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[Lewis, January 1, 1806]
 Fort Clatsop 1806.
 January 1st Tuesday.
 This morning I was awoke at an early hour by the discharge of a volley
 of small arms, which were fired by our party in front of our quarters
 to usher in the new year; this was the only mark of rispect which we
 had it in our power to pay this celebrated day. our repast of this day
 tho better than that of Christmass, consisted principally in the
 anticipation of the 1st day of January 1807, when in the bosom of our
 friends we hope to participate in the mirth and hilarity of the day,
 and when with the zest given by the recollection of the present, we
 shall completely, both mentally and corporally, enjoy the repast which
 the hand of civilization has prepared for us. at present we were
 content with eating our boiled Elk and wappetoe, and solacing our
 thirst with our only beverage pure water. two of our hunters who set
 out this morning reterned in the evening having killed two bucks elk;
 they presented Capt. Clark and myself each a marrow-bone and tonge, on
 which we suped. visited today by a few of the Clotsops who brought some
 roots and burries for the purpose of trading with us. we were uneasy
 with rispect to two of our men, Willard and Wiser, who were dispatched
 on the 28th ulto. with the saltmakers, and were directed to return
 immediately; their not having returned induces us to believe it
 probable that they have missed their way.--our fourtification being now
 completed we issued an order for the more exact and uniform dicipline
 and government of the garrison. (see orderly book 1st January 1806).-
 
 [Clark, January 1, 1806]
 January 1st Wednesday 1806
 This morning proved cloudy with moderate rain, after a pleasent worm
 night during which there fell but little rain--This morning at Day we
 wer Saluted from the party without, wishing us a "hapy new year" a
 Shout and discharge of their arms--no Indians to be Seen this morning-
 they left the place of their encampment dureing the last night The work
 of our houses and fort being now Complete, we Ishued an order in which
 we pointed out the rules & regulations for the government of the Party
 in respect to the Indians as also for the Safty and protection of our
 Selves &c.
 two Clotsops Came with a mat and Some fiew roots of Cut wha mo, for
 which they asked a file they did not trade but Continued all night
 Sent out 2 hunters this morning who returned, haveing killed 2 Elk
 about 3 miles distant, Some fiew Showers of rain in the Course of this
 day. Cloudy all the day.
 
 [Clark, January 1, 1806]
 Fort Clatsop 1806
 Wednesday the 1st of January
 This morning I was awoke at an early hour by the discharge of a Volley
 of Small arms, which were fired by our party in front of our quarters
 to usher in the new year, this was the only mark of respect which we
 had it in our power to pay this Selibrated day. our repast of this day
 tho better than that of Christmas Consisted principally in the
 anticipation of the 1st day of January 1807, when in the bosom of our
 friends we hope to participate in the mirth and hilarity of the day,
 and when with the relish given by the recollection of the present, we
 Shall Completely, both mentally and Corparally, the repast which the
 hand of Civilization has produced for us. at present we were Content
 with eating our boiled Elk and Wappato, and Solacing our thirst with
 our only beverage pure water. two of our hunters who Set out this
 morning returned in the evening haveing killed two Buck Elks; they
 presented Capt. Lewis and my Self each a marrow bone and tongue on
 which we Suped--we are visited to day by a fiew of the Clatsops by
 water they brought some roots and berries for the purpose of tradeing
 with us. our fortification being now Complete we issue an order for the
 more exact and uniform dicipline and government of the garrison. (See
 orderly book Jany 2d 1806)
 
 [Lewis, January 1, 1806]
 Fort Clatsop, January 1st 1806
 The fort being now completed, the Commanding officers think proper to
 direct that the guard shall as usual consist of one Sergeant and three
 privates, and that the same be regularly relieved each morning at sun
 rise. The post of the new guard shall be in the room of the Sergeants
 rispectivly commanding the same. the centinel shall be posted, both day
 and night, on the parade in front of the commanding offercers quarters;
 tho should he at any time think proper to remove himself to any other
 part of the fort, in order the better to inform himself of the desighns
 or approach of any party of savages, he is not only at liberty, but is
 hereby required to do so. It shall be the duty of the centinel also to
 announce the arrival of all parties of Indians to the Sergeant of the
 Guard, who shall immediately report the same to the Commanding officers.
 The Commanding Officers require and charge the Garrison to treat the
 natives in a friendly manner; nor will they be permitted at any time,
 to abuse, assault or strike them; unless such abuse assault or stroke
 be first given by the natives. nevertheless it shall be right for any
 individual, in a peaceable manner, to refuse admittance to, or put out
 of his room, any native who may become troublesome to him; and should
 such native refuse to go when requested, or attempt to enter their
 rooms after being forbidden to do so; it shall be the duty of the
 Sergeant of the guard on information of the same, to put such native
 out of the fort and see that he is not again admitted during that day
 unless specially permitted; and the Sergeant of the guard may for this
 purpose imploy such coercive measures (not extending to the taking of
 life) as shall at his discretion be deemed necessary to effect the same.
 When any native shall be detected in theft, the Sergt. of the guard
 shall immediately inform the Commanding offercers of the same, to the
 end that such measures may be pursued with rispect to the culprit as
 they shall think most expedient.
 At sunset on each day, the Sergt. attended by the interpreter Charbono
 and two of his guard, will collect and put out of the fort, all Indians
 except such as may specially be permitted to remain by the Commanding
 offercers, nor shall they be again admitted untill the main gate be
 opened the ensuing morning.
 At Sunset, or immediately after the Indians have been dismissed, both
 gates shall be shut, and secured, and the main gate locked and continue
 so untill sunrise the next morning; the water-gate may be used freely
 by the Garrison for the purpose of passing and repassing at all times,
 tho from sunset, untill sunrise, it shall be the duty of the centinel,
 to open the gate for, and shut it after all persons passing and
 repassing, suffering the same never to remain unfixed long than is
 absolutely necessary.
 It shall be the duty of the Sergt. of the guard to keep the kee of the
 Meat house, and to cause the guard to keep regular fires therein when
 the same may be necessary; and also once at least in 24 hours to visit
 the canoes and see that they are safely secured; and shall further on
 each morning after he is relieved, make his report verbally to the
 Commandg officers.
 Each of the old guard will every morning after being relieved furnish
 two loads of wood for the commanding offercers fire.
 No man is to be particularly exempt from the duty of bringing meat from
 the woods, nor none except the Cooks and Interpreters from that of
 mounting guard.
 Each mess being furnished with an ax, they are directed to deposit in
 the room of the commanding offercers all other public tools of which
 they are possessed; nor shall the same at any time hereafter be taken
 from the said deposit without the knoledge and permission of the
 commanding officers; and any individual so borrowing the tools are
 strictly required to bring the same back the moment he has ceased to
 use them, and no case shall they be permited to keep them out all night.
 Any individual selling or disposing of any tool or iron or steel
 instrument, arms, accoutrements or ammunicion, shall be deemed guilty
 of a breach of this order, and shall be tryed and punished
 accordingly.the tools loaned to John Shields are excepted from the
 restrictions of this order.
 Meriwether Lewis
 Capt. 1st U.S. Regt.
 Wm. Clark
 Capt. &c
 
 [Lewis, January 2, 1806]
 Thursday, January 2nd 1806
 Sent out a party of men and brought in the two Elk which were killed
 yesterday. Willard and Wiser have not yet returned nor have a party of
 hunters returned who set out on the 26th Ulto. the Indians who visited
 yesterday left us at 1 P M today after having disposed of their roots
 and berries for a few fishinghooks and some other small articles. we
 are infested with swarms of flees already in our new habitations; the
 presumption is therefore strong that we shall not devest ourselves of
 this intolerably troublesome vermin during our residence here. The
 large, and small or whistling swan, sand hill Crane, large and small
 gees, brown and white brant, Cormorant, duckan mallard, Canvisback
 duck, and several other species of ducks, still remain with us; tho I
 do not think that they are as plenty as on our first arrival in the
 neighbourhood. Drewyer visited his traps and took an otter. the fur of
 both the beaver and otter in this country are extreemly good; those
 annamals are tolerably plenty near the sea coast, and on the small
 Creeks and rivers as high as the grand rappids, but are by no means as
 much so as on the upper part of the Missouri.
 
 [Clark, January 2, 1806]
 January 2nd Thursday 1806.
 A Cloudy rainey morning after a wet night. dispatched 12 Men for the
 two Elk Killed yesterday which they brought in at 11 oClock. the day
 proved Cloudy and wet, the Indians left us at 1 oClock P. M, Drewyer
 visited his traps which had one otter in one of them. The flees are
 verry troublesom, our huts have alreadey Sworms of those disagreeable
 insects in them, and I fear we Shall not get rid of them dureing our
 delay at this place.
 
 [Clark, January 2, 1806]
 Thursday 2nd of January 1806.
 Sent out a party of men and brought in the two Elk which was killed
 yesterday. Willard & Wiser have not yet returned nor have a party of
 hunters who Set out on the 26th ulto the Indians who visited us
 yesterday left us at 1 P. M to day after haveing disposed of their
 roots and berries for a fiew fishing hooks and Some other Small
 articles. we are infestd. with Sworms of flees already in our new
 habatations; the presumption is therefore Strong that we Shall not
 devest our Selves of this intolerably troublesom vermin dureing our
 residence here. The large, & Small or whistling Swan, Sand hill crane,
 large & Small Gees, brown and white brant, Comorant, Duckanmallard,
 canvis back duck, and Several other Species of Ducks Still remain with
 us; tho I doe not think they are as plenty as on our first arrival in
 the neighbourhood. Drewyer visit his traps at took out an otter. the
 fur of both the beaver and otter as also the rackoon in this countrey
 are extreemly good; those animals are tolerably plenty near the Sea
 coast, on the Small creeks and rivers as high as the grand Rapids.
 
 [Lewis, January 3, 1806]
 Friday January 3d 1806.
 At 11 A.M. we were visited by our near neighbours, Chief or Tia,
 Como-wool; alias Conia and six Clatsops. they brought for sale some
 roots buries and three dogs also a small quantity of fresh blubber.
 this blubber they informed us they had obtained from their neighbours
 the Callamucksz who inhabit the coast to the S. E. near whose vilage a
 whale had recently perished. this blubber the Indians eat and esteeme
 it excellent food. our party from necessaty having been obliged to
 subsist some lenth of time on dogs have now become extreemly fond of
 their flesh; it is worthy of remark that while we lived principally on
 the flesh of this anamal we were much more healthy strong and more
 fleshey than we had been since we left the Buffaloe country. for my own
 part I have become so perfectly reconciled to the dog that I think it
 an agreeable food and would prefer it vastly to lean Venison or Elk. a
 small Crow, the blue crested Corvus and the smaller corvus with a white
 brest, the little brown ren, a large brown sparrow, the bald Eagle and
 the beatifull Buzzard of the columbia still continue with us.--Sent
 Sergt. Gass and George Shannon to the saltmakers who are somewhere on
 the coast to the S. W. of us, to enquire after Willard and Wiser who
 have not yet returned. Reubin Fields Collins and Pots the hunters who
 set out on the 26th Ulto. returned this evening after dark. they
 reported that they had been about 15 Miles up the river at the head of
 the bay just below us and had hunted the country from thence down on
 the East side of the river, even to a considerable distance from it and
 had proved unsuccessful) having killed one deer and a few fowls, barely
 as much as subsisted them. this reminded us of the necessity of taking
 time by the forelock, and keep out several parties while we have yet a
 little meat beforehand.I gave the Chief Comowooll a pare of sattin
 breechies with which he appeared much pleased.
 
 [Clark, January 3, 1806]
 January 3rd Friday 1806
 The Sun rose fair this morning for the first time for Six weeks past,
 the Clouds Soon obscure it from our view, and a Shower of rain
 Suckceededlast night we had Sharp lightening a hard thunder Suckceeded
 with heavy Showers of hail, and rain, which Continud with intervales of
 fair moon Shine dureing the night. Sent out Sergt. Gass & 2 men to the
 Salt makers with a vew to know what is the Cause of the delay of 2 of
 our party Willard & Wiser who we are uneasy about, as they were to have
 been back 6 days ago.
 
 [Clark, January 3, 1806]
 Friday the 3rd January 1806
 At 11 A. m. we were visited by our near neighbour Chief (or Tia) Co mo
 wool alias Conia and Six Clat sops. they brought for Sale Some roots
 berries and 3 Dogs also a Small quantity of fresh blubber. this blubber
 they informed us they had obtained from their neighbours the Cal la mox
 who inhabit the coast to the S. E near one of their Villages a Whale
 had recently perished. this blubber the Indians eat and esteem it
 excellent food. our party from necescity have been obliged to Subsist
 Some length of time on dogs have now become extreamly fond of their
 flesh; it is worthey of remark that while we lived principally on the
 flesh of this animal we wer much more helthy Strong and more fleshey
 then we have been Sence we left the Buffalow Country. as for my own
 part I have not become reconsiled to the taste of this animal as yet. a
 Small Crow, the blue Crested Corvus and the Smaller Corvus with a white
 breast, the little brown ren, and a large brown Sparrow, the bald
 Eagle, and the butifull Buzzard of the Columbia Still Continue with us,
 Send Sarjt. Gass and G. Shannon to the Salt makers who are on the Sea
 Coast to the S, W. of us, to enquire after Willard & Wiser who have not
 yet returned. R. Field, potts & Collins the hunters who Set out on the
 28th ulto. returned this evening after dark. they reported that they
 had been about 15 miles up the river which falls into Meriwethers Bay
 to the East of us, and had hunted the Country a considerable distance
 to East, and had proved unsucksesfull haveing killed one Deer and a
 fiew fowls, bearly as much as Subsisted them. this reminded us of the
 necessity of takeing time by the forelock, and keep out Several parties
 while we have yet a little meat beforehand. Capt Lewis gave the Cheif
 Cania a par of Sattin breechies with which he appeared much pleased.
 
 [Lewis, January 4, 1806]
 Saturday January 4th 1806.
 Comowooll and the Clatsops who visited us yesterday left us in the
 evening. These people the Chinnooks and others residing in this
 neighbourhood and speaking the same language have been very friendly to
 us; they appear to be a mild inoffensive people but will pilfer if they
 have an opportuny to do so where they conceive themselves not liable to
 detection. they are great higlers in trade and if they conceive you
 anxious to purchase will be a whole day bargaining for a handfull of
 roots; this I should have thought proceeded from their want of
 knowledge of the comparitive value of articles of merchandize and the
 fear of being cheated, did I not find that they invariably refuse the
 price first offered them and afterwards very frequently accept a
 smaller quantity of the same article; in order to satisfy myself on
 this subject I once offered a Chinnook my watch two knives and a
 considerable quantity of beads for a small inferior sea Otter's skin
 which I did not much want, he immediately conceived it of great value,
 and refused to barter except I would double the quantity of beads; the
 next day with a great deal of importunity on his part I received the
 skin in exchange for a few strans of the same beads he had refused the
 day before. I therefore believe this trait in their character proceeds
 from an avaricious all grasping disposition. in this rispect they
 differ from all Indians I ever became acquainted with, for their
 dispositions invariably lead them to give whatever they are possessed
 off no matter how usefull or valuable, for a bauble which pleases their
 fancy, without consulting it's usefullness or value. nothing
 interesting occurred today, or more so, than our wappetoe being all
 exhausted.
 
 [Clark, January 4, 1806]
 Saturday 4th January 1806
 Comowool and the Clatsops who visited us yesterday left us in the
 morning. Those people the Chinnook and others resideing in this
 neighbourhood and Speaking the Same language have been very friendly to
 us; they appear to be a mild inoffensive people but will pilfer if they
 have an oppertunity to do So when they Conceive themselves not liable
 to detection. they are great higlers in trade and if they Conceive you
 anxious to purchase will be a whole day bargaining for a hand full of
 roots; this I Should have thought proceeded from their want of
 Knowledge of the Comparitive value of articles of merchindize and the
 fear of being Cheated, did I not find that they invariably refuse the
 price first offered them and afterwards very frequently accept a
 Smaller quantity of the Same article; in order to Satisfy myself on
 this point, I once offered a Clatsop man my watch a knife, a Dollar of
 the Coin of U State and hand full of beeds, for a Small Sea otter Skin,
 which I did not much want, he immediately Conceived it of great value,
 and refused to Sell unless I would give as maney more beads; the next
 day with a great deel of importunity on his part we receved the Skin in
 exchange for a fiew Strans of the Same beeds he had refused the day
 before. I therefore beleive this treat in their Charector proceeds from
 an avericious all grasping dis-position. in this respect they differ
 from all Indians I ever became acquainted with, for their dispositions
 invariably lead them to give what ever they are possessed off no matter
 how usefull or valueable, for a bauble which pleases their fancy,
 without Consulting its usefullness or value. nothing occured to day, or
 more So, than our wappato being all exhausted.
 
 [Lewis, January 5, 1806]
 Sunday January 5th 1806.
 At 5 P.M. Willard and Wiser returned, they had not been lost as we
 apprehended. they informed us that it was not untill the fifth day
 after leaving the Fort that they could find a convenient place for
 making salt; that they had at length established themselves on the
 coast about 15 Miles S. W. from this, near the lodge of some Killamuck
 families; that the Indians were very friendly and had given them a
 considerable quantity of the blubber of a whale which perished on the
 coast some distance S. E. of them; part of this blubber they brought
 with them, it was white & not unlike the fat of Poark, tho the texture
 was more spongey and somewhat coarser. I had a part of it cooked and
 found it very pallitable and tender, it resembled the beaver or the dog
 in flavour. it may appear somewhat extraordinary tho it is a fact that
 the flesh of the beaver and dog possess a very great affinity in point
 of flavour. These lads also informed us that J. Fields, Bratton and
 Gibson (the Salt makers) had with their assistance erected a
 comfortable camp killed an Elk and several deer and secured a good
 stock of meat; they commenced the making of salt and found that they
 could obtain from 3 quarts to a gallon a day; they brought with them a
 specemine of the salt of about a gallon, we found it excellent, fine,
 strong, & white; this was a great treat to myself and most of the
 party, having not had any since the 20th ultmo.; I say most of the
 party, for my friend Capt. Clark declares it to be a mear matter of
 indifference with him whether he uses it or not; for myself I must
 confess I felt a considerable inconvenience from the want of it; the
 want of bread I consider as trivial provided, I get fat meat, for as to
 the species of meat I am not very particular, the flesh of the dog the
 horse and the wolf, having from habit become equally formiliar with any
 other, and I have learned to think that if the chord be sufficiently
 strong, which binds the soul and boddy together, it dose not so much
 matter about the materials which compose it. Colter also returned this
 evening unsuccessfull from the chase, having been absent since the 1st
 Inst.--Capt. Clark determined this evening to set out early tomorrow
 with two canoes and 12 men in quest of the whale, or at all events to
 purchase from the Indians a parcel of the blubber, for this purpose he
 prepared a small assortment of merchandize to take with him.
 
 [Clark, January 5, 1806]
 Sunday 5th of January 1806
 At 5 p.m.Willard and Wiser returned, they had not been lost as we
 expected. they informd us that it was not untill the 5th day after
 leaveing the fort, that they Could find a Convenient place for makeing
 Salt; that they had at length established themselves on the Sea Coast
 about 15 miles S. W. from this, near the houses of Some Clat Sop & Kil
 a mox families; that the Indians were very friendly and had given them
 a considerable quantity of the blubber of the whale which perished on
 the Coast Some distance S. E. of them, it was white and not unlike the
 fat of Pork, tho the texture was more Spungey and Somewhat Coarser. we
 had part of it Cooked and found it very pallitable and tender, it
 resembles the beaver in flavour. those men also informed us that the
 Salt makers with their assistance had erected a Comfortable Camp, had
 killed an Elk and Several Deer and Secured a good Stock of Meat; they
 Commenced the makeing of Salt and found that they Could make from 3
 quarts to a gallon a day; they brought with them a Specimen of the
 Salt, of about a gallon, we found it excellent white & fine, but not So
 Strong as the rock Salt or that made in Kentucky or the Western parts
 of the U, States--this Salt was a great treat to most of the party,
 haveing not had any Since the 20th ulto. as to my Self I care but
 little whether I have any with my meat or not; provided the meat fat,
 haveing from habit become entirely cearless about my diat, and I have
 learned to think that if the Cord be Sufficiently Strong which binds
 the Soul and boddy together, it does not So much matter about the
 materials which Compose it.
 Colter returned this evening unsecksessfull from the Chase, haveing
 been absent since the 1st inst.
 I determine to Set out early tomorrow with two canoes & 12 men in quest
 of the whale, or at all events to purchase from the indians a parcel of
 the blubber, for this purpose I made up a Small assortment of
 merchindize, and directed the men to hold themselves in readiness &c.
 
 [Lewis, January 6, 1806]
 Monday January 6th 1806.
 Capt Clark set out after an early breakfast with the party in two
 canoes as had been concerted the last evening; Charbono and his Indian
 woman were also of the party; the Indian woman was very impotunate to
 be permited to go, and was therefore indulged; she observed that she
 had traveled a long way with us to see the great waters, and that now
 that monstrous fish was also to be seen, she thought it very hard she
 could not be permitted to see either (she had never yet been to the
 Ocean).
 The Clatsops, Chinnooks, Killamucks &c. are very loquacious and
 inquisitive; they possess good memories and have repeated to us the
 names capasities of the vessels &c of many traders and others who have
 visited the mouth of this river; they are generally low in stature,
 proportionably small, reather lighter complected and much more illy
 formed than the Indians of the Missouri and those of our frontier; they
 are generally cheerfull but never gay. with us their conversation
 generally turns upon the subjects of trade, smoking, eating or their
 women; about the latter they speak without reserve in their presents,
 of their every part, and of the most formiliar connection. they do not
 hold the virtue of their women in high estimation, and will even
 prostitute their wives and daughters for a fishinghook or a stran of
 beads. in common with other savage nations they make their women
 perform every species of domestic drudgery. but in almost every species
 of this drudgery the men also participate. their women are also
 compelled to geather roots, and assist them in taking fish, which
 articles form much the greatest part of their subsistance;
 notwithstanding the survile manner in which they treat their women they
 pay much more rispect to their judgment and oppinions in many rispects
 than most indian nations; their women are permitted to speak freely
 before them, and sometimes appear to command with a tone of authority;
 they generally consult them in their traffic and act in conformity to
 their opinions. I think it may be established as a general maxim that
 those nations treat their old people and women with most differrence
 and rispect where they subsist principally on such articles that these
 can participate with the men in obtaining them; and that, that part of
 the community are treated with.least attention, when the act of
 procuring subsistence devolves intirely on the men in the vigor of
 life. It appears to me that nature has been much more deficient in her
 filial tie than in any other of the strong affections of the human
 heart, and therefore think, our old men equally with our women indebted
 to civilization for their ease and comfort. Among the Siouxs,
 Assinniboins and others on the Missouri who subsist by hunting it is a
 custom when a person of either sex becomes so old and infurm that they
 are unable to travel on foot from camp to camp as they rome in surch of
 subsistance, for the children or near relations of such person to leave
 them without compunction or remose; on those occasions they usually
 place within their reach a small peace of meat and a platter of water,
 telling the poor old superannuated wretch for his consolation, that he
 or she had lived long enough, that it was time they should dye and go
 to their relations who can afford to take care of them much better than
 they could. I am informed that this custom prevails even among the
 Minetares Arwerharmays and Recares when attended by their old people on
 their hunting excurtions; but in justice to these people I must observe
 that it appeared to me at their vilages, that they provided tolerably
 well for their aged persons, and several of their feasts appear to have
 principally for their object a contribution for their aged and infirm
 persons.
 This day I overhalled our merchandize and dryed it by the fire, found
 it all damp; we have not been able to keep anything dry for many days
 together since we arrived in this neighbourhood, the humidity of the
 air has been so excessively great. our merchandize is reduced to a mear
 handfull, and our comfort during our return the next year much depends
 on it, it is therefore almost unnecessary to add that we much regret
 the reduced state of this fund.
 
 [Clark, January 6, 1806]
 2 3 4 5 & all Day
 6t of January 1805 all last night rained without intermition, & the
 morning. I sat out with 12 men in 2 Canoes to around thro the bay and
 up a Creek to an old landing at which place the Indians have a roade
 across thro Shashes West I landed made the Canoes fast and Set out up
 the Cree on a road passed thro 3 Stashes to a pond, then up & around th
 bend along a bad thick way, took an Indian path which took us to a
 Creek which runs into the Sand bay at which place we found a Canoe
 which took over 3 men at a time crossed and on the top of a rise Saw
 Elk prosued & Killed one and encamped at the forks of a Creek the West
 Eate th Elk all up. a fine Butifull moon Shining night unto _____, Swan
 Geese, Brand &c.
 
 [Clark, January 6, 1806]
 Monday 6th of January 1806
 The last evening Shabono and his Indian woman was very impatient to be
 permitted to go with me, and was therefore indulged; She observed that
 She had traveled a long way with us to See the great waters, and that
 now that monstrous fish was also to be Seen, She thought it verry hard
 that She Could not be permitted to See either (She had never yet been
 to the Ocian). after an early brackfast I Set out with two Canoes down
 the Ne tel R into Meriwether Bay with a view to proced on to the
 Clatsop town, and hire a guide to conduct me through the Creeks which I
 had every reason to beleeve Comunicated both with the Bay and a Small
 river near to which our men were making Salt. Soon after I arrived in
 the Bay the wind Sprung up from the N. W and blew So hard and raised
 the waves so high that we were obliged to put into a Small Creek Short
 of the Village. finding I could not proceed on to the Village in Safty,
 I deturmined to assend this Creek as high as the Canoes would go; which
 from its directions must be near the open lands in which I had been on
 the 10th ulto., and leave the Canoes and proceed on by land. at the
 distance of about 3 miles up this Creek I observed Some high open land,
 at which place a road Set out and had every appearance of a portage,
 here I landed drew up the Canoes and Set out by land, proceeded on
 through 3 deep Slashes to a pond about a mile in length and 200 yards
 wide, kept up this pond leaving it to the right, and passing the head
 to a Creek which we Could not Cross, this Creek is the one which I
 rafted on the 8th & 9 ultimo. and at no great distance from where I
 crossed in Cus ca lars Canoe on the 10th ulto. to which place I
 expected a find a canoe, we proceeded on and found a Small Canoe at the
 place I expected, calculated to Carry 3 men, we crossed and from the
 top of a ridge in the Prarie we Saw a large gange of Elk feeding about
 2 miles below on our direction. I divided the party So as to be Certain
 of an elk, Several Shot were fired only one Elk fell, I had this Elk
 butchered and carried to a Creak in advance at which place I intended
 to encamp, two other Elk were badly Shot, but as it was nearly dark we
 Could not pursue them, we proceeded on to the forks of the Creek which
 we had just Crossed turning around to the S W. and meeting one of equal
 Size from the South, the two makeing a little river 70 yards wide which
 falls into the Ocian near the 3 Clat Sop houses which I visited on the
 9th ulto. in the forks of this Creek we found Some drift pine which had
 been left on the Shore by the tide of which we made fires. the evening
 a butifull Clear moon Shiney night, and the 1st fair night which we
 have had for 2 months
 
 [Lewis, January 7, 1806]
 Monday January 7th 1806.
 Last evening Drewyer visited his traps and caught a beaver and an
 otter; the beaver was large and fat we have therefore fared sumptuously
 today; this we consider a great prize for another reason, it being a
 full grown beaver was well supplyed with the materials for making bate
 with which to catch others. this bate when properly prepared will
 intice the beaver to visit it as far as he can smell it, and this I
 think may be safely stated at a mile, their sense of smelling being
 very accute. To prepare beaver bate, the castor or bark stone is taken
 as the base, this is gently pressed out of the bladderlike bag which
 contains it, into a phiol of 4 ounces with a wide mouth; if you have
 them you will put from four to six stone in a phiol of that capacity,
 to this you will add half a nutmeg, a douzen or 15 grains of cloves and
 thirty grains of cinimon finely pulverized, stir them well together and
 then add as much ardent sperits to the composition as will reduce it
 the consistency mustard prepared for the table; when thus prepared it
 resembles mustard precisely to all appearance. when you cannot procure
 a phiol a bottle made of horn or a tight earthen vessel will answer, in
 all cases it must be excluded from the air or it will soon loose it's
 virtue; it is fit for uce immediately it is prepared but becomes much
 stronger and better in about four or five days and will keep for months
 provided it be perfectly secluded from the air. when cloves are not to
 be had use double the quantity of Allspice, and when no spice can be
 obtained use the bark of the root of sausafras; when sperits cannot be
 had use oil stone of the beaver adding mearly a sufficient quantity to
 moisten the other materials, or reduce it to a stif past. it appears to
 me that the principal uce of the spices is only to give a variety to
 the scent of the bark stone and if so the mace vineller and other
 sweetsmelling spices might be employed with equal advantage. The male
 beaver has six stones, two which contain a substance much like finely
 pulvarized bark of a pale yellow colour and not unlike tanner's ooz in
 smell, these are called the bark stones or castors; two others, which
 like the bark stone resemble small bladders, contain a pure oil of a
 strong rank disagreeable smell, and not unlike train oil, these are
 called the oil stones; and 2 others of generation. the Barkstones are
 about two inches in length, the others somewhat smaller all are of a
 long oval form; and lye in a bunch together between the skin and the
 root of the tail, beneath or behind the fundament with which they are
 closely connected and seem to communicate. the pride of the female lyes
 on the inner side much like those of the hog. they have no further
 parts of generation that I can perceive and therefore beleive that like
 the birds they copulate with the extremity of the gut. The female have
 from two to four young ones at a birth and bring fourth once a year
 only, which usually happens about the latter end of may and begining of
 June. at this stage she is said to drive the male from the lodge, who
 would otherwise destroy the young.--dryed our lodge and had it put away
 under shelter; this is the first day during which we have had no rain
 since we arrived at this place. nothing extraordinary happened today.
 
 [Clark, January 7, 1806]
 Jany 7th Tuesday 1806
 Set out at Day light, porceded up the Creek about 2 mile and crossed on
 a tree trunk the Salt makers have fallen across, then proceeded on to
 the Ocean 3/4 mile & proceded up 3 miles to the mouth of Colimex River
 about 80 or 100 yds wide verry rapid & Cuts its banks, here we found an
 old Village of 3 houses, one only inhabited by one familey, I gave the
 man a fish hook to put the party across, on the bank found a Skeet fish
 which had been lef by the tide proceded on 2 miles on the bank opposit
 a kind of bay the river Cross to the Sea Cost to 2 Inds Indians Lodges
 at which place I found our Salt makers near the foot of a mountain
 which form the Shore. Brackfast and hirired an Indian to pilot me to
 the Ca le mix nation where the whale is for which I gave a file, we
 proceded on the Stone under a high hill on our right bluff. Soft Stone
 Sees verry high, Several parts of this hill recently Sliped in, about
 3/4 of a mile abov the Houses Saw a Canoe in which the Dead was buried
 at 21/2 miles assended a Steep mountain, as Steep at it is possible
 places for 1500 feet we hauled our Selves up by the assistence of the
 bushes if one had Given way we must have fallen a great distant the
 Steepest worst & highest mountain I ever assended I think it at least
 1500 feet highr than the Sea imidiately under on the riht. we met 14
 Indians loaded with blubber proceded on thro an unusual bad way falling
 timber bendig under logs &c. and encamped on a Creek which runs to my
 left find Day and night, the timber Spruc White Cedar & &.
 
 [Clark, January 7, 1806]
 Tuesday 7th of January 1806
 Some frost this morning. It may appear Somewhat incrediable, but So it
 is that the Elk which was killed last evening was eaten except about 8
 pounds, which I directed to be taken along with the Skin, I proceded up
 the South fork of the Creek about 2 miles and crossed on a pine tree
 which had been fallen by the Saltmakers on their first going out, on
 this tree we crossed the deepest of the water and waded on the opposit
 Side for 30 yards, from thence to the ocian 3/4 of a mile through a
 Continuation of open ridgey Prarie, here the Coast is Sandy, we
 proceeded on the Sandy beech nearly South for 3 miles to the mouth of
 butifull river with bold and rapid Current of 85 yards wide and 3 feet
 deep in the Shallowest place, a Short distance up this river on the N E
 Side is the remains of an old village of Clatsops. I entered a house
 where I found a Man 2 Womn & 3 Children, they appeared retchedly pore &
 dirty, I hired the man to Set us across the River which I call after
 the Nation Clat Sop river for which I gave 2 fishing hooks--at this
 place the Creek over which I crossed on a tree passes within 100 yards
 of the Clat Sop river over which the nativs have a portage which
 affords them an easy Communication with the villages near point adams,
 and at the mouth of the Creek, on which we lay last night. in walking
 on the Sand after crossing the river I Saw a Singular Species of fish
 which I had never before Seen one of the men Call this fish a Skaite,
 it is properly a Thornback. I proceeded on about 2 miles to near the
 base of high Mountain where I found our Salt makers, and with them
 Sergt. Gass, Geo. Shannon was out in the woods assisting Jo Field and
 gibson to kill Some meat, the Salt makers had made a neet Close Camp,
 Convenient to wood Salt water and the fresh water of the Clat Sop river
 which at this place was within 100 paces of the Ocian they wer also
 Situated near 4 houses of Clatsops & Killamox, who they informed me had
 been verry kind and attentive to them. I hired a young Indian to pilot
 me to the whale for which Service I gave him a file in hand and
 promised Several other Small articles on my return, left Sergt. Gass
 and one man of my party Werner to make Salt & permited Bratten to
 accompany me, we proceeded on the round Slipery Stones under a high
 hill which projected into the ocian about 4 miles further than the
 direction of the Coast. after walking for 21/2 miles on the Stones my
 guide made a Sudin halt, pointed to the top of the mountain and uttered
 the word Pe Shack which means bad, and made Signs that we could not
 proceed any further on the rocks, but must pass over that mountain, I
 hesitated a moment & view this emence mountain the top of which was
 obscured in the clouds, and the assent appeard. to be almost
 perpindecular; as the Small Indian parth allong which they had brought
 emence loads but a fiew hours before, led up this mountain and appeared
 to assend in a Sideling direction, I thought more than probable that
 the assent might be torerably easy and therefore proceeded on, I soon
 found that the ____ become much worst as I assended, and at one place
 we were obliged to Support and draw our Selves up by the bushes & roots
 for near 100 feet, and after about 2 hours labour and fatigue we
 reached the top of this high mountain, from the top of which I looked
 down with estonishment to behold the hight which we had assended, which
 appeared to be 10 or 12 hundred feet up a mountain which appeared to be
 almost perpindicular, here we met 14 Indians men and women loaded with
 the oil & Blubber of the whale. In the face of this tremendeous
 precipic imediately below us, there is a Strater of white earth (which
 my guide informed me) the neighbouring indians use to paint themselves,
 and which appears to me to resemble the earth of which the French
 Porcelain is made; I am confident that this earth Contains argill, but
 whether it also Contains Silex or magnesia, or either of those earths
 in a proper perpotion I am unable to deturmine. we left the top of the
 precipice and proceeded on a bad road and encamped on a Small run passin
 g to the left. all much fatiagued
 
 [Lewis, January 8, 1806]
 Tuesday January 8th 1806.
 Our meat is begining to become scarse; sent Drewyer and Collins to hunt
 this morning. the guard duty being hard on the men who now remain in
 the fort I have for their relief since the departure of Capt. Clark
 made the Cooks mount guard. Sergt. Gass and Shannon have not yet
 returned, nor can I immajen what is the cause of their detention. In
 consequence of the clouds this evening I lost my P.M. observation for
 Equal Altitudes, and from the same cause have not been able to take a
 single observation since we have been at this place. nothing
 extraordinary happened today.
 The Clatsops Chinnooks and others inhabiting the coast and country in
 this neighbourhood, are excessively fond of smoking tobacco. in the act
 of smoking they appear to swallow it as they dran it from the pipe, and
 for many draughts together you will not perceive the smoke which they
 take from the pipe; in the same manner also they inhale it in their
 lungs untill they become surcharged with this vapour when they puff it
 out to a great distance through their nostils and mouth; I have no
 doubt the smoke of the tobacco in this manner becomes much more
 intoxicating and that they do possess themselves of all it's virtues in
 their fullest extent; they freequently give us sounding proofs of it's
 creating a dismorallity of order in the abdomen, nor are those light
 matters thought indelicate in either sex, but all take the liberty of
 obeying the dictates of nature without reserve. these people do not
 appear to know the uce of sperituous liquors, they never having once
 asked us for it; I presume therefore that the traders who visit them
 have never indulged them with the uce of it; from what ever cause this
 may proceede, it is a very fortunate occurrence, as well for the
 natives themselves, as for the quiet and safety of thos whites who
 visit them.
 
 [Clark, January 8, 1806]
 Jany 8 Wedned
 Set out at Day a fine morning wind hard from S. E at 11/2 miles arived
 at a Open where I had a view of the Seas Coast for a long Distance
 rocks in every direction. Struck a branch and come down to the Sea at
 which place an old village between 2 Creeks of the Colemix Nation which
 inhabits this Coast, grave yard deposed of in Canoes in which the
 bodies are laid in boxes in the Canoe, Paddles &c thos poople must use
 thos Canoes in the higher Seas of which then ever I Saw on a Cost
 ruding Countrey Crossed 3 points rocks great Distanc in the Sea, hill
 Sides Sliping from emins ravins which appears to _____ proceeded on to
 the mouth of a Creek about 80 yards wide at which Place I saw 5 Lodges
 of Indian of the Ca la mix nation, boiling whale in a trough of about
 20 gallons with hot Stones, and the oyle they put into a Canoe I
 proceded on a Short distance to the whales which was nothing more than
 the Sceleton, of 105 feet long, we took out a few bones and returned to
 the Cabins at the mouth of the Creek, and attempted to trade with thos
 people who I found Close and Capricious, would not trade the Smallest
 piece except they thought they got an advantage of the bargain, their
 disposition is averitious, & independant in trade, they offered to
 trade for Elk of which we had not I purchased some oile and about 120 w
 of Blubber after rendered, finding they would not trade I Deturmined to
 return home with what we have The Houses of these people appear
 temporary a ridge pole on 2 forks Supported a Certain number of Split
 boards of the red Cedar & pine, Set on the end the gable ends of the
 Same materials and Calculated for 2 families first, The Dress and
 appearenc of the nativs as also the language is procisely that of the
 Clopsots & Chinnooks, those people Save their oile in bladder Guts &c.
 Their food is principally fish that is thrown on the Shores by the Seas
 & left by the tide, This Cost is rockey, the mountains high & rugged,
 They inform me that their nation lives in 5 villages to the S E of this
 place at the mouths of Creek in which they catch Samn. in the Season, I
 got of those people a few roots Some Sturgeon whale-____ &. They Call a
 whale E cu-la a Creek Shu man, they have Some fiew Sea ortter for which
 they ask Such prices I could not purchase any of them
 Th party much fatigued in crossing 1 mountain & 4 high Points Steep &
 Slipery, also Stony Beach Slippery and tiresom The high tide obliged me
 to delay untill late before the tide put out, I Shot a raven & a gul
 with my Small riffle which Suppised these people a little They are fond
 of blue & white large beed only, files & fish Hooks which are large-
 after Diner we Set out Crossed the Creek in a Small Canoe The tide out
 and Encamped on the opposit Side, I was asked for ferrage and paid a
 pin, one hut on the Side in which I Camped & Village a Short distance
 above which I did not See last night, all the men came over & Smoked
 with me, about bed time I herd a hollowing on the opposit Side of the
 river which allarnied all the Indian men about me, they run across the
 Creek, I Suspected perhaps Some of my party was over after the Squars,
 by exemening found that McNeal was not in Camp, my guide who Staid with
 me told me Some body throat was Cut. I emediately Sent Serjt Pryor & 2
 men across for McNeal, they Soon returned haveing met the person I was
 anxious to find out the Cause of the allarm, McNeal Said that a man
 envited him to go across and get Some fish, locked arms of which he
 Contd to hold he took him into a lodge and the woman gave him a Small
 piec the man then invited him to another, the woman of the lodge puled
 his blanket, & Sent out a Squar to hollow across, to inform of
 Something which aid. McNeal I Sent over Sergt. Pryor to Know the Cause
 of the allarm which he was informed that a Plot was laid to kill McNeal
 for his Blanket & Clothes by this Indian who was from another Villg at
 Some distance, and that She had attempted to Stop McNeal & findeing She
 Could not that She then allarmed the men, Several of the mans Band was
 with me who imedeately Cleared out, 2 men Came over & Slept at my feet.
 I kept a guard & Sentinel all night a fair night wind blew from S. E.
 during the evening I acquired all the information possiable respecting
 the Coast to the S. E. got the name of many nations & the Nos. of their
 houses, a map of the Coast in their way. I am very pore & weak for want
 of Sufficient food and fear much that I shall require more assistance
 to get back than I had to get to this place. a deturmined purcistance
 will as it has done carry me through
 
 [Clark, January 8, 1806]
 Wednesday 8th January 1805
 The last night proved fair and Cold wind hard from the S. E. we Set out
 early and proceeded to the top of the mountain next to the which is
 much the highest part and that part faceing the Sea is open, from this
 point I beheld the grandest and most pleasing prospects which my eyes
 ever surveyed, in my frount a boundless Ocean; to the N. and N. E. the
 coast as as far as my sight Could be extended, the Seas rageing with
 emence wave and brakeing with great force from the rocks of Cape
 Disapointment as far as I could See to the N. W. The Clatsops Chinnooks
 and other villagers on each Side of the Columbia river and in the
 Praries below me, the meanderings of 3 handsom Streams heading in Small
 lakes at the foot the high Country; The Columbia River for a Some
 distance up, with its Bays and Small rivers and on the other Side I
 have a view of the Coast for an emence distance to the S. E. by S. the
 nitches and points of high land which forms this Corse for a long ways
 aded to the inoumerable rocks of emence Sise out at a great distance
 from the Shore and against which the Seas brak with great force gives
 this Coast a most romantic appearance. from this point of View my guide
 pointed to a village at the mouth of a Small river near which place he
 Said the whale was, he also pointed to 4 other places where the
 princpal Villages of the Kil la mox were Situated, I could plainly See
 the houses of 2 of those Villeges & the Smoke of a 3rd which was two
 far of for me to disern with my naked eye--after taking the Courses and
 computed the Distances in my own mind, I proceeded on down a Steep
 decent to a Single house the remains of an old Kil a mox Town in a
 nitch imediately on the Sea Coast, at which place great no. of eregular
 rocks are out and the waves comes in with great force. Near this old
 Town I observed large Canoes of the neetest kind on the ground Some of
 which appeared nearly decayed others quit Sound, I examoned those
 Canoes and found they were the repository of the dead--This Custom of
 Secureing the Dead differs a little from the Chinnooks. the Kil a mox
 Secure the dead bodies in an oblong box of Plank, which is placed in an
 open Canoe resting on the ground, in which is put a paddle and Sundery
 other articles the property of the disceased. The Coast in the
 neighbourhood of this old village is slipping from the Sides of the
 high hills, in emence masses; fifty or a hundred acres at a time give
 way and a great proportion of an instant precipitated into the Ocean.
 those hills and mountains are principally composed of a yellow Clay;
 their Slipping off or Spliting assunder at this time is no doubt Caused
 by the incessant rains which has fallen within the last two months. the
 mountans Covered with a verry heavy Croth of pine & furr, also the
 white Cedar or arbor vita and a Small proportion of the black alder,
 this alder grows to the hight of Sixty or Seventy feet and from 2 to 3
 feet in diamiter. Some Species of pine on the top of the Point of View
 rise to the emmence hight of 210 feet and from 8 to 12 feet in
 diameter, and are perfectly Sound and Solid. Wind hard from the S. E
 and See looked ____ in the after part of the Day breaking with great
 force against the Scattering rocks at Some distance from Shore, and the
 ruged rockey points under which we wer obleged to pass and if we had
 unfortunately made one false Stet we Should eneviateably have fallen
 into the Sea and dashed against the rocks in an instant, fortunately we
 passed over 3 of those dismal points and arived on a butifull Sand
 Shore on which we Continued for 2 miles, Crossed a Creek 80 yards near
 5 Cabins, and proceeded to the place the whale had perished, found only
 the Skelleton of this monster on the Sand between 2 of the villages of
 the Kil a mox nation; the Whale was already pillaged of every valuable
 part by the Kil a mox Inds. in the vecinity of whose village's it lay
 on the Strand where the waves and tide had driven up & left it. this
 Skeleton measured 105 feet. I returned to the village of 5 Cabins on
 the Creek which I shall call E co-la or whale Creek, found the nativs
 busily engaged boiling the blubber, which they performed in a large
 Squar wooden trought by means of hot Stones; the oil when extracted was
 Secured in bladders and the Guts of the whale; the blubber from which
 the oil was only partially extracted by this process, was laid by in
 their Cabins in large flickes for use; those flickes they usially
 expose to the fire on a wooden Spit untill it is prutty well wormed
 through and then eate it either alone or with roots of the rush, Shaw
 na tdk we or diped in the oil. The Kil a mox although they possessed
 large quantities of this blubber and oil were so prenurious that they
 disposed of it with great reluctiance and in Small quantities only;
 insomuch that my utmost exertion aided by the party with the Small
 Stock of merchindize I had taken with me were not able to precure more
 blubber than about 300 wt. and a fiew gallons of oil; Small as this
 Stock is I prise it highly; and thank providence for directing the
 whale to us; and think him much more kind to us than he was to jonah,
 having Sent this monster to be Swallowed by us in Sted of Swallowing of
 us as jonah's did. I recrossed E co la Creek and Encamped on the bank
 at which place we observed an ebundance of fine wood the Indian men
 followed me for the purpose of Smokeing. I enquired of those people as
 well as I could by Signs the Situation, mode of liveing & Strength of
 their nation They informed me that the bulk of their nation lived in 3
 large villages Still further along the Sea coast to the S, S, W. at the
 enterence Of 3 Creek which fell into a bay, and that other houses were
 Scattered about on the Coast, Bay and on a Small river which fell into
 the Bay in which they Cought Salmon, and from this Creek (which I call
 Kil a mox River) they crossed over to the Wappato I. on the
 Shock-ah-lil com (which is the Indian name for the Columbia river) and
 purchased Wappato &c. that the nation was once verry large and that
 they had a great maney houses, In Salmon Season they Cought great
 numbers of that fish in the Small Creeks, when the Salmon was Scerce
 they found Sturgion and a variety of other fish thrown up by the waves
 and left by the tide which was verry fine, Elk was plenty in the
 mountains, but they Could not Kill maney of them with their arrows. The
 Kil d mox in their habits Customs manners dress & language differ but
 little from the Clatsops, Chinnooks and others in this neighbourhood
 are of the Same form of those of the Clatsops with a Dore at each end &
 two fire places i, e the house is double as long as wide and divided
 into 2 equal parts with a post in the middle Supporting the ridge pole,
 and in the middle of each of those divisions they make their fires,
 dotes Small & houses Sunk 5 feet
 
 [Lewis, January 9, 1806]
 Friday January 9th 1806.
 Our men are now very much engaged in dressing Elk and Deer skins for
 mockersons and cloathing. the deer are extreemly scarce in this
 neighbourhood, some are to be found near the praries and open grounds
 along the coast. this evening we heard seven guns in quick succession
 after each other, they appeared to be on the Creek to the South of us
 and several miles distant; I expect that the hunters Drewyer and
 Collins have fallen in with a gang of Elk. some marrow bones and a
 little fresh meat would be exceptable; I have been living for two days
 past on poor dryed Elk, or jurk as the hunters term it.
 The Clatsops Chinnooks &c. bury their dead in their canoes. for this
 purpose four pieces of split timber are set erect on end, and sunk a
 few feet in the grown, each brace having their flat sides opposite to
 each other and sufficiently far assunder to admit the width of the
 canoes in which the dead are to be deposited; through each of these
 perpendicular posts, at the hight of six feet a mortice is cut, through
 which two bars of wood are incerted; on these cross bars a small canoe
 is placed in which the body is laid after being carefully roled in a
 robe of some dressed skins; a paddle is also deposited with them; a
 larger canoe is now reversed, overlaying and imbracing the small one,
 and resting with it's gunwals on the cross bars; one or more large mats
 of rushes or flags are then roled around the canoes and the whole
 securely lashed with a long cord, usually made of the bark of the Arbor
 vita or white cedar. on the cross bars which support the canoes is
 frequently hung or laid various articles of cloathing culinary
 eutensels &c. I cannot understand them sufficiently to make any
 enquiries relitive to their religeous opinions, but presume from their
 depositing various articles with their dead, that they believe in a
 state of future existence.
 The persons who usually visit the entrance of this river for the
 purpose of traffic or hunting I believe are either English or
 Americans; the Indians inform us that they speak the same language with
 ourselves, and give us proofs of their varacity by repeating many words
 of English, as musquit, powder, shot, nife, file, damned rascal, sun of
 a bitch &c. whether these traders are from Nootka sound, from some
 other late establishment on this coast, or immediately from the U
 States or Great Brittain, I am at a loss to determine, nor can the
 Indians inform us. the Indians whom I have asked in what direction the
 traders go when they depart from hence, or arrive here, always point to
 the S. W. from which it is presumeable that Nootka cannot be their
 destination; and as from Indian information a majority of these traders
 annually visit them about the beginning of April and remain with them
 six or seven Months, they cannot come immediately from Great Britain or
 the U States, the distance being too great for them to go and return in
 the ballance of the year. from this circumstance I am sometimes induced
 to believe that there is some other establishment on the coast of
 America south West of this place of which little is but yet known to
 the world, or it may be perhaps on some Island in the pacific ocean
 between the Continents of Asia and America to the South West of us.
 This traffic on the part of the whites consists in vending, guns,
 (principally old british or American musquits) powder, balls and Shot,
 Copper and brass kettles, brass teakettles and coffee pots, blankets
 from two to three point, scarlet and blue Cloth (coarse), plates and
 strips of sheet copper and brass, large brass wire, knives, beads and
 tobacco with fishinghooks buttons and some other small articles; also a
 considerable quantity of Sailor's cloaths, as hats coats, trowsers and
 shirts. for these they receive in return from the natives, dressed and
 undressed Elkskins, skins of the sea Otter, common Otter, beaver,
 common fox, spuck, and tiger cat; also dryed and pounded sammon in
 baskets, and a kind of buisquit, which the natives make of roots called
 by them shappelell. The natives are extravegantly fond of the most
 common cheap blue and white beads, of moderate size, or such that from
 50 to 70 will weigh one penneyweight. the blue is usually pefered to
 the white; these beads constitute the principal circulating medium with
 all the indian tribes on this river; for these beads they will dispose
 any article they possess.--the beads are strung on strans of a fathom
 in length and in that manner sold by the bredth or yard.-
 
 [Clark, January 9, 1806]
 January 9th Thursday 1806
 a fine morning wind N E Set out at day lighte every man Some meat of
 the whale and a little oile proceded on the track we Came out to a
 house at a branch where we halted 1/2 an hour to rest this house is at
 at place an old village has formerly been, on the Coast at the
 Comencment ____ 27 foot wide 35 feet long Sunk in the ground 5 feet 2
 Dotes & 2 fire places dotes 29 Ins. high & 141/4 wide handsom Steps to
 decend down a post in the middle Coverede with boards Split thin an 2
 feet wide, old grave in Canoes of 3 feet 8 Inches wide & 5 feet long
 neetly made high at bow proceded on to the top of the hill Passing 3
 bad points rockey &. from the Point Clarks Point of view Cape Disapt.
 bears S. 12° E passing a Great point at 15 miles one at 40 miles rocks
 out to the 1st large point from the Creek 4 points, between the 1st
 large Point and 2d a point of many large rocks, Day Clouded up, I can
 See a point Bearing N 5° East along way just in Sight. from Clarks View
 Point to Cape Disapointment is N 20° W. To point adams &the open Slope
 point is North and a Sharp point, met a party of Chinnooks going to get
 whale blubber to eate & oile each of which they eate together, we also
 over took Several parties of the Clot Sops loaded with imence laods of
 the blubber and oile maney of those loads I with difficuelty raised,
 Estonishing what custom will do. at 2 oClock we arrived at the Camp of
 our Salt makers verry much fatigued, more So than I ever was before,
 the Indians all proceeded on, I concluded to Stay all night, as the
 party was much fatigued, and Send out 2 men which I had left here to
 hunt Ducks up the little river, Jo. Fields had killed an Elk and
 brought in a quarter on which we Dined he also had killed & brought in
 a Deer. The Indians with the oile & bluber tole me they had to purchase
 of the Ca-le nixx and would Come to the fort & Sell to us in 3 Days
 time, this I incouraged, as I expect to purchase at the fort as cheep
 as at the village at which I was, day proved fine. rained the greater
 part of the night I went into an Indian Lodge they were pore Durty and
 the house full of flees. he offered me roots which they geather on the
 Sea Cost a kind of rush, of which they offered me to eate,
 
 [Clark, January 9, 1806]
 Thursday 9th of January 1806
 a fine morning wind from the N. E. last night about 10 oClock while
 Smokeing with the nativ's I was alarmed by a loud Srile voice from the
 Cabins on the opposite Side, the Indians all run immediately across to
 the village, my guide who Continued with me made Signs that Some one's
 throat was Cut, by enquiry I found that one man McNeal was absent, I
 imediately Sent off Sergt. N. Pryor & 4 men in quest of McNeal who they
 met comeing across the Creak in great hast, and informed me that the
 people were alarmed on the opposit Side at Something but what he could
 not tell, a man had verry friendly envited him to go and eate in his
 lodge, that the Indian had locked armes with him and went to a lodge in
 which a woman gave him Some blubber, that the man envited him to
 another lodge to get Something better, and the woman held him by the
 blanket which he had around him another ran out and hollow'd and his
 pretended friend disapeared--I emediately ordered every man to hold
 themselves in a State of rediness and Sent Sergt. Pryor & 4 men to know
 the cause of the alarm which was found to be a premeditated plan of the
 pretended friend of McNeal to assanate for his Blanket and what fiew
 articles he had about him, which was found out by a Chin nook woman who
 allarmed the men of the village who were with me in time to prevent the
 horred act. this man was of another band at Some distance and ran off
 as Soon as he was discovered. we have now to look back and Shudder at
 the dreadfull road on which we have to return of 45 miles S E of Point
 adams & 35 miles from Fort Clatsop. I had the blubber & oil divided
 among the party and Set out about Sunrise and returned by the Same rout
 we had went out, met Several parties of men & womin of the Chinnook and
 Clatsops nations, on their way to trade with the Kil a mox for blubber
 and oil; on the Steep decent of the Mountain I overtook five men and
 Six womin with emence loads of the Oil and blubber of the Whale, those
 Indians had passed by Some rout by which we missed them as we went out
 yesterday; one of the women in the act of getting down a Steep part of
 the mountain her load by Some means had Sliped off her back, and She
 was holding the load by a Strap which was fastened to the mat bag in
 which it was in, in one hand and holding a bush by the other, as I was
 in front of my party, I endeavored to relieve this woman by takeing her
 load untill She Could get to a better place a little below, & to my
 estonishment found the load as much as I Could lift and must exceed 100
 wt. the husband of this woman who was below Soon came to her releif,
 those people proceeded on with us to the Salt works, at which place we
 arrived late in the evening, found them without meat, and 3 of the
 Party J. Field Gibson & Shannon out hunting. as I was excessively
 fatigued and my party appeared verry much so, I deturmined to Stay
 untill the morning and rest our Selves a little. The Clatsops proceeded
 on with their lodes--The Clatsops, Chin nooks Kil a mox &c. are verry
 loquacious and inquisitive; they possess good memories and have
 repeeted to us the names capasities of the Vessels &c of maney traders
 and others who have visited the mouth of this river; they are generally
 low in Statue, proportionably Small, reather lighter complected and
 much more illy formed than the Indians of the Missouri and those of our
 fronteers; they are generally Chearfull but never gay. with us their
 Conversation generally turns upon the subject of trade, Smokeing,
 eating or their womin; about the latter, they Speak without reserve in
 their presence, of their every part, and of the most farmiliar
 Connection. they do not hold the virtue of their womin in high
 estimation, and will even prostitute their wives and Daughters for a
 fishing hook or a Stran of beeds. in Common with other Savage nations
 they make their womin perform every Species of domestic drugery; but in
 almost every Species of this drugery the men also participate. their
 woman are compelled to gather roots, and assist them in takeing fish;
 which articles form much the greater part of their Subsistance;
 notwithstanding the Survile manner in which they treat their womin they
 pay much more respect to their judgement and oppinion in maney respects
 than most indian nations; their womin are permited to Speak freely
 before them, and Sometimes appear to command with a tone of authority;
 they generally consult them in their traffic and act conformably to
 their opinions.
 I think it may be established as a general maxim that those nations
 treat their old people and women with most defference and respect where
 they Subsist principally on Such articles that these can participate
 with the men in obtaining them; and that, that part of the Community
 are treated with least attention, when the act of precureing
 subsistance devolves intirely on the men in the vigor of life. It
 appears to me that nature has been much more deficient in her filial
 ties than in any others of the Strong effections of the humane heart,
 and therefore think our old men equally with our woman indebted to
 Sivilization for their ease and Comfort. I am told among the Sioux's,
 Assinniboins and others on the Missouri who Subsist by hunting it is a
 Custom when a person of either Sex becoms So old and infirm that they
 are unable to travel on foot, from Camp to Camp as they rove in serch
 of Subsistance, for the Children or near relations of Such person to
 leave them without Compunction or remorse; on those occasions they
 usially place within their reach a Small piece of meat and a platter of
 water, telling the poor old Superannuated retch for their Consolation,
 that he or She had lived long enough, and that it was time they Should
 die and go to their relations who Can afford to take Care of them, much
 better than they Could. I am informed that the Me ne tar es Ar war har
 mays and Ricares when attended by their old people on their hunting
 expedition prosued the Same Custom; but injustice to those people I
 must observe that it appeared to me at their villages, that they
 provided tolerably well for their aged persons, and Several of their
 feasts appear to have principally for their object a contribution for
 their aged and infirm persons. In one of the Mandan villages I Saw an
 old man to whome I gave a knife and enquired his age, he Said he had
 Seen more than 100 winters, and that he Should Soon go down the river
 to their old village--he requested I would give him Something to
 prevent the pain in his back his grand Son a Young man rebuked the old
 man and Said it was not worth while, that it was time for the old man
 to die. the old man occupied one Side of the fire and was furnished
 with plenty of Covouring and food, and every attention appeared to be
 paid him &c. Jo. Field in my absence had killed an Elk and a Deer,
 brought in the Deer and half of the Elk on a part of which we Suped,
 Some rain a little after dark. I visited a house near the Salt boilers
 found it inhabited by 2 families, they were pore dirty and their house
 Sworming with flees.-
 
 [Lewis, January 10, 1806]
 Saturday January 10th 1806.
 About 10 A.M. I was visited by Tia Shah-har-war-cap and eleven of his
 nation in one large canoe; these are the Cuth'-lah-mah nation who
 reside first above us on the South side of the Columbia river; this is
 the first time that I have seen the Chief, he was hunting when we past
 his vilage on our way to this place. I gave him a medal of the smallest
 size; he presented me with some indian tobacco and a basquit of
 wappetoe, in return for which I gave him some thread for making a
 skiming net and a small piece of tobacco. these people speak the same
 language with the Chinnooks and Catsops whom they also resemble in
 their dress customs manners &c. they brought some dryed salmon,
 wappetoe, dogs, and mats made of rushes and flags, to barter; their
 dogs and a part of their wappetoe they disposed off, an remained all
 night near the fort. This morning Drewyer and Collins returned having
 killed two Elk only, and one of those had died in their view over a
 small lake which they had not the means of passing it being late in the
 evening and has of course spoiled, as it laid with the entrals in it
 all night; as the tide was going out we could not send for the elk
 today, therefore ordered a party to go for it early in the morning and
 George and Collins to continue their hunt; meat has now become scarce
 with us.
 Capt Clark returned at to P.M. this evening with the majority of the
 party who accompanyed him; having left some men to assist the
 saltmakers to bring in the meat of two Elk which they had killed, and
 sent 2 others through by land to hunt. Capt. Clark found the whale on
 the Coast about 45 Miles S. E. of Point Adams, and about 35 Miles from
 Fort Clatsop by the rout he took; The whale was already pillaged of
 every valuable part by the Killamucks, in the vicinity of one of whose
 villages it lay on the strand where the waves and tide had driven up
 and left it. this skelleton measured one hundred and five feet. Capt.
 C. found the natives busily engaged in boiling the blubber, which they
 performed in a large wooden trought by means of hot stones; the oil
 when extracted was secured in bladders and the guts of the whale; the
 blubber, from which the oil was only partially extracted by this
 process, was laid by in their lodges in large fliches for uce; this
 they usually expose to the fire on a wooden spit untill it is pretty
 well warmed through and then eat it either alone or with the roots of
 the rush, squawmash, fern wappetoe &c. The natives although they
 possessed large quantities of this blubber and oil were so penurious
 that they disposed of it with great reluctance and in small quantities
 only; insomuch that the utmost exertions of Capt. C. and the whole
 party aided by the little stock of merchandize he had taken with him
 and some small articles which the men had, were not able to procure
 more blubber than about 300 lb. and a few gallons of the oil; this they
 have brought with them, and small as the store is, we prize it highly,
 and thank providence for directing the whale to us, and think him much
 more kind to us than he was jonah, having sent this monster to be
 swallowed by us in stead of swallowing of us as jona's did. Capt. C.
 found the road along the coast extreemly difficult of axcess, lying
 over some high rough and stoney hills, one of which he discribes as
 being much higher than the others, having it's base washed by the Ocean
 over which it rares it's towering summit perpendicularly to the hight
 of 1500 feet; from this summit Capt. C. informed me that there was a
 delightfull and most extensive view of the Ocean, the coast and
 adjacent country; this Mout. I have taken the liberty of naming Clark's
 Mountain and point of view; it is situated about 30 M. S. E. of Point
 Adams and projects about 21/2 miles into the Ocean; Killamucks river
 falls in a little to the N. W. of this mountain; in the face of this
 tremendious precepice there is a stra of white earth (see specimen No.
 ____) which the neighbouring Indians use to paint themselves, and which
 appears to me to resemble the earth of which the French Porcelain is
 made; I am confident this earth contains Argill, but wether it also
 contains Silex or magnesia, or either of those earths in a proper
 proportion I am unable to determine.--Shannon and Gass were found with
 the Salt makers and ordered to return McNeal was near being
 assassinated by a Killamuck Indian, but fortunately escaped in
 consequence of a Chinnook woman giving information to Capt. C., the
 party and Indians with them before the villain had prepaired himself to
 execute his purposes. The party returned excessively fortiegued and
 tired of their jaunt. Killamucks river is 85 yards wide, rappid and 3
 feet deep in the shallowest part. The Killamucks in their habits
 customs manners dress and language differ but little from the Clatsops
 & Chinnooks. they place their dead in canoes resting on the ground
 uncovered, having previously secured the dead bodies in an oblong box
 of plank.
 The coast in the neighbourhood of Clarks Mountain is sliping off &
 falling into the Ocean in immence masses; fifty or a hundred Acres at a
 time give way and a great proportion in an instant precipitated into
 the Ocean. these hills and mountains are principally composed of a
 yellow clay; there sliping off or spliting assunder at this time is no
 doubt caused by the incessant rains which have fallen within the last
 two months. the country in general as about Fort Clatsop is covered
 with a very heavy growth of several species of pine & furr, also the
 arbor vita or white cedar and a small proportion of the black Alder
 which last sometimes grows to the hight of sixty or seventy feet, and
 from two to four feet in diameter. some species of the pine rise to the
 immence hight of 210 feet and are from 7 to 12 feet in diameter, and
 are perfectly sound and solid.
 
 [Clark, January 10, 1806]
 Jany 10 Friday 1806
 I left Sergt. Gass here and Set out at Sun rise, Crossed the little
 river which I waded 85 yards wide & 3 feet Deep Swift, at which place I
 Saw Several Indians one of which had 2 butifull Sea orter Skins on as a
 roabe, here the Creek which I crossed at a tree and on which I camped
 the 6th inst. came within 200 yds of the river & they Inds. make a
 portage here, Continued on a place 3 miles Crossed this Creek in a
 Small Canoe. here I expected to find Shannon and gibson with meet to
 furnish the Salt makers, but did not, divided the party Sent 2 men to
 my right to try and kill Elk, Soon after met Gibson & Shannon with
 meat, they had killed 2 Elk 2 miles to my right, I divided the meat
 between the party, and the load of 3 men whome I Send with gibson &
 Shannon to help Carrey the 2 Elk to the Salt makers, and I my Self and
 the party returned by the Same rout we went out to the Canoes Rd.
 Frasure behaved very badly, and mutonous--he also lost his large Knife.
 I Sent him back to look for his knife, with Directions to return with
 the party of Serjt Gass, I proceded on, here is a portage of 1/4 of a
 mile from this Creck to a branch which falls into the Bay, we proceeded
 on a much bette road than we went out across a Deep Slash and found our
 Canoes Safe, and Set out at Sunset, and arived at the foart, wet and
 Cold at 9 oClock P.M. found a Cheif & number of Indians both Encamped
 on the Shore, and at the fort of the Cath la-hur Tribe which lives at
 no great distance above this back of an Island Close under the South
 Side of the Columbia River
 Those people Speake the Same Language of the Clotsops dress nearly
 alike the men of both Cut their hair in the neck. use blankets of the
 manifactory of the nativs near the falls of the Sheep Wool-fond of
 brass arm bands and Check, They bring Wap-pa-to root (which is
 Sagittifolia or the Common arrow head which is Cultivated by the
 Chinees) to Sell.
 
 [Clark, January 10, 1806]
 Friday the 10th of January 1806
 I derected Serjt. Gass to Continue with the Salt makers untill Shannon
 return from hunting, and then himself and Shannon to return to the
 Fort, I Set out at Sunrise with the party waded the Clat Sop river
 which I found to be 85 Steps across and 3 feet deep, on the opposite
 Side a Kil a mox Indian Came to and offered to Sell Some roots of which
 I did not want, he had a robe made of 2 large Sea otter Skins which I
 offered to purchase, but he would not part with them, we returned by
 nearly the Same rout which I had Come out, at four miles, I met Gibson
 & Shannon each with a load of meat, they informed me that they had
 killed Elk about 2 miles off, I directed 3 men to go with the hunters
 and help them pack the meat to the place they were makeing Salt, and
 return to the fort with Serjt. Gass, the balance of the party took the
 load of the 3 men, after crossing the 2d Creek frasure informed me that
 he had lost his big knife, here we Dined, I put frasurs load on my
 guide who is yet with me, and Sent him back in Serch of his knife with
 directions to join the other men who were out packing meat & return to
 the fort all together. I arrived at the Canoes about Sunset, the tides
 was Comeing in I thought it a favourable time to go on to the fort at
 which place we arrived at 10 oClock P M, found Several inidians of the
 Cath'-lah-mah nation the great Chief Shahhar-wah cop who reside not far
 above us on the South Side of the Columbia River, this is the first
 time I have Seen the Chief, he was hunting when we passed his village
 on our way to this place, we gave him a medal of the Smallest Size, he
 presented me with a basquet of Wappato, in return for which I gave him
 a fish hook of a large Size and Some wire, those people Speak the Same
 language with the Chinnooks and Clatsops, whome they all resemble in
 Dress, Custom, manners &c. they brought Some Dried Salmon, Wappato,
 Dogs, and mats made of rushes & flags to barter; their Dogs and part of
 their wappato they disposed of, and remained in their Camp near the
 fort all night.
 In my absence the hunters from the fort killed only two Elk which is
 yet out in the woods. Capt. Lewis examined our Small Stock of
 merchendize found Some of it wet and Dried it by the fire. Our
 merchindize is reduced to a mear handfull, and our Comfort, dureing our
 return next year, much depends on it, it is therefore almost
 unnecessary to add that it is much reduced The nativs in this
 neighbourhood are excessively fond of Smokeing tobacco. in the act of
 Smokeing they appear to Swallow it as they draw it from the pipe, and
 for maney draughts together you will not perceive the Smoke they take
 from the pipe, in the Same manner they inhale it in their longs untill
 they become Surcharged with the vapour when they puff it out to a great
 distance through their norstils and mouth; I have no doubt that tobacco
 Smoked in this manner becomes much more intoxicating, and that they do
 possess themselves of all its virtues to the fullest extent; they
 frequently give us Sounding proofs of its createing a dismorallity of
 order in the abdomen, nor are those light matters thought indelicate in
 either Sex, but all take the liberty of obeying the dicktates of nature
 without reserve. Those people do not appear to know the use of
 Speritious licquors, they never haveing once asked us for it; I prosume
 therefore that the traders who visit them have never indulged them with
 the use of it; of whatever Cause this may proceed, it is a verry
 fortunate occurrence, as well for the nativs themselves, as for the
 quiet and Safty of those whites who visit them. George Drewyer visited
 this traps in my absence and caught a Beaver & a otter; the beaver was
 large and fat, and Capt. L. has feested Sumptiously on it yesterday;
 this we Consider as a great prize, it being a full grown beaver was
 well Supplyed with the materials for makeing bate with which to Catch
 others. this bate when properly prepared will entice the beaver to
 visit it as far as he can Smell it, and this I think may be Safely
 Stated at 1/2 a mile, their Sence of Smelling being verry accute. To
 prepare beaver bate, the Caster or bark Stone is taken as the base,
 this is generally pressed out of the bladder like bag which Contains
 it, into a phiol of 4 ounces with a wide mouth; if you have them you
 will put from 4 to 6 Stone in a phial of that Capacity, to this you
 will add half a nutmeg, a Dozen or 15 grains of Cloves and 30 grains of
 Sinimon finely pulverised, Stur them well together, and then add as
 much ardent Sperits to the Composition as will reduce it to the
 Consistancey of mustard prepared for the table, when thus prepared it
 resembles mustard precisely to all appearance. When you cannot precure
 a phial a bottle made of horn or a light earthern vessel will answer,
 in all Cases it must be excluded from the air or it will Soon lose its
 Virtue; it is fit for use imediately it is prepared but becoms much
 Stronger and better in 4 or 5 days and will keep for months provided it
 be purfectly Secluded from the air. when Cloves are not to be had use
 double the quantity of allspice, and when no Spices can be obtained use
 the bark of the root of the Sausafras; when Sperits cannot be had use
 oil Stone of the beaver adding mearly a Sufficent quantity to moisten
 the other materials, or reduce it to a Stiff paste. it appears to me
 that the principal use of the Spices is only to give a variety to the
 Scent of the bark Stone and if So the mace vineller, and other Sweet
 Smelling Spices might be employd with equal advantage. The Male Beaver
 has Six stones, two which Contanes a Substance much like finely
 pulverised bark of a pale yellow Colour and not unlike tanner's ooz in
 Smell, these are Called the bark Stones or castors; two others, which
 like the bark stone resemble Small blatters, contain a pure oil of a
 Strong rank disagreable Smell, and not unlike train Oil, these are
 Called the Oil Stones, and two others of Generation. The bark stones
 are about 2 inches in length, the others Somewhat Smaller, all are of a
 long Oval form, and lye in a bunch together between the skin and the
 root of the tail beneath or behind the fundiment with which they are
 Closely Connected and Seam to Communicate, the pride of the female lye
 on the inner Side much like those of the hog they have no further parts
 of Generation that I can proceive, and therefore believe that like the
 birds they Coperate with the extremity of the gut. The female have from
 2 to 4 young ones at a birth and bring forth once a year only which
 usially happins about the Latter end of May and beginning of June. at
 this Stage She is Said to drive the Mail from the lodge, who would
 otherwise distroy the young
 
 [Lewis, January 11, 1806]
 Sunday January 11th 1806.
 Sent a party early this morning for the Elk which was killed on the
 9th. they returned with it in the evening; Drewyer and Collins also
 returned without having killed anything. this morning the Sergt. of the
 guard reported the absence of our Indian Canoe, on enquiry we found
 that those who came in it last evening had been negligent in securing
 her and the tide in the course of the night had taken her off; we sent
 a party down to the bay in surch of her, they returned unsuccessfull,
 the party also who went up the river and Creek in quest of the meat
 were ordered to lookout for her but were equally unsuccessfull; we
 ordered a party to resume their resurches for her early tomorrow; this
 will be a very considerable loss to us if we do not recover her; she is
 so light that four men can carry her on their sholders a mile or more
 without resting; and will carry three men and from 12 to 15 hundred
 lbs. the Cuthlahmahs left us this evening on their way to the Catsops,
 to whom they purpose bartering their wappetoe for the blubber and oil
 of the whale, which the latter purchased for beads &c. from the
 Killamucks; in this manner there is a trade continually carryed on by
 the natives of the river each trading some article or other with their
 neighbours above and below them; and thus articles which are vended by
 the whites at the entrance of this river, find their way to the most
 distant nations enhabiting it's waters.
 
 [Clark, January 11, 1806]
 Saturday 11th of January 1806
 Sent a party early this morning for the Elk which was killed on the 9th
 they returned with it in the evining; This morning the Serjt. of the
 guard reported that our Indian Canoe had gone a Drift, on enquiry we
 found that those who Came in it last evening had been negligent in
 Secureing her, and the tide in Corse of the night had taken her off; we
 Sent a party down to the bay in Serch of her, they returned
 unsecksessfull, the party who went up the river and Creek after meat
 were derected to look out for her but were equally unsecksessfull; this
 will be a verry considerable loss to us if we do not recover her, She
 is so light that 4 men Can Carry her on their Sholders a mile or more
 without resting, and will Carry four men and from 10 to 12 hundred
 pounds. The Cath IA mahs left us this evening on their way to the
 Clatsops, to whome they perpose bartering their wappato for the blubber
 & Oil of the whale, which the latter purchased for Beeds &c. from the
 Kil a mox; in this manner there is a trade Continually Carried on by
 the nativs of the river each tradeing Some articles or other with their
 neighbours above and below them, and those articles which are Vended by
 the whites at their enterance of this river, find their way to the most
 distant nations inhabiting its waters.
 
 [Lewis, January 12, 1806]
 Monday January 12th 1806.
 The men who were sent in surch of the canoe returned without being able
 to find her, we therefore give her over as lost. This morning sent out
 Drewyer and one man to hunt, they returned in the evening, Drewyer
 having killed seven Elk; I scarcely know how we should subsist were it
 not for the exertions of this excellet hunter. At 2 P.M. the ballance
 of the party who had been left by Capt. C. arrived; about the same time
 the two hunters also arrived who had been dispatched by Capt C. for the
 purpose of hunting on the 9th inst.; they had killed nothing. We have
 heretofore usually divided the meat when first killed among the four
 messes into which we have divided our party leaving to each the care of
 preserving and the discretion of using it, but we find that they make
 such prodigal use of it when they hapen to have a tolerable stock on
 hand that we have determined to adapt a different system with our
 present stock of seven Elk; this is to jerk it & issue it to them in
 small quantities.
 
 [Clark, January 12, 1806]
 Sunday the 12th January 1806
 This morning Sent out Drewyer and one man to hunt, they returned in the
 evening Drewyer haveing killed 7 Elk; I scercely know how we Should
 Subsist, I beleive but badly if it was not for the exertions of this
 excellent hunter; maney others also exert themselves, but not being
 accquainted with the best method of finding and killing the elk and no
 other wild animals is to be found in this quarter, they are
 unsucksessfull in their exertions. at 2 P. M Serjt. Gass and the men I
 left to assist the Salt makers in Carrying in their meat arrived also
 the hunters which I directed to hunt in the point, they killed
 nothing-. We have heretofore devided the meat when first killed among
 the four messes, into which we have divided our party, leaveing to each
 the Care of preserving and distribution of useing it; but we find that
 they make such prodigal use of it when they happen to have a tolerable
 Stock on hand, that we are determined to adapt a Different System with
 our present stock of Seven Elk; this is to jurk it and issue it to them
 in Small quantities
 
 [Lewis, January 13, 1806]
 Tuesday January 13th 1806.
 This morning I took all the men who could be spared from the Fort and
 set out in quest of the flesh of the seven Elk that were killed
 yesterday, we found it in good order being untouched by the wolves, of
 which indeed there are but few in this country; at 1 P.M. we returned
 having gotten all the meat to the fort. this evening we exhausted the
 last of our candles, but fortunately had taken the precaution to bring
 with us moulds and wick, by means of which and some Elk's tallow in our
 possession we do not yet consider ourselves destitute of this necessary
 article; the Elk we have killed have a very small portion of tallow.
 The traders usually arrive in this quarter, as has been before
 observed, in the month of April, and remain untill October; when here
 they lay at anchor in a bay within Cape Disappointment on the N. side
 of the river; here they are visited by the natives in their canoes who
 run along side and barter their comodities with them, their being no
 houses or fortification on shore for that purpose. the nations who
 repare thither are fist, those of the sea coast S. E. of the entrance
 of the river, who reside in the order in which their names are
 mentioned, begining at the entrance of the river (viz) The Clatsop,
 Killamuck, Ne-cost, Nat-ti, Nat-chies, Tarl-che, E-slitch, You-cone and
 So-see. secondly those inhabiting the N. W. coast begining at the
 entrance of the river and mentioned in the same order; the Chinnook and
 Chiltch the latter very numerous; and thirdly the Cath-lah-mah, and
 Skil-lutes, the latter numerous and inhabiting the river from a few
 miles above the marshey Islands, where the Cuth-lahmahs cease, to the
 grand rappids. These last may be esteemed the principal carryers or
 intermediate traders betwen the whites and the Indians of the Sea
 Coast, and the E-ne-shurs, the E-chee-lutes, and the Chil-luckkit-te
 quaws, who inhabit the river above, to the grand falls inclusive, and
 who prepare most of the pounded fish which is brought to market. The
 bay in which this trade is carryed on is spacious and commodious, and
 perfectly secure from all except the S. and S. E. winds, these however
 are the most prevalent and strong winds in the Winter season. fresh
 water and wood are very convenient and excellent timber for refiting
 and reparing vessels.
 
 [Clark, January 13, 1806]
 Monday 13th January 1806
 Capt. Lewis took all the men which Could be Speared from the Fort and
 Set out in quest of the flesh of the Seven Elk which were killed
 yesterday they found the meat all Secure untouched by the Wolves, of
 which indeed there are but fiew in this Countrey; at 1 P.M. the party
 returned with the 2d and Last load of meat to the fort. this evening we
 finished all last of our Candles, we brought with us, but fortunately
 had taken the precaution to bring with us moulds and wick, by means of
 which and Some Elk tallow in our possession we do not think our Selves
 distitute of this necessary article, the Elk which have been killed
 have a verry Small portion of tallow. The Traders usially arrive in
 this quarter, in the month of april, and remain until October; when
 here they lay at anchor in a Bay within Cape Disapointment on the N.
 Side of the river; here they are visited by the nativs in their Canoes
 who run along Side and barter their Comodities with them, their being
 no houses or fortification on Shore for that purpose.
 The nations who repare thither ar first those of the Sea Coast S. E & N
 W of the enterance of the river, who reside in the order in which their
 names are mentioned to the S E. the Clat Sops, Kil-a-mox, and those to
 the N W. the Chin nooks, and Chiltch; and Secondly the Cath-lah-mah,
 War-ki-a-cum, and Skil-lutes, the latter noumerous and inhabiting those
 last may be considered or intermedeate traders between the whites and
 nations on the Sea Coast, and the E-ne-churs, the E-chee-lutes, and the
 Chil-luck-kitte-quaws, who inhabit the river up to the great falls
 inclusive, and who prepare most of the pounded fish which is brought to
 Market.
 The Bay in which the trade is Carried on is Spacious and Commodious,
 and perfectly Secure from all except the S. & S E Winds and those blow
 but Seldom the most prevalent & Strong winds are from the S W & N W in
 the Winter Season. fish water and wood are very Convenient and
 excellent timber for refitting and repareing vessels.-.
 
 [Lewis, January 14, 1806]
 Wednesday January 14th 1806.
 This morning the Sergt. of the Guard reported the absence of one of the
 large perogues, it had broken the chord by which it was attatched and
 the tide had taken it off; we sent a party immediately in surch of her,
 they returned in about 3 hours having fortunately found her. we now
 directed three of the perogues to be drawn up out of reach of the tide
 and the fourth to be mored in the small branch just above the landing
 and confined with a strong rope of Elk-skin. had we lost this perogue
 also we should have been obliged to make three small ones, which with
 the few tools we have now left would be a serious undertaking. a
 fatiegue of 6 men employed in jerking the Elk beaf.
 From the best estimate we were enabled to make as we dscended the
 Columbia we conceived that the natives inhabiting that noble stream,
 for some miles above the great falls to the grand rappids inclusive
 annually prepare about 30,000 lbs. of pounded sammon for market. but
 whether this fish is an article of commerce with the whites or is
 exclusively sold to and consumed by the natives of the sea Coast, we
 are at a loss to determine. the first of those positions I am disposed
 to credit most, but, still I must confess that I cannot imagine what
 the white merchant's object can be in purchasing this fish, or where
 they dispose of it. and on the other hand the Indians in this
 neighbourhood as well as the Skillutes have an abundance of dryed
 sammon which they take in the creeks and inlets, and I have never seen
 any of this pounded fish in their lodges, which I pesume would have
 been the case if they purchased this pounded fish for their own
 consumption. the Indians who prepared this dryed and pounded fish,
 informed us that it was to trade with the whites, and shewed us many
 articles of European manufacture which they obtained for it. it is true
 they obtain those articles principally for their fish but they trade
 with the Skillutes for them and not immediately with the whites; the
 intermediate merchants and carryers, the Skillutes, may possibly
 consume a part of this fish themselves and dispose of the ballance of
 it the natives of the sea coast, and from them obtain such articles as
 they again trade with the whites.
 
 [Clark, January 14, 1806]
 Tuesday 14th January 1806
 This morning the Serjt. of the guard reported the absence of one of our
 Canoes it had broken the Cord by which it was attached and the tide had
 taken her off; we Sent a party imediately in Serch of her, they
 returned in about 3 hours haveing fortunately found her. we now derect
 that 3 of the canoes be drawed up out of reach of the tide and the 4th
 to be tied with a long Strong Cord of Elk Skins, ready for use. had we
 lost this large Canoe we Should have been obliged to make 3 other Small
 ones, which with the fiew tools we have now left would be a Serious
 undertakeing. a fatiege of Six men employd in jurking the Elk beef.
 From the best estermate we were enabled to make as we decended the
 Columbia we Conceived that the nativs inhabiting that noble Stream
 (from the enterance of Lewis's river to the neighbourhood of the falls
 the nativs Consume all the fish they Catch either for food or fuel)
 From Tow ar ne hi ooks River or a fiew mils above the Great falls to
 the grand rapids inclusive anually prepare about 30,000 lbs of pounded
 fish (Chiefly Salmon) for market, but whether this fish is an article
 of Commerce with their neighbours or is exclusively Sold to, and
 Consumed by the nativs of the Sea coast, we are at a loss to determine
 the latter of those positions I am dispose to credit most, as I cannot
 imagine what the white merchents objet Could be in purchaseing fish, or
 where they Could dispose of it. on the other hand the Indians in this
 neighbourhood as well as the Skillutes and those above have an
 abundance of Dryed Salmon which they take in the Creeks and inlets.
 they are excessively fond of the pounded fish haveing frequently asked
 us for Some of it-. the Indians who prepared this pounded fish made
 Signs that they traded it with people below them for Beeds and trinkets
 &c and Showed us maney articles of European manufacture which they
 obtained for it; The Skillutes and Indians about the great rapids are
 the intermediate merchants and Carryers, and no doubt Consume a part of
 this fish themselves and dispose of the ballance of it to the nativs of
 the Sea coast, and from this obtain Such articles as they again trade
 with the whites.
 The persons who usially visit the enterence of this river for the
 purpose of traffic or hunting, I believe is either English or
 Americans; the Indians inform us that they Speak the Same language with
 our Selves, and gave us proofs of their varacity by repeating maney
 words of English, Sun of a pitch &c. whether those traders are from
 Nootka Sound, from Some other late establishment on this Coast, or
 imediately from the U States or Great Brittain, I am at a loss to
 determine, nor Can the Indians inform us. the Indians whome I have
 asked in what direction the traders go when they depart from hence,
 allways point to the S. W. from which it is prosumeable that Nootka
 cannot be their distination, and from Indian information a majority of
 those traders annually visit them about the beginning of April and
 remain Some time and either remain or revisit them in the fall of which
 I cannot properly understand, from this Circumstance they Cannot Come
 directly from the U States or Great Brittain, the distance being to
 great for them to go and return in the ballance of a year. I am
 Sometimes induced to believe that there is Some other Establishment on
 the Coast of America South of this place of which little is but yet
 known to the world, or it may be perhaps on Some Island in the Pacific
 Ocian between the Continant of America & Asia to the S. W. of us. This
 traffic on the part of the whites Consist in vending, guns, principally
 old British or American Musquets, powder, balls and Shote, brass tea
 kettles, Blankets from two to three points, Scarlet and blue Cloth
 (Coarse), plates and Strips of Sheet Copper and brass, large brass wire
 Knives Beeds &Tobacco with fishing hooks, buttons and Some other Small
 articles; also a considerable quantity of Salors Clothes, as hats,
 Coats, Trouses and Shirts. for those they receive in return from the
 nativs Dressed and undressed Elk Skins, Skins of the Sea otter, Common
 Otter, beaver, common fox, Speck, and tiger Cat, also Some Salmon dried
 or pounded and a kind of buisket, which the nativs make of roots called
 by them Shappelell. The nativs are extravigantly fond of the most
 Common Cheap Blue and white beeds, of moderate Size, or Such that from
 50 to 70 will way one pennyweight, the blue is usially prefured to the
 white; those beeds Constitute the principal Circulating medium with all
 the Indian tribes on this river; for those beeds they will dispose of
 any article they possess-. the beeds are Strung on Straps of a fathom
 in length & in that manner Sold by the breth or yard-.
 
 [Lewis, January 15, 1806]
 Thursday January 15th 1806.
 Had a large coat completed out of the skins of the Tiger Cat and those
 also of a small animal about the size of a squirrel not known to me;
 these skins I procured from the Indians who had previously dressed them
 and formed them into robes; it took seven of these robes to complete
 the coat. we had determined to send out two hunting parties today but
 it rained so incessantly that we posponed it. no occurrence worthy of
 relation took place today.
 The implyments used by the Chinnooks Clatsops Cuthlahmahs &c in hunting
 are the gun the bow & arrow, deadfalls, pitts, snares, and spears or
 gigs; their guns are usually of an inferior quality being oald refuse
 American & brittish Musquits which have been repared for this trade.
 there are some very good peices among them, but they are invariably in
 bad order; they apear not to have been long enouh accustomed to fire
 arms to understand the management of them. they have no rifles. Their
 guns and amunition they reserve for the Elk, deer and bear, of the two
 last however there are but few in their neighbourhood. they keep their
 powder in small japaned tin flasks which they obtain with their
 amunition from the traders; when they happen to have no ball or shot,
 they substitute gravel or peices of potmettal, and are insensible of
 the damage done thereby to their guns. The bow and arrow is the most
 common instrument among them, every man being furnished with them
 whether he has a gun or not; this instrument is imployed
 indiscriminately in hunting every species of anamal on which they
 subsist. Their bows are extreamly neat and very elastic, they are about
 two and a half feet in length, and two inches in width in the center,
 thence tapering graduly to the extremities where they are half an inch
 wide they are very flat and thin, formed of the heart of the arbor vita
 or white cedar, the back of the bow being thickly covered with sinews
 of the Elk laid on with a gleue which they make from the sturgeon; the
 string is made of sinues of the Elk also. the arrow is formed of two
 parts usually tho sometime entire; those formed of two parts are
 unequally divided that part on which the feathers are placed occupyes
 four fifths of it's length and is formed of light white pine reather
 larger than a swan's quill, in the lower extremity of this is a
 circular mortice secured by sinues roled arround it; this mortice
 receives the one end of the 2nd part which is of a smaller size than
 the first and about five inches long, in the end of this the barb is
 fixed and confined with sinue, this barb is either stone, iron or
 copper, if metal in this form forming at it's point a greater angle
 than those of any other Indians I have observed. the shorter part of
 the arrow is of hearder wood as are also the whole of the arrow when it
 is of one piece only. as these people live in a country abounding in
 ponds lakes &c and frequently hunt in their canoes and shoot at fowl
 and other anamals where the arrow missing its object would be lost in
 the water they are constructed in the manner just discribed in order to
 make them float should they fall in the water, and consequently can
 again he recovered by the hunter; the quiver is usually the skin of a
 young bear or that of a wolf invariably open at the side in stead of
 the end as the quivers of other Indians generally are; this
 construction appears to answer better for the canoe than if they were
 open at the end only. maney of the Elk we have killed since we have
 been here, have been wounded with these arrows, the short piece with
 the barb remaining in the animal and grown up in the flesh.--the
 deadfalls and snares are employed in taking the wolf the raccoon and
 fox of which there are a few only. the spear or gig is used to take the
 sea otter, the common otter, spuck, and beaver. their gig consists of
 two points or barbs and are the same in their construction as those
 discribed before as being common among the Indians on the upper part of
 this river. their pits are employed in taking the Elk, and of course
 are large and deep, some of them a cube of 12 or 14 feet. these are
 usually placed by the side of a large fallen tree which as well as the
 pit lye across the toads frequented by the Elk. these pitts are
 disguised with the slender boughs of trees and moss; the unwary Elk in
 passing the tree precipitates himself into the pitt which is
 sufficiently deep to prevent his escape, and is thus taken.
 
 [Clark, January 15, 1806]
 Friday 15th of January 1806
 Capt. Lewis had a large Coat finished made of the Skins of the tiger
 Cat, and those of the Small animal about the Size of Small Cat not
 known to me; those Skins were precured from the Indians who had
 previously dressed them and formed them into robes; it took Seven of
 those robes to Complete the Coat. no occurrence worthey of remark took
 place. rained hard all day. The imployments used by the Chinnooks
 Clatsops, Cath lah mahs Kil a mox &c. in hunting are the gun the bow &
 arrow, dead falls, Pitts, Snares, and Spears or gigs; their guns are
 usially of an inferior quallity being old refuse american or brittish
 muskets which have been repared for this trade there are Some verry
 good pieces among them, but they are invariably in bad order they
 appear not to be long enough acquainted with fire arms to understand
 the management of them. They have no rifles. Their guns and amunition
 they reserve for the Elk, Deer, and Bear, of the two last however there
 are but fiew in their neighbourhoods. they keep their powder in Small
 japaned tin flasks which they obtain with their amunition from the
 traders; when they happen to have no Ball or Shot they Substitute
 Gravel and are insenceable of the dammage done thereby to their Guns.
 The Bow and arrow is the most common instrement among them, every man
 being furnished with them whether he has a gun or not, this instrement
 is imployed indiscreminately in hunting every Species of animal on
 which they Subsist, Their bows are extreemly meet neat and very
 elastic, they are about two feet Six inches long and two inches wide in
 the Center, thence tapering gradually to the extremities, where they ar
 3/4 of an Inch wide, they are very flat and thin, formed of the heart
 of the arbor vita or white Cedar, the back of the Bow being thickly
 Covered with Sinues of the Elk laid on with a Gleue which they make
 from the Sturgeon; the String is made of the Sinues of the Elk also,
 the arrow is formed of two parts usually tho Sometimes entire; those
 formed of 2 parts are uneaquilly devided, the part on which the
 feathers are placed occupie 4/5 of it's length and is formed of light
 white pine rather larger than a Swans quill, in the lower extremity of
 this is a Circular mortice Secured by Sinues raped around it; this
 mortice recives the one end of the 2d part which is of Smaller Size
 than the first and about five inches long, in the end of this the barb
 is fixed and Confined with Sinues, the berb is either Iron Copper or
 Stone--in this form forming at its point a greater angle than those of
 any other Indians I have observed. The Shorter part of the arrow is of
 harder wood, as are also the whole of the arrow where it is of one
 piece only. as these people live in a Countrey abounding in Ponds lakes
 &c. and frequently hunt in their Canoes and Shoot at fowls and other
 animals where the arrow missing its object would be lost in the water
 they are constructed in the Manner just discribed in order to make them
 flote Should they fall in the water, and Consequently Can again be
 recovered by the hunter; the quiver is useally the Skin of a young bear
 or that of a wolf invariably open at the Side in Sted of the end, as
 the quiver of other Indians generally are, this Construction appears to
 answer better for the Canoe, than if they were open at the end only.
 maney of the Elk which our hunters have killd. Sence we have been here
 have been wounded with those arrows, the Short piece with the barbe
 remaining in the Animal and grown up in the flesh.--the Deadfalls &
 Snares are employd in takeing the Wolf, the racoon and fox of which
 there are a fiew. the Spear or gig is used to take the Sea otter,
 Spuck, & Beaver. The gig consists of two points or birbs and are the
 Same in their Construction as those which are Common among the Indians
 on the upper part of this river and before discribed. Their pitts are
 employed in takeing the Elk, and of Course are large and Deep, Some of
 them a Cube of 12 or 14 feet, those ar commonly placed by the Side of a
 large fallen tree which as well as the pitt lie across the roads
 frequented by the Elk, these pitts are disguised with the Slender bows
 of trees & moss; the unwarry Elk in passing the tree precipates himself
 into the Pitt which is Sufficiently deep to prevent his escape.-
 
 [Lewis, January 16, 1806]
 Friday January 16th 1806.
 This evening we finished curing the meat. no occurrence worthy of
 relation took place today. we have plenty of Elk beef for the present
 and a little salt, our houses dry and comfortable, and having made up
 our minds to remain until the 1st of April, every one appears content
 with his situation and his fare. it is true that we could even travel
 now on our return as far as the timbered country reaches, or to the
 falls of the river; but further it would be madness for us to attempt
 to proceede untill April, as the indians inform us that the snows lye
 knee deep in the plains of Columbia during the winter, and in these
 plains we could scarcely get as much fuel of any kind as would cook our
 provision as we descended the river; and even were we happyly over
 these plains and again in the woody country at the foot of the Rocky
 Mountains we could not possibly pass that immence barrier of mountains
 on which the snows ly in winter to the debth in many places of 20 feet;
 in short the Indians inform us that they are impracticable untill about
 the 1st of June, at which time even there is an abundance of snow but a
 scanty subsistence may be obtained for the horses.--we should not
 therefore forward ourselves on our homeward journey by reaching the
 rocky mountains early than the 1st of June, which we can easily effect
 by seting out from hence on the 1st of April.
 The Clatsops Chinnooks &c. in fishing employ the common streight net,
 the scooping or diping net with a long handle, the gig, and the hook
 and line. the common net is of different lengths and debths usually
 employed in taking the sammon, Carr and trout in the inlets among the
 marshey grounds and the mouths of deep creeks. the skiming or scooping
 net to take small fish in the spring and summer season; the gig and
 hook are employed indiscriminately at all seasons in taking such fish
 as they can procure by their means. their nets and fishing lines are
 made of the silk-grass or white cedar bark; and their hooks are
 generally of European manufactary, tho before the whites visited them
 they made hooks of bone and other substances formed in the following
 manner A C, and C. B. are two small pieces of bone about the size of a
 strong twine, these are flattened and leveled off of their extremities
 near C. where they are firmly attatched together with sinues and
 covered with rosin. C A. is reduced to a sharp point at A where it is
 also bent in a little; C B. is attatched to the line, for about half
 it's length at the upper extremity B. the whole forming two sides of an
 accute angled triangle.
 
 [Clark, January 16, 1806]
 Saturday 16th January 1806
 This evening we finished cureing the meat. no occurrence worthey of
 relation took place to day. we have a plenty of Elk beef for the
 present and a little Salt, our houses dry and Comfortable, haveing made
 up our minds to Stay untill the 1st of April every one appears
 contented with his Situation, and his fair. it is true we Could travel
 even now on our return as far as the timbered Country reaches, or to
 the falls of the river, but further it would be madness for us to
 attempt to proceed untill april, as the indians inform us that the
 Snows lyes knee deep in the Columbian Plains dureing the winter, and in
 those planes we could not git as much wood as would Cook our provisions
 untill the drift wood comes down in the Spring and lodges on the Shore
 &c. and even were we happily over those plains and in the woodey
 countrey at the foot of the rockey mountains, we could not possibly
 pass that emence bearier of mountains on which the Snow lyes in winter
 to the debth in maney placs of 20 feet; in Short the Indians tell us
 they impassable untill about the 1s of June, at which time even then is
 an abundance of snow but a Scanty Subsistance may be had for the
 horses--we Should not foward our homeward journey any by reaching the
 Rocky mountains earlier than the 1st of June which we can effect by
 Setting out from hence by the 1st of April
 The Clatsops, Chinnooks &c. in fishing employ the Common Streight net,
 the Scooping or dipping net with a long handle, the gig, and the hook
 and line. the Common nets are of different lengths and debths usually
 employd in takeing the Salmon, Carr and trout in the inlets among the
 marshey grounds and the mouths of deep Creeks,--the Skiming or scooping
 nets to take Smaller fish in the Spring and Summer Season; the gig and
 hook are employed indiscreminately at all Seasons in takeing Such fish
 as they Can precure by these means. their nets and fishing lines are
 made of the Silk Grass or white Cedar bark; and their hooks are
 generally of European manufactory, tho before the whites visited them
 they made their Hooks of bone and other Substances formed in the
 following manner A C and B C are two Small pieces of bone about the
 Size of a Strong twine, these are flattened & beaveled off to their
 extremites at C, where they are firmley attached together and Covered
 with rozin C A is reduced to a Sharp point at A where it is also bent
 in a little; C B is attached to the line, at the upper extremity B. the
 whole forming two Sides of an accute angled triangle. the line has a
 loop at D which it is anexed to a longer line and taken off at
 pleasure. Those Hooks are yet common among the nativs on the upper
 parts of the Columbia river for to Catch fish in Deep places.
 
 [Lewis, January 17, 1806]
 Saturday January 17th 1806
 This morning we were visited by Comowool and 7 of the Clatsops our
 nearest neighbours, who left us again in the evening. They brought with
 them some roots and buries for sale, of which however they disposed of
 but very few as they asked for them such prices as our stock in trade
 would not license us in giving. the Chief Comowool gave us some roots
 and buries for which we gave him in return a mockerson awl and some
 thread; the latter he wished for the purpose of making a skiming net.
 one of the party was dressed in three very eligant Sea Otter skins
 which we much wanted; for these we offered him many articles but he
 would not dispose of them for any other consideration but blue beads,
 of these we had only six fathoms left, which being 4 less than his
 price for each skin he would not exchange nor would a knife or an
 equivalent in beads of any other colour answer his purposes, these
 coarse blue beads are their favorite merchandiz, and are called by them
 tia Commashuck or Chiefs beads. the best wampum is not so much esteemed
 by them as the most inferior beads. Sent Coalter out to hunt this
 morning, he shortly after returned with a deer, venison is a rarity
 with us we have had none for some weeks. Drewyer also set out on a
 hunting excertion and took one man with him. he intends both to hunt
 the Elk and trap the beaver.
 The Culinary articles of the Indians in our neighbourhood consist of
 wooden bowls or throughs, baskets, wooden spoons and woden scures or
 spits. Their wooden bowls and troughs are of different forms and sizes,
 and most generally dug out of a solid piece; they are ither round or
 simi globular, in the form of a canoe, cubic, and cubic at top
 terminating in a globe at bottom; these are extreemly well executed and
 many of them neatly carved the larger vessels with hand-holes to them;
 in these vessels they boil their fish or flesh by means of hot stones
 which they immerce in the water with the article to be boiled. they
 also render the oil of fish or other anamals in the same manner. their
 baskets are formed of cedar bark and beargrass so closely interwoven
 with the fingers that they are watertight without the aid of gum or
 rosin; some of these are highly ornamented with strans of beargrass
 which they dye of several colours and interweave in a great variety of
 figures; this serves them the double perpose of holding their water or
 wearing on their heads; and are of different capacites from that of the
 smallest cup to five or six gallons; they are generally of a conic form
 or reather the segment of a cone of which the smaller end forms the
 base or bottom of the basket. these they make very expediciously and
 dispose off for a mear trifle. it is for the construction of these
 baskets that the beargrass becomes an article of traffic among the
 natives this grass grows only on their high mountains near the snowey
 region; the blade is about 3/8 of an inch wide and 2 feet long smoth
 pliant and strong; the young blades which are white from not being
 exposed to the sun or air, are those most commonly employed,
 particularly in their neatest work. Their spoons are not remarkable nor
 abundant, they are generally large and the bole brawd. their meat is
 roasted with a sharp scure, one end of which is incerted in the meat
 with the other is set erect in the ground. the spit for roasting fish
 has it's upper extremity split, and between it's limbs the center of
 the fish is inscerted with it's head downwards and the tale and
 extremities of the scure secured with a string, the sides of the fish,
 which was in the first instance split on the back, are expanded by
 means of small splinters of wood which extend crosswise the fish. a
 small mat of rushes or flags is the usual plate or dish on which their
 fish, flesh, roots or burries are served. they make a number of bags
 and baskets not watertight of cedar bark, silk-grass, rushes, flags and
 common coarse sedge. in these they secure their dryed fish, rooots,
 buries, &c.
 
 [Clark, January 17, 1806]
 Sunday 17th January 1806
 This morning we were visited by Comowool and 7 of the Clatsops our
 nearest neighbours, who left us again in the evening. They brought with
 them Some roots and beries for Sale, of which however they disposed of
 very fiew as they asked for them Such prices as our Stock in trade
 would not licence us in giveing. The Chief Comowool gave us Some roots
 and berries, for which we gave him in return a mockerson awl and Some
 thread; the latter he wished for the purpose of makeing a Skiming Net.
 one of the party was dressed in three verry elegant Sea otter Skins
 which we much wanted; for these we offered him maney articles but he
 would not dispose of them for aney other Consideration but Blue beeds,
 of those we had only Six fathoms left, which being 4 less than his
 price for each Skin he would not exchange nor would a Knife or any
 other equivolent in beeds of aney other Colour answer his purpose;
 these Coarse blue beeds are their favourite merchandize and are Called
 by them Tia com ma shuck or Chief beeds, the best Wampom is not as much
 esteemed by them as the most indifferent beeds. Sent Colter out to hunt
 he Shortly after returned with a Deer, Venison is a rarity with us we
 have had none for Some weeks. Drewyer Set out on a hunting expedition
 one man went with him. he intends to hunt the Elk and trap the beaver.
 The Culianary articles of the Indians in our neighbourhood Consists of
 wooden bowls or troughs, Baskets, Shell and wooden Spoons and wooden
 Scures or Spits, their wooden Bowles and troughs are of different forms
 and Sizes, and most generally dug out of Solid piecies; they are either
 round, Square or in the form of a canoe; those are extreemly well
 executed and maney of them neetly covered, the larger vessels with
 handholes to them; in these vessels they boil their fish or flesh by
 means of hot Stones which they immerce in the water with the articles
 to be boiled. They also render the Oil of the fish, or other animals in
 the Same manner. Their baskets are formed of Cedar bark and bargrass So
 closely interwoven withe hands or fingers that they are watertight
 without the aid of gum or rozin; Some of those are highly ornimented
 with the Straps of bargrass which they dye of Several Colours and
 interweave in a great variety of figures; this Serves a double purpose
 of holding the Water or wareing on their heads; and are of different
 Capacities, from that of a Smallest Cup to five or Six gallons, they
 are generally of a Conic form or reather the Segment of a Cone of which
 the Smaller end forms the base or bottom of the basket. these they make
 verry expediciously and dispose of for a mear trifle. it is for the
 Construction of those baskets that Bargrass becoms an article of
 traffic among the nativs of the Columbia. this grass grows only on
 their mountains near the Snowey region; the blade is about 3/8 of an
 inch wide and 2 feet long Smothe plient & Strong; the young blades
 which are white from not being exposed to the Sun or air, are those
 which are most Commonly employ'd, particularly in their neatest work.
 Their wooden Spoons are not remarkable nor abundant, they are large &
 the bowls broad. their meat is roasted with a Sharp Scure, one end of
 which is incerted in the meat while the other is Set erect in the
 ground. The Spit for roasting fish has its upper extremity Split, and
 between its limbs the Center of the fish is incerted with its head
 downwards, and the tale and the extremities of the Scure Secured with a
 String, the Side of the fish, which was in the first instance Split in
 the back, are expanded by means of Small Splinters of wood which extend
 Crosswise the fish. a Small mat of rushes or flags is the usual plate,
 or Dish on which their fish, flesh, roots & berries are Served. they
 make a number of Bags and Baskets not water tight of Cedar bark Silk
 Grass, rushes, flags, and common Gorse Sedge-. in those they Secure
 their dried fish, roots berries &.-
 
 [Lewis, January 18, 1806]
 Sunday January 18th 1806.
 Two of the Clatsops who were here yesterday returned today for a dog
 they had left; they remained with us a few hours and departed. no
 further occurrence worthy of relation took place. the men are still
 much engaged in dressing skins in order to cloath themselves and
 prepare for our homeward journey. The Clatsops Chinnooks &c construct
 their houses of timber altogether. they are from 14 to 20 feet wide and
 from 20 to 60 feet in length, and acommodate one or more families
 sometimes three or four families reside in the same room. thes houses
 are also divided by a partition of boards, but this happens only in the
 largest houses as the rooms are always large compared with the number
 of inhabitants. these houses are constructed in the following manner;
 two or more posts of split timber agreeably to the number of divisions
 or partitions are furst provided, these are sunk in the ground at one
 end and rise perpendicularly to the hight of 14 or 18 feet, the tops of
 them are hollowed in such manner as to receive the ends of a round beam
 of timber which reaches from one to the other, most commonly the whole
 length of the building, and forming the upper part of the roof; two
 other sets of posts and poles are now placed at proper distances on
 either side of the first, formed in a similar manner and parrallel to
 it; these last rise to the intended hight of the eves, which is usually
 about 5 feet. smaller sticks of timber are now provided and are placed
 by pares in the form of rafters, resting on, and reaching from the
 lower to the upper horizontal beam, to both of which they are attatched
 at either end with the cedar bark; two or three ranges of small poles
 are now placed horizontally on these rafters on each side of the roof
 and are secured likewise with strings of the Cedar bark. the ends sides
 and partitions are then formed with one range of wide boards of abut
 two inches thick, which are sunk in the ground a small distance at
 their lower ends and stand erect with their upper ends Taping on the
 outside of the eve poles and end rafters to which they are secured by
 an outer pole lying parallel with the eve poles and rafters being
 secured to them by chords of cedar bark which pass through wholes made
 in the boards at certain distances for that purpose; the rough roof is
 then covered with a double range of thin boards, and an aperture of 2
 by 3 feet left in the center of the roof to permit the smoke to pass.
 these houses are sometimes sunk to the debth of 4 or 5 feet in which
 cace the eve of the house comes nearly to the surface of the earth. in
 the center of each room a space of six by eight feet square is sunk
 about twelve inches lower than the floor having it's sides secured with
 four sticks of squar timber, in this space they make their fire, their
 fuel being generally pine bark. mats are spread arround the fire on all
 sides, on these they set in the day and frequently sleep at night. on
 the inner side of the hose on two sides and sometimes on three, there
 is a range of upright peices about 4 feet removed from the wall; these
 are also sunk in the ground at their lower ends, and secured at top to
 the rafters, from these other peices ar extended horizontally to the
 wall and are secured in the usual method by bark to the upright peices
 which support the eve poles. on these short horizontal pieces of which
 there are sometimes two ranges one above the other, boards are laid,
 which either form ther beads, or shelves on which to put their goods
 and chattles of almost every discription. their uncured fish is hung on
 sticks in the smoke of their fires as is also the flesh of the Elk when
 they happen to be fortunate enough to procure it which is but seldom.
 
 [Clark, January 18, 1806]
 Monday 18th January 1806
 Two of the Clatsops that were here yesterday returned to day for a Dog
 they had left; they remained with us a fiew hours and departed. no
 further accounts worthey of relation took place. the men are much
 engaged dressing Skins in order to Cloath themselves and prepare for
 the homeward journey.
 The Clatsops Chinnooks &c. construct their Houses of timber altogether.
 they are from 14 to 20 feet wide, and from 20 to 60 feet in length, and
 accomodate one or more families Sometimes three or four families reside
 in the Same room. this house is also devided by petitions of Boards,
 but this happens only in the largest houses, as the rooms are always
 large Compared with the number of inhabitents. those houses are
 Constructed in the following manner; two or more posts of Split timber
 agreeably to the number of devisions or partitions are first provided,
 these are Sunk in the ground at one end and raised pirpindicular to the
 hight of 12 or 14 feet, the top of them are hollowed So as to recive
 the end of a round beem of timber which reaches from one to the other
 or the entire length of the house; and forming the ridge pole; two
 other Sets of posts and poles are then placed at proper distancies on
 either Side of the first, formed in a Similar manner and parrelal to
 it; those last rise to the intended hight of the eves, which is usially
 about 5 feet,--Smaller Sticks of timber is then previded and are placed
 by pears in the form of rafters, resting on, and reaching from the
 lower to the upper horizontial beam, to both of which they are atached
 at either end with the Cedar bark; two or 3 ranges of Small poles are
 then placed Horizontially on these rafters on each Side of the roof &
 are Secured likewise with Cedar bark. the ends, Sides, and partitions
 are then formed, with one range of wide boards of about 2 inches thick,
 which are Sunk in the ground a Small distance at their lower ends &
 Stands erect with their upper ends lapping on the out Side of the eve
 poles and end rafters to which they are Secured by a outer pole lyeing
 parrelal with the eve pole and rafters being Secured to them by Cords
 of Cedar bark which pass through wholes made in the bods at Certain
 distances for that purpose; the rough roof is then Covered with a
 double range of thin boards, and an aperture of 2 by 3 feet left in the
 Center of the roof to admit the Smoke to pass. These houses are
 commonly Sunk to the debth of 4 or 5 feet in which Case the eve of the
 house comes nearly to the Surface of the earth. in the Center of each
 room a Space of from 6 by 8 feet is Sunk about 12 inches lower than the
 Hoar haveing its Sides Secured by four thick boards or Squar pieces of
 timber, in this Space they make their fire, their fuel being generally
 dry pine Split Small which they perform with a peice of an Elks horn
 Sharpened at one end drove into the wood with a Stone. mats are Spred
 around the fire on all Sides, on these they Sit in the day and
 frequently Sleep at night. on the inner Side of the house on two Sides
 and Sometimes on three, there is a range of upright pieces about 4 feet
 removed from the wall; these are also Sunk in the ground at their lower
 end, and Secured at top to the rafters, from those, other pieces are
 extended horozontially to the wall and are Secured in the usial manner
 with bark to the upright pieces which Support the eve pole. on these
 Short horizontial peics of which there are Sometimes two ranges one
 above the other, boards are laid, which either form their beads, or
 Shelves on which to put their goods and Chattles, of almost every
 discription. their uncured fish is hung on Sticks in the Smoke of their
 fires as is also the flesh of the Elk when they happen to be fortunate
 enough to precure it which is but Seldom
 
 [Lewis, January 19, 1806]
 Monday January 19th 1806.
 This morning sent out two parties of hunters, consisting of Collins and
 Willard whom we sent down the bay towards point Adams, and Labuish and
 Shannon whom we sent up Fort River; the fist by land and the latter by
 water. we were visited today by two Clatsop men and a woman who brought
 for sale some Sea Otter skins of which we purchased one, giving in
 exchange the remainder of our blue beads consisting of 6 fathoms and
 about the same quantity of small white beads and a knife. we also
 purchased a small quantity of train oil for a pair of Brass armbands
 and a hat for some fishinghooks. these hats are of their own
 manufactory and are composed of Cedar bark and bear grass interwoven
 with the fingers and ornimented with various colours and figures, they
 are nearly waterproof, light, and I am convinced are much more durable
 than either chip or straw. These hats form a small article of traffic
 with the Clatsops and Chinnooks who dispose of them to the whites. the
 form of the hat is that which was in vogue in the Ued States and great
 Britain in the years 1800 & 1801 with a high crown reather larger at
 the top than where it joins the brim; the brim narrow or about 2 or
 21/2 inches.
 Several families of these people usually reside together in the same
 room; they appear to be the father & mother and their sons with their
 son's wives and children; their provision seems to be in common and the
 greatest harmoney appears to exist among them. The old man is not
 always rispected as the head of the family, that duty most commonly
 devolves on one of the young men. They have seldom more than one wife,
 yet the plurality of wives is not denyed them by their customs. These
 families when ascociated form nations or bands of nations each
 acknoledging the authority of it's own chieftain who dose not appear to
 be heriditary, nor his power to extend further than a mear repremand
 for any improper act of an individual; the creation of a chief depends
 upon the upright deportment of the individual & his ability and
 disposition to render service to the community; and his authority or
 the deference paid him is in exact equilibrio with the popularity or
 voluntary esteem he has acquired among the individuals of his band or
 nation. Their laws like those of all uncivilized Indians consist of a
 set of customs which have grown out of their local situations. not
 being able to speak their language we have not been able to inform
 ourselves of the existence of any peculiar customs among them.
 
 [Clark, January 19, 1806]
 Tuesday 19th of January 1806
 This morning Sent out two parties of hunters, one party towards Point
 adams and the other party up Ne tel River by water. we were visited to
 day by two Clatsop men and a woman who brought for Sale Some Sea otter
 Skins of which we purchased one gave in exchange the remainder of our
 blue heeds Consisting of 6 fathoms, and the Same quantity of Small
 white beids and a knife. we also purchased a Small quantity of train
 oil for a par of Brass arm bands, and a hat for Som fishinghooks. these
 hats are of their own manufactory and are Composed of Cedar bark and
 bear grass interwoven with the fingers and ornimented with various
 Colours and figures, they are nearly water proof, light, and I am
 Convinced are much more dureable than either Chip or Straw,--These hats
 form a article of traffic with Clatsops an Chinnooks who dispose of
 them to the whites, the form of the Hats is that which was in voge in
 the U States and Great Britain in 1800 & 1801 with a high Crown rather
 larger at the top than where it joins the brim, the brim narrow about 2
 or 21/2 inches.
 Several families of those people usially reside together in the Same
 room; they appear to be the father mother with their Sons and their
 Sons wives and children; their provisions appears to be in common and
 the greatest harmoney appears to exist among them. the old man is not
 always respected as the head of the family that duty generally devolves
 on one of the young men. They have Sildom more than• one wife, yet
 plurality of wives are not denyed them by their Customs. those families
 when associated form bands of nations each acknowledgeing the authority
 of its own Chieftains, who does not appear to be herititary, or has
 power to extend further than a mear repremand for any improper
 deportment of the indevidual; the Creation of a Chief depends upon the
 upright Conduct of the individual his abiltity and disposition to
 render Service to the Comunity, and his authority and the defference
 paid him is in extent equilibrio with the popolarity or volintary
 esteem he has acquired among the individuals of his band, or nation.
 Their Laws like all uncivilized Indians Consist of a Set of customs
 which has grown out of their local Situations. not being able to Speak
 their language we have not been able to inform ourselves of the
 existance of any peculiar Customs among them.
 
 [Lewis, January 20, 1806]
 Tuesday January 20th 1806.
 Visited this morning by three Clatsops who remained with us all day;
 the object of their visit is mearly to smoke the pipe. on the morning
 of the eighteenth we issued 6 lbs. of jirked Elk pr. man, this evening
 the Sergt. repoted that it was all exhausted; the six lbs. have
 therefore lasted two days and a half only. at this rate our seven Elk
 will last us only 3 days longer, yet no one seems much concerned about
 the state of the stores; so much for habit. we have latterly so
 frequently had our stock of provisions reduced to a minimum and
 sometimes taken a small touch of fasting that three days full allowance
 excites no concern. In those cases our skill as hunters afford us some
 consolation, for if there is any game of any discription in our
 neighbourhood we can track it up and kill it. most of the party have
 become very expert with the rifle. The Indians who visited us today
 understood us sufficiently to inform us that the whites did not barter
 for the pounded fish; that it was purchased and consumed by the
 Clatsops, Chinnooks, Cathlahmah's and Skillutes. The native roots which
 furnish a considerable proportion of the subsistence of the indians in
 our neighbourhood are those of a species of Thistle, fern and rush; the
 Liquorice, and a small celindric root the top of which I have not yet
 seen, this last resembles the sweet pittatoe very much in it's flavor
 and consistency.
 
 [Clark, January 20, 1806]
 Wednesday 20th January 1806
 Visited this morning by three Clapsots who remained with us all day;
 the object of their visit is mearly to Smoke the pipe. on the morning
 of the 18 inst. we issued 6 wt. of jurked meat pr. man, this evening
 the Serjt. reports that is all exhosted; the 6 w. have therefore lasted
 2 days and a half only. at this rate our Seven Elk will only last us 3
 days longer, yet no one appears much concerned about the State of the
 Stores; So much for habet. we have latterly so frequently had our Stock
 of provisions reduced to a minimum and Sometimes taken a Small tuck of
 fasting that 3 days full allowance exites no concern. In those Cases
 our Skill as hunters affords us Some Consolation, for if there is any
 game of any discription in our neighbourhood we can track it up and
 kill it. most of the party have become very expert with the rifle. The
 Indians who visit us to day understood us Sufficiently to inform us
 that the white who visit them did not barter for the pounded fish; that
 it was purchased and Consumed by the Clatsops, Chin nooks, Cath lah
 mahs and Skil lutes, and Kil a moxs.
 The native roots which furnish a considerable proportion of the
 Subsistance of the indians in our neighbourhoodd are those of a Species
 of Thistle, fern, and rush; the Licquorice, and a Small celindric root
 the top of which I have not yet Seen, this last resembles the Sweet
 potato verry much in its flavour and Consistency.
 
 [Lewis, January 21, 1806]
 Wednesday January 21st 1806.
 Two of the hunters Shannon & Labuish returned having killed three Elk.
 Ordered a party to go in quest of the meat early tomorrow morning and
 the hunters to return and continue the chase. the Indians left us about
 12 O'Clk. The root of the thistle, called by the natives shan-ne-tahque
 is a perpendicular fusiform and possesses from two to four radicles; is
 from 9 to 15 Inces in length and about the size a mans thumb; the rhind
 somewhat rough and of a brown colour; the consistence when first taken
 from the earth is white and nearly as crisp as a carrot; when prepared
 for uce by the same process before discribed of the white bulb or
 pashshequo quawmash, it becomes black, and is more shugary than any
 fuit or root that I have met with in uce among the natives; the sweet
 is precisely that of the sugar in flavor; this root is sometimes eaten
 also when first taken from the ground without any preperation; but in
 this way is vastly in-ferior. it delights most in a deep rich dry lome
 which has a good mixture of sand. the stem of this plant is simple
 ascending celindric and hisped. the root leaves yet possess their
 virdure and are about half grown of a plale green. the cauline leaf as
 well as the stem of the last season are now dead, but in rispect to
 it's form &c. it is simple, crenate, & oblong, reather more obtuse at
 it's apex than at the base or insertion; it's margin armed with
 prickles while it's disks are hairy, it's insertion decurrent and
 position declining. the flower is also dry and mutilad. the pericarp
 seems much like that of the common thistle. it rises to the hight of
 from 3 to 4 feet.-
 
 [Clark, January 21, 1806]
 Thursday 21st of January 1806
 Two of the hunters Shannon & Labieche returned haveing killed three
 Elk, ordered a party to go in quest of the meat early tomorrow morning
 and the hunters to return and continue the chase-. the Indians left us
 about 12 oClock.
 The root of the thistle called by the nativs Chan-ne-tak-que is
 pirpendicular and possesses from two to 4 radicles; is from 9 to 15
 inches in length and is Commonly about the Size of a mans thum the
 rhine Somewhat rough and of a brown Colour; the Consistence when first
 taken from the earth is white and nearly as Crisp as a Carrot, when
 prepared for use by the Same process before discribed of the white bulb
 or gash she quo, qua-mosh, it becomes black and is more Sugary than any
 root I have met with among the nativs; the Sweet is prosisely that of
 the Sugar in flavor, this root is Sometimes eaten when first taken from
 the ground without any preperation, in this way it is well tasted but
 soon weathers and becoms hard and insipped. it delights most in a deep
 rich moist lome which has a good mixture of Sand--The Stems of this
 plant is Simple ascending celindric and hisped. the root leaves, posses
 their virdue and are about half grown of a deep Green. the Cauline leaf
 as well as the Stem of the last Season are now dead, but in respect to
 it's form &c. it is Simple Crenated and oblong, rather more obtuce at
 it's apex than the base or insertion, it's margin armed with prickles
 while it's disks are hairy, its insertion decurrent and position
 declineing. the flower is also dry and mutilated the pericarp seems
 much like that of the Common thistle it rises to the hight of from 3 to
 4 feet.
 
 [Lewis, January 22, 1806]
 Thursday January 22nd 1806.
 The party sent for the meat this morning returned with it in the
 Evening; it was in very inferior order, in short the animals were poor.
 Reubin Fields also remained with the other hunters Shannon & Labuish
 our late supply of salt is out. we have not yet heared a sentence from
 the other two parties of hunter's who are below us towards Point Adams
 and the Praries.
 There are three species of fern in this neighbourhood the root one of
 which the natves eat; this grows very abundant in the open uplands and
 praries where the latter are not sandy and consist of deep loose rich
 black lome. the root is horizontal sometimes a little deverging or
 obliquely descending, frequently dividing itself as it procedes into
 two equal branches and shooting up a number of stems; it lies about 4
 Inces beneath the surface of the earth. the root is celindric, with few
 or no radicles and from the size of a goose quill to that of a man's
 finger; the center of the root is divided into two equal parts by a
 strong flat & white ligament like a piece of thin tape on either side
 of this there is a white substance which when the root is roasted in
 the embers is much like wheat dough and not very unlike it in flavour,
 though it has also a pungency which becomes more visible after you have
 chewed it some little time; this pungency was disagreeable to me, but
 the natives eat it very voraciously and I have no doubt but it is a
 very nutricious food. the bark of the root is black, somewhat rough,
 thin and brittle, it easily seperates in flakes from the part which is
 eaten as dose also the internal liggament. this root perennil. in rich
 lands this plant rises to the hight of from 4 to five feet. the stem is
 smooth celindric, slightly groved on one side erect about half it's
 hight on the 2 first branches thence reclining backwards from the
 grooved side; it puts forth it's branches which are in reallyty long
 footstalks by pares from one side only and near the edges of the
 groove, these larger footstalks are also grooved cilindric and
 gradually tapering towards the extremity, puting forth alternate
 footstalks on either side of the grove near it's edge; these lesser
 footstalks the same in form as the first put forth from forty to fifty
 alternate pinate leaves which are sessile, horizontal, multipartite for
 half their length from the point of insertion and terminating in a long
 shaped apex, and are also revolute with the upper disk smoth and the
 lower slightly cottanny. these alternate leaves after proceeding half
 the length of the footstalk cease to be partite and assume the tongue
 like form altogether. this plant produces no flower or fruit whatever,
 is of a fine green colour in summer and a beautiful) plant. the top is
 annual and is of course dead at present.-
 
 [Clark, January 22, 1806]
 Friday 22nd January 1806
 The party Sent for the meat this morning returned with it in the
 evening; it was in verry inferior order, in Short the animals were
 pore. Rieuben Field Shannon and Labiech remained in the woods to hunt.
 our late Supply of Salt is out. we have not heard a word of the other
 hunters who are below us towards point adams and the Praries. Some rain
 this day at intervales
 There are three Species of fern in this neighbourhood the root one of
 which the nativs eate; that of which the nativs eate produce no flowers
 whatever or fruit of a fine green Colour and the top is annual, and in
 Course dead at present.
 I observe no difference between the licorice of this Countrey and that
 Common to maney parts of the United States where it is sometimes
 Cultivated in our gardins-. this plant delights in a deep lose Sandy
 Soil; here it grows verry abundant and large; the nativs roste it in
 the embers and pound it Slightly with a Small Stick in order to make it
 Seperate more readily from the Strong liggaments which forms the center
 of the root; this they discard and chew and Swallow the ballance of the
 root; this last is filled with a number of thin membrencies like
 network, too tough to be masticated and which I find it necessary also
 to discard. This root when roasted possesses an agreeable flavour not
 unlike the Sweet potato. The root of the thistle (described yesterday)
 after undergoing the process of Sweting or bakeing in a kiln is
 Sometimes eaten with the train oil also, at other times pounded fine
 and mixed with Cold water, untill reduced to the Consistancy of Gruel;
 in this way I think it verry agreeable. but the most valuable of all
 their roots is foreign to this neighbourhood I mean the Wappetoe.
 The Wappetoe, or bulb of the Sagitifolia or common arrow head, which
 grows in great abundance in the marshey grounds of that butifull and
 fertile vally on the Columbia commenceing just above the quick Sand
 River and extending downwards for about 70 miles. this bulb forms a
 principal article of trafic between the inhabitents of the vally and
 those of their neighbourhood or Sea coast.
 
 [Lewis, January 23, 1806]
 Friday January 23rd 1806.
 This morning dispatched Howard and Warner to the Camp of the Saltmakes
 for a supply of salt. The men of the garison are still busily employed
 in dressing Elk's skins for cloathing, they find great difficulty for
 the want of branes; we have not soap to supply the deficiency, nor can
 we procure ashes to make the lye; none of the pines which we use for
 fuel affords any ashes; extrawdinary as it may seem, the greene wood is
 consoomed without leaving the residium of a particle of ashes.
 The root of the rush used by the natives is a sollid bulb about one
 inch in length and usually as thick as a man's thumb, of an ovate form
 depressed on two or more sides, covered with a thin smothe black rind.
 the pulp is white brittle and easily masticated either raw or roasted
 the latter is the way in which it is most usually prepared for uce.
 this root is reather insipid in point of flavour, it grows in greatest
 abundance along the sea coast in the sandy grounds and is most used by
 the Killamucks and those inhabiting the coast. each root sends up one
 stock only which is annual, the root being perenniel. the bulb is
 attatched to the bottom of the caulis or stem by a firm small and
 strong radicle of about one Inch long; this radicle is mearly the
 prolongation of the caulis and decends perpendicilarly; a little above
 the junction of this radicle with the caulis, the latter is surrounded
 in a whorl with a set of small radicles from 6 to 9 inches long which
 are obliquely descending. the caulis is celindric erect hollow and
 jointed, and is about the size or reather larger than the largest
 quill. it rises to the hight of 3 or 4 feet, not branching nor dose it
 either bear flower or seed that I can discover tho I am far from
 denying that it dose so sometimes, but I have not been able to discover
 it. the stem is rough like the sand rush and is much like it when green
 or in it's succulent state. at each joint it puts out from twenty to
 thirty long lineal stellate or radiate & horizontal leaves which
 surround the stem. above each joint about half an inch the stem is
 sheathed like the sand rush.
 
 [Clark, January 23, 1806]
 Saturday 23rd of January 1806
 This morning dispatched Howard & Werner to the Camp of the Salt makers
 for a Supply of Salt. the men of the garrison are Still busily employed
 in dressing Elk Skins for cloathing, they fine great dificuelty for the
 want of branes; we have not Soap to Supply the deficiency, nor can we
 precure ashes to make the lye; none of the pine which we use for fuel
 afford any ashes; extrawdinary as it may seem, the green wood is
 cosumed without leaveing the risideum of a particle of ashes.-
 The root of the rush used by the nativs is a Solid bulb about one inch
 in length and usially as thick as a mans thumb, of an ovel form
 depressed on two or more Sides, covered with a thin black rine. the
 pulp is white brittle and easily masticated either raw or rosted, the
 latter is the way it is most commonly prepared for use. this root is
 reather insippid in point of flavour, it grows in the Greatest
 abundance along the Sea coast in the wet Sandy grounds and is most used
 by the Kil a mox and those inhabiting the Sea coast. each root Sends up
 its Stalk which is annual, the root being perennial. the bulb is
 atached to the bottom of the Stem by a firm Small and Strong radicle
 which is mearly the prolongation of the Stem which is hollow and
 jointed and is rather larger than the largest quill. it rises to the
 hight of 3 or 4 feet, not branching no does it either bear flower or
 Seed that I could discover tho I am far from denying that it does So
 Sometimes, and perhaps every year, but I have not been able to discover
 it, the Stem is rough like the Sand rush, and it's much like it when
 green, at each joint it puts out from 20 to 30 radiate & horizontal
 leaves which Surrounds the Stem. above each joint about half an inch
 the Stem is Shethed like the Sand rush.
 The instruments used by the nativs in digging their roots is a Strong
 Stick of three feet and a half long Sharpened at the lower end and its
 upper inserted into a part of an Elks or buck's horn which Serves as a
 handle; Standing transvirsely in the Stick--or it is in this form as
 thus A is the lower part which is a little hooked B is the upper part
 or handle of Horn.
 
 [Lewis, January 24, 1806]
 Saturday January 24th 1806.
 Drewyer and Baptiest La Paage returned this morning in a large Canoe
 with Comowooll and six Clatsops. they brought two deer and the flesh of
 three Elk & one Elk's skin, having given the flesh of one other Elk
 which they killed and three Elk's skins to the Indians as the price of
 their assistance in transporting the ballance of the meat to the Fort;
 these Elk and deer were killed near point Adams and the Indians carryed
 them on their backs about six miles, before the waves were sufficiently
 low to permit their being taken on board their canoes. the Indians
 remained with us all day. The Indians witnissed Drewyer's shooting some
 of those Elk, which has given them a very exalted opinion of us as
 marksmen and the superior excellence of our rifles compared with their
 guns; this may probably be of service to us, as it will deter them from
 any acts of hostility if they have ever meditated any such. My Air-gun
 also astonishes them very much, they cannot comprehend it's shooting so
 often and without powder; and think that it is great medicine which
 comprehends every thing that is to them incomprehensible.
 I observe no difference between the liquorice of this country and that
 common to many parts of the United states where it is also sometimes
 cultivated in our gardens. this plant delights in a deep loose sandy
 soil; here it grows very abundant and large; the natives roast it in
 the embers and pound it slightly with a small stick in order to make it
 seperate more readily from the strong liggament which forms the center
 of the root; this the natives discard and chew and swallow the ballance
 of the root; this last is filled with a number of thin membrenacious
 lamela like net work, too tough to be masticated and which I find it
 necessary also to discard. this root when roasted possesses an
 agreeable flavour not unlike the sweet pittaitoe. beside the small
 celindric root mentioned on the 20th inst., they have also another
 about the same form size and appearance which they use much with the
 train oil, this root is usually boiled; to me it possesses a
 disagreeable bitterness. the top of this plant I have never yet seen.
 The root of the thistle after undergoing the prossess of sweating or
 baking in a kiln is sometimes eaten with the train oil also, and at
 other times pounded fine and mixed with could water untill reduced to
 the consistency of sagamity or indian mush; in this way I think it very
 agreeable. but the most valuable of all their roots is foreign to this
 neighbourhood I mean the Wappetoe, or the bulb of the Sagitifolia or
 common arrow head, which grows in great abundance in the marshey
 grounds of that beatifull and firtile valley on the Columbia commencing
 just above the entrance of Quicksand River, and extending downwards for
 about 70 Miles. this bulb forms a principal article of traffic between
 the inhabitants of the valley and those of this neighbourhood or sea
 coast. The instrument used by the natives in diging their roots is a
 strong stick of 31/2 feet long sharpened at the lower end and it's
 upper inscerted into a part of an Elks or buck's horn which serves as a
 handle, standing transversely with the stick or it is in this form A
 the lower point, B the upper part or handle.
 
 [Clark, January 24, 1806]
 Sunday 24th of January 1806
 Drewyer and Bapteist laPage returned this morning in a large Canoe with
 Commowol and six Clatsops. they brought two Deer and three Elk and one
 elk Skin, haveing given the flesh of one other Elk they killed and
 three Elk skins to the Indians as the price of their assistance in
 transporting the ballance of the meat to the Fort; these Deer and Elk
 were killed near pt. Adams and those Indians Carried them on their
 Backs near 4 miles, before the waves were Sufficiently low to permit
 their being taken on board their Canoes. The indians remain'd with us
 all day. The Clapsots witnessed Drewyers Shooting Some of those Elk,
 which has given them a very exolted opinion of us as marksmen and the
 Superior excellency of our rifles Compared with their guns; this may
 probably be of service to us, as it will deter them from any acts of
 hostility if they have ever meditated any such.
 our air gun also astonishes them very much, they Cannot Comprehend its
 Shooting So often and without powder, and think that it is great
 medison which Comprehends every thing that is to them incomprehensible.
 The nativs of this neighbourhood ware no further Covering than a light
 roabe, their feet legs & every other part exposed to the frost Snow &
 ice &c.
 
 [Lewis, January 25, 1806]
 Sunday January 25th 1806.
 Commowooll and the Clatsops departed early this morning. At meridian
 Colter returned and repoted that his comrade hunter Willard had
 continued his hunt from point Adams towards the salt makers; and that
 they had killed only those two deer which the Indians brought
 yesterday. In the evening Collins one of the saltmakers returned and
 reported that they had mad about one bushel of salt & that himself and
 two others had hunted from the salt camp for five days without killing
 any thing and they had been obliged to subsist on some whale which they
 procured from the natives.
 The native fruits and buries in uce among the Indians of this
 neighbourhood are a deep purple burry about the size of a small cherry
 called by them Shal-lun, a small pale red bury called Sol'-me; the
 vineing or low Crambury, a light brown bury reather larger and much the
 shape of the black haw; and a scarlet bury about the size of a small
 cherry the plant called by the Canadin Engages of the N. W. sac a
 commis produces this bury; this plant is so called from the
 circumstance of the Clerks of those trading companies carrying the
 leaves of this plant in a small bag for the purpose of smokeing of
 which they are excessively fond. the Indians call this bury ____
 I have lately learned that the natives whome I have heretofore named as
 distinct nations, living on the sea coast S. E. of the Killamucks, are
 only bands of that numerous nation, which continues to extend itself
 much further on that coast than I have enumerated them, but of the
 particular appellations of those distant bands I have not yet been
 enabled to inform myself; their language also is somewhat different
 from the Clatsops Chinnooks and Cathlahmahs; but I have not yet obtaind
 a vocabulary which I shall do the first oportunity which offers.
 
 [Clark, January 25, 1806]
 Monday 25th of January 1806
 Commowol and the Clatsops departed early this morning. Colter returned
 and reported that his comrade hunter Willard had Continued his hunt
 from Point Adams towards the Saltmakers; and that they had killed only
 those two deer which the indians brought yesterday; in the evening
 Collins one of the Saltmakers returned and reported that they had made
 about one bushel of Salt and that himself and two others had hunted
 from the Salt Camp for five days without killing any thing and they had
 been obliged to Subsist on Some whale which they purchased from the
 nativs-.
 The native fruits and berries in use among the Indians of this
 neighbourhood are a Deep purple about the Size of a Small cherry called
 by them Shal lun, a Small pale red berry called Sol me; the vineing or
 low brown berry, a light brown berry rather larger and much the Shape
 of a black haw; and a Scarlet berry about the Size of a Small Chirry
 the plant Called by the Canadian Engages of the N. W. Sac a commis
 produces this berry; this plant is So Called from the circumstances of
 the Clerks of these tradeing Companies Carrying the leaves of this
 plant in a Small bag for the purpose of Smokeing of which they are
 excessively fond the Indians Call this berry ____
 
 [Lewis, January 26, 1806]
 Monday January 26th 1806.
 Werner and Howard who were sent for salt on the 23rd have not yet
 returned, we are apprehensive that they have missed their way; neither
 of them are very good woodsmen, and this thick heavy timbered pine
 country added to the constant cloudy weather makes it difficult for
 even a good woodsman to steer for any considerable distance the course
 he wishes. we ordered Collins to return early in the morning and rejoin
 the salt makers, and gave him some small articles of merchandize to
 purchase provisions from the Indians, in the event of their still being
 unfortunate in the chase. The Shallun or deep purple berry is in form
 much like the huckkleberry and terminates bluntly with a kind of cap or
 cover at the end like that fruit; they are attatched seperately to the
 sides of the boughs of the shrub by a very short stem hanging
 underneath the same and are frequently placed very near each other on
 the same bough; it is a full bearer. the berry is easily geathered as
 it seperates from the bough readily, while the leaf is strongly
 affixed. the shrub which produces this fruit rises to the hight of 6 or
 8 feet sometimes grows on the high lands but moste generally in the
 swampy or marshey grounds; it is an evergreen. the stem or trunk is
 from three to 10 Inches in circumference irregularly and much branched,
 seldom more than one steem proceding from the same root, tho they are
 frequently associated very thickly. the bark is somewhat rough and of a
 redish brown colour. the wood is very firm and hard. the leaves are
 alternate declining and attatched by a short fotstalk to the two
 horizontal sides of the boughs; the form is a long oval, reather more
 accute towards its apex than at the point of insertion; it's margin
 slightly serrate, it's sides colapsing or partially foalding upwards or
 channelled; it is also thick firm smothe and glossey, the upper surface
 of a fine deep green, while the under disk is of a pale or whiteish
 green. this shrub retains it's virdure very perfectly during the winter
 and is a beautifull shrub.--the natives either eat these berrys when
 ripe immediately from the bushes or dryed in the sun or by means of
 their sweating kilns; very frequently they pound them and bake then in
 large loaves of 10 or fifteen pounds; this bread keeps very well during
 one season and retains the moist jeucies of the fruit much better than
 by any other method of preservation. this bread is broken and stired in
 could water until it be sufficiently thick and then eaten; in this way
 the natives most generally use it.
 
 [Clark, January 26, 1806]
 Tuesday 26th of January 1806
 We order Collins to return early in the morning and join the Salt
 makers, and gave him Some Small articles of merchendize to purchase
 Some provisions from the indians in the event of their Still being
 unfortunate in the chase.
 The or deep purple berry is in form much like the huckleberry and
 termonate bluntly with a kind of Cap or cover at the end like that
 fruit; they are attached Seperately to the Sides of the boughes of the
 shrub by a very Short Stem ganging under neath the Same, and are
 frequently placed verry near each other on the Same bough it is a full
 bearer; the berry is easily gathered as it Seperates from the bough,
 readily, while the leaf is Strongly affixed. the Shrub which produces
 this fruit rises to the hight of 6 or 8 feet Sometimes grows on high
 lands but most frequently in Swampy or marshey grounds; it is an ever
 green. the Stem or trunk is from 3 to 10 inches in circumferance
 irrigularly and much branched, Seldom more than one Stem proceeding
 from the Same root, tho they are frequently associated very thickly.
 the bark is Somewhat rough and of a redish brown Colour. the wood is
 very firm and hard. the leaves are alternate declining and attachd by a
 Short fotstalk to the two horozontal Sides of the bough's; the form is
 a long oval, reather more accute towards its apex that at the point of
 insertion; it's Sides partially folding upwards; or Channeled, it is
 also thick Smothe and glossy, the upper Surfice of a fine deep green,
 while the under disk is of a pale or whiteish green. this Shrub retains
 its verdure verry perfectly dureing the winter and is a butifull
 Shrub-. the nativs either eate those berries ripe imediately from the
 bushes, or dried in the Sun or by means of the Swetting kiln; verry
 frequently they pound them and bake them in large loaves 10 or 15
 pounds weight; this bread keeps verry well dureing one Season and
 retains the moist jouicies of the frute much better than any other
 method of preperation. The bread is broken and Stured in Coald water
 untill it be Sufficiently thick and then eaten, in this way the nativ's
 most generally use it-.-.
 
 [Lewis, January 27, 1806]
 Tuesday January 27th 1806.
 This morning Collins set out for the Salt works. in the evening Shannon
 returned and reported that himself and party had killed ten Elk. he
 left Labuche and R. fields with the Elk. two of those Elk he informed
 us were at the distance of nine miles from this place near the top of a
 mountain, that the rout by which they mus be brought was at least four
 miles by land through a country almost inaccessible from the fallen
 timber, brush and sink-holes, which were now disgused by the snow; we
 therefore concluded to relinquish those two Elk for the present, and
 ordered every man who could be speared from the fort to go early in the
 morning in surch of the other eight.
 Goodrich has recovered from the Louis veneri which he contracted from
 an amorous contact with a Chinnook damsel. I cured him as I did Gibson
 last winter by the uce of murcury. I cannot learn that the Indians have
 any simples which are sovereign specifics in the cure of this disease;
 and indeed I doubt very much wheter any of them have any means of
 effecting a perfect cure. when once this disorder is contracted by them
 it continues with them during life; but always ends in decipitude,
 death, or premature old age; tho from the uce of certain simples
 together with their diet, they support this disorder with but little
 inconvenience for many years, and even enjoy a tolerable share of
 health; particularly so among the Chippeways who I believe to be better
 skilled in the uce of those simples than any nation of Savages in North
 America. The Chippeways use a decoction of the root of the Lobelia, and
 that of a species of sumac common to the Atlantic states and to this
 country near and on the Western side of the Rocky Mountains. this is
 the smallest species of the sumac, readily distinguished by it's winged
 rib, or common footstalk, which supports it's oppositely pinnate
 leaves. these decoctions are drank freely and without limitation. the
 same decoctions are used in cases of the gonnaerea and are effecatious
 and sovereign. notwithstanding that this disorder dose exist among the
 Indians on the Columbia yet it is witnessed in but few individuals, at
 least the males who are always sufficiently exposed to the observations
 or inspection of the phisician. in my whole rout down this river I did
 not see more than two or three with the gonnaerea and about double that
 number with the pox.
 The beary which the natives call solme is the production of a plant
 about the size and much the shape of that common to the atlantic states
 which produces the berry commonly called Solloman's seal berry. this
 berry also is attatched to the top of the stem in the same manner; and
 is of a globelar form, consisting of a thin soft pellecle which
 encloses a soft pulp inveloping from three to four seeds, white, firm,
 smothe, and in the form of a third or quarter of a globe, and large in
 proportion to the fruit or about the size of the seed of the common
 small grape. this berry when grown and unripe is not speckled as that
 of the Solomon's seal berry is; this last has only one globular smoth
 white firm seed in each berry.the Solme grows in the woodlands among
 the moss and is an annual plant to all appearance.
 
 [Clark, January 27, 1806]
 Wednesday 27th January 1806
 This morning Collins Set out to the Saltmakers Shannon returned and
 reported that himself and party had killed 10 Elk. he lef Labiech & R
 Field with the Elk, two of those Elk he informed us was at the distance
 of 9 miles from this place near the top of a mountain, that the rout by
 which they must be brought was at least 5 miles by land thro a Countrey
 almost inexcessable, from the fallen timber brush, and Sink holes,
 which were now disguised by the Snow; we therefore Concluded to
 relinquish those two Elks for the present, and ordered every man that
 Could be Speared from the Fort to go early in the morning in Serch of
 the other Eight, which is at no great distance from the Netul river, on
 which we are. Goudrich has recoverd from the louis veneri which he
 contracted from a amorous Contact with a Chinnook damsel. he was Cured
 as Gibson was with murcury by ____ I cannot lern that the Indians have
 any Simples Sovereign Specifics in the cure of this disease; indeed I
 doubt verry much whether any of them have any means of effecting a
 perfect cure. when once this disorder is contracted by them it
 Continues with them dureing life; but always ends in decepitude, death;
 or premature old age; tho from the use of certain Simples together with
 their diet, they Support this disorder with but little inconveniance
 for maney years, and even enjoy a tolerable Share of health;
 particularly So among the Chippeways who I beleive to be better Skilled
 in the use of those Simples than any nation of Indians in North
 America. The Chippaways use a decoction of the root of the Labelia, and
 that of a Species of Sumac Common to the Atlantic States and to this
 countrey near and on the western Side of the Rocky mountains. This is
 the Smallest Specis of Sumake, readily distinguished by it's winged
 rib, or common footstalk, which Supports it's oppositly pinnate leaves.
 these decoctions are drank freely and without limatation. the Same
 decoctions are used also in cases of the gonnarea and are effecatious
 and sovereign. notwithstanding that this disorder does exist among the
 indians on the Columbia yet it is witnessed in but fiew individuals
 high up the river, or at least the males who are always Sufficiently
 exposed to the observation or inspection of the phisician. in my whole
 rout down this river I did not See more than two or three with Gonnarea
 and about double that number with the Pox.
 The berry which the nativs Call Sol me is the production of a plant
 about the Size and much the Shape of that Common to the atlantic States
 which produces the berry Commonly Called Sollomons Seal berry this
 berry is also attached to the top of the Stem in the Same manner; and
 is of a globular form Consisting of a thin Soft Pellicle rine which
 encloses a Soft Pellicle pulp inveloping from 3 to 4 Seed, white firm,
 Smothe, and in the form of a third or a quarter of a Globe, and large
 in perportion to the fruit, or about the Size of the Seed of the Common
 Small grape. the berry when grown and unripe is not Specked as the
 Solomon's seal Berry is; this last haveing only one Globaler Smothe,
 ferm, white Seed in each berry-. the Sol me grows in the wood lands
 amonge the moss and on the high ridges. and is an annual plant to all
 appearance
 
 [Lewis, January 28, 1806]
 Wednesday January 28th 1806.
 Drewyer and Baptiest La Page set out this morning on a hunting
 excurtion. about noon Howard and Werner returned with a supply of salt;
 the badness of the weather and the difficulty of the road had caused
 their delay. they inform us that the salt makers are still much
 straitened for provision, having killed two deer only in the last six
 days; and that there are no Elk in their neighbourhood. The party that
 were sent this morning up Netul river for the Elk returned in the even
 ing with three of them only; the Elk had been killed just before the
 snow fell which had covered them and so altered the apparent face of
 the country that the hunters could not find the Elk which they had
 killed. the river on which Fort Clatsop stands we now call Ne-tul, this
 being the name by which the Clatsops call it.
 The Cranbury of this neighbourhood is precisely the same common to the
 U States, and is the production of marshey or boggy grounds. The light
 brown berry, is the fruit of a tree about the size shape and appearance
 in every rispect with that in the U. States called the wild crab apple;
 the leaf is also precisely the same as is also the bark in texture and
 colour. the berrys grow in clumps at the end of the small branches;
 each berry supported by a seperate stem, and as many as from 3 to 18 or
 20 in a clump. the berry is ovate with one of it's extremities
 attatched to the peduncle, where it is in a small degre concave like
 the insertion of the stem of the crab apple. I know not whether this
 fruit can properly be denominated a berry, it is a pulpy pericarp, the
 outer coat of which is in a thin smoth, tho firm tough pillecle; the
 pericarp containing a membranous capsule with from three to four cells,
 each containing a seperate single seed in form and colour like that of
 the wild crab. The wood of this tree is excessively hard when seasoned.
 the natives make great uce of it to form their wedges with which they
 split their boards of pine for the purpose of building houses. these
 wedges they also employ in spliting their fire-wood and in hollowing
 out their canoes. I have seen the natives drive the wedges of this wood
 into solid dry pine which it cleft without fracturing or injuring the
 wedg in the smallest degree. we have also found this wood usefull to us
 for ax handles as well as glutts or wedges. the native also have wedges
 made of the beams of the Elk's horns which appear to answer extremely
 well. this fruit is exceedingly assid, and resembles the flavor of the
 wild crab.
 
 [Clark, January 28, 1806]
 Thursday 28th January 1806
 Drewyer and Baptiest Lapage Set out this morning on a hunting
 excurtion. about noon Howard & Werner returned with a Supply of Salt;
 the badness of the weather and the dificuelty of the road had detained
 them. they informed us that the Salt makers are Still much Stratened
 for provisions haveing killed two deer only in the last Six days; and
 that there are no Elk in their neighbourhood.
 The party that was Sent up the Netul river for the Elk returned this
 evening with three of them only; The Elk had been killed just before
 the Snow fell which had Covered them and So altered the apparant face
 of the Countrey that the hunters Could not find them. The River on
 which Fort Clat Sop Stands we now call Netul, this being the name by
 which the Clatsops Call it.
 The Cranberry of this neighbourhood is precisely the Same Common to the
 united States, and is the production of boggy or mashey grounds.-.
 The light-brown berry, is the fruit of a tree, about the Size Shape and
 appearance in every respect with that in the united States called the
 wild Crab apple; the leaf is also presisely the Same as is also the
 bark in textue and colour. the berry grows in Clumps at the ends of the
 Smaller branches; each berry Supported by a Stem, and as maney as from
 3 to 18 or 20 in a Clump. the berry is oval with one of its extremitis
 attatched to the peduncle, where it is in a Small degree Concave like
 the insersion of the Stem of the Crab apple. I know not whether this
 fruit Can properly be denomonated a berry, it is a pulpy pericarp, the
 outer coat of which is a thin Smothe, capsule with from three to four
 Cells, each containing a Seperate Single Seed in form and Colour like
 that of the wild Crab apple The wood of this tree is excessively hard
 when Seasoned. The nativs make great use of it to form their wedges of
 which they Split their boards of Pine for the purpose of building
 houses. those wedges they employ in common with those formed of the
 Elks horn, in Splitting their fire wood and in hollowing out their
 Canoes. I have Seen the nativs drive the wedges of this wood into a
 solid dry pine which it cleft without fractureing injuring the wedge in
 the Smallest degree. we have also found this wood useful) to us for ax
 handles, as well as glutt or wedges. The bark of this tree is chewed by
 our party in place of tobacco.
 The fruit is exceedingly ascid and resembles the flavor of the wild
 Crab.
 
 [Lewis, January 29, 1806]
 Thursday January 29th 1806.
 Nothing worthy of notice occurred today. our fare is the flesh of lean
 elk boiled with pure water, and a little salt. the whale blubber which
 we have used very sparingly is now exhausted. on this food I do not
 feel strong, but enjoy the most perfect health;--a keen appetite
 supplys in a great degree the want of more luxurious sauses or dishes,
 and still render my ordinary meals not uninteresting to me, for I find
 myself sometimes enquiring of the cook whether dinner or breakfast is
 ready.-
 The Sac a commis is the growth of high dry situations, and invariably
 in a piney country or on it's borders. it is generally found in the
 open piney woodland as on the Western side of the Rocky mountain but in
 this neighbourhood we find it only in the praries or on their borders
 in the more open wood lands; a very rich soil is not absolutely
 necessary, as a meager one frequently produces it abundantly. the
 natives on this side of the Rockey mountains who can procure this berry
 invariably use it; to me it is a very tasteless and insippid fruit.
 this shrub is an evergreen, the leaves retain their virdure most
 perfectly through the winter even in the most rigid climate as on lake
 Winnipic. the root of this shrub puts forth a great number of stems
 which seperate near the surface of the ground; each stem from the size
 of a small quill to that of a man's finger; these are much branched the
 branches forming an accute angle with the stem, and all more poperly
 pocumbent than creeping, for altho it sometimes puts forth radicles
 from the stem and branches which strike obliquely into the ground,
 these radicles are by no means general, equable in their distances from
 each other nor do they appear to be calculated to furnish nutriment to
 the plant but reather to hold the stem or branch in it's place. the
 bark is formed of several thin layers of a smoth thin brittle substance
 of a dark or redish brown colour easily seperated from the woody stem
 in flakes. the leaves with rispect to their position are scatered yet
 closely arranged near the extremities of the twigs particularly. the
 leaf is about 3/4 of an inch in length and about half that in width, is
 oval but obtusely pointed, absolutely entire, thick, smoth, firm, a
 deep green and slightly grooved. the leaf is supported by a small
 footstalk of proportionable length. the berry is attatched in an
 irregular and scattered manner to the small boughs among the leaves,
 tho frequently closely arranged, but always supported by seperate short
 and small peduncles, the insertion of which poduces a slight concavity
 in the bury while it's opposite side is slightly convex; the form of
 the berry is a spheroid; the shorter diameter being in a line with the
 peduncle.--this berry is a pericarp the outer coat of which is a thin
 firm tough pellicle, the inner part consists of a dry mealy powder of a
 yellowish white colour invelloping from four to six proportionably
 large hard light brown seeds each in the form of a section of a
 spheroid which figure they form when united, and are destitute of any
 membranous covering.--the colour of this fruit is a fine scarlet. the
 natives usually eat them without any preperation. the fruit ripens in
 september and remains on the bushes all winter. the frost appears to
 take no effect on it. these berries are sometimes geathered and hung in
 their lodges in bags where they dry without further trouble, for in
 their most succulent state they appear to be almost as dry as flour.
 
 [Clark, January 29, 1806]
 Friday 29th January 1806
 Nothing worthey of notice occured to day. our fare is the flesh of lean
 Elk boiled with pure water and a little Salt. the whale blubber which
 we have used very Spearingly is now exhosted. on this food I do not
 feel Strong, but enjoy tolerable health-. a keen appetite Supplies in a
 great degree the want of more luxurious Sauses or dishes, and Still
 renders my ordanary meals not uninteresting to me, for I find myself
 Sometimes enquireing of the Cook whether dinner Supper or Brackfast is
 readyindeed my appetite is but Seldom gratified, not even after I have
 eaten what I conceve a Sufficency.-
 Maney of the nativs of the Columbia were hats & most commonly of a
 conic figure without a brim confined on the head by means of a String
 which passes under the chin and is attached to the two opposit Sides of
 a Secondary rim within the hat--the hat at top termonates in a pointed
 knob of a conic form, or in this Shape. these hats are made of the bark
 of Cedar and beargrass wrought with the fingers So closely that it
 Casts the rain most effectually in the Shape which they give them for
 their own use or that just discribed, on these hats they work various
 figures of different colours, but most commonly only black and white
 are employed. these figures are faint representations of the whales,
 the Canoes, and the harpooners Strikeing them. Sometimes Square dimonds
 triangle &c. The form of a knife which Seems to be prefured by those
 people is a double Edged and double pointed dagger the handle being
 near the middle, the blades of uneaquel length, the longest from 9 to
 10 incs. and the Shorter one from 3 to 5 inches. those knives they
 Carry with them habitually and most usially in the hand, Sometimes
 exposed, when in Company with Strangers under their Robes with this
 knife they Cut & Clense their fish make their arrows &c. this is the
 form of the Knife A is a Small loop of a Strong twine throng through
 which they Sometimes they incert the thumb in order to prevent it being
 wrested from their hand.-.
 
 [Lewis, January 30, 1806]
 Friday January 30th 1806.
 Nothing transpired today worthy of notice. we are agreeably
 disappointed in our fuel which is altogether green pine. we had
 supposed that it burn but illy, but we have found that by spliting it
 that it burns very well. The dress of the Clatsops and others in this
 neighbourhood differs but little from that discribed of the skillutes;
 they never wear leggins or mockersons which the mildness of this
 climate I presume has rendered in a great measure unnecessary; and
 their being obliged to be frequently in the water also renders those
 articles of dress inconvenient. they wear a hat of a conic figure
 without a brim confined on the head by means of a string which passes
 under the chin and is attatched to the two opsite sides of a secondary
 rim within the hat. the hat at top terminates in a pointed knob of a
 connic form also, or in this shape. these hats are made of the bark of
 cedar and beargrass wrought with the fingers so closely that it casts
 the rain most effectually in the shape which they give them for their
 own uce or that just discribed. on these hats they work various figures
 of different colours, but most commonly only black and white are
 employed. these figures are faint representations of whales the canoes
 and the harpoonneers striking them. sometimes squares dimonds triangles
 &c. The form of knife which seems to be prefered by these people is a
 double edged and double pointed daggar; the handle being in the middle,
 and the blades of unequal lengths, the longest usually from 9 to ten
 inches and the shorter one from four to five. these knives they carry
 with them habitually and most usually in the hand, sometimes exposed
 but most usually particularly when in company with strangers, under
 their robes with this knife they cut and clense their fish make their
 arrows &c. this is somewhat the form of the knife--A is a small loop of
 a strong twine through which they sometimes insert the thumb in order
 to prevent it's being wrested from their hand.
 
 [Clark, January 30, 1806]
 Fort Clatsop on the Pacific Ocian
 on the South Side of the Columbia River
 Thursday 30th January 1806
 Nothing transpired to day worthey of notice. we are agreeably
 disapointed in our fuel which is altogether green pine. we had Supposed
 that it burned badly, but we have found by Spliting it burns very well.
 The dress of the Clatsops and others of the nativs in the neighbourhood
 differ but little from that described of the Skilutes and Wau ki a
 cums; they never ware ligins or mockersons which the mildness of the
 Climate I presume has rendered in a great measure unnecessary; and
 their being obliged to be frequently in the water also renders those
 articles of dress inconveniant.
 The Sac-a commis is the groth of high dry Situations, and invariably in
 a piney Country, or on its borders; it is Generally found in the open
 piney woodlands as on the Western Side of the Rocky mountains but in
 this neighbourhood we find it in the praries or on the borders in the
 more open woodland's; a very rich Soil is not absolutely necessary, as
 a meager one frequently produces it abundantly. the nativs on the West
 side of the Rocky mountains who can precure this berry invariably use
 it; to me it is a very tasteless and insipid frute. This Shrub is an
 evergreen, the leaves retain their virdue most perfectly throughout the
 winter even in the most rigid climate as on Lake Winnipic. the root of
 this shrub puts foth a great number of Stems, which seperate near the
 surface of the ground; each Stem from the size of a Small quill, to
 that of a mans finger. These are much branched forming an accute angle
 with the Stem, and all more properly procumbent than crossing, for
 altho it sometimes puts foth radicles from the Stems and branches which
 Strike obliquely into the ground, those radicles are by no means
 general, equable in their distances from each other nor do they appear
 to be calculated to furnish nutriment to the plant but rather to hold
 the Stem or branch in its place. the bark is formed of several thin
 layers of a Smothe thin brittle substance of a redish brown colour
 easily seperated from the woody Stem in flakes. the leaves with respect
 to their possition are scatter'd yet closely arranged near the
 extremities of the twigs particularly. the leaves are about 3/4 of an
 inch in length and about half that in width, is oval but obtusely
 pointed, absolutely entire, thick, Smoth, firm, a deep green and
 slightly grooved. the leaf is Supported by a Small footstalk of
 preportionable length. the berry is attached in an irregular and
 Scattered manner to the Small boughs among the leaves, tho frequently
 Closely arranged, but always Supported by a Seperate Short and Small
 peduncles, the incersion of which produces a Small concavity in the
 berry while its opposit side is Slightly convex; the form of the berry
 is a Spheroid, the Shorter diameter being in a line with the peduncle
 or Stem-. this berry is a pericarp the outer Coat of which is a thin
 firm tough pellicle, the inner part consists of dry mealy powder of a
 yellowish white colour invelloping from four to six propotionably large
 hard light brown seeds each in the form of section of a spheroid which
 figure they form when united, and are distitute of any membranous
 covering.--the colour of this fruit is a fine scarlet. the nativs
 usually eat them without any preparation. the fruit ripens in September
 and remains on the bushes all winter. the frost appears to take no
 effects on it. these berries are Sometimes gathered and hung in their
 houses in bags where they dry without further trouble, for in their
 succulent State they appear to be almost as dry as flour.
 
 [Lewis, January 31, 1806]
 Saturday January 31st 1806.
 Sent a party of eight men up the river this morning to renew their
 surch for the Elk and also to hunt; they proceded but a few miles
 before they found the river so obstructed with ice that they were
 obliged to return. Joseph Fields arrived this evening, informed us that
 he had been hunting in company with Gibson and Willard for the last
 five days in order to obtain some meat for himself and the other Salt
 makers, and that he had been unsuccessfull untill yesday evening when
 he had fortunately killed two Elk, about six miles distant from this
 place and about 8 from the salt works; he left Gibson and Willard to
 dry the meat of these Elk and had come for the assistance of some men
 to carry the meat to the salt camp; for this purpose we ordered four
 men to accompany him early in the morning. discovered that McNeal had
 the pox, gave him medecine. Charbono found a bird dead lying near the
 fort this morning and brought it to me I immediately recognized it to
 be of the same kind of that which I had seen in the Rocky mountains on
 the morning of the 20th of September last. this bird is about the size
 as near as may be of the robbin. it's contour also is precisely the
 same with that bird. it measures one foot 31/4 Inches from tip to tip
 of the wings when extended. 91/4 inches from the extremity of the beak
 to that of the tail. the tail is 33/4 inches in length, and composed of
 eleven feathers of the same length. The beak is smoth, black, convex
 and cultrated; one and 1/8 inches from the point to the opening of the
 chaps and 3/4 only uncovered with feathers; the upper chap exceeds the
 other a little in length. a few small black hairs garnish the sides of
 the base of the upper chap. the eye is of a uniform deep sea green or
 black, moderately large. it's legs feet and tallons are white; the legs
 are an inch and a 1/4 in length and smoth; four toes on each foot, of
 which that in front is the same length with the leg including the
 length of the tallon, which is 4 lines; the three remaining toes are
 3/4 of an inch, each armed with proportionably long tallons. the toes
 are slightly imbricated. the tallons are curved and sharply pointed.
 The crown of the head from the beak back to the neck, the back of the
 neck imbracing reather more than half the circumpherence of the neck,
 the back and tale, are of bluish dark brown; the two outer feathers of
 the tale have a little dash of white near their tips not percemtible
 when the tail is foalded. a fine black forms the ground of the wings;
 two stripes of the same colour pass on either side of the head from the
 base of the beak along the side of the head to it's junction with the
 neck, and imbraces the eye to it's upper edge; a third stripe of the
 same colour 3/4 of an inch in width passes from the sides of the neck
 just above the butts of the wings across the croop in the form of a
 gorget. the throat or under part of the neck brest and belly is of a
 fine yellowish brick red. a narrow stripe of this colour also commences
 just above the center of each eye, and extends backwards to the neck as
 far as the black stripe reaches before discribed, to which, it appears
 to answer as a border. the feathers which form the 1st and second
 ranges of the coverts of the two joints of the wing next the body, are
 beautifully tiped with this brick red; as is also each large feather of
 the wing on the short side of it's plumage for 1/2 an inch in length
 commening at the extremity of the feathers which form the first or main
 covert of the wing. this is a beatifull little bird. I have never heard
 it's note it appears to be silent. it feeds on berries, and I beleive
 is a rare bird even in this country, or at least this is the second
 time only that I have seen it.--between the legs of this bird the
 feathers are white, and those which form the tuft underneath the tail
 are a mixture of white and a brick red.
 
 [Clark, January 31, 1806]
 Friday January 31st 1806
 Sent a party of Eight men with the hunters to renew their Serch for the
 Elk, and also to hunt; they proceeded but a fiew miles before they
 found the river So obstructed with ice that they were obliged to
 return. Jo. Field arrives this evening, informs us That he had been
 hunting in Company with gibson and willard for the last four days in
 order to obtain some meat for himself and the other Salt-makers, and
 that he had been unsucksessfull untill yesterday evening when he had
 fortunately killed two Elk, about six miles distant from this place and
 about 8 from the Salt works; he left gibson and willard to dry the meat
 of those Elk, and had come for assistance to carry the meat to the Salt
 Camp; for this purpose we ordered four men to accompany him early in
 the morning. discovered that McNeal had the pox, gave him medicine.
 Chabono found a bird dead lying near the Fort this morning and brought
 it in, I reconized it to be the Same kind of that which I had Seen in
 the Rocky Mountains at severl different times. this berd is about the
 Size as near as may be of the robin. it's contour is also presisely the
 Same with that bird. it measured one foot 3/4 inches from tip to tip of
 the wings when extended. 91/4 inches from the extremity of the beak to
 that of the tail. the tail is 33/4 inches in length, and Composed of 11
 feathers of the Same length. The beak is Smoth, black, convex and
 cultrated; 1 1/8 inchs from the point to the opening of the Chaps and
 3/4 only uncovered with feathers, the upper Chap exceeds the other a
 little in length. a fiew Small black hairs garnish the Side of the
 upper chap. The Eye is of a uniform deep Sea green or black, moderately
 large. it's legs feet and tallants are white; the legs are of 11/4 in
 length and Smoth; four toes on each foot, of which that in front is the
 Same length of the leg including the tallants, which is 4 lines; the 3
 remaining toes are 3/4 of an inch, each armed with proportianably large
 tallons. the toes are Slightly imbricated. the tallons are curved and
 Sharply pointed. The Crown of the head from the beak back to the neck
 imbracing rather more than half the circumphrence of the neck, the Back
 and tail is of a bluish dark brown; the two outer feathers of the tail
 have a little dash of white near the tips, not proceivable when the
 tail is foalded. a fine black forms the ground of the wings; two
 Stripes of the same colour passes on either side of the Head from the
 base of the Back along the Side of the head to it's junction with the
 neck, and embraces the eye to its upper edge; a third Stripe of the
 Same Colour 3/4 of an inch in width passes from the Side of the neck
 just above the buts of the wings across the troop in the form of a
 gorget. the throat or under part of the neck brest and belly is of a
 fine Yellowish brick red. a narrow Stripe of this Colour also Commences
 just above the center of each eye, and extends backwards to the Neck as
 far as the black Spots reaches before discribed, to which it appears to
 answer as a border. the feathers which form the 1st and Second range of
 the coverts of the two joints of the wings next the body are butifully
 aped with this Brick red; as is also each large feather of the wing on
 the Short Side of its plumage for 1/2 an inch in length Comencing at
 the extremity of the feather which form the first or main Covert of the
 wing. This is a butifull little bird. I have never herd its notes it
 appears to be Silent. it feeds on berries, and I believe is a rare bird
 even in this country-. between the legs of this bird the feathers are
 white, and those which form the tuft underneath the tail are a mixture
 of white and Brick red.