 find in the marshes this bird is a little larger than the brown brant
 and a fourth less than the common wild or Canadian goose. the head is
 proportionably with the goose reather large; the beak thicker Shorter
 and of the Same form, being of a yellowish white colour except the
 edges of the Chaps, which are frequently of a dark brown. the legs and
 feet are of the Same form of the goose and are of a redish white or
 pail flesh colour. the tail is composed of Sixteen feathers of equal
 length as those of the geese and brown brant are, and bears about the
 Same perpotion in point of length. the Eye is of a dark colour and
 nothing remarkable as to Size. the wings are reather longer compared
 with those of the goose, but not as much So as is the brown or pieded
 brant. the colour of the plumage of this bird is uniformly a pure white
 except the large feathers of the extremities of the wings which are
 black. The large feathers of the 1st joint of the wing next to the body
 are white. the note of this bird differs essentially from that of the
 goose; it more resembles that of the brown brant but is Somewhat
 different. it is like the note of a young domestic goose which has not
 perfectly attained its full note. the flesh of this bird is exceedingly
 fine, prefferable to either the goose or pieded brant. the neck is
 Shorter in prpotion than that of the goose.
 The Brown or pieded brant are nearly the Size and much the Same form of
 the white brante only that their wings are considerably longer and more
 pointed. the plumage of the upper part of the body, neck, head and tail
 is much the Colour of the Common or Canadian Goose but rather darker in
 consequence of Some dark brown feathers which are distributed and
 irregularly scattered throughout. they have not the white on the neck
 and Sides of the head as the goose has nor is the neck darker than the
 body. like the goose there are Some white feathers on the rump at the
 junction of the tail. the beak, legs and feet are dark, with a greenish
 cast; the breast and belly are of a lighter colour than the back and is
 also intermixed, irregularly, with dark brown and black feathers which
 gives it a pieded appearance. the flesh of this bird is dark, and in my
 estimation reather better than that of the goose. the habits of this
 bird is nearly the same with the goose and white brant, with this
 difference that they do not remain in this Climate in Such numbers
 dureing the winter as the others. I See no difference between this bird
 and that Called Simpilly the Brant Common to the Lakes and frequently
 Seen on the Ohio and Mississippi in large flocks &c.
 The Small Goose of this country is reather less than the Brant; it's
 head and neck like the brant are reather larger than that of the goose
 in purpotion; their beak is also thicker and Shorter. their notes are
 more like those of our taim geese, in all other respect they are the
 Same with the large Goose with which, they So frequently ascoiete, that
 it was Some time after I first observed this goose before I could
 whether it was a distinct Speces or not. I have no hesitation now in
 declareing them a distinct Species. the large Goose is the Same as that
 common to the Ohio, and atlantic coast, and known by the appellation of
 the wild, or Canadian Goose.
 
 
 [Lewis, March 9, 1806]
 Sunday March 9th 1806. This morning the men set out at daylight to go
 in gust of the Elk which Collins had killed, they returned with it at
 eleven A.M. Bratton complains of his back being very painfull to him
 today; I conceive this pain to be something of the rheumatism. we still
 apply the linniment and flannel; in the evening he was much better.
 Drewyer and Joseph Fields returned not having found any Elk. Sergt.
 Pryor and the fishing party not yet arrived, suppose they are detained
 by the winds. visited by 3 Clatsop men who brought a dog some fish and
 a Sea Otter skin for sale. we suffered them to remain all night. we set
 Shields at work to make some sacks of Elk skin to contain various
 articles. The large Swan is precisely the same common to the Atlantic
 States. the small swan differs only from the larger one in size and
 it's note. it is about one fourth less and it's note entirely
 different. the latter cannot be justly immetated by the sound of
 letters nor do I know any sounds with which a comparison would be
 pertinent. it begins with a kind of whistleing sound and terminates in
 a round full note which is reather louder than the whistleing, or
 former part; this note is as loud as that of the large swan. from the
 peculiar whistleing of the note of this bird I have called it the
 whistleing swan it's habits colour and contour appear to be precisely
 those of the large Swan. we first saw them below the great narrows of
 the Columbia near the Chilluckkittequaw nation. They are very abundant
 in this neighbourhood and have remained with us all winter. in number
 they are fully five for one of the large speceis. The duckinmallard or
 common large duck wich resembles the domestic duck are the same here
 with those of the U Sts. they are abundant and are found on every part
 of the river below the mountains. they remain here all winter but I
 beleive they do not continue during winter far above tidewater. a
 beautifull duck and one of the most delicious in the world is found in
 considerable quantities in this neighbourhood during the Autumn and
 winter. this is the same with that known in the Delliware,
 Susquehannah, and Potomac by the name of the Canvisback and in James
 River by that of shell-Drake; in the latter river; however I am
 informed that they have latterly almost entirely disappeared. to the
 epicure of those parts of the union where this duck abounds nothing
 need be added in praise of the exqusite flavor of this duck. I have
 frequently eaten of them in several parts of the Union and I think
 those of the Columbia equally as delicious. this duck is never found
 above tide-water; we did not meet with them untill after we reached the
 marshey Islands; and I beleive that they have already left this
 neighbourhood, but whether they have gone northwardly or Southwardly I
 am unable to determin; nor do I know in what part of the Continent they
 raise their young.--The read headed fishing duck is common to every
 part of the river and are found as well in the Rocky Mountains as
 elsewhere; in short this was the only duck we saw on the waters of the
 Columbia within the mountains. they feed principally on crawfish and
 are the same in every rispect as those on the rivers in the mountains
 of the Atlantic Ocean.
 
 
 [Clark, March 9, 1806]
 Sunday Mach 9th 1806
 This morning the men Set out at day light to go in quest of the Elk
 which Collins had killed, they returned at 11 A.M. Bratten complains of
 his backs being very painfull to him to day. we Still apply the
 linnement & flannel; in the evening he was much better. Jos. Field &
 Drewyer returned not haveing found any Elk. Sergt. Pryor and the
 fishing party not yet returned, Suppose they are detained by the winds.
 we are visited by 3 Clatsop men who brought a Dog, Some fish and a Sea
 otter Skin for Sale. we Suffered them to remain all night. we Set
 Shields at work to make Some Sacks of Elk Skin to contain my papers,
 and various articles which we wish kept Dry.
 The large Swan is precisely the Same Common to the Missouri,
 Mississippi and the Atlantic States &c. The Small Swan differ only from
 the large one in Size and it's note. it is about 1/4th less, and its
 notes entirely different. the latter cannot be justly immetated by the
 Sound of letters nor do I know any Sound with which a comparison would
 be perti-nent. it begins with a kind of whistling Sound and terminates
 in a round full note which is reather louder than the whistling, or
 former part; this note is as loud as that of the large Swan. from the
 peculiar whistling of the note of this bird I have Called it the
 Whistleing Swan. it's habits colour and contour appear to be precisely
 those of the large swan. we first saw them below the great narrows of
 the Columbia near the Chilluckkittequaw Nation. they are very abundant
 in this neighbourhood and have remained with us all winter. in number
 they are fully five for one of the large Species of the Swan's.
 The Duckinmallard are the Same here with those of the U, States. they
 are abundant and are found on every part of the river below the
 mountains. they remain here all winter, but I believe they do not
 remain all winter above tide water.--a butifull Duck and one of the
 most delicious in the world is found in Considerable quantities in this
 neighbourhood dureing the Autumn and winter. this is the Same as that
 known in the Dilliwar, Susquehannah and Potomac by the name of the
 Canvisback and James River by that of Shell-Drake; in the latter river
 I am informed that they have latterly almost entirely disapeared. the
 epicures of those parts of the Union where those Ducks abound nothing
 need be added in prais of the exquisit flavor of this duck. I have
 eaten of them in Several parts of the Union and I think those of the
 Columbia equally as delicious. this duck is never found above tide
 water; we did not meat with them untill after we reached the marshey
 Islands; and I believe that they have already left this neighbourhood;
 but whether they are gorn Northerly or Southerly, I am unable to
 deturmine; nor do I know in what part of the Country they rais their
 young
 The red headed fishing duck is common to every part of the river and
 are found as well in the Rocky Mountains as elsewhere; in short this
 was the only duck we Saw within the Mountain on the Columbian waters.
 they feed principally on Crawfish; and are the Same in every respects
 as those on the Ohio and rivers in the mountains of the atlantic Ocian.
 The black and white Duck are Small about the Size of the blue-winged
 teal, or reather larger. the mail is butifully varigated with black and
 white. the white occupies the Side of the head, breast and back. black
 the tail, large feathers of the wing, two tufts of feathers which cover
 the upper part of the wings when folded, the neck and head. the female
 is darker or has much less white about her. I take this to be the Same
 Species of duck common to the ohio, as also the atlantic Coast, and
 Sometimes called the butter box. the back is wide and Short, and as
 well as the legs of a dark Colour. the flesh of this duck is verry well
 flavored I think Superior to the Duckinmallard.
 
 
 [Lewis, March 10, 1806]
 Monday March 10th 1806.
 About 1 P.M. it became fair and we sent out two parties of hunters on
 this side of the Netul the one below and the other above. we also
 directed a party to set out early in the morning and pass the bay and
 hunt beyond the Kilhowanackkle. from the last we have considerable hope
 as we have as yet hunted but little in that quarter. it blew hard all
 day. in the evening the Indians departed. The hunters who were over the
 Netull the other day informed us that they measured a pine tree, (or
 fir No 1) which at the hight of a man's breast was 42 feet in the girth
 about three feet higher, or as high as a tall man could reach, it was
 40 feet in the girth which was about the circumpherence for at least
 200 feet without a limb, and that it was very lofty above the
 commencement of the limbs. from the appearance of other trees of this
 speceis of fir and their account of this tree, I think it may be safely
 estimated at 300 feet. it had every appearance of being perfectly
 sound. The black and white duck are small abut the size of the
 blue-winged teal, or reather larger. the male is beautifully variagated
 with black and white. the white occupys the sides of the head, breast
 and back, black, the tail feathers of the wings two tufts of feathers
 which cover the upper part of the wings when foalded, the neck and
 head. the female is darker or has much less white about her. I take
 this to be the same speceis of duck common to the Atlantic coast, and
 frequently called the butterbox. the beak is wide and short, and as
 well as the legs, of a dark colour. the flesh of this duck is very well
 flavored. the brown duck is much in form like the duckinmallard, tho
 not much more than half it's size. the colour is an uniform mixture of
 yellowish and dark brown. there is nothing remarkable in the appearance
 of this duck it generally resorts the same kind of grassey marshes with
 the duckinmallard and feeds in a similar manner, on grass seed, and
 roots. both these ducks are common to the river for some distance above
 tide water as well as below. The black duck is about the size of the
 bluewinged teal. their colour is a duskey black the breast and belley
 somewhat lighter than the other parts, or a dark brown. the legs stand
 longitudinally with the body, and the bird when on shore stands of
 cours very erect. the legs and feet are of a dark brown, the toes are
 four on each foot, a short one at the heel and three long toes in
 front, which are unconnected with a web. the webs are attatched to each
 sides of the several joints of the toe, and divided by deep sinuses at
 each joint. the web assuming in the intermediate part an eliptical
 figure. the beak is about two inches long, streight, flated on the
 sides, and tapering to a sharp point. the upper chap somewhat longest,
 and bears on it's base at the joining of the head, a little conic
 protuberance of a cartelagenous substace, being redish brown at the
 point. the beak is of an ivory white colour. the eye dark. these ducks
 usually associate in large flocks, and are very noisey; their note
 being a sharp shrill whistle. they are usually fat and agreeably
 flavored; and feed principally on moss, and other vegitable productions
 of the water. we did not meet with them untill we reached tide-water,
 but I beleive them not exclusively confined to that district at all
 seasons, as I have noticed the same duck on many parts of the Rivers
 Ohio and Mississippi. the gizzard and liver are also remarkably large
 in this fowl. the divers are the same with those of the Atlantic
 States. the smaller species has some white feathers about the rump with
 no perceptable tail and is very active and cluck in it's motion; the
 body is of a redish brown. the beak sharp and somewhat curved like that
 of the pheasant. the toes are not connected but webed like those
 discribed of the black duck. the larger speceis are about the size of
 the teal and can flye a short distance which the small one scarcely
 ever attapts. they have a short tail. their colour is also an uniform
 brickredish brown, the beak is streight and pointed. the feet are of
 the same form of the other speceis and the legs are remarkably thin and
 flat one edge being in front. the food of both speceis is fish, and the
 flesh unfit for uce. the bluewinged teal are a very excellent duck, and
 are the same with those of the Atlantic coast.--There are some other
 speceis of ducks which shall be hereafter discribed as I may hereafter
 have an opportunity to examine them.
 
 
 [Clark, March 10, 1806]
 Monday March 10th 1806
 about 1 P.M. it became fair and we Sent out two parties of hunters on
 this Side of the Netul, one above and the other below, we also derected
 a party to Set out early in the morning and pass Meriwethers Bay and
 hunt beyond the Kilhow anak kle. from the last we have considerable
 hope, as we have as yet hunted but little in that quarter. it blew hard
 all day, in the evening the Indians departed. The Hunters, S. R. F. &
 F. who were over the netul the other day informed us that they measured
 a 2d tree of the fir Speces (No. i) as high as a man Could reach, was
 39 feet in the girth; it tapered but very little for about 200 feet
 without any Considerable limbs, and that it was a very lofty above the
 Commmencement of the limbs. from the appearance of other Species of
 fir, and their account of this tree, I think it might safely estimated
 at 300 feet. it had every appearance of being perfectly Sound in every
 part
 The brown Duck is much in form like the Duckinmallard, tho not much
 more than half it's Size. the colour is one uniform mixture of
 yellowish and dark brown. there is nothing remarkable in the colour of
 this duck; it resorts the Same kind of grassy marshes with the
 Duckinmallard, and feeds in a Similar manner, on grass, Seeds & roots.
 both these ducks are common to the river for Some distance above tide
 water as well as below. The black Duck is about the Size of the
 bluewinged teel. their colour is a duskey black the breast and belly
 Somewhat lighter than the other parts, or a dark brown. the legs Stand
 longitudianally with the body, and the Bird when on Shore Stands very
 erect. the legs and feet are of a dark brown, the toes are four on each
 foot, a short one on the heel and three long toes in front which are
 unconnected with a web. the web is atached to each Side of the Several
 joints of the toes, and devided by deep Sinuses at each joint. the web
 assumeing in the intermediate part an elipticle figure. the beak is
 about two inches long, Streight, flated on the Sides, and tapering to a
 Sharp point. the upper chap Somewhat longest and bears on its base at
 the joining of the head, a little conic protuberance of a cartelagenous
 Substance, being redish brown. the beak is of a ivery white colour. the
 eye dark. these ducks usially associate in large flocks, and are very
 noisey; their note being a Sharp shrill whistle. they are usially fat
 and tolerably flavoured; and feed on moss and other vegitable
 productions of the water. we did not meet with them untill we reached
 tide water, I have noticed the Same duck on maney parts of the ohio an
 Mississippi. the Gizzard and liver are also remarkably large in this
 fowl-. The Divers are the Same with those of the atlantic States. the
 Smaller Species has some white feathers about the rump and no
 perceptable tail and is very active and quick in its motion; the body
 is of a redish brown. the beak sharp and Somewhat curved like that of
 the Pheasant the toes are not connected but webd. like those discribed
 of the black duck. The large Species are about the Size of the teal &c.
 the food of both those Species is fish. and their flesh is unfit for
 use.
 The bluewinged teal are a very excellent duck, and are the Same with
 those of the atlantic coast.--There are some other Species of ducks
 which Shall be hereafter discribd. as I may hereafter have an
 oppertunity of exameneing them.
 
 
 [Lewis, March 11, 1806]
 Tuesday March 11th 1806.
 Early this morning Sergt. Pryor arrived with a small canoe loaded with
 fish which he had obtained from the Cathlahmah's for a very small part
 of the articles he had taken with him. the wind had prevented his going
 to the fisery on the opposite side of the river above the Wackiacums,
 and also as we had suspected, prevented his return as early as he would
 otherwise have been back.--The dogs at the Cathlahmahs had bitten the
 trong assunder which confined his canoe and she had gone a drift. he
 borrowed a canoe from the Indians in which he has returned. he found
 his canoe on the way and secured her, untill we return the Indians
 their canoe, when she can be brought back. Sent Sergt. Gass and a party
 in surch of a canoe which was reported to have been sunk in a small
 creek on the opposite side of the Netul a few miles below us, where she
 had been left by Shields R. Fields and Frazier when they were lately
 sent out to hunt over the Netul. They returned and reported that they
 could not find the canoe she had broken the cord by which she was
 attatched, and had been carried off by the tide. Drewyer Joseph Fields
 and Frazier set out by light this morning to pass the bay in order to
 hunt as they had been directed the last evening. we once more live in
 clover; Anchovies fresh Sturgeon and Wappetoe. the latter Sergt. Pryor
 had also procured and brought with him. The reptiles of this country
 are the rattlesnake garter snake and the common brown Lizzard. The
 season was so far advanced when we arrived on this side of the rocky
 mountains that but few rattlesnakes were seen I did not remark one
 particularly myself, nor do I know whether they are of either of the
 four speceis found in the different parts of the United states, or of
 that species before mentioned peculiar to the upper parts of the
 Missouri and it's branches. The garter snake so called in the United
 States is very common in this country; they are found in great numbers
 on the open and sometimes marshey grounds in this neighbourhood. they
 differ not at all from those of the U States. the black or dark brown
 lizzard we saw at the rock fort Camp at the commencement of the woody
 country below the great narrows and falls of the Columbia; they are
 also the same with those of the United States. The snail is numerous in
 the woody country on this coast; they are in shape like those of the
 United States, but are at least five times their bulk. There is a
 speceis of water lizzard of which I saw one only just above the grand
 rapids of the Columbia. it is about 9 inches long the body is reather
 flat and about the size of a mans finger covered with a soft skin of a
 dark brown colour with an uneven surface covered with little pimples
 the neck and head are short, the latter terminating in an accute
 angular point and flat. the fore feet each four toes, the hinder ones
 five unconnected with a web and destitute of tallons. it's tail was
 reather longer than the body and in form like that of the Musk-rat,
 first rising in an arch higher than the back and decending lower than
 the body at the extremity, and flated perpendicularly. the belley and
 under part of the neck and head were of a brick red every other part of
 the colour of the upper part of the body a dark brown. the mouth was
 smooth, without teeth.
 
 
 [Clark, March 11, 1806]
 Tuesday March 11th 1806
 Early this morning Sergt. Pryor arrived with a Small Canoe loaded with
 fish which he had obtained from the Cath-lah-mah's for a very Small
 part of the articles he had taken with him. the wind had prevented his
 going to the fishery on the opposit Side of the river above the
 Waukiecum's, and also as we had suspected, prevented his return as
 early as he otherwise would have been back. The dogs of the
 Cathlahmah's had bitten the throng assunder which confined his canoe
 and she had gorn adrift. he borrowed a Canoe from the Indians in which
 he has returned. he found his canoe on the way and Secured her, untill
 we return the Indians their Canoe--Sent Sergt. Gass and a party in
 Serch of one of our Canoes which was reported to have been lost from a
 hunting party of Shields R. Field & Frazier when they were last out on
 the opposit Side of the Netul. they returned and reported that they
 Could not find the Canoe which had broken the Cord with which it was
 attached, and was caried off by the tide. Drewyer Jo. Field & Frazier
 Set out by light this morning to pass the bay in order to hunt as they
 had been directed last evening. we once more live in Clover; Anchovies
 fresh Sturgeon and Wappatoe. the latter Sergt. Pryor had also procured
 a fiew and brought with him. The Deer of this Coust differ from the
 Common Deer, fallow Deer or Mule Deer as has beformentiond.
 The Mule Deer we have never found except in rough Country; they prefer
 the Open Grounds and are Seldom found in the wood lands near the river;
 when they are met with in the wood lands or river bottoms and pursued,
 they imediately run to the hills or open country as the Elk do, the
 Contrary happens with the common Deer. there are Several differences
 between the mule and common deer as well as in form as in habits. they
 are fully a third larger in general, and the male is particularly
 large; think there is Somewhat greater disparity of Size between the
 Male and the female of this Species than there is between the male and
 female fallow Deer; I am Convinced I have Seen a Buck of this Species
 twice the volume a Buck of the Common Deer. the Ears are peculiarly
 large, I measured those of a large Buck which I found to be eleven
 inches long and 31/2 in width at the widest part; they are not so
 delicately formed, their hair in winter is thicker longer and of a much
 darker grey, in Summer the hair is Still coarser longer and of a paler
 red, more like that of the Elk; in winter they also have a Considerable
 quantity of very fine wool intermixed with the hair and lying next to
 the Skin as the Antelope has. the long hair which grows on the outer
 Side of the first joint of the hind legs, and which in the Common Deer
 do not usially occupy more than 2 inches in them occupy from 6 to 8;
 their horns also differ, those in the Common deer consist of two main
 beams gradually deminishing as the points proceed from it, with the
 mule deer the horns consist of two beams which at the distance of 4 or
 6 inches from the head divide themselves into two equal branches which
 again either divide into two other equal branches or terminate in a
 Smaller, and two equal ones; haveing either 2, 4 or 6 points on a beam;
 the horn is not so rough about the base as the common deer, and are
 invariably of a much darker Colour. the most Strikeing difference of
 all, is the white rump and tail. from the root of the tail as a center
 there is a circular Spot perfectly white of about 31/2 inches radius,
 which occupy a part of the rump and the extremities of buttocks and
 joins the white of the belley underneath; the tail which is usially
 from 8 to 9 inches long for the first 4 or 5 inches from its upper
 extremity is covered with Short white hairs, much Shorter indeed than
 those hairs of the body; from hence for about one inch further, the
 hair is Still white but gradually becoms longer; the tail then
 termonates in a tissue of Black hair of about 3 inches long. from this
 black hair of the tail they have obtained among the French engages the
 appelation of the black tailed Deer, but this I conceive by no means
 Characteristic of the Animal as much the larger portion of the tail is
 white. the Ears and the tail of this Animale when Compared with those
 of the Common Deer, So well Comported with those of the Mule when
 compared with the Horse, that we have by way of distinction adapted the
 appellation of the mule Deer which I think much more appropriate. on
 the inner corner of each eye there is a drane (like the Elk) or large
 recepticle which Seams to Answer as a drane to the eye which givs it
 the appearance of weeping, this in the Common Deer of the Atlantic
 States is scercely proceptable but becoms more Conspicious in the
 fallow Deer, and Still more So in the Elk; this recepticle in the Elk
 is larger than any of the Pecora order with which I am acquainted.
 I have Some reasons to believe that the Calumet Eagle is Sometimes
 found on this Side of the Rocky mountains from the information of the
 Indians in whose possession I have Seen their plumage. those are the
 Same with those of the Missouri, and are the most butifull of all the
 family of the Eagle of America it's colours are black and white with
 which it is butifully varigated. the feathers of the tail which is so
 highly prized by the Indians is composed of twelve broad feathers of
 equal length those are white except about two inches at the extremity
 which is of a jut black. their wings have each a large circular white
 Spot in the middle when extended. the body is variously marked with
 white and black. the form is much that of the Common bald Eagle, but
 they are reather Smaller and much more fleet. this Eagle is feared by
 all carnivarous birds, and on his approach all leave the carcase
 instantly on which they were feeding. it breads in the inaccessable
 parts of the Mountains where it Spends the Summer, and decends to the
 plains and low country in the fall and winter when it is usially Sought
 and taken by the nativs. two tails of this bird is esteemed by Mandans,
 Minnetares, Ricaras, &c. as the full value of a good horse, or Gun and
 accoutrements. with the Osage & Kanzas and those nations enhabiting
 Countrys where this bird is more rare, the price is even double of that
 mentioned. with these feathers the nativs deckerate the Stems of their
 Sacred pipes or Calumets; whence the name of Calumet Eagle, which has
 Generally obtained among the Engages. The Ricaras have domesticated
 this bird in many instances for the purpose of obtaining its plumage.
 the nativs in every part of the Continent who can precure those
 feathers attach them to their own hair and the mains and tail of their
 favorite horses by way of orniment. they also deckerate their own caps
 or bonnets with those feathers. The Leather winged bat is found &c.
 
 
 [Lewis, March 12, 1806]
 Wednesday March 12th 1806
 We sent a party again in surch of the perogue but they returned
 unsuccessful) as yesterday. Sent one hunter out on this side of the
 Netul, he did not return this evening. I beleive the Callamet Eagle is
 sometimes found on this side of the rocky mountains from the
 information of the Indians in whose possession I have seen their
 plumage. these are the same with those of the Missouri, and are the
 most beautiful) of all the family of the Eagles of America. it's
 colours are black and white with which it is beautifully variagated.
 the feathers of the tail which are so highly prized by the Indians is
 composed of twelve broad feathers of equal length. these are white
 except about 2 inches at the extremity which is of a jut black. there
 wings have each a large circular white spot in the middle when
 extended. the body is variously marked with white and black. the form
 is much that of the common bald Eagle, but they are reather smaller and
 much more fleet. this eagle is feared by all carnivorous birds, and on
 his approach all leave the carcase instantly on which they were
 feeding. it breads in the inaccessable parts of the mountains where it
 spends the summer, and decends to the plains and low country in the
 fall and winter when it is usually sought and taken by the natives. two
 tails of this bird is esteemed by the Mandans Minetares Ricares, &c as
 the full value of a good horse, or gun and accoutrements. with the
 Great and little Osages and those nations inhabiting countries where
 this bird is more rare the price is even double of that mentioned. with
 these feathers the natives decorate the stems of their sacred pipes or
 callamets; whence the name, of Callamet Eagle, which has generally
 obtained among the Engages. the Ricares have domesticated this bird in
 many instancies for the purpose of obtaining it's plumage. the natives
 in every part of the con tinent who can procure these feathers attatch
 them to their own hair and the mains and tails of their favorite horses
 by way of ornament. they also decorate their war caps or bonnets with
 those feathers.--The leather winged batt common to the United States is
 also found on this side of the Rocky mountains.--Beside the fish of
 this coast and river already mentioned we have met with the following
 speceis viz. the Whale, Porpus, Skaite, flounder, Salmon, red charr,
 two speceis of Salmon trout, mountain or speckled trout, and a speceis
 similar to one of those noticed on the Missouri within the mountains,
 called in the Eastern states, bottle-nose. I have no doubt but there
 are many other speceis of fish, which also exist in this quarter at
 different seasons of the year, which we have not had an oportunity of
 seeing. the shell fish are the Clam, perrewinkle, common mussle,
 cockle, and a speceis with a circular flat shell. The Whale is
 sometimes pursued harpooned and taken by the Indians of this coast; tho
 I beleive it is much more frequently killed by runing fowl on the rocks
 of the coast in violent storms and thrown on shore by the wind and
 tide. in either case the Indians preseve and eat the blubber and oil as
 has been before mentioned. the whalebone they also carefully preserve
 for sale.--Our party are now furnished with 358 pair of Mockersons
 exclusive of a good portion of dressed leather.-
 
 
 [Clark, March 12, 1806]
 Wednesday March 12th 1806
 We Sent a party again in Serch of the Canoe but they returned
 unsucksessfull as yesterday Sent one hunter out on this Side of the
 Netul he did not return this evening. Our party are now furnished with
 358 par of Mockersons exclusive of a good portion of Dressed leather,
 they are also previded with Shirts Overalls Capoes of dressed Elk Skins
 for the homeward journey.
 Besides the fish of this Coast and river already mentioned we have met
 with the following Species. viz. the Whale, Porpus, Skaite, flounder,
 Salmon, red-carr, two Specis of Salmon trout, mountain or Speckled
 trout, and a Speceis Similar to one of those noticed on the Missouri
 within the mountains, called in the Eastern States, bottle nose. I have
 no doubt but there are many other Species of fish which also exist in
 this quarter at different Seasons of the year, which we have not had an
 oppertunity of seeing. the Shell fish are the Clam, perriwinkle, common
 Muscle, cockle, and a Species with a circular flat Shell.
 The Whale is Sometimes pursued harpooned and taken by the Indians of
 this Coast; tho I believe it is much more frequently killed by running
 on the rocks of the Coast to S. S. W. in violent Storms, and thrown on
 different parts of the Coast by the winds and tide-. in either case the
 Indians preserve and eat the blubber and Oil as has been before
 mentioned. the whale bone they also carefully preserve for Sale.
 The Reptiles of this Country are the rattle snake, garter Snake a
 common brown Lizzard. The Season was so far advanced on this side of
 the Rocky Mountains that but fiew rattle Snakes were Seen, I did not
 remark one particularly my Self, nor do I know if they are of either of
 the four Species found in different parts of the United States, or of
 that Species before observed only on the upper parts of the Missouri &
 its branches.
 The Garter Snake So Called in the U States is very common in this
 country, they are found in great numbers on the open and Sometimes
 marshy grounds in this neighbourhood. they differ not at all from those
 of the United States. the Black or Dark brown Lizzard we Saw at the
 long narrows or Commencement of the woody country on the Columbia; they
 are also the Same with those of the U, States. The Snail is noumerous
 in the woodey Country on this Coast, they are in Shape like those of
 the U, States, but are at least five times their bulk. there is a
 Specis of water Lizzard of which I only Saw one just above the grand
 rapid of the Columbia. it is about 9 inches long the body is reather
 flat and about the Size of a mans finger, covered with a Soft Skin of
 dark brown Colour with an uneaven sufice covered with little pimples,
 the neck and head are Short, the latter termonateing in an accute
 angular point and flat. the fore feet each have four toes, the hinder
 ones five unconnected with a web and destitute of tallons. it's tail
 was reather longer than the body, and in form like that of the muskrat,
 first riseing in an arch higher than the back, and decending lower than
 the body at the extremety, and flated perpindicularly. the belly and
 under part of the neck and head were of a Brick red every other part of
 the colour of the upper part of the body are dark brown. the mouth was
 Smooth without teeth.
 The horns of Some of the Elk have not yet fallen off and those of
 others have Grown to the length of Six inches. the latter are in the
 best order, from which it would Seem that the pore Elk retain their
 horns longer.
 
 
 [Lewis, March 13, 1806]
 Thursday March 13th 1806.
 This morning Drewyer Jos Feilds and Frazier returned; they had killed
 two Elk and two deer. visited by two Cathlahmahs who left us in the
 evening. we sent Drewyer down to the Clatsop village to purchase a
 couple of their canoes if possible. Sergt. Pryor and a party made
 another surch for the lost peroge but was unsuccessfull; while engaged
 in surching for the perogue Collins one of his party killed two Elk
 near the Netul below us. we sent Sergt. Ordway and a party for the
 flesh of one of the Elk beyond the bay with which they returned in the
 evening. the other Elk and two deer were at some distance. R. Fields
 and Thompson who set out yesterday morning on a hunting excurtion
 towards point Adams have not yet returned. The horns of some of the Elk
 have not yet fallen off, and those of others have shotten out to the
 length of six inches. the latter are in the best order, from which it
 would seem that the poor Elk retain their horns longest.
 The Porpus is common on this coast and as far up the river as the water
 is brackish. the Indians sometimes gig them and always eat the flesh of
 this fish when they can procure it; to me the flavor is disagreeable.
 the Skaite is also common to the salt water, we have seen several of
 them that had perished and were thrown out on the beach by the tide.
 The flounder is also an inhabitant of the salt water, we have seen them
 also on the beach where they had been left by the tide. the Indians eat
 the latter and esteem it very fine. these several speceis are the same
 with those of the Atlantic coast. the common Salmon and red Charr are
 the inhabitants of both the sea and rivers. the former is usually
 largest and weighs from 5 to 15 lbs. it is this speceis that extends
 itself into all the rivers and little creeks on this side of the
 Continent, and to which the natives are so much indebted for their
 subsistence. the body of this fish is from 21/2 to 3 feet long and
 proportionably broad. it is covered with imbricated scales of a
 moderate size and is variegated with irregular black spots on it's
 sides and gills. the eye is large and the iris of a silvery colour the
 pupil black. the rostrum or nose extends beyond the under jaw, and both
 the upper and lower jaws are armed with a single series of long teeth
 which are subulate and infleted near the extremities of the jaws where
 they are also more closely arranged. they have some sharp teeth of
 smaller size and same shape placed on the tongue which is thick and
 fleshey. the fins of the back are two; the first is plaised nearer the
 head than the ventral fins and has ____ rays, the second is placed far
 back near the tail is small and has no rays. the flesh of this fish is
 when in order of a deep flesh coloured red and every shade from that to
 an orrange yellow, and when very meager almost white. the roes of this
 fish are much esteemed by the natives who dry them in the sun and
 preserve them for a great length of time. they are about the size of a
 small pea nearly transparent and of a redish yellow colour. they
 resemble very much at a little distance the common currants of our
 gardens but are more yellow. this fish is sometimes red along the sides
 and belley near the gills particularly the male. The red Charr are
 reather broader in proportion to their length than the common salmon,
 the skales are also imbricated but reather large. the nostrum exceeds
 the lower jaw more and the teeth are neither as large nor so numerous
 as those of the salmon. some of them are almost entirely red on the
 belley and sides; others are much more white than the salmon and none
 of them are variagated with the dark spots which make the body of the
 other. their flesh roes and every other particular with rispect to
 their form is that of the Salmon. this fish we did not see untill we
 decended below the grat falls of the Columbia; but whether they are
 exclusively confined to this portion of the river or not at all
 seasons, I am unable to determine.
 
 
 [Clark, March 13, 1806]
 Thursday March 13th 1806.
 This morning Drewyer Jos. Fields and Frazer returned; they had killed
 two Elk and two deer. Visited by two Cath-lah-mars who left us in the
 evening. we Sent Drewyer down to the Clatsop Village to purchase a
 couple of their canoes if possible. Sergt. Pryor and a party made
 another Serch for the lost Canoe but was unsucksessfull; while engaged
 in Serching for the Canoe, Collins one of his party killed two Elk near
 the Netul below us. we Sent Sergt. Ordway and a party for the flesh of
 one of the Elk beyond the Bay with which they returned in the evening;
 the other Elk and 2 Deer were at Some distance--R. Field and Thompson
 who Set out on a hunting excursion yesterday morning towards point
 Adams have not yet returned. took equal altitudes to day this being the
 only fair day for Sometime past.
 The Porpus is common on this coast and as far up the river as the water
 is brackish. the Indians Sometimes gig them and always eat the flesh of
 this fish when they Can precure it; to me the flavour is disagreeable.
 the Skaite is also common to the Salt water, I have Seen Several of
 them that had perished and were thrown out on the beach by the tide.
 The flounder is also an enhabitent of the Salt water. we have Seen them
 also on the beach where they had been left by the tide. the nativs eate
 the latter and esteem it very fine. these Several Species are the Same
 of those of the atlantic Coasts. The Common Salmon and red charr are
 the inhabitents of both the Sea and river. the former is usially
 largest and weighs from 5 to 15 lbs. it is this Species that extends
 itself into all the rivers and little creek on this Side of the
 Continent, and to which the nativs are So much indebted for their
 Subsistence. the body of this fish is from 21/2 to 3 feet long and
 perpotionably broad. it is covered with imbricated scales of a moderate
 Size and is varigated with errigular black Spots on its Side and gills.
 the eye is large and the iris of a Silvery colour the pupil black. the
 rostrum or nose extend beyond the under jaws, and both the upper and
 the lower jaw are armed with a Single Series of long teeth which are
 Subulate and infleted near the extremities of the jaws where they are
 more closely arranged. they have Some Sharp teeth of Smaller Size and
 Same Shape on the tongue which is thick and fleshey. the fins of the
 back are two; the first is placed nearer the head than the Venteral
 fins and has ____ rays, the Second is placed far back near the tail is
 small and has no rays. The flesh of this fish when in order of a deep
 flesh coloured red and every Shade from that to an orrange yellow, and
 when very meager almost white. the Roe of this fish are much esteemed
 by the nativs, who dry them in the Sun and preserve them for a great
 length of time. they are about the Size of a Small pea nearly
 transparrent and of a redish yellow colour. they resemble very much at
 a little distance the Common Current of our gardens but are more
 yellow. this fish is Sometimes red along the Sides and belly near the
 gills; particularly the male of this Species.
 The Red Charr are reather broader in proportion to their length than
 the Common Salmon, the Skales are also embricated but reather large.
 the nostrum exceeds the lower jaw more and the teeth are neither So
 noumerous or large as those of the Salmon. Some of them are almost
 entirely red on the belly and Sides; others are much more white than
 the Salmon, and none of them are varigated with the dark Spots which
 mark the body of the other. their flesh roe and every other particular
 with respect to their is that of the Salmon. this fish we did not See
 untill we had decended below the Great falls of the Columbia; but
 whether they are exclusively confined to this portion of the river or
 not at all Seasons, I am unable to determine.
 The Salmon Trout are Seldom more than two feet in length, they are
 narrow in purportion to their length, at least much more So than the
 Salmon & red charr. their jaws are nearly of the Same length, and are
 furnished with a Single Series of Subulate Streight teeth, not so long
 or so large as those of the Salmon, the mouth is wide, and the tongue
 is also furnished with Some teeth. the fins are placed much like those
 of the Salmon. at the Great Falls are met with this fish of a Silvery
 white colour on the belly and Sides, and a blueish light brown on the
 back and head. in this neighbourhood we have met with another Species
 which does not differ from the other in any particular except in point
 of Colour. this last is of a dark colour on the back, and its Sides and
 belley are yellow with transverse Stripes of dark brown. Sometimes a
 little red is intermixed with these Colours on the belly and Sides
 towards the head. the flesh & roe is like those described of the
 Salmon. the white Species which we found below the falls were in
 excellent order when the Salmon were entirely out of Season and not fit
 for use. The Species which we found here early in november on our
 arival in this quarter had declined considerably, reather more so than
 the Red charr with which we found them asociated in the little
 riverlets and creeks. I think it may be Safely asserted that the Red
 Charr and both Species of the Salmon trout remain in Season longer in
 the fall of the year than the common Salmon; but I have my doubt
 whether of the Species of the Salmon trout ever pass the Great falls of
 the Columbia. The Indians tell us that the Salmon begin to run early in
 the next month; it will be unfortunate for us if they do not, for they
 must form our principal dependance for food in assending the Columbia
 above the Falls and it's S. E. branch Lewis's river to the Mountains.
 The Speckled or Mountain Trout are found in the waters of the Columbia
 within the Rocky mountains. they are the Same of those found in the
 upper part of the Missouri, but are not So abundent in the Columbian
 Waters as in that river. The bottle nose is also found on the waters of
 the Columbia within the mountains.
 
 
 [Lewis, March 14, 1806]
 Friday March 14th 1806.
 This morning we sent a party after the two Elk which Collins killed
 last evening, they returned with them about noon. Collins, Jos. Fends
 and Shannon went in quest of the flock of Elk of which Collins had
 killed those two. this evening we heared upwards of twenty shot, and
 expect that they have fallen in with and killed a number of them.
 Reubin Fields and Thompson returned this evening unsuccessfull having
 killed one brant only. late in the evening Drewyer arrived with a party
 of the Clatsops who brought an indifferent canoe some hats and roots
 for sale. the hats and roots we purchased, but could not obtain the
 canoe without giving more than our stock of merchandize would lisence
 us. I offered him my laced uniform coat but he would not exchange. The
 Salmon Trout are seldom more than two feet in length they are narrow in
 proportion to their length, at least much more so than the Salmon or
 red charr. the jaws are nearly of the same length, and are furnished
 with a single series of small subulate streight teeth, not so long or
 as large as those of the Salmon. the mouth is wide, and the tongue is
 also furnished with some teeth. the fins are placed much like those of
 the salmon. at the great falls we met with this fish of a silvery white
 colour on the belley and sides, and a bluish light brown on the back
 and head. in this neighbourhood we have met with another speceis which
 dose not differ from the other in any particular except in point of
 colour. this last is of a dark colour on the back, and it's sides and
 belley are yellow with transverse stripes of dark brown. sometimes a
 little red is intermixed with these colours on the belley and sides
 towards the head. the eye, flesh, and roes are like those discribed of
 the Salmon. the white speceis which we found below the falls was in
 excellent order when the salmon were entirely out of season and not fit
 for uce. the speceis which we found here on our arrival early in
 November had declined considerably, reather more so inded than the red
 Charr with which we found them ascociated in the little rivulets and
 creeks. I think it may be safely asserted that the red Charr and both
 speceis of the salmon trout remain in season longer in the fall of the
 year than the common Salmon; but I have my doubts whether either of
 them ever pass the great falls of the Columbia. The Indians tell us
 that the Salmon begin to run early in the next month; it will be
 unfortunate for us if they do not, for they must form our principal
 dependence for food in ascending the Columbia, above the falls and it's
 S. E. branch to the mountains. The mountain or speckled trout are found
 in the waters of the Columbia within the mountains. they are the same
 of those found in the upper part of the Missouri, but are not so
 abundant in the Columbia as on that river. we never saw this fish below
 the mountains but from the transparency and coldness of the Kooskooske
 I should not doubt it's existing in that stream as low as it's junction
 with the S E. branch of the Columbia.--The bottle nose is the same with
 that before mentioned on the Missouri and is found exclusively within
 the mountains.
 
 
 [Clark, March 14, 1806]
 Friday March 14th 1806
 This morning we dispatched a party after two Elk which Collins killed
 last evening, they returned with them about noon. Jos. Field, Collins,
 Go. Shannon & Labiesh went in quest of the Gang of Elk out of which
 Collins had killed the 2 yesterday. this evening we herd upwards of
 twenty Shot and expect they have fallen in with and killed Several of
 them. Reuben Field and Thompson returned this evening unsuksessfull
 haveing killed only one Brant. late in the evening Geo. Drewyer arrived
 with a party of the Clatsops who brought an indifferent Canoe, three
 hats and Some roots for Sale we could not purchase the Canoe without
 giveing more than our Stock of merchandize would lisence us. Capt Lewis
 offered his laced uniform Coat for a verry indiferent Canoe, agreeable
 to their usial way of tradeing his price was double. we are informed by
 the Clatsops that they have latterly Seen an Indian from the
 Quin-na-chart Nation who reside Six days march to the N. W and that
 four vessles were there and the owners Mr. Haley, Moore, Callamon &
 Swipeton were tradeing with that noumerous nation, whale bone Oile and
 Skins of various discription.
 
 
 [Lewis, March 15, 1806]
 Saturday March 15th 1806.
 This morning at 11 OCk. the hunters arrived, having killed four Elk
 only. Labuish it seems was the only hunter who fell in with the Elk and
 having by some accedent lost the fore sight of his gun shot a great
 number of times but killed only the number mentioned. as the elk were
 scattered we sent two parties for them, they returned in the evening
 with four skins and the flesh of three Elk, that of one of them having
 become putrid from the liver and pluck having been carelessly left in
 the animal all night. we were visited this afternoon by Delashshelwilt
 a Chinnook Chief his wife and six women of his nation which the old
 baud his wife had brought for market. this was the same party that had
 communicated the venerial to so many of our party in November last, and
 of which they have finally recovered. I therefore gave the men a
 particular charge with rispect to them which they promised me to
 observe. late this evening we were also visited by Catel a Clatsop man
 and his family. he brought a canoe and a Sea Otter Skin for sale
 neither of which we purchased this evening. The Clatsops who had
 brought a canoe for sale last evening left us early this morning.-
 Bratton still sick.
 There is a third speceis of brant in the neighbourhood of this place
 which is about the size and much the form of the pided brant. they
 weigh about 81/2 lbs. the wings are not as long nor so pointed as those
 of the common pided brant. the following is a likeness of it's head and
 beak. a little distance around the base of the beak is white and is
 suddonly succeeded by a narrow line of dark brown. the ballance of the
 neck, head, back, wings, and tail all except the tips of the feathers
 are of the bluish brown of the common wild goose. the breast and belly
 are white with an irregular mixture of black feathers which give that
 part a pided appearance. from the legs back underneath the tail, and
 arond the junction of the same with the body above, the feathers are
 white. the tail is composed of 18 feathers; the longest of which are in
 the center and measure 6 Inches with the barrel of the quill; those
 sides of the tail are something shorter and bend with their extremeties
 inwards towards the center of the tail. the extremities of these
 feathers are white. the beak is of a light flesh colour. the legs and
 feet which do not differ in structure from those of the goose or brant
 of the other speceis, are of an orrange yellow colour. the eye is
 small; the iris is a dark yellowish brown, and pupil black. the note of
 this brant is much that of the common pided brant from which in fact
 they are not to be distinguished at a distance, but they certainly are
 a distinct speis of brant. the flesh of this fowl is as good as that of
 the common pided brant. they not remain here during the winter in such
 numbers as the white brant do, tho they have now returned in
 considerable quantities. first saw them below tide-water.
 
 
 [Clark, March 15, 1806]
 Saturday March 15th 1806
 This morning at 11 oClock the hunters arived, haveing Killed four Elk
 only. Labiesh it Seams was the only Hunter who fell in with the Elk and
 haveing by some accident lost the foresight of his gun Shot a great
 number of times and only killed four. as the Elk were scattered we Sent
 two parties for them, they return in the evening with four Skins, and
 the flesh of three Elk, that of one of them haveing become putred from
 the liver and pluck haveing been carelessly left in the Animal all
 night. We were visited this Afternoon in a Canoe 4 feet 2 I. wide by
 De-lash-hel-wilt a Chinnook Chief his wife and Six women of his Nation,
 which the Old Boud his wife had brought for Market. this was the Same
 party which had communicated the venereal to Several of our party in
 November last, and of which.they have finally recovered. I therefore
 gave the men a particular Charge with respect to them which they
 promised me to observe. late this evening we were also visited by
 Ca-tel a Clatsop man and his family. he brought a Canoe and a Sea Otter
 Skin for Sale neither of which we could purchase of him. the Clatsops
 which had brought a Canoe for Sale last evening left us this morning.
 Bratten is still very weak and unwell.
 There is a third Species of Brant in the neighbourhood of this place
 which is about the Size and much the form of the bided brant. they
 weigh about 81/2 lbs. the wings are not as long nor So pointed as the
 Common pided brant. the following is a likeness of its head and beak. a
 little distance arround the base of the beak is white and is Suddenly
 Succeeded by a narrow line of dark brown. the ballance of the neck,
 head, back, wings and tail all except the tips of the feathers are of
 the blueish brown of the Common wild goose, the breast and belly are
 white with an irregular mixture of black feathers which give that part
 a pided appearance. from the legs back underneath the tail, and around
 the junction of the Same with the body above, the feathers are white.
 the tail is composed of 18 feathers; the longest of which are in the
 center and measure 6 inches with the barrel of the quill; those on the
 Side of the tail are Something Shorter and bend with their extremities
 inwards towards the center of the tail. the extremities of these
 feathers are white. the beak is of a light flesh colour. the legs and
 feet which do not differ in Structure from those of the Goose or brant
 of the other Species, are of an orrange yellow Colour. the eye is
 Small; the iris is of a dark yellowish brown, and puple black. the note
 of this brant is much that of the common pided brant from which in fact
 they are not to be distinguished at a distance, but they Certainly are
 a distinct Species of brant. the flesh of this fowl is as good as that
 of the Common pided brant. they do not remain here dureing the winter
 in Such numbers as the white brant do, tho they have now returned in
 Considerable quantities. we first met with this brant on tide water.
 The Clams of this coast are very Small. the Shells consist of two
 valves which open with a hinge, the Shell is Smooth thin and of an oval
 form or like that of the Common Muscle and of a Skye blue colour; it is
 of every Size under a Inch & 3/4 in length, and hangs in clusters to
 the moss of the rocks, the nativs Sometimes eate them.--The Periwinkle
 both of the river and Ocian are Similar to those found in the Same
 Situation on the Atlantic.--there is also an Animal which inhabits a
 Shell perfectly circular about 3 inches in diameetor, thin and entire
 on the marjin, convex and Smooth on the upper Side, plain on the under
 part and covered with a number of minute Capillary fibers by means of
 which it attaches itself to the Sides of the rocks. the Shell is thin
 and Consists of one valve. a Small circular opperture is formed in the
 Center of the under Shell the Animal is Soft and boneless &c.-.
 
 
 [Lewis, March 16, 1806]
 Sunday March 16th 1806.
 Not any occurrence worthy of relation took place today. Drewyer and
 party did not return from the Cathlahmahs this evening as we expected.
 we suppose he was detained by the hard winds of today. the Indians
 remained with us all day, but would not dispose of their canoes at a
 price which it was in our power to give consistently with the state of
 our Stock of Merchandize. two handkercheifs would now contain all the
 small articles of merchandize which we possess; the ballance of the
 stock consists of 6 blue robes one scarlet do. one uniform
 artillerist's coat and hat, five robes made of our large flag, and a
 few old cloaths trimed with ribbon. on this stock we have wholy to
 depend for the purchase of horses and such portion of our subsistence
 from the Indians as it will be in our powers to obtain. a scant
 dependence indeed, for a tour of the distance of that before us. the
 Clam of this coast are very small. the shell consists of two valves
 which open with a hinge. the shell is smooth thin of an oval form or
 like that of the common mussle, and sky blue colour. it is about 11/2
 inches in length, and hangs in clusters to the moss of the rocks. the
 natives sometimes eat them. the perewinkle both of the river and Ocean
 are similar to those found in the same situations on the Atlantic
 coast. the common mussle of the river are also the same with those in
 the rivers of the atlantic coast. the cockle is small and also much the
 same of the Atlantic. there is also an animal which inhabits a shell
 perfectly circular about 3 Inches in diameter, thin and entire on the
 margin, convex and smooth on the upper side, plain on the under part
 and covered with a number minute capillary fibers by means of which it
 attatches itself to the sides of the rocks. the shell is thin and
 consists of one valve. a small circular apperture is formed in the
 center of the under shell. the animal is soft & boneless.
 The white Salmon Trout which we had previously seen only at the great
 falls of the Columbia has now made it's appearance in the creeks near
 this place. one of them was brought us today by an Indian who had just
 taken it with his gig. this is a likness of it; it was 2 feet 8 Inches
 long, and weighed 10 lbs. the eye is moderately large, the puple black
 and iris of a silvery white with a small addmixture of yellow, and is a
 little terbid near it's border with a yellowish brown. the position of
 the fins may be seen from the drawing, they are small in proportion to
 the fish. the fins are boney but not pointed except the tail and back
 fins which are a little so, the prime back fin and ventral ones,
 contain each ten rays; those of the gills thirteen, that of the tail
 twelve, and the small fin placed near the tail above has no bony rays,
 but is a tough flexable substance covered with smooth skin. it is
 thicker in proportion to it's width than the salmon. the tongu is thick
 and firm beset on each border with small subulate teeth in a single
 series. the teeth of the mouth are as before discribed. neither this
 fish nor the salmon are caught with the hook, nor do I know on what
 they feed.
 
 
 [Clark, March 16, 1806]
 Sunday March 16th 1806
 Not any occurrence worthy of relation took place today. Drewyer and
 party did not return from the Cath lah mah's this evening as we
 expected. we Suppose he was detained by the hard winds today. the
 Indians remain with us all day, but would not dispose of their Canoe at
 a price which it was in our power to give consistently with the State
 of our Stock of Merchandize. One handkerchief would contain all the
 Small articles of merchandize which we possess, the ballance of the
 Stock Consists of 6 Small blue robes or Blankets one of Scarlet. one
 uniform Artillerist's Coat and hat, 5 robes made of our larg flag, and
 a fiew our old Clothes trimed with ribon. on this Stock we have wholy
 to depend for the purchase of horses and Such portion of our
 Subsistence from the Indians as it will be in our power to obtain. a
 scant dependence indeed for the tour of the distance of that before us.
 The pellucid jelly like Substance, called the Sea nettle I found in
 great abundance along the Strand where it has been thrown up by the
 waves and tide, and adheres to the Sand.
 There are two Species of the Fuci, or (Seawead) Seawreck which we also
 found thrown up by the waves. the 1st Specie at one extremity consists
 of a large sesicle or hollow vessale which would contain from one to 2
 gallons, of a conic form, the base of which forms the extreem End and
 is convex and Globelar bearing on its center Some Short broad and
 irregular fibers. the Substance is about the consistancy of the rind of
 a citron Mellon and 3/4 of an inch thick, yellow celindrick, and
 regularly tapering the tube extends to 20 or 30 feet and is then
 termonated with a number of branches which are flat 1/2 inch in width,
 rough particularly on the edges, where they are furnished with a number
 of little oval vesicles or bags of the Size of a Pigions egg. this
 plant Seams to be calculated to float at each extremity, while the
 little end of the tube from whence the branches proceed, lies deepest
 in the water.
 The white Salmon Trout which we had previously seen only at the Great
 Falls of the Columbia, or a little below the Great Falls, has now made
 its appearance in the creeks near this place. one of them was brought
 us to day by an indian who had just taken it with his gig. This is a
 likeness of it; it was 2 feet 8 inches long, and weighed ten pounds.
 the eye is moderately large, the puple black with a Small admixture of
 yellow and the iris of a Silvery white with a Small admixture of yellow
 and a little tirbed near its border with a yellowish brown. the
 position of the fins may be seen from the drawing, they are small in
 perpotion to the fish. the fins are honey but not pointed except the
 tail and back fins which are a little So, the prime back fin and
 venteral ones, contain each ten rays; those of the gills twelve, and
 the Small Finn placed near the tail above has no long rays, but is a
 tough flexable Substance covered with Smooth Skin. it is thicker in
 perpotion to it's width than the Salmons. the tongue is thick and firm
 beset on each border with small subulate teeth in a Single Series. the
 Teeth of the mouth are as before discribed. neither this fish nor the
 Salmon are cought with the hook, nor do I know on what they feed.-now
 begin to run &c. &c.
 
 
 [Lewis, March 17, 1806]
 Monday March 17th 1806.
 Catel and his family left us this morning. Old Delashelwilt and his
 women still remain they have formed a camp near the fort and seem to be
 determined to lay close sege to us but I beleive notwithstanding every
 effort of their wining graces, the men have preserved their constancy
 to the vow of celibacy which they made on this occasion to Capt C. and
 myself. we have had our perogues prepared for our departer, and shal
 set out as soon as the weather will permit. the weather is so
 precarious that we fear by waiting untill the first of April that we
 might be detained several days longer before we could get from this to
 the Cathlahmahs as it must be calm or we cannot accomplish that part of
 our rout. Drewyer returned late this evening from the Cathlahmahs with
 our canoe which Sergt. Pryor had left some days since, and also a canoe
 which he had purchased from those people. for this canoe he gave my
 uniform laced coat and nearly half a carrot of tobacco. it seems that
 nothing excep this coat would induce them to dispose of a canoe which
 in their mode of traffic is an article of the greatest value except a
 wife, with whom it is equal, and is generally given in exchange to the
 father for his daughter. I think the U States are indebted to me
 another Uniform coat, for that of which I have disposed on this
 occasion was but little woarn.--we yet want another canoe, and as the
 Clatsops will not sell us one at a price which we can afford to give we
 will take one from them in lue of the six Elk which they stole from us
 in the winter.-
 The pellucid jellylike substance, called the sea-nettle is found in
 great abundance along the strad where it has been thrown up by the
 waves and tide.
 There are two speceis of the Fuci or seawreckwhich we also find thrown
 up by the waves. the 1st speceis at one extremity consists of a large
 vesicle or hollow vessell which would contain from one to two gallons,
 of a conic form, the base of which forms the extreem end and is convex
 and globelar bearing on it's center some short broad and irregular
 fibers. the substance is about the consistence of the rind of a citron
 mellon and 3/4 of an inch thick. the rihind is smooth. from the small
 extremity of the cone a long, hollow, celindrick, and regularly
 tapering tube extends to 20 or thirty feet and is then terminated with
 a number of branches which are flat 1/2 an inch in width rough
 particular on the edges where they are furnished with a number of
 little ovate vesicles or bags of the size of a pigeon's egg. this plant
 seems to be calculated to float at each extremity while the little end
 of the tube from whence the branches proceed, lies deepest in the water.
 The other speceis I have never seen but Capt. Clark who saw it on the
 coast towards the Killamucks informed me that it resembled a large
 pumpkin, it is solid and it's specific gravity reather greater than the
 water, tho it is sometimes thrown out by the waves. it is of a yellowis
 brown colour. the rhind smooth and consistence harder than that of a
 pumpkin tho easily cut with a knife. there are some dark brown fibers
 reather harder than any other part which pass longitudinally through
 the pulp or fleshey substance wich forms the interior of this marine
 production.The following is a list of the names of the commanders of
 vessels who visit the entrance of the Columbia river in the spring and
 autumn fror the purpose of trading with the natives or hunting Elk.
 these names are spelt as the Indians pronounce them.
 Mr. Haley, their favorite trader visits them in a vessel with three
 masts, and continues some time
 Youens,
 visits in a
 3
 masted vessel-
 Trader
 Tallamon
 do.
 3
 do.
 no trader
 Callallamet
 do.
 3
 do.
 Trader. has a wooden leg.
 Swipton
 do.
 3
 do.
 Trader.
 Moore
 do.
 4
 do.
 do.
 Mackey
 do.
 3
 do.
 do.
 Washington
 do.
 3
 do.
 do.
 Mesship
 do.
 3
 do.
 do.
 Davidson
 do.
 2
 no trader hunts Elk
 Jackson
 do.
 3
 masted vessel
 Trader
 Bolch
 do.
 3
 do.
 do.
 Skelley
 do.
 3
 do.
 do. tho he has been gone some years. he has one eye.
 
 
 [Clark, March 17, 1806]
 Monday March 17th 1806
 Catel and his family left us this morning. Old Delashelwill and his
 women still remain, they have formed a Camp near the fort and Seam
 determined to lay Close Sege to us, but I believe notwithstanding every
 effort of their wining graces, the men have preserved their constancy
 to the vow of celibacy which they made on this Occasion to Capt L. and
 my self. we have had our Canoes prepared for our departure, and Shall
 Set out as Soon as the weather will permit. the weather is So
 precarious that we fear by waiting untill the first of April that we
 might be detained Several days longer before we could get from this to
 the Cath-lah-mahs, as it must be Calm or we cannot accomplish that part
 of the rout in our Canoes. Drewyer returned late this evening from the
 Cath-lah-mahs with our Indian Canoe which Sergt. Pryor had left Some
 days since, and also a Canoe, which he had purchased from those people.
 for this canoe he gave Captn. Lewis's uniform laced coat and nearly
 half a Carrot of to-bacco. it Seams that nothing except this Coat would
 induce them to dispose of a Canoe which in their mode of traffic is an
 article of the greatest value except a wife, with whome it is nearly
 equal, and is generally given in exchange to the father for his
 Daughter. I think that the United States are injustice indebted to
 Captn Lewis another uniform Coat for that of which he has disposed of
 on this ocasion, it was but little worn.
 We yet want another Canoe as the Clatsops will not Sell us one, a
 proposition has been made by one of our interpt and Several of the
 party to take one in lieu of 6 Elk which they Stole from us this winter
 &c.
 
 
 [Lewis, March 18, 1806]
 Tuesday March 18th 1806.
 Drewyer was taken last night with a violent pain in his side. Capt.
 Clark blead him. several of the men are complaining of being unwell. it
 is truly unfortunate that they should be sick at the moment of our
 departure. we directed Sergt. Pryor to prepare the two Canoes which
 Drewyer brought last evening for his mess. they wanted some knees to
 strengthen them and several cracks corked and payed. he completed them
 except the latter operation which the frequent showers in the course of
 the day prevented as the canoes could not be made sufficiently dry even
 with the assistance of fire. Comowooll and two Cathlahmahs visited us
 today; we suffered them to remain all night. this morning we gave
 Delashelwilt a certificate of his good deportment &c. and also a list
 of our names, after which we dispatched him to his village with his
 female band. These lists of our names we have given to several of the
 natives and also paisted up a copy in our room. the object of these
 lists we stated in the preamble of the same as follows (viz) "The
 object of this list is, that through the medium of some civilized
 person who may see the same, it may be made known to the informed
 world, that the party consisting of the persons whose names are
 hereunto annexed, and who were sent out by the government of the U
 States in May 1804 to explore the interior of the Continent of North
 America, did penetrate the same by way of the Missouri and Columbia
 Rivers, to the discharge of the latter into the Pacific Ocean, where
 they arrived on the 14th November 1805, and from whence they departed
 the ____ day of March 1806 on their return to the United States by the
 same rout they had come out."--on the back of some of these lists we
 added a sketch of the connection of the upper branches of the Missouri
 with those of the Columbia, particularly of it's main S. E. branch, on
 which we also delienated the track we had come and that we meant to
 pursue on our return where the same happened to vary. There seemed so
 many chances against our government ever obtaining a regular report,
 though the medium of the savages and the traders of this coast that we
 declined making any. our party are also too small to think of leaving
 any of them to return to the U States by sea, particularly as we shall
 be necessarily divided into three or four parties on our return in
 order to accomplish the objects we have in view; and at any rate we
 shall reach the United States in all human probability much earlier
 than a man could who must in the event of his being left here depend
 for his passage to the United States on the traders of the coast who
 may not return immediately to the U States or if they should, might
 probably spend the next summer in trading with the natives before they
 would set out on their return. this evening Drewyer went inquest of his
 traps, and took an Otter. Joseph Fields killed an Elk.--The Indians
 repeated to us the names of eighteen distinct tribes residing on the S.
 E. coast who spoke the Killamucks language, and beyound those six
 others who spoke a different language which they did not comprehend.
 
 
 [Clark, March 18, 1806]
 Tuesday March 17th 1806
 Drewyer was taken last night with a violent pain in his Side. I bled
 him. Several of the men are complaining of being unwell. it is truly
 unfortunate that they Should be Sick at the moment of our departure.
 Derected Sergt. Pryor to prepare the two Indian Canoes which we had
 purchased for his mess. they wanted Some knees to Strengthen them, and
 Several cracks corked and payed. he compleated them except paying. the
 frequent Showers of rain prevented the Canoes drying Sufficient to pay
 them even with the assistance of fire.
 Commorwool and two Cathlahmahs visited us to day; we Suffered them to
 remain all night. this morning we gave Delashelwilt a certificate of
 his good deportment &c. and also a list of our names, after which we
 dispatched him to his village with his female band. Those list's of our
 Names we have given to Several of the nativs, and also pasted up a Copy
 in our room. the Object of these lists we Stated in the preamble of the
 Same as follows Viz: "The Object of this list is, that through the
 medium of Some civilized person who may See the Same, it may be made
 known to the informed world, that the party consisting of the persons
 whoes names are hereunto annexed, and who were Sent out by the
 Government of the United States in May 1804, to explore the interior of
 the Continent of North America, did penetrate the Same by way of the
 Missouri and Columbia rivers, to the discharge of the latter into the
 Pacific Ocian, where they arrived on the 14th of November 1805, and
 from whence they departed the ____ day of March 1806 on their return to
 the United States by the Same rout they had come out."
 On the back of lists we added a Sketch of the continent of the upper
 branches of the Missouri with those of the Columbia, particularly of
 its upper N. E. branch or Lewis's River, on which we also delienated
 the track we had Came and that we ment to pursue on our return, when
 the Same happened to vary. There Seemes So many chances against our
 governments ever obtaining a regular report, through the medium of the
 Savages, and the traders of this Coast that we decline makeing any. Our
 party are too small to think of leaveing any of them to return to the
 Unt. States by Sea, particularly as we Shall be necessarily devided
 into two or three parties on our return in order to accomplish the
 Object we have in View; and at any rate we Shall reach the U, States in
 all humain probabillity much earlier than a man Could who must in the
 event of his being left here depend for his passage to the U, State on
 the traders of the Coast, who may not return imediately to the U,
 States. or if they should, might probably Spend the next Summer in
 tradeing with the nativs before they would Set out on their return.
 This evening Drewyer went in quest of his traps, and took an otter.
 Joseph Field killd and Elk.--The Indians repeated to us Eighteen
 distinct Nations resideing on the S S. E Coast who Speak the Kil a mox
 language or understand it. and beyend those Six other Nations which
 Speak a different language which they did not comprehend.
 The 2d Species of Seawreck which I saw on the coast to the S. S. E.
 near the Kil a mox nation. it resembles a large pumpkin, it is Solid
 and it's Specific Gravity reather greater than the water, tho it is
 Sometimes thrown out by the waves. it is of a pale yellowish brown
 colour. the rhind Smooth and consistency harder than that of the
 pumpkin, tho easily cut with a knife. there are Some fibers of a
 lighter colour and much harder than any other part which pass
 Longitudinally through the pulp or fleshey Substance which forms the
 interior of this marine production--
 
 
 [Lewis, March 19, 1806]
 Wednesday March 19th 1806.
 It continued to rain and hail today in such manner that nothing further
 could be done to the canoes. a pratry were sent out early after the Elk
 which was killed yesterday with which they returned in the course of a
 few hours. we gave Comowooll alias Connia, a cirtificate of his good
 conduct and the friendly intercourse which he has maintained with us
 during our residence at this place; we also gave him a list of our
 names.do not. The Killamucks, Clatsops, Chinnooks, Cathlahmahs and
 Wac-ki-a-cums resemble each other as well in their persons and dress as
 in their habits and manners.--their complexion is not remarkable, being
 the usual copper brown of most of the tribes of North America. they are
 low in statue reather diminutive, and illy shapen; possessing thick
 broad flat feet, thick ankles, crooked legs wide mouths thick lips,
 nose moderately large, fleshey, wide at the extremity with large
 nostrils, black eyes and black coarse hair. their eyes are sometimes of
 a dark yellowish brown the puple black. I have observed some high
 acqualine noses among them but they are extreemty rare. the nose is
 generally low between the eyes.--the most remarkable trait in their
 physiognomy is the peculiar flatness and width of forehead which they
 artificially obtain by compressing the head between two boards while in
 a state of infancy and from which it never afterwards perfectly
 recovers. this is a custom among all the nations we have met with West
 of the Rocky mountains. I have observed the heads of many infants,
 after this singular bandage had been dismissed, or about the age of 10
 or eleven months, that were not more than two inches thick about the
 upper edge of the forehead and reather thiner still higher. from the
 top of the head to the extremity of the nose is one streight line. this
 is done in order to give a greater width to the forehead, which they
 much admire. this process seems to be continued longer with their
 female than their mail children, and neither appear to suffer any pain
 from the operation. it is from this peculiar form of the head that the
 nations East of the Rocky mountains, call all the nations on this side,
 except the Aliahtans or snake Indians, by the generic name of Flat
 heads. I think myself that the prevalence of this custom is a strong
 proof that those nations having originally proceeded from the same
 stock. The nations of this neighbourhood or those recapitulated above,
 wear their hair loosly flowing on the back and sholders; both men and
 women divide it on the center of the crown in front and throw it back
 behind the ear on each side. they are fond of combs and use them when
 they can obtain them; and even without the aid of the comb keep their
 hair in better order than many nations who are in other rispects much
 more civilized than themselves.--the large or apparently swolen legs
 particularly observable in the women are obtained in a great measure by
 tying a cord tight around the ankle. their method of squating or
 resting themselves on their hams which they seem from habit to prefer
 to siting, no doubt contributes much to this deformity of the legs by
 preventing free circulation of the blood. the dress of the man consists
 of a smal robe, which reaches about as low as the middle of the thye
 and is attatched with a string across the breast and is at pleasure
 turned from side to side as they may have occasion to disencumber the
 right or left arm from the robe entirely, or when they have occasion
 for both hands, the fixture of the robe is in front with it's corners
 loosly hanging over their arms. they sometimes wear a hat which has
 already been discribed. this robe is made most commonly of the skins of
 a small animal which I have supposed was the brown mungo, tho they have
 also a number, of the skins of the tiger cat, some of those of the Elk
 which are used principally on their war excursions, others of the skins
 of the deer panther and bear and a blanket wove with the fingers of the
 wool of the native sheep. a mat is sometimes temperarily thrown over
 the sholders to protect them from rain. they have no other article of
 cloathing whatever neither winter nor summer. and every part except the
 sholders and back is exposed to view. they are very fond of the dress
 of the whites, which they wear in a similar manner when they can obtain
 them, except the shoe which I have never seen woarn by any of them.
 they call us pah-shish'e-ooks, or cloth men. The dress of the women
 consists of a robe, tissue, and sometimes when the weather is
 uncommonly cold, a vest. their robe is much smaller than that of the
 men, never reaching lower than the waist nor extending in front
 sufficiently far to cover the body. it is like that of the men confined
 across the breast with a string and hangs loosly over the sholders and
 back. the most esteemed and valuable of these robes are made of strips
 of the skins of the Sea Otter net together with the bark of the white
 cedar or silk-grass. these strips are first twisted and laid parallel
 with each other a little distance assunder, and then net or wove
 together in such manner that the fur appears equally on both sides, and
 unites between the strands. it make a warm and soft covering. other
 robes are formed in a similar manner of the skin of the Rackoon, beaver
 &c. at other times the skin is dressed in the hair and woarn without
 any further preperation. in this way one beaver skin, or two of those
 of the Raccoon or tiger catt forms the pattern of the robe. the vest is
 always formed in the manner first discribed of their robes and covers
 the body from the armpits to the waist, and is confined behind, and
 destitute of straps over the sholder to keep it up. when this vest is
 woarn the breast of the woman is concealed, but without it which is
 almost always the case, they are exposed, and from the habit of
 remaining loose and unsuspended grow to great length particularly in
 aged women in many of whom I have seen the hubby reach as low as the
 waist. The garment which occupys the waist, and from thence as low as
 nearly to the knee before and the ham, behind, cannot properly be
 denominated a petticoat, in the common acceptation of that term; it is
 a tissue of white cedar bark, bruised or broken into small shreds,
 which are interwoven in the middle by means of several cords of the
 same materials, which serve as well for a girdle as to hold in place
 the shreds of bark which form the tissue, and which shreds confined in
 the middle hang with their ends pendulous from the waist, the whole
 being of sufficient thickness when the female stands erect to conceal
 those parts usually covered from formiliar view, but when she stoops or
 places herself in many other attitudes, this battery of Venus is not
 altogether impervious to the inquisitive and penetrating eye of the
 amorite. This tissue is sometimes formed of little twisted cords of the
 silk grass knoted at their ends and interwoven as discribed of the
 bark. this kind is more esteemed and last much longer than those of
 bark. they also form them of flags and rushes which are woarn in a
 similar manner. the women as well as the men sometimes cover themselves
 from the rain by a mat woarn over the sholders. they also cover their
 heads from the rain sometimes with a common water cup or basket made of
 the cedar bark and beargrass. these people seldom mark their skins by
 puncturing and introducing a colouring matter. such of them as do mark
 themselves in this manner prefer their legs and arms on which they
 imprint parallel lines of dots either longitudinally or circularly. the
 women more frequently than the men mark themselves in this manner.
 The favorite ornament of both sexes are the common coarse blue and
 white beads which the men wear tightly wound arond their wrists and
 ankles many times untill they obtain the width of three or more inches.
 they also wear them in large rolls loosly arond the neck, or pendulous
 from the cartelage of the nose or rims of the ears which are purforated
 for the purpose. the women wear them in a similar manner except in the
 nose which they never purforate. they are also fond of a species of
 wampum which is furnished them by a trader whom they call Swipton. it
 seems to be the native form of the shell without any preperation. this
 shell is of a conic form somewhat curved, about the size of a raven's
 quill at the base, and tapering to a point which is sufficiently large
 to permit to hollow through which a small thred passes; it is from one
 to 11/2 Inches in length, white, smooth, hard and thin. these are woarn
 in the same manner in which the beads are; and furnish the men with
 their favorite ornament for the nose. one of these shells is passed
 horizontally through the cartilage of the nose and serves frequently as
 a kind of ring to prevent the string which suspends other ornaments at
 the same part from chafing and freting the flesh. the men sometimes
 wear collars of bears claws, and the women and children the tusks of
 the Elk variously arranged on their necks arms &c. both males and
 females wear braslets on their wrists of copper brass or Iron in
 various forms. I think the most disgusting sight I have ever beheld is
 these dirty naked wenches. The men of these nations partake of much
 more of the domestic drudgery than I had at first supposed. they
 collect and prepare all the fuel, make the fires, assist in cleansing
 and preparing the fish, and always cook for the strangers who visit
 them. they also build their houses, construct their canoes, and make
 all their wooden utensils. the peculiar provence of the woman seems to
 be to collect roots and manufacture various articles which are prepared
 of rushes, flags, cedar bark, bear grass or waytape. the management of
 the canoe for various purposes seems to be a duty common to both sexes,
 as also many other occupations which with most Indian nations devolves
 exclusively on the woman. their feasts which they are very fond are
 always prepared and served by the men.
 Comowool and the two Cathlahmahs left us this evening. it continued to
 rain so constantly today that Sergt. Pryor could not pitch his canoes.
 
 
 [Clark, March 19, 1806]
 Wednesday March 19th 1806 Inds. Descd.
 It continued to rain and hail in Such a manner that nothing Could be
 done to the Canoes. a party were Sent out early after the Elk which was
 killed last evening, with which they returned in the Course of a fiew
 hours, we gave Commorwool alias Cania, a Certificate of his good
 conduct and the friendly intercourse which he has maintained with us
 dureing our residence at this place; we also gave him a list of our
 names &c.--The Kilamox, Clatsops, Chinnooks, Cath lah mahs Wau ki a cum
 and Chiltz I-resemble each other as well in their persons and Dress as
 in their habits and manners.--their complexion is not remarkable, being
 the usial Copper brown of the tribes of North America. they are low in
 Statue reather diminutive, and illy Shaped, possessing thick broad flat
 feet, thick ankles, crooked legs, wide mouths, thick lips, noses Stuk
 out and reather wide at the base, with black eyes and black coarse hair.
 I have observed Some high acqualine noses among them but they are
 extreemly reare. the most remarkable trate in their physiognamy is the
 peculiar flatness and width of the forehead which they Artificially
 obtain by compressing the head between two boards while in a State of
 infancy, and from which it never afterwards perfectly recovers. This is
 a custom among all the nations, we have met with West of the Rocky
 Mountains. I have observed the head of maney infants, after this
 Singular Bandage had been dismissed, or about the age of 11 or 12
 months, that were not more than two inches thick about the upper part
 of the forehead and reather thiner Still higher. from the top of the
 head to the extremity of the nose is one Streight line. this is done in
 order to give a greater width to the forehead, which they much admire.
 This process seams to be continued longer with their female than their
 male children, and neither appears to Suffer any pain from the
 opperation. it is from this peculiar form of the head that the nations
 East of the Rocky Mountains, call all the nations on this Side, except
 Aliahtans, So-so-ne, or Snake Indians by the General name of Flat
 Heads. I think my Self that the provalence of this custom is a Strong
 proof of those nations haveing originally proceeded from the Same
 Stock. The nations of this neighbourhood or those recpitulated above,
 ware their hair loosly flowing on their back and Sholders; both men and
 women divide it on the Center of the Crown in front and throw it back
 behind the ear on each Side. they are fond of Combs and use them when
 they Can obtain them; and even without the aid of Combs keep their in
 better order, than inaney nations who are in other respects much more
 Civilized than themselves.
 The large or apparently Sweled legs particularly observable in the
 women, are obtained in a great measure by tying a cord tight around the
 leg above the ancle bone. their method of Squating or resting
 themselves on their hams which they Seam from habit to prefer to
 Setting, no doubt contributes much to this deformity of the legs by
 preventing free circulation of the blood. This is also the Custom of
 the nations above.
 The dress of the men like those above on the Columbia river Consists of
 a Small robe, which reaches about as low as the middle of the thye and
 is attatched with a String across the breast and is at pleasure turned
 from Side to Side as they may have an occasion to disincumber the right
 or left arm from the robe entirely, or when they have occasion for both
 hands, the fixture of the robe is in front with it's corner loosly
 hanging over their Arms. they Sometimes wear a hat which have already
 been discribed (See 29th Jany.) Their Robes are made most commonly of
 the Skins of a Small animal which I have Supposed was the brown mungo,
 tho they have also a number of the Skins of the tiger Cat, Some of
 those of the Elk which are used principally on their war excursions,
 others of the Skins of Deer, panthor, Bear, and the Speckle Loon, and
 blankets wove with the fingers of the wool of the native Sheep. and
 Some of those on the Sea Coast have robes of Beaver and the Sea Otter.
 a mat is Sometimes temperaly thrown over the Sholders to protect them
 from rain. they have no other article of Cloathing whatever neither
 winter nor Summer, and every part except the Sholders and back is
 exposed to view. they are very fond of the dress of the whites, which
 they ware in a Similar manner when they Can obtain them, except the
 Shoe or mockerson which I have never Seen worn by any of them. They
 Call us pah-shish-e-ooks or Cloath men. The dress of the women consists
 of a roab, tissue, and Sometimes when the weather is uncommonly Cold, a
 vest. their robe is much Smaller than that of the men, never reaching
 lower than the waist nor extending in front Sufficiently far to cover
 the body. it is like that of the men confined across the breast with a
 String and hangs loosely over the Sholders and back. the most esteemed
 & valuable of those robes are made of Strips of the Skin of the Sea
 Otter net together with the bark of the white Cedar or Silk grass.
 these fish are first twisted and laid parallel with each other a little
 distance asunder, and then net or wove together in Such a manner that
 the fur appears equally on both Sides, and united between the Strands.
 it makes a worm and Soft covering. other robes are formed in a Similar
 manner of the Skins of the rackoon, beaver &c. at other times the Skins
 is dressed in the hair and worn without any further preperation. in
 this way one beaver Skin or two of the rackoon or one of the tiger Cat
 forms a vest and Covers the body from the Armpits to the waist, and is
 confined behind, and destitute of Straps over the Sholder to keep it
 up. when this vest is worn the breast of the woman in consealed, but
 without it which is almost always the case, they are exposed, and from
 the habit of remaining loose and unsuspended grow to great length,
 particularly in aged women, on many of whome I have Seen the bubby
 reach as low as the waist. The petticoat or tissue which occupies the
 waiste has been already described (See 7th Novr. 1805) formd. of the
 Bark of white cedar, Silk grass, flags & rushes. The women as well as
 the men Sometimes cover themselves from the rain by a mat worn over the
 Sholders. They also Cover their heads from the rain Sometimes with a
 common water cup or basket made of Cedar bark and bear grass.
 Those people Sometimes mark themselves by punctureing and introducing a
 Colouring matter. Such of them as do mark themselves in this manner
 prefur the legs and arms on which they imprint parallel lines of dots
 either longitudinally or circularly. the woman more frequently than the
 men mark themselves in this manner. The favorite orniments of both
 Sexes are the Common coarse blue and white beads as before discribed of
 the Chinnooks. Those beads the men wear tightly wound around their
 wrists and Ankles maney times untill they obtain the width of three or
 four inches. they also wear them in large rolls loosly around the neck,
 or pendulous from the cartelage of the nose or rims of the ears which
 are purfarated in different places round the extremities for the
 purpose. the woman wear them in a Similar manner except in the nose
 which they never purfarate. they are also fond of a Species of wompum,
 which is furnished by a trader whome they call Swipton. it seams to be
 the nativ form of the Shell without any preperation. this Shell is of a
 conic form Somewhat curved about the Size of a ravens quill at the
 base, and tapering to a point which is Sufficiently large to permit a
 hollow through which a Small thread passes; it is from 1 to 11/2 inches
 in length, white, Smooth, hard and thin these are worn in the Same
 manner in which the beeds are; and furnish the men with their favorite
 orniment for the nose. one of these Shells is passed horizontally
 through cartilage of the nose and Serves frequently as a kind of ring
 which prevents the string which Suspends other orniments at the Same
 part from Chafing and freting the flesh. The men Sometimes wear Collars
 of Bears Claws, and the women and children the tusks of the Elk
 variously arranged on their necks arms &c. both male and female wear
 bracelets on their wrists of Copper, Brass or Iron in various forms.
 The women Sometimes wash their faces & hands but Seldom. I think the
 most disgusting Sight I have ever beheld is those dirty naked wenches.
 The men of those nations partake of much more of the domestic drudgery
 than I had at first Supposed. they Collect and prepare all the fuel,
 make the fires, cook for the Strangers who visit them, and assist in
 Cleaning and prepareing the fish. they also build their houses,
 construct their Canoes, and make all their wooden utensils. the
 peculiar province of the woman Seams to be to collect roots and
 manufacture various articles which are prepared of rushes, flags, Cedar
 bark, bear grass or way tape, also dress and manufacture the Hats &
 robes for Common use. the management of the Canoe for various purposes
 Seams to be a duty common to both Sexes, as are many other occupations
 which with most Indian nations devolve exclusively on the womin. their
 feasts of which they are very fond are always prepared and Served by
 the men.-.-.
 it Continued to rain So constantly dureing the day that Sergt. Pryor
 Could not Pay his Canoes. The Clatsop Chief Commowool and the two
 Cath-lah-mahs left us this evening and returned to their village.
 
 
 [Lewis, March 20, 1806]
 Thursday March 20th 1806.
 It continued to rain and blow so violently today that nothing could be
 done towards forwarding our departure. we intended to have Dispatched
 Drewyer and the two Fieldses to hunt near the bay on this side of the
 Cathlahmahs untill we jounded them from hence, but the rain rendered
 our departure so uncertain that we declined this measure for the
 present. nothing remarkable happened during the day. we have yet
 several days provision on hand, which we hope will be sufficient to
 subsist us during the time we are compelled by the weather to remain at
 this place.
 Altho we have not fared sumptuously this winter and spring at Fort
 Clatsop, we have lived quite as comfortably as we had any reason to
 expect we should; and have accomplished every object which induced our
 remaining at this place except that of meeting with the traders who
 visit the entrance of this river. our salt will be very sufficient to
 last us to the Missouri where we have a stock in store.--it would have
 been very fortunate for us had some of those traders arrived previous
 to our departure from hence, as we should then have had it our power to
 obtain an addition to our stock of merchandize which would have made
 our homeward bound journey much more comfortable. many of our men are
 still complaining of being unwell; Willard and Bratton remain weak,
 principally I beleive for the want of proper food. I expect when we get
 under way we shall be much more healthy. it has always had that effect
 on us heretofore. The guns of Drewyer and Sergt. Pryor were both out of
 order. the first was repared with a new lock, the old one having become
 unfit for uce; the second had the cock screw broken which was replaced
 by a duplicate which had been prepared for the lock at Harpers ferry
 where she was manufactured. but for the precaution taken in bringing on
 those extra locks, and parts of locks, in addition to the ingenuity of
 John Shields, most of our guns would at this moment been untirely unfit
 for use; but fortunately for us I have it in my power here to record
 that they are all in good order.
 
 
 [Clark, March 20, 1806]
 Thursday March 20th 1806
 It continued to rain and blow so violently to day that nothing could be
 done towards fowarding our departure. we intended to have dispatched
 Drewyer & the 2 Field'es to hunt above Point William untill we joined
 them from hense but the rain renders our departure So uncertain that we
 decline this measure for the present. nothing remarkable happened
 dureing the day. we have yet Several days provisions on hand, which we
 hope will be Sufficient to Serve us dureing the time we are compell'd
 by the weather to remain at this place.-.
 Altho we have not fared Sumptuously this winter & Spring at Fort
 Clatsop, we have lived quit as comfortably as we had any reason to
 expect we Should; and have accomplished every object which induced our
 remaining at this place except that of meeting with the traders who
 visit the enterance of this river. our Salt will be very sufficient to
 last us to the Missouri where we have a Stock in Store.--it would have
 been very fortunate for us had Some of those traders arrived previous
 to our departure from hence; as we Should then have had it in our power
 to obtain an addition to our Stock of merchandize, which would have
 made our homeward bound journey much more comfortable.
 Maney of our men are Still Complaining of being unwell; Bratten and
 Willard remain weak principally I believe for the want of proper food.
 I expect when we get under way that we Shall be much more healthy. it
 has always had that effect on us heretofore.
 The Guns of Sergt. Pryor & Drewyer were both out of order. the first
 had a Cock screw broken which was replaced by a duplicate which had
 been prepared for the Locks at Harpers Ferry; the Second repared with a
 new Lock, the old one becoming unfit for use. but for the precaution
 taken in bringing on those extra locks, and parts of locks, in addition
 to the ingenuity of John Shields, most of our guns would at this moment
 been entirely unfit for use; but fortunate for us I have it in my power
 here to record that they are in good order, and Complete in every
 respect-
 
 
 [Lewis, March 21, 1806]
 Friday March 21st 1806.
 As we could not set out we thought it best to send out some hunters and
 accordingly dispatched Sheilds and Collins on this side the Netul for
 that purpose with orders to return in the evening or sooner if they
 were successfull. The hunters returned late in the evening
 unsuccessfull. we have not now more than one day's provision on hand.
 we directed Drewyer and the Feildses to set out tomorrow morning early,
 and indevour to provide us some provision on the bay beyond point
 William. we were visited to day by some Clatsop indians who left us in
 the evening. our sick men Willard and bratton do not seem to recover;
 the former was taken with a violent pain in his leg and thye last
 night. Bratton is now so much reduced that I am somewhat uneasy with
 rispect to his recovery; the pain of which he complains most seems to
 be seated in the small of his back and remains obstinate. I beleive
 that it is the rheumatism with which they are both afflicted.
 
 
 [Clark, March 21, 1806]
 Friday March 21st 1806
 as we could not Set out we thought it best to Send out Some hunters and
 accordingly dispatched Shields and Collins on this Side of the Netul
 for that purpose with orders to return in the evening or Sooner if they
 were Successfull. they returned late in the evening unsuccessfull. we
 have not now more than two days provisions on hand. we derected Drewyer
 and the two Fieldses to Set out tomorrow morning early, and indevour to
 provide us Some provision on the Bay beyond point William. we were
 visited to day by Some Clatsops who left us in the evening. our sick
 men willard and Bratten do not Seem to recover; the former was taken
 with a violent pain in his leg and thye last night. Bratten is now so
 much reduced that I am Somewhat uneasy with respect to his recovery;
 the pain of which he complains most Seems to be Settled in the Small of
 his back and remains obstenate. I believe that it is the Rheumatism
 with which they are both affected.-.
 
 
 [Lewis, March 22, 1806]
 Saturday March 22cd 1806.
 Drewyer and the Feildses departed this morning agreably to the order of
 the last evening. we sent out seven hunters this morning in different
 directions on this side the Netul. about 10 A.M. we were visited by 4
 Clatsops and a killamucks; they brought some dried Anchoveis and a dog
 for sale which we purchased. the air is perefectly temperate, but it
 continues to rain in such a manner that there be is no possibility of
 geting our canoes completed.--at 12 OCk. we were visited by Comowooll
 and 3 of the Clatsops. to this Cheif we left our houses and funiture.
 he has been much more kind an hospitable to us than any other indian in
 this neighbourhood. the Indians departed in the evening. the hunters
 all returned except Colter, unsuccessfull. we determined to set out
 tomorrow at all events, and to stop the canoes temperarily with Mud and
 halt the first fair day and pay them. the leafing of the hucklebury
 riminds us of spring.
 
 
 [Clark, March 22, 1806]
 Saturday March 22nd 1806
 Drewyer and the two Fieldses departed this morning agreably to the
 order of last evening. we Sent out Six hunters this morning in
 different directions on both Sides of the Netul. about 10 A.M. we were
 visited by Que-ne-o alias Commorwool 8 Clatsops and a Kil-a-mox; they
 brought Some dried Anchovies, a common Otter Skin and a Dog for Sale
 all of which we purchased. the Dog we purchased for our Sick men, the
 fish for to add to our Small Stock of provision's, and the Skin to
 cover my papers. those Indians left us in the evening. the air is
 perfectly temperate, but it continues to rain in Such a manner that
 there is no possibillity of getting our canoes completed in order to
 Set out on our homeward journey. The Clatsops inform us that Several of
 their nation has the Sore throat, one of which has laterly died with
 this disorder. the Hunters Sent out to day all returned except Colter
 unsessfull.
 
 
 [Lewis, March 23, 1806]
 Sunday March 23rd 1806.
 Half after 9 A.M. Colter arrived, having killed one Elk but so distant
 that we could not send for the meat and get arround Point William
 today, we therefore prefered seting out and depending on Drewyer and
 the hunters we have sent forward for meat. the wind is pretty high but
 it seems to be the common opinion that we can pass point William. we
 accordingly distributed the baggage and directed the canoes to be
 launched and loaded for our departure.--at 1 P.M. we bid a final adieu
 to Fort Clatsop. we had not proceeded more than a mile before we met
 Delashelwilt and a party of 20 Chinnooks men and women. this Cheif
 leaning that we were in want of a canoe some days past, had brought us
 one for sale, but being already supplyed we did not purchase it. I
 obtained one Sea Otter skin from this party. at a 1/4 before three we
 had passed Meriwethers bay and commenced coasting the difficult shore;
 at 1/2 after five we doubled point William, and at 7 arrived in the
 mouth of a small creek where we found our hunters. they had killed 2
 Elk, at the distance of a mile & 1/2. it was too late to send after it
 this evening. we therefore encamped on the Stard side of the Creek. the
 wind was not very hard.
 
 
 [Clark, March 23, 1806]
 Sunday 23rd March 1806
 This morning proved So raney and uncertain that we were undeturmined
 for Some time whether we had best Set out & risque the river which
 appeared to be riseing or not. Jo. Colter returned haveing killed an
 Elk about 3 miles towards Point Adams. the rained Seased and it became
 fair about Meridean, at which time we loaded our Canoes & at 1 P.M.
 left Fort Clatsop on our homeward bound journey. at this place we had
 wintered and remained from the 7th of Decr. 1805 to this day and have
 lived as well as we had any right to expect, and we can Say that we
 were never one day without 3 meals of Some kind a day either pore Elk
 meat or roots, not withstanding the repeeted fall of rain which has
 fallen almost Constantly Since we passed the long narrows on the ____
 of Novr. last indeed we have had only ____ days fair weather since that
 time. Soon after we had Set out from Fort Clatsop we were met by De
 lash el wilt & 8 men of the Chinnooks, and Delashelwilts wife the old
 bond and his Six Girls, they had, a Canoe, a Sea otter Skin, Dried fish
 and hats for Sale, we purchased a Sea otter Skin, and proceeded on,
 thro Meriwethers Bay, there was a Stiff breese from the S. W. which
 raised Considerable Swells around Meriwethers point which was as much
 as our Canoes Could ride. above point William we came too at the Camp
 of Drewyer & the 2 Field's. they had killed 2 Elk which was about 11/2
 miles distant. here we Encampd. for the night having made 16 miles.
 
 
 [Lewis, March 24, 1806]
 Monday March 24th 1806.
 This morning we sent out a party of 15, at light, for the meat, and
 concluded to take breakfast before we set out. they soon returned. we
 breakfasted and set out at 1/2 after 9 A.M. Saw a white woodpecker with
 a red head of the small kind common to the United States; this bird has
 but lately returned. they do not remain during the winter. the country
 thick and heavily timbered. we saw very few waterfowl today, not a
 single swan, white brant nor a small goose is to be seen. a few
 Cormorant, duckinmallard, butterbox, and common large geese were only
 to be found the tide being out this morning we found some difficulty in
 passing through the bay below the Cathlahmah village; this side of the
 river is very shallow to the distance of 4 miles from the shore tho
 there is a channel sufficient for canoes near S. side. at 1 P.M. we
 arrived at the Cathlahmah village where we halted and purchased some
 wappetoe, a dog for the sick, and a hat for one of the men. on one of
 the seal Islands opposite to the village of these people thy have
 scaffolded their dead in canoes elivating them above tidewater mark.
 these people are very fond of sculpture in wood of which they exhibit a
 variety of specemines about their houses. the broad peices supporting
 the center of the roof and those through which the doors are cut, seem
 to be the peices on which they most display their taist. I saw some of
 these which represented human figures setting and supporting the
 burthen on their sholders. at half after 3 P.M. we set out and
 continued our rout among the seal Islands; not paying much attention we
 mistook our rout which an Indian perceiving pursued overtook us and put
 us in the wright channel. this Cathlahmah claimed the small canoe which
 we had taken from the Clatsops. however he consented very willingly to
 take an Elk's skin for it which I directed should be given him and he
 immediately returned. we continued our rout along the South side of the
 river and encamped at an old village of 9 houses opposite to the lower
 Wackkiacum village. the night was cold tho wood was abundant after dark
 two Chinnook men came to us in a small canoe. they remained with us all
 night. came 15 miles today.
 
 
 [Clark, March 24, 1806]
 Monday 24th of March 1806
 Sent out 15 men verry early this morning for the flesh of the two Elk
 killed by Drewyer and Fields yesterday. they returned at 8 oClock,
 after taking a Slight brackfast we Set out at half past 9 a.m. and
 proceeded to the Cath lah mah Village at 1 P.M. and remained untill 1/2
 after 3 p.m.at this village we purchased a fiew wappato and a Dog for
 our Sick men Willard and Bratten who are yet in a weak State. at this
 Village I saw two very large elegant Canoes inlaid with Shills, those
 Shills I took to be teeth at first View, and the nativs informed
 Several of the men that they the teeth of their enemies which they had
 killed in War. in examineing of them Closely haveing taken out Several
 pices, we found that were Sea Shells which yet contained a part of the
 iner ____ they also deckerate their Smaller wooden vessles with those
 Shells which have much the appearance of humane teeth, Capt Cook may
 have mistaken those Shills verry well for humane teeth without a Close
 examination. The Village of these people is the dirtiest and
 Stinkingest place I ever Saw in any Shape whatever, and the inhabitants
 partake of the carrestick of the Village. we proceeded on through Some
 difficult and narrow Channels between the Seal Islands, and the South
 Side to an old village on the South Side opposit to the lower War ki a
 com village, and Encamped. to this old villg. a very considerable
 deposit of the dead at a Short distance below, in the usial and
 Customary way of the nativs of this Coast in Canoes raised from the
 ground as before described. Soon after we made our Camp 2 Indians
 visited us from the opposit Side, one of them Spoke Several words of
 English and repeeted the names of the traders, and maney of the Salors.
 made 16 Miles
 
 
 [Lewis, March 25, 1806]
 Tuesday March 25th 1806.
 The morning being disagreeably cold we remained and took break-fast. at
 7 A.M. we set out and continued our rout along the South Coast of the
 river against the wind and a strong current, our progress was of course
 but slow. at noon we halted and dined. here some Clatsops came to us in
 a canoe loaded with dryed anchovies, which they call Olthen, Wappetoe
 and Sturgeon. they informed us that they had been up on a trading
 voyage to the Skillutes.--I observe that the green bryer which I have
 previously mentioned as being common on this river below tide water
 retains it's leaves all winter.--the red willow and seven bark begin to
 put fourth their leaves.--after dinner we passed the river to a large
 Island 2 and continued our rout allong the side of the same about a
 mile when we arrived at a Cathlahmah fishing cam of one lodge; here we
 found 3 men 2 women and a couple of boys, who from appearances had
 remained here some time for the purpose of taking sturgeon, which they
 do by trolling. they had ten or douzen very fine sturgeon which had not
 been long taken. we offered to purchase some of their fish but they
 asked us such an extravegant price that we declined purchase. one of
 the men purchased a sea Otterskin at this lodge, for which he gave a
 dressed Elkskin and an handkercheif. near this lodge we met some
 Cathlahmahs who had been up the river on a fishing excurtion. they had
 a good stock of fish on board, but did not seem disposed to sell them.
 we remained at this place about half an hour and then continued our
 rout up the Island to it's head and passed to the south side. the wind
 in the evening was very hard. it was with some difficulty that we could
 find a spot proper for an encampment, the shore being a swamp for
 several miles back; at length late in the evening opposite to the place
 we had encamped on the 6th of November last; we found the entrance of a
 small creek which afforded us a safe harbour from the wind and
 encamped. the ground was low and moist tho we obtained a tolerable
 encampment. here we found another party of Cathlahmahs about 10 in
 number who had established a temperary residence for the purpose of
 fishing and taking seal. they had taken a fine parcel of sturgeon and
 some seal. they gave us some of the fleese of the seal which I found a
 great improvement to the poor Elk. here we found Drewyer and the
 Feildses who had been seperated from us since morning; they had passed
 on the North side of the large Island which was much nearer. the bottom
 lands are covered with cottonwood, the growth with a broad leaf which
 resembles ash except the leaf. the underbrush red willow, broad leafed
 willow, sevenbark, goosburry, green bryer & the larged leafed thorn;
 the latter is now in bloom; the natives inform us that it bears a freut
 about an inch in diameter which is good to eat.
 
 
 [Clark, March 25, 1806]
 Tuesday 25th of March 1806
 Last night and this morning are cool wend hard a head and tide going
 out, after an early brackfast we proceeded on about 4 miles and came
 too on the South Side to worm and dry our Selves a little. Soon after
 we had landed two Indians Came from a War kia cum village on the
 opposit Side with 2 dogs and a fiew Wappato to Sell neither of which we
 bought. Som Clatsops passed down in a Canoe loaded with fish and
 Wappato. as the wind was hard a head and tide against us we Concluded
 to delay untill the return of the tide which we expected at 1 oClock,
 at which hour we Set out met two Canoes of Clatsops loaded with dried
 anchovies and Sturgion which they had taken and purchased above we
 crossed over to an Island on which was a Cath lahmah fishing Camp of
 one Lodge; here we found 3 man two woman and a couple of boys who must
 have for Some time for the purpose of taking Sturgeon which they do by
 trolling. they had 10 or 12 very fine Sturgeon which had not been long
 taken; we wished to purchase some of their fish but they asked Such
 extravegent prices that we declined purchaseing. one of our Party
 purchased a Sea otter Skin at this Lodge for which he gave a dressed
 Elk Skin & a Handkerchief. we remained at this place about half an hour
 and then Continued our rout. the winds in the evening was verry hard,
 it was with Some dificuelty that we Could find a Spot proper for an
 encampment, the Shore being a Swamp for Several miles back; at length
 late in the evening opposit to the place we had encamped on the 6th of
 Novr. last; we found the enterance of a Small Creek which offered us a
 Safe harbour from the Winds and Encamped. the Ground was low and moist
 tho we obtained a tolerable encampment. here we found another party of
 Cathlahmahs about 10 in number, who had established a temporary
 residence for the purpose of fishing and takeing Seal. they had taken
 about 12 Sturgeon and Some Seal. they gave us Some of the flesh of the
 Seal which I found a great improvement to the poor Elk. here we found
 Drewyer and the 2 Fields who had been Seperated from us Since Morning;
 they had passed on the North Side of the large Island which was much
 nearest. the bottom lands are Covered with a Species of Arspine, the
 Growth with a broad leaf which resembles ash except the leaf. the under
 brush red willow, broad leafed Willow, Seven bark, Goose berry, Green
 bryor, and the larged leaf thorn; the latter is Now in blume, the
 nativs inform us that it bears a fruit about an Inch in diamieter which
 is good to eate. the red willow and 7 bark begin to put foth their
 leaves. The green bryor which I have before mentioned retains leaves
 all winter. made 15 Miles
 
 
 [Lewis, March 26, 1806]
 Wednesday March 26th 1806.
 The wind blew so hard this morning that we delayed untill 8 A.M. we
 gave a medal of small size to a man by the name of Wal-lal'-le, a
 principal man among the Cathlahmahs, he appeared very thankfull for the
 honour conferred on him and presented us a large sturgeon. we continued
 our rout up the river to an old village on the Stard. side where we
 halted for dinner. we met on the way the principal Cheif of the
 Cathlahmahs, Sah-hah-woh-cap, who had been up the river on a trading
 voyage. he gave us some Wappetoe and fish; we also purchased some of
 the latter. soon after we halted for dinner the two Wackiacums who have
 been pursuing us since yesterday morning with two dogs for sale,
 arrived. they wish tobacco in exchange for their dogs which we are not
 disposed to give as our stock is now reduced to a very few carrots. our
 men who have been accustomed to the use of this article Tobaco and to
 whom we are now obliged to deny the uce of this article appear to
 suffer much for the want of it. they substitute the bark of the wild
 crab which they chew; it is very bitter, and they assure me they find
 it a good substitute for tobacco. the smokers substitute the inner bark
 of the red willow and the sacacommis. here our hunters joined us having
 killed three Eagles and a large goose. I had now an oportunity of
 comparing the bald with the grey Eagle; I found that the greay Eagle
 was about 1/4 larger, it's legs and feet were dark while those of the
 bald Eagle wer of a fine orrange yellow; the iris of the eye is also of
 a dark yellowish brown while that of the other is of a bright silvery
 colour with a slight admixture of yellow. after dinner we proceeded on
 and passed an Elegant and extensive bottom on the South side and an
 island near it's upper point which we call Fanny's Island and bottom.
 the greater part of the bottom is a high dry prarie. near the river
 towards the upper point we saw a fine grove of whiteoak trees; we saw
 some deer and Elk at a distance in the prarie, but did not delay for
 the purpose of hunting them. we continued our rout after dinner untill
 late in the evening and encamped on the next island above fanny's
 Island. we found it difficult to obtain as much wood as answered our
 purposes. the hunters who had proceeded on before us after dinner did
 not join us this evening. some Indians visited us after dark, but did
 not remain long. agreeably to our estimate as we decended the river, we
 came 16 m. 23rd, 16 m. the 24th, 15 the 25th, and 18 m. the 26th, tho I
 now think that our estimate in decending the river was too short.
 
 
 [Clark, March 26, 1806]
 Wednesday March 26th 1806
 The wind blew So hard untill 8 A M. that we detained, we gave a Medal
 to a Man by the name of Wal-lal-le a principal man among the Cath lah
 mahs, he appeared very thankfull for the honor Confured on him and
 presented us with a large Sturgion. we Continued our rout up the river
 to an old Village on the South Side where we halted for dinner. we met
 on the way the principal Chief of the Cathlahmahs, Sah-hah-wah-cop, who
 had been up the river on a trading voyage, he gave us some Wappato and
 fish, we also purchased Some Wappato Soon after halted for dinner at an
 Old Village on the South point opposit the lower pt. of Fannys Island.
 The two Warkiacums who had been pursueing us Since yester day morning
 with two dogs for Sale, arrived. they wish Tobacco in exchange for
 their dogs which we are not disposed to give, as our Stock is now
 reduced to 3 carrots. our men who have been acustomed to the use of
 this article, and to Whome we are now obliged to deny the use of this
 article appear to Suffer Much for the want of it. they Substitute the
 bark of the wild Crab which they Chew; it is very bitter and they
 assure me they find it a good Substitute for tobacco. the Smokers
 Substitute the iner bark of the redwillow and the saccommis.
 here our hunters joined us haveing killed 3 Eagles and a large Wild
 goose. I had now an oppertunity of Comparing the bald with the grey
 Eagle; I found the grey Eagle about 1/4 largest, its legs and feet were
 dark which those of the bald eagle were of a fine orrange yellow; the
 iris of the eye is also of a dark yellowish brown, while that of the
 Grey is of a light Silvery colour with a Slight admixture of yellow.
 after dinner I walked on Shore through an eligant bottom on the South
 Side opposit to Fannys Island.
 This bottom we also Call fannys bottom it is extensive and an open
 leavel plain except near the river bank which is high dry rich oak
 land. I saw Some deer & Elk at a distance in the Prarie. we continued
 untill late in the evening and encamped on a Small Island near the
 Middle of the river haveing made 18 Miles. 2 Indians Visited us this
 evining
 
 
 [Lewis, March 27, 1806]
 Thursday March 27th 1806.
 We set out early this morning and were shortly after joined by some of
 the Skillutes who came along side in a small canoe for the purpose of
 trading roots and fish. at 10 A.M. we arrived at two houses of this
 nation on the Stard. side where we halted for breakfast. here we
 overtook our hunters, they had killed nothing. the natives appeared
 extreemly hospitable, gave us dryed Anchovies, Sturgeon, wappetoe,
 quamash, and a speceis of small white tuberous roots about 2 inches in
 length and as thick as a man's finger; these are eaten raw, are crisp,
 milkey, and agreeably flavored. most of the party were served by the
 natives with as much as they could eat; they insisted on our remaining
 all day with them and hunting the Elk and deer which they informed us
 were very abundant in their neighbourhood. but as the weather would not
 permit us to dry our canoes in order to pitch them we declined their
 friendly invitation, and resumed our voyage at 12 OCk. the principal
 village of these Skillutes reside on the lower side of the
 Cow-e-lis'-kee river a few miles from it's entrance into the columbia.
 these people are said to be numer-ous. in their dress, habits, manners
 and language they differ but little from the Clatsops Chinnooks &c.
 they have latterly been at war with Chinnooks but peace is said now to
 be restored between them, but their intercourse is not yet resumed. no
 Chinnooks come above the marshey islands nor do the Skillutes visit the
 mouth of the Columbia. the Clatsops, Cathlahmahs and Wackkiacums are
 the carriers between these nations being in alliance with both.--The
 Coweliskee is 150 yards wide, is deep and from indian Information
 navigable a very considerable distance for canoes. it discharges itself
 into the Columbia about three miles above a remarkable high rocky vole
 which is situated on the N. side of the river by which it is washed on
 the South side and is seperated from the Nothern hills of the river by
 a wide bottom of several miles to which it is united. I suspect that
 this river waters the country lying West of the range of mountains
 which pass the columbia between the great falls and rapids, and north
 of the same nearly to the low country which commences on the N. W.
 coast about Latitude ____ North. above the Skillutes on this river
 another nation by the name of the Hul-loo-et-tell reside, who are said
 also to be numerous. at the distance Of 2 m. above the village at which
 we breakfasted we passed the entrance of this river; we saw several
 fishing camps of the Skillutes on both sides of the Columbia, and were
 attended all the evening by parties of the natives in their canoes who
 visited us for the purpose of trading their fish and roots; we
 purchased as many as we wished on very moderate terms; they seemed
 perfectly satisfyed with the exchange and behaved themselves in a very
 orderly manner. late in the evening we passed our camp of the 5th of
 November and encamped about 41/2 above at the commencement of the
 bottom land on stard. below Deer Island. we had scarcely landed before
 we were visited by a large canoe with eight men; from them we obtained
 a dryed fruit which resembled the raspburry and which I beeive to be
 the fruit of the large leafed thorn frequently mentioned. it is reather
 ascid tho pleasently flavored. I preserved a specemine of this fruit I
 fear that it has been baked in the process of drying and if so the seed
 will not vegitate. saw the Cottonwood, sweet willow, oak, ash and the
 broad leafed ash, the growth which resembles the beach &c. these form
 the growth of the bottom lands while the hills are covered almost
 exclusively with the various speceis of fir heretofore discribed. the
 black Alder appears as well on some parts of the hills as the bottoms.
 before we set out from the Skillute village we sent on Gibson's canoe
 and Drewyers with orders to proceed as fast as they could to Deer
 island and there to hunt and wait our arrival. we wish to halt at that
 place to repair our canoes if possible. the indians who visited us this
 evening remained but a short time, they passed the river to the oposite
 side and encamped. the night as well as the day proved cold wet and
 excessively disagreeable. we came 20 miles today.
 
 
 [Clark, March 27, 1806]
 Thursday March 27th 1806.
 a rainey disagreeable night rained the greater part of the night we Set
 out this morning verry early and proceeded on to two houses of the
 Skil-lute Indians on the South Side here we found our hunters who had
 Seperated from us last evening. the wind rose and the rain became very
 hard Soon after we landed here we were very friendly receved by the
 natives who gave all our party as much fish as they Could eate, they
 also gave us Wappato and pashaquaw roots to eate prepared in their own
 way. also a Species of Small white tuberous roots about 2 inches in
 length and as thick as a mans finger, these are eaten raw, or crips,
 milkey and agreeably flavoured; the nativs insisted on our remaining
 all day with them and hunt the Elk and deer which they informed us was
 very abundant in this neighbourhood. but as the weather would not
 permit our drying our Canoes in order to pitch them, we declined their
 friendly invertation, and resumed our voyage at 12 oClock. The
 principal village of the Skil-lutes is Situated on the lower Side of
 the Cow-e-lis kee river a fiew miles from it's enterance into the
 Columbia. those people are Said to be noumerous, in their dress,
 habits, manners and Language they differ but little from the Clatsops,
 Chinnooks &c. they have latterly been at war with the Chinnooks, but
 peace is Said to be now restored between them, but their inter Course
 is not yet restored. no Chinnook Come above the Warkiacums, nor do the
 Skillutes visit the Mouth of the Columbia. The Clatsops, Cath lahmahs &
 War kia coms are the Carriers between those nations being in alliance
 with both-. The Cow e lis kee river is 150 yards wide, is deep and from
 Indian information navigable a very considerable distance for canoes.
 it discharges itself into the Columbia about 3 miles above a remarkable
 knob which is high and rocky and Situated on the North Side of the
 Columbia, and Seperated from the Northern hills of the river by a Wide
 bottom of Several Miles, to which it united. I Suspect that this river
 Waters the Country lying west of a range of Mountains which passes the
 Columbia between the Great falls and rapids, and North of the Same
 nearly to the low country which Commences on the N W. Coast about
 Latitude 4° ____ North. above the Skil lutes on this river another nation
 by the name of the Hul-loo-et-tell reside who are Said also to be
 numerous. at the distance of 2 miles above the village at which we
 brackfast we passed the enterance of this river; we Saw Several fishing
 camps of the Skillutes on both Sides of the Columbia, and also on both
 Sides of this river. we were attended all the evening by parties of the
 nativs in their Canoes who visited us for the purpose of tradeing their
 fish and roots; we purchased as maney as we wished on very moderate
 terms; they Seamed perfectly Satisfied with the exchange and behaved
 themselves in a very orderly manner. late in the evening we passed the
 place we Camped the 5th of Novr. and Encamped about 4 miles above at
 the Commencement of the Columbian Vally on the Stard. Side below Deer
 Island. we had Scercily landed before we were visited by a large Canoe
 with 8 men; from them we obtained a dried fruit which resembled the
 raspberry and which I beleave is the fruit of the large leafed thorn
 frequently mentioned. it is reather ascide tho pleasently flavored. Saw
 Cotton wood, Sweet Willow, white oake, ash and the broad leafed ash the
 Growth which resembles the bark &c. these form the groth of the bottom
 lands, whilst the Hills are almost exclusively Covered with the various
 Species of fir heretofore discribed. the black alder appears on Maney
 parts of the hills Sides as on the bottoms. before we Set out from the
 2 houses where we brackfast we Sent on two Canoes with the best
 hunters, with orders to pro ceed as fast as they Could to Deer island
 and there to hunt and wait our arrival. we wish to halt at that place
 and repare 2 of our Canoes if possible. the Indians that visited us
 this evining remained but a Short time, they passed over to an Island
 and encamped. the night as well as the day proved Cold wet and
 excessively disagreeable. we Came 20 miles in the Course of this day.
 
 
 [Lewis, March 28, 1806]
 Friday March 28th 1806.
 This morning we set out very early and at 9 A.M. arrived at the old
 Indian Village on Lard side of Deer Island where we found our hunters
 had halted and left one man with the two canoes at their camp; they had
 arrived last evening at this place and six of them turned out to hunt
 very early this morning; by 10 A.M. they all returned to camp having
 killed seven deer. these were all of the common fallow deer with the
 long tall. I measured the tail of one of these bucks which was upwards
 of 17 Inches long; they are very poor, tho they are better than the
 black tailed fallow deer of the coast. these are two very distinct
 speceis of deer. the Indians call this large Island E-lal-lar or deer
 island which is a very appropriate name. the hunters informed us that
 they had seen upwards of a hundred deer this morning on this island.
 the interior part of the island is praries and ponds, with a heavy
 growth of Cottonwood ash and willow near the river. we have seen more
 waterfowl on this island than we have previously seen since we left
 Fort Clatsop, consisting of geese, ducks, large swan, and Sandhill
 crams. I saw a few of the Canvisback duck. the duckinmallard are the
 most abundant. one of the hunters killed a duck which appeared to be
 the male, it was a size less than the duckinmallard. the head neck as
 low as the croop, the back tail and covert of the wings were of a fine
 black with a small addmixture of perple about the head and neck, the
 belley & breast were white; some long feathers which lie underneath the
 wings and cover the thye were of a pale dove colour with fine black
 specks; the large feathers of the wings are of a dove colour. the legs
 are dark, the feet are composed of 4 toes each of which there are three
 in front connected by a web, the 4th is short Hat and placed high on
 the heel behind the leg. the tail is composed of 14 short pointed
 feathers. the beak of this duck is remarkably wide, and is 2 inches in
 length, the upper chap exceeds the under one in both length and width,
 insomuch that when the beak is closed the under is entirly concealed by
 the upper chap. the tongue, indenture of the margin of the chaps &c.
 are like those of the mallard. the nostrils are large longitudinal and
 connected. a narrow strip of white garnishes the upper part or base of
 the upper chap; this is succeeded by a pale skye blue colour which
 occupys about one inch of the chap, is again succeeded by a transverse
 stripe of white and the extremity is of a pure black. the eye is
 moderately large the puple black and iris of a fine orrange yellow. the
 feathers on the crown of the head are longer than those on the upper
 part of neck and other parts of the head; these feathers give it the
 appearance of being crested. at 1/2 after ten A.M. it became fair, and
 we had the canoes which wanted repairing hailed out and with the
 assistance of fires which we had kindled for the purpose dryed them
 sufficiently to receive the pitch which was immediately put on them; at
 3 in the evening we had them compleat and again launched and reloaded.
 we should have set out, but as some of the party whom we had permitted
 to hunt since we arrived have not yet returned we determined to remain
 this evening and dry our beding baggage &c. the weather being fair.
 Since we landed here we were visited by a large canoe with ten natives
 of the quathlahpahtle nation who are numerous and reside about
 seventeen miles above us on the lard. side of the Columbia, at the
 entrance of a small river. they do not differ much in their dress from
 those lower down and speak nearly the same language, it is in fact the
 same with a small difference of accent. we saw a great number of snakes
 on this island they were about the size and much the form of the common
 garter snake of the Atlantic coast and like that snake are not
 poisonous. they have 160 scuta on the abdomen and 71 on the tail. the
 abdomen near the head, and jaws as high as the eyes, are of a bluefish
 white, which as it receedes from the head becomes of a dark brown. the
 field of the back and sides is black. a narrow stripe of a light yellow
 runs along the center of the back, on each side of this stripe there is
 a range of small transverse oblong spots of a pale brick ret which
 gradually deminish as they receede from the head and disappear at the
 commencement of the tail. the puple of the eye is black, with a narrow
 ring of white bordering it's edge; the ballance of the iris is of a
 dark yellowish brown.--the men who had been sent after the deer
 returned and brought in the remnent which the Vultures and Eagles had
 left us; these birds had devoured 4 deer in the course of a few hours.
 the party killed and brought in three other deer a goose some ducks and
 an Eagle. Drewyer also killed a tiger cat. Joseph Fields informed me
 that the Vultures had draged a large buck which he had killed about 30
 yards, had skined it and broken the back bone. we came five miles only
 today.
 
 
 [Clark, March 28, 1806]
 Friday March 28th 1806
 This morning we Set out verry early and at 9 A.M. arived at an old
 Indian Village on the N E side of Deer island where we found our
 hunters had halted and left one man with the Canoes at their Camp, they
 arrived last evening at this place, and Six of them turned out very
 early to hunt, at 10 A.M. they all returned to camp haveing killed
 Seven Deer, those were all of the Common fallow Deer with a long tail.
 I measured the tail of one of these bucks which was upwards of 17
 inches long; they are very poor, tho they are better than the black
 tail Species of the Sea coast. those are two very distinct Species of
 Deer. the Indians call this large Island E-lal-lar, or Deer Island,
 which is a very appropriate name. the hunters informed us that they had
 Seen upwards of a hundred Deer this morning on this island. the
 interior of this Island is a prarie & ponds, with a heavy growth of
 Cotton wood, ash & willow near the river. we have Seen more water fowl
 on this island than we have previously Seen Since we left Fort Clatsop,
 Consisting of Geese, Ducks, large Swan & Sand Hill crains. I saw a fiew
 of the Canvis back duck as I believe. at 1/2 after 10 A.M. it became
 fair and we had the Canoes which wanted repareing hauled out and with
 the assistance of fires which we had kindled for the purpose dryed them
 Sufficiently to receve the pitch which was imedeately put on them; at 3
 in the evening we had them Compleated and lanced and reloaded. we
 should have Set out but some of the party whome we had permitid to hunt
 Since we arrived heve not yet returned. we determined to remain here
 this evening and dry our bedding &c. the weather being fair. Since we
 landed here we were visited by a large Canoe with ten nativs of the
 Quathlahpohtle nation who are numerous and reside about fourteen Miles
 above us on the N E. Side of the Columbia above the Enterance of a
 Small river which the Indians call Chfih-w&h-na-hi-ooks. we saw a great
 number of Snakes on this island; they were about the Size and much the
 form of the garter snake of the U. S. the back and Sides are black with
 a narrow Stripe of light yellow along the Center of the back, with
 small red spots on each Side they have ____ scuta on the abdomin & ____
 on the tail and are not poisonous. The men who had been Sent after the
 deer returned with four only, the other 4 haveing been eaten entirely
 by the Voulturs except the Skin. The men we had been permitted to hunt
 this evening killed 3 deer 4 Eagles & a Duck. the deer are remarkably
 pore. Some rain in the after part of the day. we only made 5 miles to
 day-.
 
 
 [Lewis, March 29, 1806]
 Saturday March 29th 1806.
 We set out early this morning and proceeded along the side of Deer
 Island; halted at 10 A.M. near its upper point and breakfasted. here we
 were joined by three men of the Clan-nah-min-na-mun nation. the upper
 point of this Island may be esteemed the lower side or commencement of
 the Columbian valley. after breakfast we proceeded on and at the
 distance of 14 miles from our encampment of the last evening we passed
 a large inlet 300 yds in width. this inlet or arm of the river extends
 itself to the South 10 or 12 M. to the hills on that side of the river
 and receives the waters of a small creek which heads with killamucks
 river, and that of a bayau which passes out of the Columbia about 20
 miles above, the large Island thus formed we call wappetoe island. on
 this inlet and Island the following nations reside, (viz)
 Clan-nah-min-namun, Clacks-star, Cath-lah-cum-up, Clah-in-na-ta,
 Cath-lah-nah-qui-ah, and Cath-lah-cam-mah-tup. the two first reside on
 the inlet and the others on the bayau and island.--observed a speceies
 of small wild onion growing among the moss on the rocks, they resemble
 the shives of our gardens and grow remarkably close together forming a
 perfect turf; they are quite as agreeably flavoured as the shives. on
 the North side of the columbia a little above the entrance of this
 inlet a considerable river discharges itself. this stream the natives
 call the Cah-wah-na-hi-ooks. it is 150 yards wide and at present
 discharges a large body of water, tho from the information of the same
 people it is not navigable but a short distance in consequence of falls
 and rappids a tribe called the Hul-lu-ettell reside on this river above
 it's entr.--at the distance of three miles above the entrance of the
 inlet on the N. side behind the lower point of an island we arrived at
 the village of the Cath-lah-poh-tle with consists of 14 large wooden
 houses. here we arrived at 3 P.M. the language of these people as well
 as those on the inlet and wappetoe Island differs in some measure from
 the nations on the lower part of the river. tho many of their words are
 the same, and a great many others with the difference only of accent.
 the form of their houses and dress of the men, manner of living habits
 customs &c as far as we could discover are the same. their women wear
 their ornaments robes and hair as those do below tho here their hair is
 more frequently braded in two tresses and hang over each ear in front
 of the body. in stead of the tissue of bark woarn by the women below,
 they wear a kind of leather breech clout about the width of a common
 pocket handkerchief and reather longer. the two corners of this at one
 of the narrow ends are confined in front just above the hips; the other
 end is then brought between the legs, compressed into a narrow foalding
 bundel is drawn tight and the corners a little spread in front and
 tucked at the groin over and arround the part first confind about the
 waist. the small robe which dose not reach the waist is their usual and
 only garment commonly woarn be side that just mentioned. when the
 weather is a litte warm this robe is thrown aside and the leather truss
 or breech-clout constitutes the whole of their apparel. this is a much
 more indecent article than the tissue of bark, and bearly covers the
 mons venes, to which it is drawn so close that the whole shape is
 plainly perceived. the floors of most of their houses are on a level
 with the surface of the earth tho some of them are sunk two or 3 feet
 beneath. the internal arrangement of their houses is the same with
 those of the nations below. they are also fond of sculpture. various
 figures are carved and painted on the peices which support the center
 of the roof, about their doors and beads. they had large quantities of
 dryed Anchovies strung on small sticks by the gills and others which
 had been first dryed in this manner, were now arranged in large sheets
 with strings of bark and hung suspended by poles in the roofs of their
 houses; they had also an abundance of sturgeon and wappetoe; the latter
 they take in great quantities from the neighbouring bonds, which are
 numerous and extensive in the river bottoms and islands. the wappetoe
 furnishes the principal article of traffic with these people which they
 dispose of to the nations below in exchange for beads cloth and various
 articles. the natives of the Sea coast and lower part of the river will
 dispose of their most valuable articles to obtain this root. they have
 a number of large symeters of Iron from 3 to 4 feet long which hang by
 the heads of their beads; the blade of this weapon is thickest in the
 center tho thin even there. all it's edges are sharp and it's greatest
 width which is about 9 inches from the point is about 4 inches. the
 form is thus. this is a formidable weapon. they have heavy bludgeons of
 wood made in the same form nearly which I presume they used for the
 same purpose before they obtained metal. we purchased a considerable
 quantity of wappetoe, 12 dogs, and 2 Sea otter skins of these people.
 they were very hospitable and gave us anchovies and wappetoe to eat.
 notwithstanding their hospitality if it deserves that appellation, they
 are great begers, for we had scarcely finished our repast on the
 wappetoe and Anchovies which they voluntarily set before us before they
 began to beg. we gave them some small articles as is our custom on
 those occasions with which they seemed perfectly satisfyed. we gave the
 1st Cheif a small medal, which he soon transfered to his wife. after
 remaining at this place 2 hours we set out & continued our rout between
 this island, which we now call Cath-lah-poh-tle after the nation, and
 the Lard shore. at the distance of 2 miles we encamped in a small
 prarie on the main shore, having traveled 19 miles by estimate. the
 river rising fast. great numbers of both the large and small swans,
 gees and ducks seen today. the former are very abundant in the ponds
 where the wappetoe is found, they feed much on this bulb. the female of
 the duck which was described yesterday is of a uniform dark brown with
 some yellowish brown intermixed in small specks on the back neck and
 breast. the garter snakes are innumerable, & are seen entwined arround
 each other in large bundles of forty or fifty lying about in different
 directions through the praries. the frogs are croaking in the swams and
 marhes; their notes do not differ from those of the Atlantic States;
 they are not found in the salt marshes near the entrance of the river.
 heared a large hooting owl hollowing this evening. saw several of the
 crested fishers and some of the large and small black-birds.
 
 
 [Clark, March 29, 1806]
 Saturday March 29th 1806
 we Set out very early this morning and proceeded to the head of deer
 island and took brackfast. the morning was very cold wind Sharp and
 keen off the rainge of Mountains to the East Covered with snow. the
 river is now riseing very fast and retards our progress very much as we
 are compelled to keep out at Some distance in the Curent to clear the
 bushes, and fallin trees and drift logs makeing out from the Shore.
 dureing the time we were at Brackfast a Canoe with three Indians of the
 Clan-nar-min-na-mon Nation came down, one of those men was dressed in a
 Salors jacket & hat & the other two had a blanket each, those people
 differ but little either in their dress manners & Language from the
 Clatsops & Chinnooks they reside on Wappato Inlet which is on the S W.
 side about 12 miles above our encampment of the last night and is about
 2 miles from the lower point, four other Tribes also reside on the
 inlet and Since which passes on the South W. Side of the Island, the
 first tribe from the lower point is the Clannarminamon, on the Island,
 the Clackster Nation on the main S. W. Shore. the next Cath-lah-cum-up,
 Clhh-in-na-ta, Cath-lah-nah-qui-ah and at Some distance further up is a
 tribe called Cath-lah-com-mah-up Those tribes all occupie Single
 Villages. we proceeded on to the lower point of the Said island
 accompanied by the 3 Indians, & were met by 2 canoes of nativs of the
 quath-lah-pah-tal who informed us that the chanel to the N E of the
 Island was the proper one. we prosued their advice and Crossed into the
 mouth of the Chahwah-na-hi-ooks River which is about 200 yards wide and
 a great portion of water into the columbia at this time it being high.
 The indians inform us that this river is crouded with rapids after Some
 distance up it. Several tribes of the Hul-lu-et-tell Nation reside on
 this river. at 3 oClock P.M. we arived at the Quath lah pah tie Village
 of 14 Houses on main Shore to the N E. Side of a large island. those
 people in their habits manners Customs and language differ but little
 from those of the Clatsops and others below. here we exchanged our deer
 Skins killed yesterday for dogs, and purchased others to the Number of
 12 for provisions for the party, as the deer flesh is too poore for the
 Men to Subsist on and work as hard as is necessary. I also purchased a
 Sea Otter robe. we purchased wappatoe and Some pashaquar roots. gave a
 Medal of the Small Size to the principal Chief, and at 5 oClock
 reembarked and proceeded up on the N E. of an Island to an inlet about
 1 mile above the village and encamped on a butifull grassy plat, where
 the nativs make a portage of their Canoes and Wappato roots to and from
 a large pond at a Short dis-tance. in this pond the nativs inform us
 they Collect great quantities of pappato, which the womin collect by
 getting into the water, Sometimes to their necks holding by a Small
 canoe and with their feet loosen the wappato or bulb of the root from
 the bottom from the Fibers, and it imedeately rises to the top of the
 water, they Collect & throw them into the Canoe, those deep roots are
 the largest and best roots. Great numbers of the whistling Swan, Gees
 and Ducks in the Ponds. Soon after we landed 3 of the nativs came up
 with Wappato to Sell a part of which we purchased. they Continued but a
 Short time. our men are recoverey fast. Willard quit well & Bratten
 much Stronger. we made 15 miles to day only.
 
 
 [Lewis, March 30, 1806]
 Sunday March 30th 1806.
 We got under way very early in the morning, and had not reached the
 head of the island before we were met by three men of the
 Clan-nah-minna-mun nation one of whom we recognized being the same who
 had accompanied us yesterday, and who was very pressing in his
 entreaties that we should visit his nation on the inlet S. W. of
 Wappetoe island. at the distance of about 2 M. or at the head of the
 quathlahpahtle island we met a party of the Claxtars and Cathlahcumups
 in two canoes; soon after we were met by several canoes of the
 different nations who reside on each side of the river near this place.
 Wappetoe Island is about 20 miles long and from 5 to 10 in width; the
 land is high and extreemly fertile and intersected in many parts with
 ponds which produce great quantities of the sagittaria Sagittifolia,
 the bulb of which the natives call wappetoe. there is a heavy growth of
 Cottonwood, ash, the large leafed ash and sweet willow on most parts of
 this island. the black alder common on the coast has now disappeared.
 we passed several fishing camps on wappetoe island and at the distance
 of 5 miles above quathlahpotle Island on the N. E. side we halted for
 breakfast near the place we had encamped on the evening of the 4th of
 November last; here we were visited by several canoes which came off
 from two towns situated a little distance above us on wappetoe Island.
 the 1st of these tribes about 2 miles above us call themselves
 Clan-nah-quah, the other about a mile above them call themselves
 Mult-no-mah. from these visiters we purchased a sturgeon and some
 wappetoe and pashequa, for which we gave some small fishinghooks. these
 like the natives below are great higglers in dealing. at 10 A.M. we set
 out and had not proceeded far before we came to a landing place of the
 natives where there were several large canoes drawn out on shore and
 several natives seting in a canoe apparently waiting our arrival; they
 joined the fleet and continued with us some miles. we halted a few
 minutes at this landing and the Indians pointed to a village which was
 situated abut 2 miles from the river behid a pond lying parallel with
 it on the N. E. side nearly opposite to the Clan-nah-quah town. here
 they informed us that the Sho-toes resided. here we were joined by
 several other canoes of natives from the Island. most of these people
 accompanyed us untill 4 in the evening when they all returned; their
 principal object I beive was merely to indulge their curiossity in
 looking at us. they appeared very friendly, tho most had taken the
 precaution to bring with them their warlike implements. we continued
 our rout along the N. E. shore of the river to the place we had halted
 to dine on the 4th of Novembr opposite to the center of Immage canoe
 island where the Indians stole Capt. Clarks tomahawk. here we encamped
 a little before sunset in a beautifull prarie above a large pond having
 traveled 23 M. I took a walk of a few miles through the prarie and an
 open grove of oak timber which borders the prarie on the back part. I
 saw 4 deer in the course of my walk and much appearance of both Elk and
 deer. Joseph feields who was also out a little above me saw several Elk
 and deer but killed none of them; they are very shye and the annual
 furn which is now dry and abundant in the bottoms makes so much nois in
 passing through it that it is extreemly difficult to get within reach
 of the game. Fends killed and brought with him a duck. about 10 P.M. an
 indian alone in a small canoe arrived at our camp, he had some
 conversation with the centinel and soon departed. The natives who
 inhabit this valley are larger and reather better made than those of
 the coast. like those people they are fond of cold, hot, & vapor baths
 of which they make frequent uce both in sickness and in health and at
 all seasons of the year. they have also a very singular custom among
 them of baithing themselves allover with urine every morning. The
 timber and apearance of the country is much as before discribed. the up
 lands are covered almost entirely with a heavy growth of fir of several
 speceis like those discribed in the neighbourhood of Fort Clatsop; the
 white cedar is also found hereof large size; no white pine nor pine of
 any other kind. we had a view of mount St. helines and Mount Hood. the
 1st is the most noble looking object of it's kind in nature. it's
 figure is a regular cone. both these mountains are perfectly covered
 with snow; at least the parts of them which are visible. the highlands
 in this valley are rolling tho by no means too steep for cultivation
 they are generally fertile of a dark rich loam and tolerably free of
 stones. this valley is terminated on it's lower side by the mountanous
 country which borders the coast, and above by the rainge of mountains
 which pass the Columbia between the great falls and rapids of the
 Columbia river. it is about 70 miles wide on a direct line and it's
 length I beleive to be very extensive tho how far I cannot determine.
 this valley would be copetent to the mantainance of 40 or 50 thousand
 souls if properly cultivated and is indeed the only desireable
 situation for a settlement which I have seen on the West side of the
 Rocky mountains.
 
 
 [Clark, March 30, 1806]
 Sunday March 30th 1806
 we got under way verry early and had not proceeded to the head of the
 island before we met with the three men of the Clan-nar-min-a-mon's who
 met us yesterday brackfast at the upper point of the Island we met
 Several of the Clackstar and Cath-lah-cum-up in two canoes. Soon after
 we were overtaken by Several Canoes of different tribes who reside on
 each Side of the river the three above Tribes and the Cldh-in-na-ta
 cath-lahnah-qui-up & Cath-lah-com-mah-tup reside on each Side of
 Wappato inlet and back of Wappato Island which Island is formed by a
 Small Chanel which passes from the Lower part of Image Canoe Island
 into an inlet which makes in from the S W. Side, and receves the water
 of a Creek which heads with the Kil a mox River. this wappato Island is
 about 18 or 20 Miles long and in places from 6 to 10 miles wide high &
 furtile with ponds on different parts of it in which the nativs geather
 Wappato. nearly opposit the upper point of the Isld. behing which we
 encamped last night, or on the Wappato Isld. is Several Camps of the
 nativs catching Sturgion. about 5 miles Still higher up and on the N E.
 Side we halted for brackfast at the place which We had encamped the 4th
 of November last. here we were visited by several canoes of Indians
 from two Towns a Short distance above on the Wappato Island. the 1st of
 those Tribes Call themselves Clan-nah-quah and Situated about 2 miles
 above us, the other about a mile above Call themselves Mult-no-mah we
 purchased of those visitors a Sturgion and Some Wappato & quarmarsh
 roots for which we gave Small fishing hooks. at 10 a.m. we Set out and
 had not proceeded far before we came to a landing place where there was
 Several large canoes hauled up, and Sitting in a canoe, appearantly
 waiting our arival with a view to join the fleet indian who was then
 along Side of us. this man informed he was a Shoto and that his nation
 resided a little distance from the river. we landed and one of the
 indians pointed to the Shoto village which is Situated back of Pond
 which lies parrelal with the river on the N E. Side nearly opposit the
 Clan-nah quah village. here we were also joined by Several Canoes
 loaded with the natives from the Island who Continued to accompany us
 untill about 4 oClock when they all returned and we proceeded on to the
 place the Indians Stole my Tomahawk 4th Novr. last and Encamped in a
 Small Prarie above a large Pond on N. E and opposit the Center of image
 Canoe Island. capt Lewis walked out and Saw Several deer. Jo. Field
 Shot at Elk he killed and brought in a fine duck. Soon after I had got
 into bead an Indian came up alone in a Small Canoe. Those tribes of
 Indians who inhabit this vally differ but little in either their dress,
 manners, habuts and language from the Clat Sops Chinnooks, and others
 on the Sea coast. they differ in a fiew words and a little in the
 accent. The men are Stouter and much better formed than those of the
 Sea Coast. more of their womin ware their hair braded in two tresses
 and hang over each ear. in Stead of the tissue of bark worn by the
 women below, they ware a kind of leather breech clout as before
 described as worn by the Womin at the enterance of Lewis's river-the
 width of a Common pocket Handkerchief or Something Smaller and longer.
 the two Corners of this at one of the narrow ends are confined in front
 just above the hips; the other Side is then brought between their legs,
 Compressed into a narrow folding bundle is drawn tight, and the Corners
 a little Spred in front tucked at the ends over and around the part
 first confined about the Waiste. a Small roab which does not reach the
 Waiste is their usial and only garment commonly worn besides this just
 mentioned. when the weather is a little worm the roab is thrown aside,
 and the latter truss or breach clout constitutes the whole of their
 apparreal. this is a much more indesant article than the tissue of
 bark, and bearly covers the Mons versus, to which it is drawn So close
 that the whole Shape is plainly perseived. The Houses are Similar to
 those already descrbed. they are fond of Sculpture. various figures are
 carved and painted on the pieces which Support the Center of the roof
 about their dotes and beads. They are well Supplied with anchoves
 Sturgion and Wappato. The latter furnishes the principal article of
 traffic with those Tribes which they despose of to the nativs below in
 exchange for beeds, Cloath and Various articles. the nativs of the Sea
 coast and lower part of this river will dispose of their most valueable
 articles to obtain this root. I saw in Several houses of the Cath lah
 poh tie Village large Symeters of Iron from 3 to 4 feet long which
 hangs by the heads of their beads; the blade of this weapon is thickest
 in the Center tho thin even there, all it's edges are Sharp and its
 greatest width which is about 9 inches from the point, is about 4
 inches. the form is this this is a formable weapon. they have heavy
 bludgeons of wood made in the Same form nearly which I prosume they use
 for the Same purpose before they obtained metal. we made 22 Miles only
 to day the wind and a Strong current being against us all day, with
 rain. discovered a high mountain S E. Covered with Snow which we call
 Mt. Jefferson.
 
 
 [Lewis, March 31, 1806]
 Monday March 31st 1806
 We set out early this morning and proceeded untill 8 A.M. when we
 Landed on the N. side opposite one large wooden house of the Shah-ha-la
 nation and took breakfast. when we decended the river in November last
 there were 24 other lodges formed of Straw and covered with bark near
 this house; these lodges are now distroyed and the inhabitants as the
 indians inform us have returned to the great rapids of this river which
 is their permanent residence; the house which remains is inhabited;
 soon after we landed two canoes came over from this house with 4 men
 and a woman. they informed us that their relations who were with them
 last fall usuly visit them at that season for the purpose of hunting
 deer and Elk and collecting wappetoe and that they had lately returned
 to the rapids I presume to prepare for the fishing season as the Salmon
 will begin to run shortly.--this morning we overtook the man who had
 visited our camp last night he had a fine sturgeon in his canoe which
 he had just taken. the Sagittaria Sagittifolia dose not grow on this
 river above the Columbian valley.--These indians of the rapids
 frequently visit this valley at every season of the year for the
 purpose of collecting wappetoe which is abundant and appears never to
 be out of season at any time of the year. at 10 A.M. we resumed our
 march accompanyed by three men in a canoe; one of these fellows
 appeared to be a man of some note among them; he was dressed in a
 salor's jacket which was decorated in his own fassion with five rows of
 large and small buttons in front and some large buttons on the pocket
 flaps. they are remarkably fond of large brass buttons. these people
 speak a different language from those below tho in their dress habits
 manners &c they differ but little from the quathlahpohtles. their women
 wear the truss as those do of all the nations residing from the
 quathlahpohtles to the entrance of Lewis's river. they differ in the
 manner of intering their dead. they lay them horizontally on boards and
 cover them with mats, in a valt formed with boards like the roof of a
 hose supported by forks and a single pole laid horizontally on those
 forks. many bodies are deposited in the same valt above ground. these
 are frequently laid one on the other, to the hight of three or for
 corps. they deposit with them various articles of which they die
 possessed, and most esteem while living. their canoes are frequently
 broken up to strengthen the vault.--these people have a few words the
 same with those below but the air of the language is intirely
 different, insomuch, that it may be justly deemed a different language.
 their women wear longer and larger robes generally, than those below;
 these are most commonly made of deer skins dressed with the hair on
 them. we continued our rout along the N. side of the river passed
 diamond Island and whitebrant island to the lower point of a handsom
 prarie opposite to the upper entrance of the Quicksand river; here we
 encamped having traveled 25 miles today. a little below the upper point
 of the White brant Island Seal river discharges itself on the N. side.
 it is about 80 yards wide, and at present discharges a large body of
 water. the water is very clear. the banks are low and near the Columbia
 overflow and form several large ponds. the natives inform us that it is
 of no great extent and heads in the mountains just above us. at the
 distance of one mile from the entrance of this stream it forks, the two
 branches being nearly of the same size. they are both obstructed with
 falls and innumerable rappids, insomuch that it cannot be navigated. as
 we could not learn any name of the natives for this stream we called it
 Seal river from the great abundance of those animals which we saw about
 it's entrance. we determined to remain at our present encampment a day
 or two for the several purposes of examining quicksand river making
 some Celestial observations, and procuring some meat to serve us as far
 as the falls or through the Western mountains where we found the game
 scarce as we decended.--the three indians who accompanied us last
 evening encamped a little distance above us and visited our camp where
 they remained untill 9 P.M. in the entrance of Seal river I saw a
 summer duck or wood duck as they are sometimes called. this is the same
 with those of our country and is the first I have seen since I entered
 the rocky mountains last summer.--our hunters who had halted a little
 below Seal river in consequence of the waves being too high for their
 small canoe did not join us untill after dark. Drewyer who was out
 below Seal river informed us that game was very scarce in that quarter,
 a circumstance which we did not expect.
 
 
 [Clark, March 31, 1806]
 Monday March 31st 1806
 we Set out this morning and proceeded untill 8 oClock when we landed on
 the N. Side opposit one large House of the Shah-ha-la Nation near this
 house at the time we passed on the 4th of November last was Situated 25
 houses, 24 of them were built of Straw & Covered with bark as before
 mentioned. those of that description are all distroyed, the one built
 of wood only remains and is inhabited. we overtook the man whome came
 to our Camp last night and Soon after we landed two canoes Came over
 from the opposit Side with 5 men & a woman those people informed us
 that their relations who was with them last fall reside at the Great
 rapids, and were down with them last fall gathering Wappato which did
 not grow above, and also killing deer, that they Secured the bark of
 the houses which they then lived in against their return next fall.
 they also inform us that their relations also visit them frequently in
 the Spring to collect this root which is in great quantities on either
 Side of the Columbia. at 10 A. M we proceeded on accompanied by one
 Canoe and three men, one of them appeared to be a man of Some note,
 dressed in a Salors jacket which had 5 rows of large & Small buttons on
 it. Those people Speak a differant language from those below, with Some
 fiew Words the Same, the accent entirely different. their dress and
 Manners appear very Similar. the women ware the truss or breach clout
 and Short robes, and men roabs only passed up on the N. Side of White
 brant Island near the upper point of Which a Small river falls in about
 80 yards wide and at this time discharges a great quantity of water.
 the nativs inform us that this river is very Short and heads in the
 range of mountains to the N E of its enterance into the Columbia the
 nativs haveing no name which we could learn for this little river we
 Call it Seal river from the great number of those Animals which
 frequents its mouth. this river forks into two nearly equal branches
 about 1 mile up and each branch is crouded with rapids & falls. we
 proceed on about 2 miles above the enterance of this Seacalf river and
 imedeately opposit the upper mouth of the quick Sand river we formed a
 Camp in a Small Prarie on the North Side of the Columbia where we
 intend to delay one or two days to make Some Selestial observations, to
 examine quick sand river, and kill Some meat to last us through the
 Western Mountains which Commences a fiew miles above us and runs in a
 N. N. W. & S. S. E. derection. The three Indians encamped near us and
 visited our fire we entered into a kind of a Conversation by signs, of
 the Country and Situation of the rivers. they informed us that Seal
 river headed in the mountains at no great distance. quick Sand river
 was Short only headed in Mt. Hood which is in view and to which he
 pointed. this is a circumstance we did not expect as we had heretofore
 deemed a considerable river. Mount Hood bears East from this place and
 is distant from this place about 40 miles. this information if true
 will render it necessary to examine the river below on the South Side
 behind the image canoe and Wappato islands for some river which must
 water the Country weste of the western mountains to the Waters of
 California. The Columbia is at present on a Stand and we with
 dificuelty made 25 miles to day-.