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[Clark, November 1, 1805]
 November 1st Friday 1805
 a verry cold morning wind from N. E and hard Set all hands packing the
 loading over th portage which is below the Grand Shutes and is 940
 yards of bad way over rocks & on Slipery hill Sides The Indians who
 came down in 2 Canoes last night packed their fish over a portage of
 21/2 miles to avoid a 2d Shute. four of them took their canoes over the
 1st portage and run the 2d Shute, Great numbers of Sea otters, they are
 So Cautious that I with deficuelty got a Shute at one to day, which I
 must have killed but Could not get him as he Sunk
 We got all our Canoes and baggage below the Great Shute 3 of the canoes
 being Leakey from injures recved in hauling them over the rocks,
 obliged us to delay to have them repaired a bad rapid just below us
 three Indian canoes loaded with pounded fish for the &c. trade down the
 river arrived at the upper end of the portage this evening. I Can't
 lern whether those Indians trade with white people or Inds. below for
 the Beeds & copper, which they are So fond of--They are nearly necked,
 prefuring beeds to anything--Those Beeds they trafick with Indians
 Still higher up this river for Skins robes &c. &c. The Indians on those
 waters do not appear to be Sickly, Sore eyes are Common and maney have
 lost their eyes, Some one and, maney both, they have bad teeth, and the
 greater perpotion of them have worn their teeth down, maney into the
 gums, They are rather Small high Cheeks, women Small and homely, maney
 of them had Sweled legs, large about the knees,-owing to the position
 in which they Set on their hams, They are nearly necked only a piece of
 leather tied about their breech and a Small robe which generally comes
 to a little below their wastes and Scercely Sufficely large to cover
 arround them when confined--they are all fond of Clothes but more So of
 Beeds perticularly blue & white beeds. They are durty in the extreme
 both in their Coockery and in their houses.
 Those at the last Village raise the beads about five feet from the
 earth-under which they Store their Provisions--Their houses is about 33
 feet to 50 feet Square, the Bore of which is about 30 Inc. high and 16
 Inches wide in this form cut in a wide pine board they have maney
 imeges Cut in wood, generally, in the figure of a man--Those people are
 high with what they have to Sell, and Say the white people below Give
 them great Prices for what they Sell to them. Their nose are all
 Pierced, and the wear a white Shell maney of which are 2 Inch long
 pushed thro the nose--all the women have flat heads pressed to almost a
 point at top The press the female childrens heads between 2 bords when
 young-untill they form the Skul as they wish it which is generally
 verry flat. This amongst those people is considered as a great mark of
 butyand is practised in all the tribes we have passed on this river
 more or less. men take more of the drugery off the women than is common
 with Indians
 
 
 [Clark, November 1, 1805]
 November 1st Friday 1805
 A verry Cool morning wind hard from the N. E. The Indians who arrived
 last evining took their Canoes on ther Sholders and Carried them below
 the Great Shute, we Set about takeing our Small Canoe and all the
 baggage by land 940 yards of bad Slippery and rockey way The Indians we
 discoverd took ther loading the whole length of the portage 21/2 miles,
 to avoid a Second Shute which appears verry bad to pass, and thro which
 they passed with their empty canoes. Great numbers of Sea Otters, they
 are So cautious that I with dificuelty got a Shot at one to day, which
 I must have killed, but could not get him as he Sunk
 we got all our baggage over the Portage of 940 yards, after which we
 got the 4 large Canoes over by Slipping them over the rocks on poles
 placed across from one rock to another, and at Some places along
 partial Streams of the river. in passing those canoes over the rocks
 &c. three of them recived injuries which obliged us to delay to have
 them repared.
 Several Indian Canoes arrived at the head of the portage, Some of the
 men accompanied by those from the village came down to Smoke with us,
 they appear to Speak the Same language with a little different axcent
 I visited the Indian Village found that the Construction of the houses
 Similar to those abov described, with this difference only that they
 are larger Say from 35 to 50 feet by 30 feet, raised about 5 feet above
 the earth, and nearly as much below The Dores in the Same form and Size
 cut in the wide post which Supports one end of the ridge pole and which
 is carved and painted with different figures & Hieroglyphics Those
 people gave me to eate nuts berries & a little dried fish, and Sold me
 a hat of ther own taste without a brim, and baskets in which they hold
 their water--Their beads are raised about 41/2 feet, under which they
 Store away their dried fish, between the part on which they lie and the
 back wall they Store away their roots burries nuts and valuable
 articles on mats, which are Spread also around the fire place which is
 Sunk about one foot lower than the bottom fore of the house, this fire
 place is about 8 feet long and Six feet wide Secured with a fraim those
 houses are calculated for 4, 5 & 6 families, each familey haveing a
 nice painted ladder to assend up to their beads. I Saw in those houses
 Several wooden Images all cut in imitation of men, but differently
 fasioned and placed in the most conspicious parts of the houses,
 probably as an orniment I cannot lern certainly as to the traffick
 those Inds. carry on below, if white people or the indians who trade
 with the Whites who are either Settled or visit the mouth of this
 river. I believe mostly with the latter as their knowledge of the white
 people appears to be verry imperfect, and the articles which they
 appear to trade mostly i e Pounded fish, Beargrass, and roots; cannot
 be an object of comerce with furin merchants--however they git in
 return for those articles Blue and white beeds copper Tea Kitties,
 brass arm bands, some Scarlet and blue robes and a fiew articles of old
 clothes, they prefer beeds to any thing and will part with the last
 mouthfull or articles of clothing they have for a fiew of those beeds,
 those beeds the trafick with Indians Still higher up this river for
 roabs, Skins, cha-pel-el bread, beargrass &c. who in their turn trafick
 with those under the rockey mountains for Beargrass, Pashico roots &
 robes &c.
 The nativs of the waters of the Columbia appear helthy, Some have
 turners on different parts of their bodies, and Sore and weak Eyes are
 common, maney have lost their Sight entirely great numbers with one eye
 out and frequently the other verry weak; This misfortune I must again
 asscribe to the water &c. They have bad teeth, which is not common with
 indians, maney have worn their teeth down and Some quite into their
 gums, this I cannot Satisfactorily account for it, do ascribe it in
 some measure to their method of eateing, their food, roots pertiularly,
 which they make use of as they are taken out of the earth frequently
 nearly covered with Sand, I have not Seen any of their long roots
 offered for Sale clear of Sand. They are rether below the Common Size
 high cheeks womin Small and homely, and have Swelled legs and thighs,
 and their knees remarkably large which I ascribe to the method in which
 they Sit on their hams-go nearly necked wareing only a piece of leather
 tied about their breast which falls down nearly as low as the waste, a
 Small roabe about 3 feet Square, and a piece of leather tied about
 their breach, They have all flat heads in this quarter They are tirty
 in the extream, both in their person and cooking, ware their hare loose
 hanging in every direction. They asc high prices for what they Sell and
 Say that the white people below give great prices for every thing &c.
 The noses are all pierced and when they are dressed they have a long
 tapered piece of white shell or wampum put through the nose, Those
 Shells are about 2 inches in length. I observed in maney of the
 villeages which I have passed, the heads of the female children in the
 press for the purpose of compressing their heads in their infancy into
 a certain form, between two boards
 
 
 [Clark, November 2, 1805]
 Novr. 2d Saturday 1805
 Meridian altitude 59° 45' 45" made a portage of about 11/2 miles with
 half of the Baggage, and run the rapid with the Canoes without much
 damage, one Struck a rock & Split a little, and 3 others took in Some
 water 7 Squars Came over the portage loaded with Dried fish &
 Beargrass, Soon after 4 men Came down in a Canoe after takeing
 brackfast, & after taking a meridian altitude we Set out Passed 2 bad
 rapids one at 2 & the other at 4 mile below the Isd on Lard. and upper
 end of Strawberry Island on the Stard. Side from the Creek end of last
 Course
 We Labiech killed 14 Geese & a Brant, Collins one Jos. Fields & R 3
 those gees are much Smaller than Common, and have white under their
 rumps & around the tale, The tide rises here a fiew 9 Inches, I cannot
 assertain the prosise hite it rises at the last rapid or at this
 placeof Camp.
 The Indians we left at the portage passed us this evening one other
 Canoe Come up
 
 
 [Clark, November 2, 1805]
 November 2nd Saturday 1805
 Examined the rapid below us more pertcelarly the danger appearing too
 great to Hazzard our Canoes loaded, dispatched all the men who could
 not Swim with loads to the end of the portage below, I also walked to
 the end of the portage with the carriers where I delayed untill everry
 articles was brought over and canoes arrived Safe. here we brackfast
 and took a Meridn. altitude 59°45'45" about the time we were Setting out
 7 Squars came over loaded with Dried fish, and bear grass neetly
 bundled up, Soon after 4 Indian men came down over the rapid in a large
 canoe. passed a rapid at 2 miles & 1 at 4 miles opposit the lower point
 of a high Island on the Lard Side, and a little below 4 Houses on the
 Stard. Bank, a Small Creek on the Lard Side opposit Straw berry Island,
 which heads below the last rapid, opposit the lower point of this
 Island passed three Islands covered with tall timber opposit the Beatin
 rock Those Islands are nearest the Starboard Side, imediately below on
 the Stard. Side passed a village of nine houses, which is Situated
 between 2 Small Creeks, and are of the Same construction of those
 above; here the river widens to near a mile, and the bottoms are more
 extensive and thickly timbered, as also the high mountains on each
 Side, with Pine, Spruce pine, Cotton wood, a Species of ash, and alder.
 at 17 miles passed a rock near the middle of the river, about 100 feet
 high and 80 feet Diamuter, proceed on down a Smoth gentle Stream of
 about 2 miles wide, in which the tide has its effect as high as the
 Beaten rock or the Last rapids at Strawberry Island,--Saw great numbers
 of waterfowl of Different kinds, Such as Swan, Geese, white & grey
 brants, ducks of various kinds, Guls, & Pleaver. Labeach killed 14
 brantjoseph Fields 3 & Collins one. we encamped under a high projecting
 rock on the Lard. Side, here the mountains leave the river on each
 Side, which from the great Shute to this place is high and rugid;
 thickly Covered with timber principalley of the Pine Species. The
 bottoms below appear extensive and thickly Covered with wood. river
 here about 21/2 miles wide. Seven Indians in a Canoe on their way down
 to trade with the nativs below, encamp with us, those we left at the
 portage passed us this evening and proceeded on down The ebb tide rose
 here about 9 Inches, the flood tide must rise here much higher--we made
 29 miles to day from the Great Shute-
 
 
 [Clark, November 3, 1805]
 November 3rd Sunday 1805
 The fog So thick this morning we did not think it prudent to Set out
 untill 10 oClock we Set out and proceeded on verry well, accompanied by
 our Indian friends--This morning Labich killed 3 Geese flying Collins
 killed a Duck--The water rose Inches last night the effects of tide.
 The Countrey has a handsom appearance in advance no mountains extensive
 bottoms--the water Shallow for a great distance from Shore-. The fog
 continued thick untill 12 oClock, we Coasted, and halted at the mouth
 of a large river on the Lard Side, This river throws out emence quanty
 of Sand and is verry Shallow, th narrowest part 200 yards wide bold
 Current, much resembling the river Plat, Several Islands about 1 mile
 up and has a Sand bar of 3 miles in extent imedeately in its mouth,
 discharging it waters by 2 mouths, and Crowding its Corse Sands So as
 to throw the Columbian waters on its Nothern banks, & confdg it to 1/2
 ms. in width Passed a Small Prarie on the Stard. Side above, a large
 Creek opposit qk Sand River on the Stard. Side, extensive bottoms and
 low hilley Countrey on each Side (good wintering Place) a high peaked
 mountain Suppose to be Mt. Hood is on the Lard Side S. 85 E. 40 miles
 distant from the mouth of quick Sand river.-
 
 
 [Clark, November 3, 1805]
 November 3rd Sunday 1805
 The Fog So thick this morning that we could not See a man 50 Steps off,
 this fog detained us untill 10 oClock at which time we Set out,
 accompanied by our Indian friends who are from a village near the great
 falls, previous to our Setting out Collins killed a large Buck, and
 Labiech killed 3 Geese flying. I walked on the Sand beech Lard. Side,
 opposit the canoes as they passed allong. The under groth rushes, vines
 &c. in the bottoms too thick to pass through, at 3 miles I arrived at
 the enterance of a river which appeared to Scatter over a Sand bar, the
 bottom of which I could See quite across and did not appear to be 4
 Inches deep in any part; I attempted to wade this Stream and to my
 astonishment found the bottom a quick Sand, and impassable--I called to
 the Canoes to put to Shore, I got into the Canoe and landed below the
 mouth, & Capt Lewis and my Self walked up this river about 11/2 miles
 to examine this river which we found to be a verry Considerable Stream
 Dischargeing its waters through 2 Chanels which forms an Island of
 about 3 miles in length on the river and 11/2 miles wide, composed of
 Corse Sand which is thrown out of this quick Sand river Compressing the
 waters of the Columbia and throwing the whole Current of its waters
 against its Northern banks, within a Chanel of 1/2 a mile wide, Several
 Small Islands 1 mile up this river, This Stream has much the appearance
 of the River Plait; roleing its quick Sands into the bottoms with great
 velocity after which it is divided into 2 Chanels by a large Sand bar
 before mentioned, the narrowest part of this River is 120 yards-on the
 Opposit Side of the Columbia a falls in above this Creek on the Same
 Side is a Small prarie. extensive low country on each Side thickly
 timbered.
 The Quick Sand river appears to pass through the low countrey at the
 foot of those high range of mountains in a Southerly direction,--The
 large Creeks which fall into the Columbia on the Stard. Side rise in
 the Same range of mountains to the N. N. E. and pass through Some
 ridgey land--A Mountain which we Suppose to be Mt. Hood is S. 85 E
 about 47 miles distant from the mouth of quick sand river This mtn. is
 Covered with Snow and in the range of mountains which we have passed
 through and is of a Conical form but rugid--after takeing dinner at the
 mouth of this river we proceeded on passed the head of a Island near
 the lard Side back of which on the Same Side and near the head a large
 Creek falls in, and nearly opposit & 3 miles below the upper mouth of
 quick Sand river is the lower mouth, This Island is 31/2 miles long,
 has rocks at the upper point, Some timber on the borders of this Island
 in the middle open and ponney. Some rugid rocks in the middle of the
 Stream opposit this Island. proceeded in to Center of a large Island in
 the middle of the river which we call Dimond Isld. from its appearance,
 here we met 15 Indn men in 2 canoes from below, they informed us they
 Saw 3 vestles below &c. &c. we landed on the North Side of this Dimond
 Island and Encamped, Capt. L walked out with his gun on the Island,
 Sent out hunters & fowlers--below quick Sand River the Countrey is low
 rich and thickly timbered on each Side of the river, the Islands open &
 Some ponds river wide and emence numbers of fowls flying in every
 direction Such as Swan, geese, Brants, Cranes, Stalks, white guls,
 comerants & plevers &c. also great numbers of Sea Otter in the river--a
 Canoe arrived from the village below the last rapid with a man his wife
 and 3 children, and a woman whome had been taken prisoner from the
 Snake Inds. on Clarks River I Sent the Interpreters wife who is a So So
 ne or Snake Indian of the Missouri, to Speake to this Squar, they Could
 not understand each other Sufficiently to Converse. This familey and
 the Inds. we met from below continued with us Capt Lewis borrowed a
 Small Canoe of those Indians & 4 men took her across to a Small lake in
 the Isld. Cap L. and 3 men Set out after night in this Canoe in Serch
 of the Swans, Brants Ducks &c. &c. which appeared in great numbers in
 the Lake, he Killed a Swan and Several Ducks which made our number of
 fowls this evening 3 Swan, 8 brant and 5 Ducks, on which we made a
 Sumptious Supper. We gave the Indian-who lent the Canoe a brant, and
 Some meat to the others. one of those Indians, the man from the village
 near the lower Rapids has a gun with a brass barrel & Cock of which he
 prises highly--note the mountain we Saw from near the forks proves to
 be Mount Hood
 
 
 [Clark, November 4, 1805]
 Novr. 4th Monday 1805 A Cloudy Cool morning, wind West, we Set out at
 1/2 past 8 oClock having dispatched 4 men in the Small canoe to hunt
 (Those people men & women heads are flat)
 We landed at a village 200 men of Flatheads of 25 houses 50 canoes
 built of Straw, we were treated verry kindly by them, they gave us
 round root near the Size of a hens egg roasted which they call Wap-to
 to eate
 I walked out on the Stard. Side found the country fine, an open Prarie
 for 1 mile back of which the wood land comence riseing back, the timber
 on the edge of the Prarie is white oke, back is Spruce pine & other
 Species of Pine mixed Some under groth of a wild crab & a Specis of
 wood I'm not acquainted, a Specis of maple & Cotton wood grow near this
 river, Some low bushes
 Indians continue to be with us, Several Canoes Continue with us, The
 Indians at the last village have more Cloth and uriopian trinkets than
 above I Saw Some Guns, a Sword, maney Powder flasks, Salers jackets,
 overalls, hats & Shirts, Copper and Brass trinkets with few Beeds only.
 dureing the time I was at Dinner the Indians Stold my tomahawk which I
 made use of to Smoke I Serched but Could not find it, a Pond on the
 Stard Side, off from the river. Raspberries and ____ are also in the
 bottoms--met a large and Small canoe with 12 men from below the men
 were dressed with a variety of articles of European manufactory the
 large Canoe had emeges on the bow & Stern handsomly Carved in wood &
 painted with the figur of a Bear in front & man in a Stern. Saw white
 geese with black wings--Saw a Small Crab-apple with all the taste &
 flavor of the Common--Those Indians were all armed with Pistols or bows
 and arrows ready Sprung war axes &c.
 Mount Hellen bears N. 25° E about 80 miles, this is the mountain we Saw
 near the foks of this river. it is emensely high and covered with Snow,
 riseing in a kind of Cone perhaps the highest pinecal from the common
 leavel in america passed a village of 4 hs. on the Stard Side at 2
 mils, one at 3 mls.
 One deer 2 Ducks & Brant killed
 
 
 [Clark, November 4, 1805]
 November 4th Monday 1805
 A cloudy cool morning wind from the West we Set out at 1/2 past 8
 oClock, one man Shannon Set out early to walk on the Island to kill
 Something, he joined us at the lower point with a Buck. This Island is
 6 miles long and near 3 miles wide thinly timbered (Tide rose last
 night 18 inches perpndicular at Camp) near the lower point of this
 dimond Island is The head of a large Island Seperated from a Small one
 by a narrow chanel, and both Situated nearest the Lard Side, those
 Islands as also the bottoms are thickly Covered with Pine &c. river
 wide, Country low on both Sides; on the Main Lard Shore a Short
 distance below the last Island we landed at a village of 25 Houses; 24
 of those houses were thached with Straw, and covered with bark, the
 other House is built of boards in the form of those above, except that
 it is above ground and about 50 feet in length and covered with broad
 Split boards This village contains about 200 men of the Skil-loot
 nation I counted 52 canoes on the bank in front of this village maney
 of them verry large and raised in bow. we recognised the man who over
 took us last night, he invited us to a lodge in which he had Some part
 and gave us a roundish roots about the Size of a Small Irish potato
 which they roasted in the embers until they became Soft, This root they
 call Wap-pa-to which the Bulb of the Chinese cultivate in great
 quantities called the Sa-git ti folia or common arrow head-. it has an
 agreeable taste and answers verry well in place of bread. we purchased
 about 4 bushels of this root and divided it to our party, at 7 miles
 below this village passed the upper point of a large Island nearest the
 Lard Side, a Small Prarie in which there is a pond opposit on the
 Stard. here I landed and walked on Shore, about 3 miles a fine open
 Prarie for about 1 mile, back of which the countrey rises gradually and
 wood land comencies Such as white oake, pine of different kinds, wild
 crabs with the taste and flavour of the common crab and Several Species
 of undergroth of which I am not acquainted, a few Cottonwood trees &
 the Ash of this countrey grow Scattered on the river bank, Saw Some Elk
 and Deer Sign and Joined Capt. Lewis at a place he had landed with the
 party for Diner. Soon after Several Canoes of Indians from the village
 above came down dressed for the purpose as I Supposed of Paying us a
 friendly visit, they had Scarlet & blue blankets Salors jackets,
 overalls, Shirts and Hats independant of their Usial dress; the most of
 them had either war axes Spears or Bows Sprung with quivers of arrows,
 Muskets or pistols, and tin flasks to hold their powder; Those fellows
 we found assumeing and disagreeable, however we Smoked with them and
 treated them with every attention & friendship.
 dureing the time we were at dinner those fellows Stold my pipe Tomahawk
 which They were Smoking with, I imediately Serched every man and the
 canoes, but Could find nothing of my Tomahawk, while Serching for the
 Tomahawk one of those Scoundals Stole a Cappoe of one of our
 interpreters, which was found Stufed under the root of a treer, near
 the place they Sat, we became much displeased with those fellows, which
 they discovered and moved off on their return home to their village,
 except 2 canoes which had passed on down--we proceeded on met a large &
 a Small Canoe from below, with 12 men the large Canoe was ornimented
 with Images carved in wood the figures of a Bear in front & a man in
 Stern, Painted & fixed verry netely on the of the Canoe, rising to near
 the hight of a man two Indians verry finely Dressed & with hats on was
 in this canoe passed the lower point of the Island which is nine miles
 in length haveing passed 2 Islands on the Stard Side of this large
 Island, three Small Islands at its lower point. the Indians make Signs
 that a village is Situated back of those Islands on the Lard. Side and
 I believe that a Chanel is Still on the Lrd, Side as a Canoe passed in
 between the Small Islands, and made Signs that way, probably to
 traffick with Some of the nativs liveing on another Chanel, at 3 miles
 lower, and 12 Leagues below quick Sand river passed a village of four
 large houses on The Lard. Side, near which we had a full view of Mt.
 Helien which is perhaps the highest pinical in America from their base
 it bears N. 25° E about 90 miles--This is the mountain I Saw from the
 Muscle Shell rapid on the 19th of October last Covered with Snow, it
 rises Something in the form of a Sugar lofe--about a mile lower passed
 a Single house on the Lard. Side, and one on the Stard. Side, passed a
 village on each Side and Camped near a house on the Stard. Side we
 proceeded on untill one hour after dark with a view to get clear of the
 nativs who was constantly about us, and troublesom, finding that we
 could not get Shut of those people for one night, we landed and
 Encamped on the Stard. Side Soon after 2 canoes Came to us loaded with
 Indians, we purchased a fiew roots of them.
 This evening we Saw vines much resembling the raspberry which is verry
 thick in the bottoms. A range of high hills at about 5 miles on the
 Lard Side which runs S. E. & N W. Covered with tall timber the bottoms
 below in this range of hills and the river is rich and leavel, Saw
 White geese with a part of their wings black. The river here is 11/2
 miles wide, and current jentle. opposit to our camp on a Small Sandy
 Island the brant & geese make Such a noise that it will be impossible
 for me to Sleap. we made 29 miles to day Killed a Deer and Several
 brant and ducks. I Saw a Brarow tamed at the 1st village to day The
 Indians which we have passd to day of the Scil-loot nation in their
 language from those near & about the long narrows of the
 Che-luc-it-te-quar or E-chee-lute, their dress differ but little,
 except they have more of the articles precured from the white traders,
 they all have flatened heads both men and women, live principally on
 fish and Wap pa toe roots, they also kill Some fiew Elk and Deer,
 dureing the Short time I remained in their village they brought in
 three Deer which they had killed with their Bow & arrows. They are
 thievishly inclined as we have experienced.
 
 
 [Clark, November 5, 1805]
 Novr. 5th Tuesday 1805
 a Cloudy morning Som rain the after part of last night & this morning.
 I could not Sleep for the noise kept by the Swans, Geese, white & black
 brant, Ducks &c. on a opposit base, & Sand hill Crane, they were
 emensely numerous and their noise horrid. We Set out at Sun rise & our
 hunters killed 10 Brant 4 of which were white with black wings 2 Ducks,
 and a Swan which were divided, we Came too and Encamped on the Lard.
 Side under a high ridgey land, the high land come to the river on each
 Side. the river about 11/2 mile wide. those high lands rise gradually
 from the river & bottoms--we are all wet Cold and disagreeable, rain
 Continues & encreases. I killed a Pheasent which is very fat--my feet
 and legs cold. I saw 17 Snakes to day on a Island, but little
 appearance of Frost at this place.
 
 
 [Clark, November 5, 1805]
 November 5th Tuesday 1805
 Rained all the after part of last night, rain continues this morning, I
 slept but verry little last night for the noise Kept dureing the whole
 of the night by the Swans, Geese, white & Grey Brant Ducks &c. on a
 Small Sand Island close under the Lard. Side; they were emensely
 noumerous, and their noise horid--we Set out early here the river is
 not more than 3/4 of a mile in width, passed a Small Prarie on the
 Stard. Side passed 2 houses about 1/2 a mile from each other on the
 Lard. Side a Canoe came from the upper house, with 3 men in it mearly
 to view us, passed an Isld. Covered with tall trees & green briers
 Seperated from the Stard. Shore by a narrow Chanel at 9 miles I
 observed on the Chanel which passes on the Stard Side of this Island a
 Short distance above its lower point is Situated a large village, the
 front of which occupies nearly 1/4 of a mile fronting the Chanel, and
 closely Connected, I counted 14 houses in front here the river widens
 to about 11/2 miles. Seven canoes of Indians came out from this large
 village to view and trade with us, they appeared orderly and well
 disposed, they accompanied us a fiew miles and returned back. about
 111/2 miles below this village on the Lard Side behind a rockey Sharp
 point, we passed a Chanel 1/4 of a mile wide, which I take to be the
 one the Indian Canoe entered yesterday from the lower point of Immage
 Canoe Island a Some low clifts of rocks below this Chanel, a large
 Island Close under the Stard Side opposit, and 2 Small Islands, below,
 here we met 2 canoes from below,--below those Islands a range of high
 hills form the Stard. Bank of the river, the Shore bold and rockey,
 Covered with a thick groth of Pine an extensive low Island, Seperated
 from the Lard side by a narrow Chanel, on this Island we Stoped to Dine
 I walked out found it open & covered with grass interspersed with Small
 ponds, in which was great numbr. of foul, the remains of an old village
 on the lower part of this Island, I saw Several deer our hunters killed
 on this Island a Swan, 4 white 6 Grey brant & 2 Ducks all of them were
 divided, below the lower point of this Island a range of high hills)
 which runs S. E. forms the Lard. bank of the river the Shores bold and
 rockey & hills Covered with pine, The high hills leave the river on the
 Stard. Side a high bottom between the hill & river. We met 4 Canoes of
 Indians from below, in which there is 26 Indians, one of those Canoes
 is large, and ornimented with Images on the bow & Stern. That in the
 Bow the likeness of a Bear, and in Stern the picture of a man--we
 landed on the Lard. Side & camped a little below the mouth of a creek
 on the Stard. Side a little below the mouth of which is an Old Village
 which is now abandaned-; here the river is about one and a half miles
 wide, and deep, The high Hills which run in a N W. & S E. derection
 form both banks of the river the Shore boald and rockey, the hills rise
 gradually & are Covered with a thick groth of pine &c. The valley which
 is from above the mouth of Quick Sand River to this place may be
 computed at 60 miles wide on a Derect line, & extends a great Distanc
 to the right & left rich thickly Covered with tall timber, with a fiew
 Small Praries bordering on the river and on the Islands; Some fiew
 Standing Ponds & Several Small Streams of running water on either Side
 of the river; This is certainly a fertill and a handsom valley, at this
 time Crouded with Indians. The day proved Cloudy with rain the greater
 part of it, we are all wet cold and disagreeable--I Saw but little
 appearance of frost in this valley which we call Wap-pa-loo Columbia
 from that root or plants growing Spontaneously in this valley only In
 my walk of to Day I saw 17 Striped Snakes I killed a grouse which was
 verry fat, and larger than Common. This is the first night which we
 have been entirely clear of Indians Since our arrival on the waters of
 the Columbia River. We made 32 miles to day by estimation-
 
 
 [Clark, November 6, 1805]
 November 6th Wednesday a cold wet morning. rain Contd. untill ____
 oClock we Set out early & proceeded on the Corse of last night &c.
 
 
 [Clark, November 6, 1805]
 November 6th Wednesday 1805
 A cool wet raney morning we Set out early at 4 miles pass 2 Lodges of
 Indians in a Small bottom on the Lard Side I believe those Indians to
 be travelers. opposit is the head of a long narrow Island close under
 the Starboard Side, back of this Island two Creeks fall in about 6
 miles apart, and appear to head in the high hilley countrey to the N.
 E. opposit this long Island is 2 others one Small and about the middle
 of the river. the other larger and nearly opposit its lower point, and
 opposit a high clift of Black rocks on the Lard. Side at 14 miles: here
 the Indians of the 2 Lodges we passed to day came in their canoes with
 Sundery articles to Sell, we purchased of them Wap-pa-too roots, Salmon
 trout, and I purchased 2 beaver Skins for which I gave 5 Small fish
 hooks. here the hills leave the river on the Lard. Side, a butifull
 open and extensive bottom in which there is an old Village, one also on
 the Stard. Side a little above both of which are abandened by all their
 inhabitents except Two Small dogs nearly Starved, and an unreasonable
 portion of flees--The Hills and mountains are covered with Sever kinds
 of Pine-Arber Vitea or white Cedar, red Loril, alder and Several
 Species of under groth, the bottoms have common rushes, nettles, &
 grass the Slashey parts have Bull rushes & flags--Some willow on the
 waters edge, passed an Island 3 miles long and one mile wide, close
 under the Stard. Side below the long narrow Island below which the
 Stard Hills are verry from the river bank and Continues high and rugid
 on that Side all day, we over took two Canoes of Indians going down to
 trade one of the Indians Spoke a fiew words of english and Said that
 the principal man who traded with them was Mr. Haley, and that he had a
 woman in his Canoe who Mr. Haley was fond of &c. he Showed us a Bow of
 Iron and Several other things which he Said Mr. Haley gave him. we came
 too to Dine on the long narrow Island found the woods So thick with
 under groth that the hunters could not get any distance into the Isld.
 the red wood, and Green bryors interwoven, and mixed with pine, alder,
 a Specis of Beech, ash &c. we killed nothing to day The Indians leave
 us in the evening, river about one mile wide hills high and Steep on
 the Std. no place for Several Miles suffcently large and leavil for our
 camp we at length Landed at a place which by moveing the Stones we made
 a place Sufficently large for the party to lie leavil on the Smaller
 Stones Clear of the Tide Cloudy with rain all day we are all wet and
 disagreeable, had large fires made on the Stone and dried our bedding
 and Kill the flees, which collected in our blankets at every old
 village we encamped near I had like to have forgotten a verry
 remarkable Knob riseing from the edge of the water to about 80 feet
 high, and about 200 paces around at its Base and Situated on the long
 narrow Island above and nearly opposit to the 2 Lodges we passed to
 day, it is Some distance from the high land & in a low part of the
 Island
 
 
 [Clark, November 7, 1805]
 November 7th Thursday 1805
 a Cloudy fogey morning, a little rain. Set out at 8 oClock proceeded on
 The womens peticoat is about 15 Inches long made of arber vita or the
 white Cedar bark wove to a String and hanging down in tossles and tied
 So as to cover from their hips as low as the peticoat will reach and
 only Covers them when Standing, as in any other position the Tosels
 Seperate. Those people Sold us otter Skins for fish hooks of which they
 wer fond
 We delayed 11/2 hour & Set out the tide being up in & the river So Cut
 with Islands we got an Indian to pilot us into the main chanel one of
 our Canoes Seperated from us this morning in the fog--great numbers of
 water fowls of every descriptn. common to this river
 
 
 [Clark, November 7, 1805]
 November 7th Thursday 1805
 A cloudy foggey morning Some rain. we Set out early proceeded under the
 Stard Shore under a high rugid hills with Steep assent the Shore boalt
 and rockey, the fog So thick we could not See across the river, two
 Canos of Indians met and returned with us to their village which is
 Situated on the Stard Side behind a cluster of Marshey Islands, on a
 narrow chanl. of the river through which we passed to the Village of 4
 Houses, they gave us to eate Some fish, and Sold us, fish, Wap pa to
 roots three dogs and 2 otter Skins for which we gave fish hooks
 principally of which they were verry fond.
 Those people call themselves War-ci-a-cum and Speake a language
 different from the nativs above with whome they trade for the Wapato
 roots of which they make great use of as food. their houses differently
 built, raised entirely above ground eaves about 5 feet from the ground
 Supported and covered in the same way of those above, dotes about the
 Same size but in the Side of the house in one Corner, one fire place
 and that near the opposit end; around which they have their beads
 raised about 4 feet from the fore which is of earth, under their beads
 they Store away baskets of dried fish Berries & wappato, over the fire
 they hang the flesh as they take them and which they do not make
 immediate use. Their Canoes are of the Same form of those above. The
 Dress of the men differ verry little from those above, The womin
 altogether different, their robes are Smaller only Covering their
 Sholders & falling down to near the hip--and Sometimes when it is Cold
 a piec of fur curiously plated and connected So as to meet around the
 body from the arms to the hips The garment which occupies the waist and
 thence as low as the knee before and mid leg behind, cannot properly be
 called a petticoat, in the common acception of the word; it is a Tissue
 formed of white Cedar bark bruised or broken into Small Straps, which
 are interwoven in their center by means of Several cords of the Same
 materials which Serves as well for a girdle as to hold in place the
 Straps of bark which forms the tissue, and which Strans, Confined in
 the middle, hang with their ends pendulous from the waiste, the whole
 being of Suffcent thickness when the female Stands erect to conceal
 those parts useally covered from familiar view, but when she stoops or
 places herself in any other attitudes this battery of Venus is not
 altogether impervious to the penetrating eye of the amorite. This
 tissue is Sometims formed of little Strings of the Silk grass twisted
 and knoted at their ends &c. Those Indians are low and ill Shaped all
 flat heads
 after delaying at this village one hour and a half we Set out piloted
 by an Indian dressed in a Salors dress, to the main Chanel of the
 river, the tide being in we Should have found much dificuelty in
 passing into the main Chanel from behind those islands, without a
 pilot, a large marshey Island near the middle of the river near which
 Several Canoes Came allong Side with Skins, roots fish &c. to Sell, and
 had a temporey residence on this Island, here we See great numbers of
 water fowls about those marshey Islands; here the high mountanious
 Countrey approaches the river on the Lard Side, a high mountn. to the S
 W. about 20 miles, the high mountans. Countrey Continue on the Stard
 Side, about 14 miles below the last village and 18 miles of this day we
 landed at a village of the Same nation. This village is at the foot of
 the high hills on the Stard Side back OF 2 Small Islands it contains 7
 indifferent houses built in the Same form of those above, here we
 purchased a Dog Some fish, wappato roots and I purchased 2 beaver Skins
 for the purpose of makeing me a roab, as the robe I have is rotten and
 good for nothing. opposit to this Village the high mountaneous Countrey
 leave the river on the Lard Side below which the river widens into a
 kind of Bay & is Crouded with low Islands Subject to be Covered by the
 tides--we proceeded on about 12 miles below the Village under a high
 mountaneous Countrey on the Stard. Side. Shore boald and rockey and
 Encamped under a high hill on the Stard. Side opposit to a rock
 Situated half a mile from the Shore, about 50 feet high and 20 feet
 Diamieter, we with dificuelty found a place Clear of the tide and
 Sufficiently large to lie on and the only place we could get was on
 round Stones on which we lay our mats rain Continud. moderately all day
 & Two Indians accompanied us from the last village, they we detected in
 Stealing a knife and returned, our Small Canoe which got Seperated in
 the fog this morning joined us this evening from a large Island
 Situated nearest the Lard Side below the high hills on that Side, the
 river being too wide to See either the form Shape or Size of the
 Islands on the Lard Side.
 Great joy in camp we are in View of the Ocian, this great Pacific
 Octean which we been So long anxious to See. and the roreing or noise
 made by the waves brakeing on the rockey Shores (as I Suppose) may be
 heard distictly
 we made 34 miles to day as Computed
 
 
 [Clark, November 8, 1805]
 Novr. 8th Friday 1805 a cloudy morning Some rain and wind we Changed
 our Clothes and Set out at 9 oClock proceeded on Close under the Stard.
 Side
 R. Fields Killed a goose & 2 Canvis back Ducks in this bay after Dinner
 we took the advantage of the returning tide & proceeded on to the 2d
 point, at which place we found the Swells too high to proceed we landed
 and drew our canoes up So as to let the tide leave them. The three
 Indians after Selling us 4 fish for which we gave Seven Small fishing
 hooks, and a piece of red Cloth. Some fine rain at intervales all this
 day. the Swells Continued high all the evening & we are Compelled to
 form an Encampment on a Point Scercely room Sufficent for us all to lie
 Clear of the tide water. hills high & with a Steep assent, river wide &
 at this place too Salt to be used for Drink. we are all wet and
 disagreeable, as we have been Continually for Severl. days past, we are
 at a loss & cannot find out if any Settlement is near the mouth of this
 river.
 The Swells were So high and the Canoes roled in Such a manner as to
 cause Several to be verry Sick. Reuben fields, Wiser McNeal & the Squar
 wer of the number
 
 
 [Clark, November 8, 1805]
 November 8th Friday 1805
 A Cloudy morning Some rain, we did not Set out untill 9 oClock, haveing
 Changed our Clothing--proceeded on Close under the Stard. Side, the
 hills high with Steep assent, Shore boald and rockey Several low
 Islands in a Deep bend or Bay to the Lard Side, river about 5 or 7
 miles wide. three Indians in a Canoe overtook us, with Salmon to Sell,
 passed 2 old villages on the Stard. Side and at 3 miles entered a nitch
 of about 6 miles wide and 5 miles deep with Several Creeks makeing into
 the Stard Hills, this nitch we found verry Shallow water and Call it
 the Shallow nitch we came too at the remains of an old village at the
 bottom of this nitch and dined, here we Saw great numbers of fowl, Sent
 out 2 men and they killed a Goose and two Canves back Ducks here we
 found great numbers of Hees which we treated with the greatest caution
 and distance; after Diner the Indians left us and we took the advantage
 of a returning tide and proceeded on to the Second point on the Std.
 here we found the Swells or waves So high that we thought it imprudent
 to proceed; we landed unloaded and drew up our Canoes. Some rain all
 day at intervales; we are all wet and disagreeable, as we have been for
 Several days past, and our present Situation a verry disagreeable one
 in as much; as we have not leavel land Sufficient for an encampment and
 for our baggage to lie Cleare of the tide, the High hills jutting in So
 Close and Steep that we cannot retreat back, and the water of the river
 too Salt to be used, added to this the waves are increasing to Such a
 hight that we cannot move from this place, in this Situation we are
 compelled to form our Camp between the hite of the Ebb and flood tides,
 and rase our baggage on logs--We are not certain as yet if the whites
 people who trade with those people or from whome they precure ther
 goods are Stationary at the mouth, or visit this quarter at Stated
 times for the purpose of trafick &c. I believe the latter to be the
 most probable conjucture--The Seas roled and tossed the Canoes in Such
 a manner this evening that Several of our party were Sea Sick.
 
 
 [Clark, November 9, 1805]
 Novr. 9th Saturday 1805
 The tide of last night obliged us to unload all the Canoes one of which
 Sunk before She was unloaded by the high waves or Swells which
 accompanied the returning tide, The others we unloaded, and 3 others
 was filled with water Soon after by the Swells or high Sees which broke
 against the Shore imediately where we lay, rained hard all the fore
 part of the day, the tide which rose untill 2 oClock P M to day brought
 with it Such emence Swells or waves, added to a hard wind from the
 South which Loosened the Drift trees which is verry thick on the
 Shores, and tossed them about in Such a manner, as to endanger our
 Canoes very much, with every exertion and the Strictest attention by
 the party was Scercely Suffient to defend our Canoes from being Crushed
 to pieces between those emensely large trees maney of them 200 feet
 long and 4 feet through. The tide of this day rose about ____ feet & 15
 Inches higher than yesterday this is owing to the wind which Sets in
 from the ocian, we are Compelled to move our Camp from the water, as
 also the loading every man as wet all the last night and this day as
 the rain Could make them which Contind. all day. at 4 oClock the wind
 Shifted about to the S. W imediately from the ocian and blew a Storm
 for about 2 hours, raised the tide verry high all wet & cold Labiech
 killed 4 Ducks very fat & R. Fields Saw Elk Sign.
 not withstanding the disagreeable time of the party for Several days
 past they are all Chearfull and full of anxiety to See further into the
 ocian. the water is too Salt to Drink, we use rain water. The Salt
 water has acted on some of the party already as a Pergitive. rain
 continus.
 
 
 [Clark, November 9, 1805]
 November 9th Saturday 1805
 The tide of last night did not rise Sufficintly high to come into our
 camp, but the Canoes which was exposed to the mercy of the waves &c.
 which accompanied the returning tide, they all filled, and with great
 attention we Saved them untill the tide left them dry--wind Hard from
 the South and rained hard all the fore part of the day, at 2 oClock P M
 the flood tide came in accompanied with emence waves and heavy winds,
 floated the trees and Drift which was on the point on which we Camped
 and tosed them about in Such a manner as to endanger the Canoes verry
 much, with every exertion and the Strictest attention by every
 individual of the party was Scercely Sufficient to Save our Canoes from
 being crushed by those monsterous trees maney of them nearly 200 feet
 long and from 4 to 7 feet through. our camp entirely under water
 dureing the hight of the tide, every man as wet as water could make
 them all the last night and to day all day as the rain Continued all
 day, at 4 oClock P M the wind Shifted about to the S. W. and blew with
 great violence imediately from the Ocian for about two hours,
 notwithstanding the disagreeable Situation of our party all wet and
 Cold (and one which they have experienced for Several days past) they
 are chearfull and anxious to See further into the Ocian, The water of
 the river being too Salt to use we are obliged to make use of rain
 water--Some of the party not accustomed to Salt water has made too free
 a use of it on them it acts as a pergitive.
 at this dismal point we must Spend another night as the wind & waves
 are too high to proceed.
 
 
 [Clark, November 10, 1805]
 November 10th Sunday 1805 rained verry hard the greater part of the
 last night & Continus this morning, the wind has layed and the Swells
 are fallen. we loaded our Canoes and proceeded on, passed a Deep Bay on
 the Stard. Side I Call ____ The wind rose from the N W. and the Swells
 became So high, we were Compelled to return about 2 miles to a place
 where we Could unld. our Canoes, which was in a Small Bay on Driftwood,
 on which we had also to make our fires to dry our Selves as well as we
 could the Shore being either a Clift of Purpendicular rocks or Steep
 assents to the hight of 4 or 500 feet, we continued on this drift wood
 untill about 3 oClock when the evening appearing favourable we loaded &
 Set out in hopes to turn the Point below and get into a better harber,
 but finding the waves & Swells continue to rage with great fury below,
 we got a Safe place for our Stores & a much beter one for the Canoes to
 lie and formed a Campment on Drift logs in the Same little Bay under a
 high hill at the enterence of a Small drean which we found verry convt.
 on account of its water, as that of the river is Brackish--The logs on
 which we lie is all on flote every high tide--The rain Continud all
 day--we are all wet, also our beding and many other articles. we are
 all employed untill late drying our bedding. nothing to eate but
 Pounded fish
 
 
 [Clark, November 10, 1805]
 November 10th Sunday 1805
 Rained verry hard the greater part of last night and continues this
 morning. the wind has luled and the waves are not high; we loaded our
 canoes and proceeded on passed Several Small and deep nitch on the
 Stard. Side, we proceeded on about 10 miles Saw great numbers of Sea
 Guls, the wind rose from the N. W. and the waves became So high that we
 were compelled to return about 2 miles to a place we Could unload our
 Canoes, which we did in a Small nitch at the mouth of a Small run on a
 pile of drift logs where we Continued untill low water, when the river
 appeared calm we loaded and Set out; but was obliged to return finding
 the waves too high for our Canoes to ride, we again unloaded the
 Canoes, and Stoed the loading on a rock above the tide water, and
 formed a camp on the Drift Logs which appeared to be the only Situation
 we could find to lie, the hills being either a perpendicular Clift, or
 Steep assent, riseing to about 500 feet--our Canoes we Secured as well
 as we could--we are all wet the rain haveing continued all day, our
 beding and maney other articles, employ our Selves drying our blankets-
 nothing to eate but dried fish pounded which we brought from the falls.
 we made 10 miles today
 
 
 [Clark, November 11, 1805]
 November 11th Monday 1805
 a hard rain all the last night we again get wet the rain continue at
 intervals all day. Wind verry high from S W and blew a Storm all day
 Sent out Jo. Fields & Collins to hunt. at 12 oClock at a time the wind
 was verry high and waves tremendeous five Indians Came down in a Canoe
 loaded with fish of Salmon Spes. Called Red Charr, we purchased of
 those Indians 13 of these fish, for which we gave, fishing hooks & some
 trifling things, we had Seen those Indians at a village behind Some
 marshey Islands a few days ago. they are on their way to trade those
 fish with white people which they make Signs live below round a point,
 those people are badly Clad, one is dressd. in an old Salors Jacket &
 Trouses, the others Elk Skin robes. we are truly unfortunate to be
 Compelled to lie 4 days nearly in the Same place at a time that our day
 are precious to us, The Wind Shifted to ____ the Indians left us and
 Crossed the river which is about 5 miles wide through the highest Sees
 I ever Saw a Small vestle ride, their Canoe is Small, maney times they
 were out of Sight before the were 2 miles off Certain it is they are
 the best canoe navigators I ever Saw The tide was 3 hours later to day
 than yesterday and rose much higher, the trees we camped on was all on
 flote for about 2 hours from 3 untill 5 oClock P M, the great
 quantities of rain which has fallen losenes the Stones on the Side of
 the hill & the Small ones fall on us, our Situation is truly a
 disagreeable one our Canoes in one place at the mercy of the waves our
 baggage in another and our Selves & party Scattered on drift trees of
 emense Sizes, & are on what dry land they can find in the Crevices of
 the rocks & hill Sides
 
 
 [Clark, November 11, 1805]
 November 11th Monday 1805
 A hard rain all the last night, dureing the last tide the logs on which
 we lay was all on float Sent out Jo Fields to hunt, he Soon returned
 and informed us that the hills was So high & Steep, & thick with
 undergroth and fallen Timber that he could not get out any distance;
 about 12 oClock 5 Indians came down in a canoe, the wind verry high
 from the S. W. with most tremendious waves brakeing with great violence
 against the Shores, rain falling in torrents, we are all wet as usial
 and our Situation is truly a disagreeable one; the great quantites of
 rain which has loosened the Stones on the hill Sides, and the Small
 Stones fall down upon us, our canoes at one place at the mercy of the
 waves, our baggage in another and our Selves and party Scattered on
 floating logs and Such dry Spots as can be found on the hill Sides, and
 Crivices of the rocks. we purchased of the Indians 13 red chary which
 we found to be an excellent fish we have Seen those Indians above and
 are of a nation who reside above and on the opposit Side who call
 themselves Call-har-ma they are badly clad & illy made, Small and Speak
 a language much resembling the last nation, one of those men had on a
 Salors Jacket and Pantiloons and made Signs that he got those Clothes
 from the white people who lived below the point &c. those people left
 us and Crossed the river (which is about 5 miles wide at this place)
 through the highest waves I ever Saw a Small vestles ride. Those
 Indians are Certainly the best Canoe navigaters I ever Saw. rained all
 (lay
 
 
 [Clark, November 12, 1805]
 November 12th Tuesday 1805
 a tremendious thunder Storm abt. 3 oClock this morning accompanied by
 wind from the S W. and Hail, this Storm of hard Clap's thunder Lighting
 and hail untill about 6 oClock at intervals it then became light for a
 Short time when the heavens became darkined by a black Cloud from the
 S, W, & a hard rain Suckceeded which lasted untill 12 oClock with a
 hard wind which raised the Seas tremendiously high braking with great
 force and fury against the rocks & trees on which we lie, as our
 Situation became Seriously dangerous, we took the advantage of a low
 tide & moved our Camp around a point a Short distance to a Small wet
 bottom at the mouth of a Small Creek, which we had not observed when we
 first Came to this Cove, from its being very thick and obscured by
 drift trees & thick bushes, Send out men to hunt they found the woods
 So thick with Pine & timber and under Broth that they could not get
 through, Saw Some Elk tracks, I walked up this creek & killed 2 Salmon
 trout, the men killd. 13 of the Salmon Species, The Pine of fur Specs,
 or Spruc Pine grow here to an emense Size & hight maney of them 7 & 8
 feet through and upwards of 200 feet high. It would be distressing to a
 feeling person to See our Situation at this time all wet and cold with
 our bedding &c. also wet, in a Cove Scercely large nough to Contain us,
 our Baggage in a Small holler about 1/2 a mile from us, and Canoes at
 the mercy of the waves & drift wood, we have Scured them as well as it
 is possible by Sinking and wateing them down with Stones to prevent the
 emence waves dashing them to pices against the rocks--one got loose
 last night & was left on a rock by the tide Some distance below without
 recving much damage. fortunately for us our Men are helthy. It was
 clear at 12 for a Short time. I observed the Mountains on the opposit
 Side was covered with Snowour party has been wet for 8 days and is
 truly disagreeable, their robes & leather Clothes are rotten from being
 Continually wet, and they are not in a Situation to get others, and we
 are not in a Situation to restore them--I observe great numbers of Sea
 guls, flying in every derection--Three men Gibson Bratten & Willard
 attempted to decend in a Canoe built in the Indian fashion and abt. the
 Size of the one the Indians visited us in yesterday, they Could not
 proceed, as the waves tossed them about at will, they returned after
 proceeding about 1 mile--we got our Selves tolerable Comfortable by
 drying our Selves & bedding Cought 3 salmon this evining in a Small
 branch above about 1 mile
 
 
 [Clark, November 12, 1805]
 November 12th Tuesday 1805
 A Tremendious wind from the S. W. about 3 oClock this morning with
 Lightineng and hard claps of Thunder, and Hail which Continued untill 6
 oClock a.m. when it became light for a Short time, then the heavens
 became Sudenly darkened by a black Cloud from the S. W. and rained with
 great violence untill 12 oClock, the waves tremendious brakeing with
 great fury against the rocks and trees on which we were encamped. our
 Situation is dangerous. we took the advantage of a low tide and moved
 our camp around a point to a Small wet bottom at the mouth of a Brook,
 which we had not observed when we Came to this cove; from it being
 verry thick and obscured by drift trees and thick bushes It would be
 distressing to See our Situation, all wet and Colde our bedding also
 wet, (and the robes of the party which Compose half the bedding is
 rotten and we are not in a Situation to supply their places) in a wet
 bottom Scercely large enough to contain us, our baggage half a mile
 from us and Canoes at the mercy of the waves, altho Secured as well as
 possible, Sunk with emence parcels of Stone to wate them down to
 prevent their dashing to pieces against the rocks; one got loose last
 night and was left on a rock a Short distance below, without rciving
 more daminage than a Split in her bottom--Fortunately for us our men
 are healthy. 3 men Gibson Bratten & Willard attempted to go aroud the
 point below in our Indian Canoe, much Such a canoe as the Indians
 visited us in yesterday, they proceeded to the point from which they
 were oblige to return, the waves tossing them about at will I walked up
 the branch and giged 3 Salmon trout. the party killed 13 Salmon to day
 in a branch about 2 miles above. rain Continued
 
 
 [Clark, November 13, 1805]
 November 13th Wednesday 1805 Some intervales of fair weather last
 night, rain and wind Continue this morning, as we are in a Cove & the
 Mountains verry high & Pine Spruce verry high & thick Cannot deturmine
 the procise course of the winds. I walked to the top of the first part
 of the mountain with much fatigue as the distance was about 3 miles
 thro intolerable thickets of Small Pine, arrow wood a groth much
 resembling arrow wood with briers, growing to 10 & 15 feet high
 interlocking with each other & Furn, aded to this difficulty the hill
 was So Steep that I was obliged to drawing my Self up in many places by
 the bowers, the Countrey Continues thick and hilley as far back a I
 could See. Some Elk Sign, rained all day moderately. I am wet &c. &c.
 The Hail which fell 2 night past is yet to be Seen on the mountain on
 which I was to day. I Saw a Small red Berry which grows on a Stem of
 about 6 or 8 Inches from the Ground, in bunches and in great quantity
 on the Mountains, the taste insiped. I saw a number of verry large
 Spruce Pine one of which I measured 14 feet around and verry tall. My
 principal objects in assdg. this mountain was to view the river below,
 the weather being So Cloudey & thick that I could not See any distance
 down, discovered the wind high from the N. W. and waves high at a Short
 distance below our Encampment, (Squar displeased with me for not sin &c
 &c. Wap-lo a excellent root which is rosted and tastes like a potato I
 Cut my hand despatched 3 men in a Indian canoe (which is calculated to
 ride high Swells) down to examine if they can find the Bay at the mouth
 & good barbers below for us to proceed in Safty. The fides at every Hud
 come in with great Swells & Breake against the rocks & Drift trees with
 great fury--the rain Continue all the evening nothing to eate but
 Pounded fish which we have as a reserve See Store, and what Pore fish
 we can kill up the branch on which we are encamped our canoe and the
 three men did not return this evening--if we were to have cold weather
 to accompany the rain which we have had for this 6 or 8 days passed we
 must eneviatilbly Suffer verry much as Clothes are Scerce with us.
 
 
 [Clark, November 13, 1805]
 November 13th Wednesday 1805
 Some intervales of fair weather last night, rain continue this morning.
 I walked up the Brook & assended the first Spur of the mountain with
 much fatigue, the distance about 3 miles, through an intolerable
 thickets of Small pine, a groth much resembling arrow wood on the Stem
 of which there is thorns; this groth about 12 or 15 feet high inter
 lockd into each other and Scattered over the high fern & fallen timber,
 added to this the hills were So Steep that I was compelled to draw my
 Self up by the assistance of those bushes--The Timber on those hills
 are of the pine Species large and tall maney of them more than 200 feet
 high & from 8 to 10 feet through at the Stump those hills & as far back
 as I could See, I Saw Some Elk Sign, on the Spur of the mountain tho
 not fresh. I killed a Salmon trout on my return. The Hail which fell 2
 nights past is yet to be Seen on the mountains; I Saw in my ramble to
 day a red berry resembling Solomons Seal berry which the nativs call
 Sol-me and use it to eate. my principal object in assending this
 mountain was to view the countrey below, the rain continuing and
 weather proved So Cloudy that I could not See any distance on my return
 we dispatched 3 men Colter, Willard and Shannon in the Indian canoe to
 get around the point if possible and examine the river, and the Bay
 below for a god barber for our Canoes to lie in Safty &c. The tide at
 every floot tide Came with great swells brakeing against the rocks &
 Drift trees with great fury The rain Continue all day. nothing to eate
 but pounded fish which we Keep as a reserve and use in Situations of
 this kind.
 
 
 [Clark, November 14, 1805]
 Novr. 14th Thursday 1805
 Rained last night without intermission and this morning the wind blew
 hard from the ____ We Could not move, one Canoe was broken last night
 against the rocks, by the waves dashing her against them in high tide
 about 10 oClock 5 Indians Come up in a Canoe thro emence waves &
 Swells, they landed and informed us they Saw the 3 men we Sent down
 yesterday, at Some distance below Soon after those people Came Colter
 one of the 3 men returned and informed us that he had proceeded with
 his Canoe as far as they Could, for the waves and Could find no white
 people, or Bay, he Saw a good Canoe barber & 2 Camps of Indians at no
 great distance below and that those with us had taken his gig & knife
 &c. which he forcably took from them & they left us, after our treating
 them well. The rain Continue all day all wet as usial, killed only 2
 fish to day for the whole Party, at 3 oClock Capt. Lewis Drewyer Jo. &
 R. Fields & Frasure Set out down on the Shore to examine if any white
 men were below within our reach, they took a empty Canoe & 5 men to Set
 them around the Point on a Gravelley Beech which Colter informed was at
 no great distance below. The Canoe returned at dusk half full of water,
 from the waves which dashed over in passing the point Capt Lewis is
 object is also to find a Small Bay as laid down by Vancouver just out
 of the mouth of the Columbia River. rained as usial all the evening,
 all wet and disagreeable Situated
 
 
 [Clark, November 14, 1805]
 November 14th Thursday 1805
 rained all the last night without intermition, and this morning. wind
 blows verry hard but our Situation is Such that we Cannot tell from
 what point it comes--one of our Canoes is much broken by the waves
 dashing it against the rocks--5 Indians Came up in a Canoe, thro the
 waves, which is verry high and role with great fury--They made Signs to
 us that they Saw the 3 men we Sent down yesterday. only 3 of those
 Indians landed, the other 2 which was women played off in the waves,
 which induced me to Suspect that they had taken Something from our men
 below, at this time one of the men Colter returnd by land and informed
 us that those Indians had taken his Gigg & basket, I called to the
 Squars to land and give back the gigg, which they would not doe untill
 a man run with a gun, as if he intended to Shute them when they landed,
 and Colter got his gig & basket I then ordered those fellows off, and
 they verry readily Cleared out they are of the War-ci-a-cum N. Colter
 informed us that "it was but a Short distance from where we lay around
 the point to a butifull Sand beech, which continud for a long ways,
 that he had found a good harber in the mouth of a creek near 2 Indian
 Lodgesthat he had proceeded in the Canoe as far as he could for the
 waves, the other two men Willard & Shannon had proceeded on down"
 Capt Lewis concluded to proceed on by land & find if possible the white
 people the Indians Say is below and examine if a Bay is Situated near
 the mouth of this river as laid down by Vancouver in which we expect,
 if there is white traders to find them &c. at 3 oClock he Set out with
 4 men Drewyer Jos. & Reu. Fields & R. Frasure, in one of our large
 canoes and 5 men to Set them around the point on the Sand beech. this
 canoe returned nearly filled with water at Dark which it receved by the
 waves dashing into it on its return, haveing landed Capt. Lewis & his
 party Safe on the Sand beech. The rain Continues all day all wet. The
 rain &c. which has continued without a longer intermition than 2 hours
 at a time for ten days past has distroyd. the robes and rotted nearly
 one half of the fiew Clothes the party has, perticularley the leather
 Clothes,--fortunately for us we have no very Cold weather as yet and if
 we have Cold weather before we Can kill & Dress Skins for Clothing the
 bulk of the party will Suffer verry much.
 
 
 [Clark, November 15, 1805]
 November 15th Friday 1805
 Rained all the last night at intervales of Sometimes of 2 hours, This
 morning it became Calm & fair, I prepared to Set out at which time the
 wind sprung up from the S. E. and blew down the River & in a fiew
 minits raised Such Swells and waves brakeing on the Rocks at the point
 as to render it unsafe to proceed. I went to the point in an empty
 canoe and found it would be dangerous to proceed even in an empty Canoe
 The Sun Shown untill 1 oClock p.m.which gave an oppertunity for us to
 dry Some of our bedding, & examine our baggage, the greater Part of
 which I found wet Some of our Pounded fish Spoiled I had all the arms
 put in order & amunition examined.
 The rainey weather Continued without a longer intermition than 2 hours
 at a time from the 5th in the morng. untill the 16th is eleven days
 rain, and the most disagreeable time I have experienced Confined on a
 tempiest Coast wet, where I can neither get out to hunt, return to a
 better Situation, or proceed on: in this Situation have we been for Six
 days past.--fortunately the wind lay about 3 oClock we loaded I in
 great haste and Set out passed the blustering Point below which is a
 Sand beech, with a Small marshey bottom for 3 miles on the Stard. Side,
 on which is a large village of 36 houses deserted by the Inds. & in
 full possession of the flees, a Small Creek fall in at this village,
 which waters the Country for a few miles back; Shannon & 5 Indians met
 me here, Shannon informed me he met Capt. Lewis Some distance below &
 he took willard with him & Sent him to meet me, the Inds with him wer
 rogues, they had the night before Stold both his and Willards guns from
 under their heads, Capt. Lewis & party arrived at the Camp of those
 Indians at So Timely a period that the Inds. were allarmed & delivered
 up the guns &c. The tide meeting of me and the emence Swells from the
 main Ocean (imedeately in front of us) raised to Such a hite that I
 concluded to form a Camp on the highest Spot I could find in the
 marshey bottom, and proceed no further by water as the Coaste becomes
 verry dangerous for Crafts of the Size of our Canoes-and as the Ocian
 is imedeately in front and gives us an extensive view of it from Cape
 disapointment to Point addams, my Situation is in the upper part of
 Haley Bay S. 86° W. ____ miles Course five to Cape Disapt. and S. 35° W.
 Course ____ miles from point Addams
 The River here at its mouth from Point addams to the enterance of Haley
 Bay above is ____ Miles or thereabouts, a large Isd. the lower point of
 which is immediately in the mouth above
 4 Indians in a Canoe Came down with papto roots to Sell, for which they
 asked, blankets or robes, both of which we could not Spare I informed
 those Indians all of which understood Some English that if they Stole
 our guns &c the men would Certainly Shute them, I treated them with
 great distance, & the Sentinal which was over our Baggage allarmed them
 verry much, they all Promised not to take any thing, and if any thing
 was taken by the Squars & bad boys to return them &c. the waves became
 very high Evening fare & pleasent, our men all Comfortable in the Camps
 they have made of the boards they found at the Town above
 
 
 [Clark, November 15, 1805]
 November 15th Friday 1805
 Rained all the last night, this morning it became Calm and fair, I
 preposed Setting out, and ordered the Canoes Repared and loaded; before
 we could load our canoes the wind Sudenly Sprung up from the S. E and
 blew with Such violence, that we could not proceed in Safty with the
 loading. I proceeded to the point in an empty Canoe, and found that the
 waves dashed against the rocks with Such violence that I thought it
 unsave to Set out with the loaded Canoes--The Sun Shown untill 1 oClock
 P M which afford us time to Dry our bedding and examine the baggage
 which I found nearly all wet, Some of our pounded fish Spoiled in the
 wet; I examined the amunition and Caused all the arms to be put in
 order.
 About 3 oClock the wind luled, and the river became calm, I had the
 canoes loaded in great haste and Set Out, from this dismal nitich where
 we have been confined for 6 days passed, without the possibility of
 proceeding on, returning to a better Situation, or get out to hunt,
 Scerce of Provisions, and torents of rain poreing on us all the time-
 proceeded on passed the blustering point below which I found a butifull
 Sand beech thro which runs a Small below the mouth of this Stream is a
 village of 36 houses uninhabited by anything except flees, here I met
 G. Shannon and 5 Indians. Shannon informed me that he met Capn. Lewis
 at an Indian Hut about 10 miles below who had Sent him back to meet me,
 he also told me the Indians were thievish, as the night before they had
 Stolen both his and Willards rifles from under their heads, that they
 Set out on their return and had not proceeded far up the beech before
 they met Capt Lewis, whose arival was at a timely moment and alarmed
 the Indians So that they instantly produced the Guns--I told those
 Indians who accompanied Shannon that they Should not Come near us, and
 if any one of their nation Stold anything from us, I would have him
 Shot, which they understoot verry well. as the tide was Comeing in and
 the Seas became verry high imediately from the Ocian (imediately
 faceing us) I landed and formed a camp on the highest Spot I could find
 between the hight of the tides, and the Slashers in a Small bottom this
 I could plainly See would be the extent of our journey by water, as the
 waves were too high at any Stage for our Canoes to proceed any further
 down. in full view of the Ocian from Point Adams to Cape Disapointment,
 I could not See any Island in the mouth of this river as laid down by
 Vancouver. The Bay which he laies down in the mouth is imediately below
 me. This Bay we call Haleys bay from a favourate Trader with the
 Indians which they Say comes into this Bay and trades with them Course
 to Point adams is S. 35°W. about 8 miles To Cape Disapointment is S. 86°W.
 about 14 miles 4 Indians of the War-ki a cum nation Came down with
 pap-pa-too to Sell &c. The Indians who accompanied Shannon from the
 village below Speake a Different language from those above, and reside
 to the north of this place The Call themselves Chin nooks, I told those
 people that they had attempted to Steal 2 guns &c. that if any one of
 their nation stole any thing that the Sentinl. whome they Saw near our
 baggage with his gun would most certainly Shute them, they all promised
 not to tuch a thing, and if any of their womin or bad boys took any
 thing to return it imediately and Chastise them for it. I treated those
 people with great distance. our men all Comfortable in their Camps
 which they have made of boards from the old Village above. we made 3
 miles to day.
 
 
 [Clark, November 16, 1805]
 November 16th Satturday 1805
 a fine morning cool the latter part of the night, I had all our
 articles of every discription examined, and found much wet, had all put
 out & dried, The 5 Indians Theves left me. I took a meridean altd. with
 Sextt. 50° 36 15 the Shakeing emige below--I Sent out Several hunters
 Some to kill fowl others to hunt deer or Elk. The Sea is fomeing and
 looks truly dismal to day, from the wind which blew to day from the S.
 W. an Indian Canoe passed down to day, loaded with roots &c. three
 Indians Came up from below I gave them Smoke but allowed then no kind
 of Priveleges what ever, they camped with the 4 which Came down
 yesterday, near us, The evening provd. Cloudy & I could make no lunar
 observations. one man Sick with a violent Cold, Caught by lying in his
 wet Clothes, Several nights Course from Stormey point to Cape
 Disapointment is ____ Miles, passd a Small Creek and an old village at
 2 miles on the Stard Side a Small Creek at 1 mile we Encamped just
 above a Point in a Deep bay to the Stard. Side into which falls 2 Small
 rivers Std. Grat many Indians liveing on the Bay & those two rivers,
 the the Countrey on the Stard. Side high broken & thickly timbered,
 that on the Lard. at Some distance from Point Adms high and mountains
 on a Pinecal of a which is Snow at this time--near the Point is Low
 bottom land
 our hunters and fowlers killd 2 Deer 1 Crane & 2 ducks, my Servt. York
 killed 2 Geese & 8 white, black and Speckle Brants, The White Brant,
 with part of their wings black is much the largest, the black brant is
 verry Small, a little larger than a large Duck--the deer pore but large
 
 
 [Clark, November 16, 1805]
 November 16th Saturday 1805
 Cool the latter part of the last night this morning Clear and butifull;
 I had all our articles of every discription examined and put out to
 Dry. The 5 Chin nooks left us I took a meridenal altitude with the
 Sextn. 50° 36' 15 which gave for Lattitude 46° 19' 11 1/10" North. I Sent
 out Several hunters and fowlers in pursute Elk, Deer, or fowls of any
 kind. wind hard from the S W The Waves high & look dismal indeed
 breaking with great fury on our beech an Indian canoe pass down to day
 loaded with Wap-pa-toe roots; Several Indians came up to day from
 below, I gave them Smoke but allowed them no kind of privilage whatever
 in the camp, they with the 4 which came down yesterday encamped a Short
 distance from us. The evening proved Cloudy and I could not take any
 Luner observations--One man Sick with a violent cold, Caught by laying
 in his wet leather Clothes for maney nights past.
 The Countrey on the Stard Side above Haley Bay is high broken and
 thickley timbered on the Lard Side from Point Adams the Contrey appears
 low for 15 or 20 miles back to the mountains, a pinical of which now is
 Covered with Snow or hail, as the opposit is too far distant to be
 distinguished well, I Shall not attempt to describe any thing on that
 Side at present. our hunters and fowlers killed 2 Deer 1 Crain & 2
 Ducks, and my man York killed 2 geese and 8 Brant, 3 of them white with
 a part of their wings black and much larger than the Grey brant which
 is a Sise larger than a Duck.
 
 
 [Clark, November 17, 1805]
 November 17th Sunday 1805
 a fair cool windey morning wind from the East. every tide which rises 8
 feet 6 Inches at this place, comes in with high Swells which brake on
 the Sand Shore with great fury.
 I Sent out 6 men to kill deer & fowls this morning at half past 1
 oClock Capt. Lewis and his Party returned haveing around passd. Point
 Disapointment and Some distance on the main Ocian to the N W. Several
 Indians followed him & Soon after a canoe with wapto roots, & Lickorish
 boiled, which they gave as presents, in return for which we gave more
 than the worth to Satisfy,them a bad practice to receive a present of
 Indians, as they are never Satisfied in return. our hunters killed 3
 Deer & th fowler 2 Ducks & q brant I Surveyed a little on the corse &
 made Some observns. The Chief of the nation below us Came up to See us
 the name of the nation is Chin-nook and is noumerous live principally
 on fish roots a fiew Elk and fowls. they are well armed with good
 Fusees. I directed all the men who wished to See more of the Ocean to
 Get ready to Set out with me on tomorrow day light. the following men
 expressed a wish to accompany me i'e Seri. Nat Pryor Serjt. J. Ordway,
 Jo. Fields R. Fields, Jo. Shannon, Jo Colter, William Bratten, Peter
 Wiser, Shabono & my Servant York. all others being well Contented with
 what part of the Ocean & its curiosities which Could be Seen from the
 vicinity of our Camp.
 
 
 [Clark, November 17, 1805]
 November 17th Sunday 1805
 A fair cool morning wind from the East. The tide rises at this place 8
 feet 6 inches and comes in with great waves brakeing on the Sand beech
 on which we lay with great fury Six hunters out this morning in serch
 of Deer & fowl.
 At half past 1 oClock Capt Lewis returned haveing travesed Haleys Bay
 to Cape Disapointment and the Sea Coast to the North for Some distance.
 Several Chinnook Indians followed (,apt L--and a Canoe came up with
 roots mats &c. to Sell. those Chinnooks made us a present of a rute
 boiled much resembling the common liquorice in taste and Size; in
 return for this root we gave more than double the value to Satisfy
 their craveing dispostn. It is a bad practice to receive a present from
 those Indians as they are never Satisfied for what they reive in return
 if ten time the value of the articles they gave. This Chin nook Nation
 is about 400 Souls inhabid the Countrey on the Small rivrs which run
 into the bay below us and on the Ponds to the N W of us, live
 principally on fish and roots, they are well armed with fusees and
 Sometimes kill Elk Deer and fowl. our hunters killed to day 3 Deer, 4
 brant and 2 Ducks, and inform me they Saw Some Elk Sign. I directed all
 the men who wished to See more of the main Ocian to prepare themselves
 to Set out with me early on tomorrow morning. The principal Chief of
 the Chinnooks & his familey came up to See us this evening-
 
 
 [Clark, November 18, 1805]
 Novr. 18th Monday 1805
 a little Cloudy this morning I set out at day light with 10 men & my
 Sevent, Shabono, Sergt. Pryer odderway Jos. & R. Fields Shannon Colter,
 wiser, Lebiech & york proceeded on Down the Shore from the 1st point
 At a run & Island near the Shore here the Traders ancher & trade? we
 passed at each point a Soft Clifts of yellow, brown & dark Soft Stones
 here Capt Lewis myself & Severl. of the men marked our names day of the
 month & by Land &c. &c. from this S. W. 3 miles to the Iner pt. of Cape
 Disapointmt passed a point & 2 Small nitches (Reuben Fields killed a
 Vulter) we found a Curious fiat fish Shaped like a turtle, with fins on
 each side, and a tale notched like a fish, the Internals on one Sid and
 tale & fins flat wise This fish Flownder has a white on one Side & lies
 flat to the Ground--passed from last hitch across to the ocean 1/2 a
 mile low land the Cape is a high Partly bald hill, founded on rock, I
 assencled a high Seperate bald hill Covered with long corse grass &
 Seperated from the hight of Country by a Slashey bottom 2 miles S. 60 W
 of the Cape--thence to a 2d Grassey pt is N. 50° W. 2 miles, Those hills
 are founded on rocks & the waves brake with great fury against them,
 the Coast is Sholey for Several miles of this Cape & for Some distance
 off to the N W a Sand bar in the mouth. Sholey Some distance out from
 the mouth The Coast from the Cape N W is open for a Short distance back
 then it becomes thick piney Countrey intersperced with ponds
 Point addams is S 20° W about 20 miles the Course on that Side bears S 45
 W. I cannot assertain the prosise Course of the Deep water in the mouth
 of the river, the Channel is but narrow. I proceeded on up above the 2d
 point and Encamped on the Shore above the high tide, evening Clear, for
 a Short time. Supd. on Brant and pounded fish men all Chearfull,
 express a Desire to winter near the falls this winter.
 
 
 [Clark, November 18, 1805]
 November 18h Monday 1805
 A little cloudy this morning I Set out with to men and my man York to
 the Ocian by land. i. e. Seijt. Ordway & Pryor, Jos. & Ru. Fields, Go.
 Shannon, W. Brattin,_J. Colter, P. Wiser, W. Labieche & P. Shabono one
 of our interpreters & York. I Set out at Day light and proceeded on a
 Sandy beech from Cape Disapointment to a high point of a Mountn. which
 we shall call Clarke's Point of View beares S. 20° W. about 40 miles,
 point adams is verry low and is Situated within the direction between
 those two high points of land, the water appears verry Shole from off
 the mouth of the river for a great distance, and I cannot assertain the
 direction of the deepest Chanel, the Indians point nearest the opposit
 Side. the waves appear to brake with tremendious force in every
 direction quite across a large Sand bar lies within the mouth nearest
 to point Adams which is nearly covered at high tide. I suped on brant
 this evening with a little pounded fish. Some rain in the after part of
 the night. men appear much Satisfied with their trip beholding with
 estonishment the high waves dashing against the rocks & this emence
 ocian
 
 
 [Clark, November 19, 1805]
 November 19th Tuesday 1805
 began to rain a little before day and Continued raining untill 11
 oClock I proceeded on thro emencely bad thickets & hills crossing 2
 points to a 3rd on which we built a fire and Cooked a Deer which Jos.
 Field Killd. from this point I can See into a Deep bend in the coast to
 the N. E. for 10 miles. after Brackfast I proceeded on N. 20 E. 5 miles
 to Comcement a large Sand bar at a low part ponds a little off from the
 Coast here the high rockey hills end and a low marshey Countrey
 Suckceed. I proceeded up the Course N. 10° W. 4 miles & marked my name &
 the Day of the Month on a pine tree, the waters which Wash this Sand
 beach is tinged with a deep brown Colour for Some distance out. The
 Course Contd. is N. 20° W. low Coast and Sand beech, Saw a Dead Sturgen
 10 feet long on the Sand, & the back bone of a Whale, as I conceived
 raind I then returned to the Cape & dined, Some curious Deer on this
 Course darker large boded Shorte legs Pronged horns & the top of the
 tale black under part white as usial passed a nitch in the rocks below
 into which falls a Stream, after Dinner I Set out on my return S. E.
 passed over a low ridge & thro a piney countrey 21 Vs miles to the Bay,
 thence up the Bay to the mouth of the Chen-nook River Crossed in the
 Canoe we had left there & Encamped on the upper Side The Hills in the
 point of this bay are not high, & imedeately below this River the
 present yellow Bluffs above the River and up for about 2 miles the land
 is low Slashey and Contains much drift wood, the Countrey up this Creek
 is low with Copse of high land or as I may Say elevated. The Buzzard
 which Ruben Fields killed diameter of one feather is--11/4 & 1 Line
 from the tip of one to the tip of the other wing is 9 feet 0 Inches,
 from the point of the Bill to the tale is 3 feet 101/4 Ins. middle Toe
 51/2 Inches, Toe nale 1 Inches wing feather 2 feet 1/2 In. Tale
 feathers 141/4 In. Head is 61/4 Inch long including the beek
 
 
 [Clark, November 19, 1805]
 November 19th Tuesday 1805
 a Cloudy rainey day proceeded up the Coast which runs from my camp 11/4
 miles west of the iner extry of the Cape N. 20° W. 5 miles through a
 rugged hilley countrey thickly off the Sea coast to the Comencment of
 an extencive Sand beech which runs N. 10° W. to point Lewis about 20
 miles distance. I proceeded up this coast 4 miles and marked my name on
 a low pine. and returned 3 miles back (The Countrey opsd. this Sand
 Coast is low and Slashey,) Crossed the point 2 miles to the bay and
 encamped on Chinnook river--See another book for perticulars
 
 
 [Clark, November 19, 1805]
 Tuesday November the 19th 1805
 I arose early this morning from under a wet blanket caused by a Shower
 of rain which fell in the latter part of the last night and Sent two
 men on a head with directions to proceed on near the Sea Coast and Kill
 Something for brackfast and that I Should follow my Self in about half
 an hour. after drying our blankets a little I Set out with a view to
 proceed near the Coast the direction of which induced me to conclude
 that at the distance of 8 or 10 miles, the Bay was at no great distance
 across. I overtook the hunters at about 3 miles, they had killed a
 Small Deer on which we brackfast it comened raining and Continud
 moderately untill 11 oClock A M.
 after takeing a Sumptious brackfast of venison which was rosted on
 Stiks exposed to the fire, I proceeded on through ruged Country of high
 hills and Steep hollers on a course from the Cape N 20° W. 5 miles on a
 Direct line to the Commencement of a Sandy Coast which extended N. 10° W.
 from the top of the hill above the Sand Shore to a Point of high land
 distant near 20 miles. this point I have taken the Liberty of Calling
 after my particular friend Lewis--at the commencement of this Sand
 beech the high lands leave the Sea coast in a Direction to Chinnook
 river, and does not touch the Sea Coast again below point Lewis
 leaveing a low pondey countrey, maney places open with small ponds in
 which there is great numbr. of fowl I am informed that the Chinnook
 Nation inhabit this low countrey and live in large wood houses on a
 river which passes through this bottom Parrilal to the Sea coast and
 falls into the Bay
 I proceeded on the Sandy Coast 4 miles, and marked my name on a Small
 pine, the Day of the month & year, &c. and returned to the foot of the
 hill, from which place I intended to Strike across to The Bay, I saw a
 Sturgeon which had been thrown on Shore and left by the tide 10 feet in
 length, and Several joints of the back bone of a whale which must have
 foundered on this part of the Coast. after Dineing on the remains of
 our Small Deer I proceeded through over a land S E with Some Ponds to
 the bay distance about 2 miles, thence up to the mouth of Chinnook
 river 2 miles, crossed this little river in the Canoe we left at its
 mouth and Encamped on the upper Side in an open Sandy bottom--The hills
 next to the bay Cape disapointment to a Short distance up the Chinnook
 river is not verry high thickly Coverd. with different Species of pine
 &c. maney of which are large, I observed in maney places pine of 3 or 4
 feet through growing on the bodies of large trees which had fallen
 down, and covered with moss and yet part Sound. The Deer of this Coast
 differ materially from our Common deer in a much as they are much
 darker deeper bodied Shorter ledged horns equally branched from the
 beem the top of the tail black from the rute to the end Eyes larger and
 do not lope but jump-.
 
 
 [Clark, November 20, 1805]
 Novr. 20 Wednesday 1805 Some rain last night despatchd. 3 men to hunt
 Jo. Fields & Cotter to hunt Elk & Labich to kill some Brant for our
 brackfast The Morning Cleared up fare and we proceeded on by the Same
 rout we went out, at the River we found no Indians. made a raft & Ruben
 Fields Crossed and took over a Small Canoe which lay at the Indian
 Cabin--This Creek is at this time of high tide 300 yards wide & the
 marshes for Some distance up the Creek Covered with water. not an
 Indian to be Seen near the Creek. I proceeded on to Camp & on my way
 was over taken by 3 Indians one gave us Sturgeon & Wapto roots to eate
 I met Several parties on way all of them appeared to know me & was
 distant, found all well at Camp, maney Indians about one of which had
 on a robe made of 2 Sea Orter Skins. Capt Lewis offered him many things
 for his Skins with others a blanket, a coat all of which he refused we
 at length purchased it for a belt of Blue Beeds which the Squar had-
 The tide being out we walked home on the beech
 
 
 [Clark, November 20, 1805]
 Wednesday November the 20th 1805
 Some rain last night dispatched Labiech to kill Some fowl for our
 brackfast he returned in about 2 hours with 8 large Ducks on which we
 brackfast I proceeded on to the enterance of a Creek near a Cabin no
 person being at this cabin and 2 Canoes laying on the opposit Shore
 from us, I deturmined to have a raft made and Send a man over for a
 canoe, a Small raft was Soon made, and Reuben Fields Crossed and
 brought over a Canoe--This Creek which is the outlet of a number of
 ponds, is at this time (high tide) 300 yds wide--I proceeded on up the
 Beech and was overtaken by three Indians one of them gave me Some dried
 Sturgeon and a fiew wappato roots, I employd Those Indians to take up
 one of our Canoes which had been left by the first party that Came
 down, for which Service I gave them each a fishing hook of a large
 Size--on my way up I met Several parties of Chinnooks which I had not
 before Seen they were on their return from our Camp. all those people
 appeard to know my deturmonation of keeping every individual of their
 nation at a proper distance, as they were guarded and resurved in my
 presence &c. found maney of the Chin nooks with Capt. Lewis of whome
 there was 2 Cheifs Com com mo ly & Chil-lar-la-wil to whome we gave
 Medals and to one a flag. one of the Indians had on a roab made of 2
 Sea Otter Skins the fur of them were more butifull than any fur I had
 ever Seen both Capt. Lewis & my Self endeavored to purchase the roab
 with different articles at length we precured it for a belt of blue
 beeds which the Squar-wife of our interpreter Shabono wore around her
 waste. in my absence the hunters had killed Several Deer and fowl of
 different kinds
 
 
 [Clark, November 21, 1805]
 November 21st Thursday 1805
 a Cloudy morning most of the Indians left us, The nation on the opposit
 Side is Small & Called Clap-soil, Their great chief name Stil-la-sha
 The nation liveing to the North is Called Chieltz. The chief is name
 Malaugh not large nation and wore his beards as informed by the Inds.
 In my absence the hunters Kild. 7 Deer, 4 brants & a Crane.
 Great numbers of the dark brant passing Southerley, the white yet
 Stationary, no gees & Swan to be Seen. The wind blew hard from the S.
 E. which with the addition of the flood tide raised emence Swells &
 waves which almost entered our Encampment morng. dark & Disagreeable, a
 Supriseing Climent. We have not had One cold day Since we passed below
 the last falls or great Shute & Some time before the Climent is
 temperate, and the only change we have experienced is from fair weather
 to rainey windey weather--I made a chief & gave a medel this man is
 name Tow-wall and appears to have Some influence with the nation and
 tells me he lives at the great Shute-we gave the Squar a Coate of Blue
 Cloth for the belt of Blue Beeds we gave for the Sea otter Skins
 purchased of an Indian. at 12 oClock it began to rain, and continued
 moderately all day, Some wind from the S. E., waves too high for us to
 proceed on our homeward bound journey. Lattitude of this place is 46° 19'
 11 1/10" North Several Indians and Squars came this evening I beleave
 for the purpose of gratifying the passions of our men, Those people
 appear to View Sensuality as a necessary evile, and do not appear to
 abhore this as Crime in the unmarried females. The young women Sport
 openly with our men, and appear to receive the approbation of their
 friends & relations for So doing maney of the women are handsom.
 They are all low both men and women, I saw the name of J. Bowmon marked
 or picked on a young Squars left arm. The women of this nation Pick
 their legs in different figures as an orpiment. they were their hair
 loose, Some trinkets in their ears, none in the nose as those above,
 their Dress is as follows, i,e the men, were a roabe of either the
 skins of ____ a Small fured animal, & which is most common, or the
 Skins of the Sea orter, Loon, Swan, Beaver, Deer, Elk, or blankets
 either red, blu, or white, which roabes cover the sholders arms & body,
 all other parts are nakd.
 The women were a Short peticoat of the iner bark of the white Ceder or
 Arber Vita, which hang down loose in Strings nearly as low as the knee,
 with a Short Robe which fall half way down the Thigh. no other part is
 Covered. The orniments are beeds, Blue principally, large Brass wire
 around their rists Som rings, and maney men have Salors Clothes, many
 have good fusees & Ball & Powder--The women ware a String of Something
 curious tied tight above the anckle, all have large Swelled legs &
 thighs The men Small legs & thighs and Generally badly made--They live
 on Elk Deer fowls, but principally fish and roots of 3 Kinds,
 Lickorish, Wapto &c. The women have more privalages than is Common
 amongst Indians--Pocks & Venerial is Common amongst them I Saw one man
 & one woman who appeared to be all in Scabs, & Several men with the
 venereal, their other Disorders and the remides for them I could not
 lern we divided Some ribin between the men of our party to bestow on
 their favourite Lasses, this plan to Save the knives & more valueable
 articles.
 Those people gave me Sturgion Salmon & wapto roots, & we bought roots,
 Some mats &c. &c. for which we were obliged to give emence prices--we
 also purchased a kind of Cranberry which the Indians Say the geather in
 the low lands, off of Small either vines or bushes just abov the
 ground--we also purchased hats made of Grass &c. of those Indians, Some
 very handsom mats made of flags-Some fiew curious baskets made of a
 Strong weed & willow or ____ Splits-, also a Sweet Soft black root,
 about th Sise & Shape of a Carrot, this root they Value verry highly-
 The Wapto root is Scerce, and highly valued by those people, this root
 they roste in hot ashes like a potato and the outer Skin peals off, tho
 this is a trouble they Seldom perform.
 
 
 [Clark, November 21, 1805]
 Thursday November 21st 1805
 a cloudy morning most of the Chinnooks leave our Camp and return home,
 great numbers of the dark brant passing to the South, the white Brant
 have not yet commenced their flight. The wind blew hard from the S. E.
 which with the addition of the flood tide raised verry high waves which
 broke with great violence against the Shore throwing water into our
 Camp--the fore part of this day Cloudy at 12 oClock it began to rain
 and Continud all day moderately, Several Indians Visit us to day of
 differant nations or Bands Some of the Chiltz Nation who reside on the
 Sea Coast near Point Lewis, Several of the Clotsops who reside on the
 opposit Side of the Columbia imediately opposit to us, and a Chief from
 the Grand rapid to whome we gave a Medal.
 An old woman & wife to a Cheif of the Chinnooks came and made a Camp
 near ours She brought with her 6 young Squars I believe for the purpose
 of gratifying the passions of the men of our party and receving for
 those indulgiences Such Small as She (the old woman) thought proper to
 accept of, Those people appear to view Sensuality as a Necessary evel,
 and do not appear to abhor it as a Crime in the unmarried State--The
 young females are fond of the attention of our men and appear to meet
 the sincere approbation of their friends and connections, for thus
 obtaining their favours; the womin of the Chinnook Nation have handsom
 faces low and badly made with large legs & thighs which are generally
 Swelled from a Stopage of the circulation in the feet (which are Small)
 by maney Strands of Beeds or curious Strings which are drawn tight
 around the leg above the anckle, their legs are also picked with
 different figures, I Saw on the left arm of a Squar the following
 letters,. Bowmon, all those are Considered by the natives of this
 quarter as handsom deckerations, and a woman without those deckorations
 is Considered as among the lower Class they ware their hair lose
 hanging over their back and Sholders maney have blue beeds threaded &
 hung from different parts of their ears and about ther neck and around
 their wrists, their dress other wise is prosisely like that of the
 Nation of Wa ci a cum as already discribed. a Short roab, and tissue or
 kind of peticoat of the bark of Cedar which fall down in Strings as low
 as the knee behind and not So low before maney of the men have blankets
 of red blue or Spotted Cloth or the common three & 21/2 point blankets,
 and Salors old Clothes which they appear to prise highly, they also
 have robes of Sea Otter, Beaver, Elk, Deer, fox and Cat common to this
 countrey, which I have never Seen in the U States. They also precure a
 roabe from the nativs above, which is made of the Skins of a Small
 animal about the Size of a Cat, which is light and dureable and highly
 prized by those people--the greater numbers of the men of the Chinnooks
 have Guns and powder and Ball--The Men are low homely and badly made,
 Small Crooked legs large feet, and all of both Sects have flattened
 heads--The food of this nation is principally fish & roots the fish
 they precure from the river by the means of nets and gigs, and the
 Salmon which run up the Small branches together with what they collect
 drifted up on the Shores of the Sea coast near to where they live
 The roots which they use are Several different kinds, the Wappato which
 they precure from the nativs above, a black root which they call
 Shaw-na tah que & the wild licquorish is the most Common, they also
 kill a fiew Elk Deer & fowl--maney of the Chinnooks appear to have
 venerious and pustelus disorders. one woman whome I saw at the beech
 appeared all over in Scabs and ulsers &c.
 we gave to the men each a pece of ribin We purchased Cramberies Mats
 verry netely made of flags and rushes, Some roots, Salmon and I
 purchased a hat made of Splits & Strong grass, which is made in the
 fashion which was common in the U States two years ago also Small
 baskets to hold Water made of Split and Straw, for those articles we
 gave high prices-.
 
 
 [Clark, November 22, 1805]
 Novr. 22nd Friday 1805
 Some little rain all the last night with wind, before day the wind
 increased to a Storm from the S. S. E. and blew with violence throwing
 the water of the river with emence waves out of its banks almost over
 whelming us in water, O! how horriable is the day--This Storm Continued
 all day with equal violence accompanied with rain, Several Indians
 about us, nothing killed the waves & brakers flew over our Camp, one
 Canoe Split by the Tossing of those waves--we are all Confined to our
 Camp and wet. purchased some Wapto roots for which was given, brass
 armbans & rings of which the Squars were fond. we find the Indians easy
 ruled and kept in order by a Stricter indifference towards them
 
 
 [Clark, November 22, 1805]
 Friday November 22nd 1805
 a moderate rain all the last night with wind, a little before Day light
 the wind which was from the S S. E. blew with Such violence that we wer
 almost overwhelmned with water blown from the river, this Storm did not
 Sease at day but blew with nearly equal violence throughout the whole
 day accompaned with rain. O! how horriable is the day waves brakeing
 with great violence against the Shore throwing the Water into our Camp
 &c. all wet and Confind to our Shelters, Several Indian men and women
 Crouding about the mens Shelters to day, we purchased a fiew wappato
 roots for which we gave armbans, & rings to the old Squar, those roots
 are equal to the Irish potato, and is a tolerable Substitute for bread
 The threat which I made to the men of this nation whome I first Saw,
 and an indifference towards them, is I am fulley Convinced the Cause of
 their Conducting themselves with great propriety towards ourselves &
 Party.
 
 
 [Clark, November 23, 1805]
 November 23rd Saturday 1805
 The Cloudy and Calm, a moderate rain the greater part of the last
 night, Sent out men to hunt this morning and they Killed 3 Bucks,
 rained at intervales all day. I marked my name the Day of the month &
 year on a Beech trees & (By Land) Capt Lewis Branded his and the men
 all marked their nams on trees about the Camp. one Indian Came up from
 their village on some lakes near Haleys bay. In the Evening 7 Indians
 of the Clatt Sopp nation, opposit Came over, they brought with them 2
 Sea orter Skins, for which the asked Such high prices we were uneabled
 to purchase, without reduceing our Small Stock of merchindize on which
 we have to depend in part for a Subsistance on our return home, Kiled 4
 brant & 3 Ducks to day
 
 
 [Clark, November 23, 1805]
 Saturday November 22rd 1805.
 A calm Cloudy morning, a moderate rain the greater part of the last
 night, Capt Lewis Branded a tree with his name Date &c. I marked my
 name the Day & year on a Alder tree, the party all Cut the first
 letters of their names on different trees in the bottom. our hunters
 killed 3 Bucks, 4 Brant & 3 Ducks to day.
 in the evening Seven indians of the Clot Sop Nation Came over in a
 Canoe, they brought with them 2 Sea otter Skins for which they asked
 blue beads &c. and Such high pricies that we were unable to purchase
 them without reducing our Small Stock of merchendize, on which we
 depended for Subcistance on our return up this river--mearly to try the
 Indian who had one of those Skins, I offered him my Watch, handkerchief
 a bunch of red beads and a dollar of the American Coin, all of which he
 refused and demanded "ti-a, co-mo-shack" which is Chief beads and the
 most common blue beads, but fiew of which we have at this time
 This nation is the remains of a large nation destroyed by the Small pox
 or Some other which those people were not acquainted with, they Speak
 the Same language of the Chinnooks and resemble them in every respect
 except that of Stealing, which we have not Cought them at as yet.
 
 
 [Clark, November 24, 1805]
 November 24th Sunday 1805
 Several of the Chenn nook N. Came, one of them brought an Sea orter
 Skin for which we gave Some blue Beeds--This day proved to be fair and
 we dried our wet articles bedding &c. The hunters killed only 1 brant
 no Deer or any thing else
 The old chief of Chinn-nook nation and Several men & women Came to our
 camp this evening & Smoked the pipe
 Serjt J. Ordway
 Cross & examine
 S
 Serjt. N. Pryor
 do do
 S
 Sgt. P. Gass
 do do
 S
 Jo. Shields
 proceed to Sandy R
 Go. Shannon
 Examn. Cross
 falls
 T. P. Howard
 do do
 falls
 P. Wiser
 do do
 S. R
 J. Collins
 do do
 S. R
 Jo Fields
 do do
 up
 Al. Willard
 do do
 up
 R Willard
 do do
 up
 J. Potts
 do do
 falls
 R. Frasure
 do do
 up
 Wm. Bratten
 do do
 up
 R. Fields
 do do
 falls
 J. B. Thompson
 do do
 up
 J. Colter
 do do
 up
 H. Hall
 do do
 S. R.
 Labeech
 do do
 S R
 Peter Crusatte
 do do
 S R
 J. B. Depage
 do do
 up
 Shabono
 ---
 -
 S. Guterich
 do do
 falls
 W. Werner
 do do
 up
 Go. Gibson
 do do
 up
 Jos. Whitehouse
 do do
 up
 Geo Drewyer
 Examn other side
 falls
 McNeal
 do do
 up
 York
 " "
 lookout
 falls Sandy River lookout up
 6 10 12
 Janey in favour of a place where there is plenty of Potas.
 Cp L Proceed on to morrow & examine The other side if good hunting to
 winter there, as Salt is an objt. if not to proceed on to Sandy it is
 probable that a vestle will come in this winter, & that by proceeding
 on at any distance would not inhance our journey in passing the Rockey
 mountains, &c.
 W C. In favour of proceding on without delay to the opposit Shore &
 there examine, and find out both the disposition of the Indians, &
 probibilaty of precureing Subsistance, and also enquire if the Tradeing
 vestles will arrive before the time we Should depart in the Spring, and
 if the Traders, Comonly arive in a Seasonable time, and we Can Subsist
 without a depends. on our Stores of goods, to Continue as the Climent
 would be more favourable on the Sea Coast for our naked men than higher
 up the Countrey where the Climate must be more Severe--The advantage of
 the arival of a vestle from whome we Can precure goods will be more
 than an over ballance, for the bad liveing we Shall have in liveing on
 Pore deer & Elk we may get in this neighbourhood. If we Cannot subsist
 on the above terms to proceed on, and make Station Camps, to
 neighbourhood of the Frendly village near the long narrows & delay
 untill we Can proceed up the river. Salt water I view as an evil in as
 much as it is not helthy--I am also of opinion that one two or three
 weeks Exemination on the opposide if the propects are any wise
 favourable, would not be too long
 Variation of the Compass is 16° East
 
 
 [Clark, November 24, 1805]
 Sunday November 24th 1805.
 A fair morning Sent out 6 hunters, and we proceeded to make the
 following observations a Chief and Several men of the Chin nook nation
 Came to Smoke with us this evening one of the men brought a Small Sea
 otter Skin for which we gave Some blue beads--this day proved fair
 which gave us an oppertunity of drying our wet articles, bedding &c.
 &c. nothing killed to day except one Brant. the variation of the
 Compass is 16° East.
 being now determined to go into Winter quarters as Soon as possible, as
 a convenient Situation to precure the Wild animals of the forest which
 must be our dependance for Subsisting this Winter, we have every reason
 to believe that the nativs have not provisions Suffient for our
 Consumption, and if they had, their price's are So high that it would
 take ten times as much to purchase their roots & Dried fish as we have
 in our possesion, encluding our Small remains of merchindz and Clothes
 &c. This Certinly enduces every individual of the party to make
 diligient enquiries of the nativs the part of the Countrey in which the
 wild Animals are most plenty. They generaly agree that the most Elk is
 on the opposit Shore, and that the greatest numbers of Deer is up the
 river at Some distance above
 The Elk being an animal much larger than Deer, easier to kiled better
 meat (in the winter when pore) and Skins better for the Clothes of our
 party; added to-, a convenient Situation to the Sea coast where we
 Could make Salt, and a probibility of vessels Comeing into the mouth of
 Columbia ("which the Indians inform us would return to trade with them
 in 3 months") from whome we might precure a fresh Supply of Indian
 trinkets to purchase provisions on our return home; together with the
 Solicitations of every individual, except one of our party induced us
 Conclude to Cross the river and examine the opposit Side, and if a
 Sufficent quantity of Elk could probebly be precured to fix on a
 Situation as convenient to the Elk & Sea Coast as we Could find--added
 to the above advantagies in being near the Sea Coast one most Strikeing
 one occurs to me i e, the Climate which must be from every appearance
 much milder than that above the 1st range of Mountains, The Indians are
 Slightly Clothed and give an account of but little Snow, and the
 weather which we have experiened Since we arrived in the neighbourhood
 of the Sea Coast has been verry warm, and maney of the fiew days past
 disagreeably So. if this Should be the Case it will most Certainly be
 the best Situation of our naked party dressed as they are altogether in
 leather.
 
 
 [Clark, November 25, 1805]
 November 25th Munday 1805
 a fine day Several Indians Come up from below, we loaded and Set out up
 the river, and proceeded on to the Shallow Bay, landed to dine, The
 Swells too high to cross the river, agreeabley to our wish which is to
 examine if game Can be precured Sufficent for us to winter on that
 Side, after dinner which was on Drid pounded fish we proceeded on up on
 the North Side to near the place of our Encampment of the 7th Instant
 and encamped after night The evening cloudy wind of to day Generally
 from the E S. E, Saw from near of last Campment Mount Ranier bearing
 ____
 
 
 [Clark, November 25, 1805]
 Monday 25th November 1805
 The Wind being high rendered it impossible for us to Cross the river
 from our Camp, we deturmind to proceed on up where it was narrow, we
 Set out early accompanied by 7 Chit Sops for a fiew miles, they left us
 and Crossed the river through emence high waves; we Dined in the
 Shallow Bay on Dried pounded fish, after which we proceeded on near the
 North Side of the Columbia, and encamp a little after night near our
 Encampment of the 7th instant near a rock at Some distance in the
 river. evening Cloudy the Winds of to day is generally E. S. E which
 was a verry favourable point for us as the highlands kept it from us
 Mt. St. Hilians Can be Seen from the mouth of this river.
 
 
 [Clark, November 26, 1805]
 November 26th Tuesday 1805
 Cloudy and Some rain this morning at daylight wind blew from the E N.
 E, we Set out and proceeded on up on the North Side of this great river
 to a rock in the river from thence we Crossed to the lower point of an
 ____ Island passed between 2 Islands to the main Shore, and proceeded
 down the South Side, passed 2 Inlets & halted below the 2d at a Indian
 village of 9 large houses--those Indians live on an emenence behind a
 Island or a Channel of the river not more than 300 yds wide, they live
 on fish & Elk and Wapto roots, of which we bought a few at a high price
 they Call them Selves Cat-tar-bets description
 We proceeded on about 8 miles and Encamped in a deep bend to the South,
 we had not been Encamped long ere 3 Indians Came in a Canoe to trade
 the Wapto roots--we had rain all the day all wet and disagreeable a bad
 place to Camp all around this great bend is high land thickly timbered
 brushey & almost impossible to penetrate we Saw on an Island below the
 village a place of deposit for the dead in Canoes
 Great numbers of Swan Geese Brant Ducks & Gulls in this great bend
 which is Crouded with low Islands covered with weeds grass &c. and
 overflowed every flood tide The people of the last village is-____
 they ask emence prices for what they have to Sel Blue Beeds is their
 great trade they are fond of Clothes or blankits of Blue red or brown
 We are now decending to see if a favourable place should offer on the
 So Side to winter &c.
 from a high Point opsd. a high Isd down the South Side is S. 30° W 6 mis
 to a point of low land opsd. upr. pt of Isd. passed lowr. pt. 1st Isd.
 marshey. at the upr. pt. Of 2 low Isd. opsd. each other at 4 miles
 
 
 [Clark, November 26, 1805]
 Tuesday 26th November 1805
 Cloudy and Some rain this morning from 6 oClock. wind from the E. N. E,
 we Set out out early and crossed a Short distance above the rock out in
 the river, & between Some low marshey Islands to the South Side of the
 Columbia at a low bottom about 3 miles below Point Samuel and proceeded
 near the South Side leaveing the Seal Islands to our right and a
 marshey bottom to the left 5 Miles to the Calt-har-mar Village of 9
 large wood houses on a handsom elivated Situation near the foot of a
 Spur of the high land behind a large low Island Seperated from the
 Southerly Shore by a Chanel of about 200 yards Wide, This nation appear
 to differ verry little either in language, Customs dress or appearance
 from the Chin nooks & War-ci a cum live principally on fish and pappato
 they have also other roots, and Some Elk meat.
 We purchased Some green fish, & wap pa to for which we gave Imoderate
 pricie's. after dining on the fresh fish which we purchased, we
 proceeded on through a Deep bend to the South and encamped under a high
 hill, where we found much difficuelty in precureing wood to burn, as it
 was raining hard, as it had been the greater part of the day. Soon
 after we encamped 3 Indians of the last town Came in a Canoe with
 wappato roots to Sell to us Some of which we purchased with fish
 hooksfrom the Village quite around this bend to the West the land is
 high and thickly timbered with pine balsom &c. a Short distance below
 the Calt har mer Village on the Island which is Opposit I observed
 Several Canoes Scaffold in which Contained their dead, as I did not
 examine this mode of deposing the dead, must refer it to a discription
 hereafter.
 
 
 [Clark, November 27, 1805]
 November 27th Wednesday 1805
 Some rain all the last night & this morning at day light 3 Canoes and
 11 men Came down with roots meat, Skins &c. to Sill, they asked Such
 high prices we were unable to purchase any thing, and as we were about
 Setting out, discovered that one of those Indians had Stole an ax, we
 Serched and found it under the roabe of one man whome we Shamed verry
 much
 we proceeded on, around Point William th Swells became high and rained
 so hard we Concluded to halt and dry our Selves, Soon after our landing
 the wind rose from the East and blew hard accompanied with rain, this
 rain obliged us to unload & draw up our Canoes, one of which was Split
 to feet before we got her out of the river, this place the Peninsoley
 is about 50 yards and 3 miles around this point of Land. water Salt
 below not Salt above.
 
 
 [Clark, November 27, 1805]
 Wednesday 27th November 1805
 Rained all the last night and this morning it Continues moderatelyat
 day light 3 Canoes and 11 Indians Came from the Village with roots
 mats, Skins &c. to Sell, they asked Such high prices that we were
 unable to purchase any thing of them, as we were about to Set out
 missed one of our axes which was found under an Indians roab I shamed
 this fellow verry much and told them they should not proceed with us-
 we proceded on between maney Small Islands passing a Small river of
 ____ yds wide which the Indians Call ____ and around a verry remarkable
 point which projects about 11/2 Miles directly towards the Shallow bay
 the isthmus which joins it to the main land is not exceding 50 yards
 and about 4 Miles around. we call this Point William
 below this point the waves became So high we were Compelled to land
 unload and traw up the Canoes, here we formed a Camp on the neck of
 Land which joins Point William to the main at an old indian hut. The
 rain Continued hard all day we are all Wet and disagreeable. one Canoe
 Split before we Got her out of the Water 2 feet--The water at our Camp
 Salt that above the isthmus fresh and fine
 
 
 [Clark, November 28, 1805]
 November 28th Thursday 1805
 Wind Shifted about to the S. W. and blew hard accompanied with hard
 rain all last night, we are all wet bedding and Stores, haveing nothing
 to keep our Selves or Stores dry, our Lodge nearly worn out, and the
 pieces of Sales & tents So full of holes & rotten that they will not
 keep any thing dry, we Sent out the most of the men to drive the point
 for deer, they Scattered through the point; Some Stood on the pensolu,
 we Could find no deer, Several hunters attempted to penetrate the thick
 woods to the main South Side without Suckcess, the Swan & gees wild and
 Cannot be approached, and wind to high to go either back or forward,
 and we have nothing to eate but a little Pounded fish which we
 purchasd. at the Great falls, This is our present Situation,! truly
 disagreeable. aded to this the robes of our Selves and men are all
 rotten from being Continually wet, and we Cannot precure others, or
 blankets in their places. about 12 oClock the wind Shifted about to the
 N. W and blew with great violence for the remainder of the day at maney
 times it blew for 15 or 20 minits with Such violence that I expected
 every moment to See trees taken up by the roots, Some were blown down.
 Those Squals were Suckceeded by rain,! O how Tremendious is the day.
 This dredfull wind and rain Continued with intervales of fair weather,
 the greater part of the evening and night.
 
 
 [Clark, November 28, 1805]
 Thursday 28th November 1805
 Wind Shifted about to the S. W. and blew hard accompanied with hard
 rain. rained all the last night we are all wet our bedding and Stores
 are also wet, we haveing nothing which is Sufficient to keep ourselves
 bedding or Stores dry Several men in the point hunting deer without
 Suckcess, the Swan and brant which are abundant Cannot be approached
 Sufficently near to be killed, and the wind and waves too high to
 proceed on to the place we expect to find Elk, & we have nothing to
 eate except pounded fish which we brought from the Great falls, this is
 our present Situation; truly disagreeable. about 12 oClock the wind
 Shifted around to the N W. and blew with Such violence that I expected
 every moment to See trees taken up by the roots, maney were blown down.
 This wind and rain Continued with Short intervales all the latter part
 of the night. O! how disagreeable is our Situation dureing this
 dreadfull weather.
 
 
 [Lewis, November 29, 1805]
 November 29th 1805.
 the wind being so high the party were unable to proceed with the
 perogues. I determined therefore to proceed down the river on it's E.
 side in surch of an eligible place for our winters residence and
 accordingly set out early this morning in the small canoe accompanyed
 by 5 men. drewyer R. Fields, Shannon, Colter & labiesh. proceeded along
 the coast.
 send out the hunters they killed 4 deer 2 brant a goos and seven ducks,
 it rained upon us by showers all day. left three of these deer and took
 with us one encamped at an old Indian hunting lodge which afforded us a
 tolerable shelter from the rain, which continued by intervales
 throughout the night.
 
 
 [Clark, November 29, 1805]
 November 29th Friday 1805
 Blew hard and rained the greater part of the last night and this
 morning, Capt Lewis and 5 men Set out in our Small Indian canoe (which
 is made in the Indian fashion Calculated ride the waves) down the South
 Side of the river to the place the Indians informed us by Signs that
 numbers of Elk were to be found near the river--The Swells and waves
 being too high for us to proceed down in our large Canoes, in Safty
 I Sent out two hunters to hunt deer, & one to hunt fowl, all the others
 employed in drying their leather and prepareing it for use, as but fiew
 of them have many other Clothes to boste of at this time, we are Smoked
 verry much in this Camp The Shore on the Side next the Sea is Covered
 with butifull pebble of various Colours--our diat at this time and for
 Severall days past is the dried pounded fish we purchased at the falls
 boiled in a little Salt water
 
 
 [Clark, November 29, 1805]
 Friday 29th of November 1805
 The wind and rain Continued all the last night, this morning much more
 moderate. the waves Still high and rain Continues. Capt Lewis and 5
 hunters Set out in our Indian Canoe (which is Calculated to ride wave)
 dow to the place we expected to find Elk from the Inds. information,
 they pointed to a Small Bay which is yet below us--I Sent out 2 men to
 hunt Deer which I expected might be on the open hill Sides below,
 another to hunt fowl in the deep bend above the point, all the others
 engaged drying their leather before the fire, and prepareing it for
 usethey haveing but fiew other Species of Clothing to ware at this time
 The winds are from Such points that we cannot form our Camp So as to
 provent the Smoke which is emencely disagreeable, and painfull to the
 eyes--The Shore below the point at our Camp is formed of butifull
 pebble of various colours. I observe but fiew birds of the Small kind,
 great numbers of wild fowls of Various kinds, the large Buzzard with
 white wings, grey and bald eagle's, large red tailed Hawks, ravens &
 Crows in abundance, the blue Magpie, a Small brown bird which frequents
 logs & about the roots of trees--Snakes, Lizards, Small bugs, worms,
 Spiders, flyes & insects of different kinds are to be Seen in abundance
 at this time.
 
 
 [Lewis, November 30, 1805]
 November 30th 1805.
 cloudy morning set out before sun rise and continued our rout up the bey
 Sent out three men to examin the country to the S. & W. they returned
 after about 2 hours and informed me that the wood was so thick and
 obstructed by marrasses & lakes that they were unable to proceed to the
 ocean which could not be at any considerable distance fom the apparent
 sound of the waves breaking on the Coast. we now returned and asscended
 the inlet which we had last passd no fresh appearance of Elk or deer in
 our rout so far. asscend the inlet as we intended about 1 m. found it
 became much smaller and that it did not keep it's direction to the high
 land which boar S. 10 W. but inclined West. therefore returned to the
 large arm of the bay which we passed this morning. here we expect to
 meet with the Clat-sop Indians, who have tantilized us with there being
 much game in their neighbourhood. this information in fact was the
 cause of my present resurch, for where there is most game is for us the
 most eliguble winter station.--continued our rout up the large arm of
 the bay about 6 miles and encamped on the Stard. side on the highland.
 the water was quite sweet. therefore concluded that it must be supplyed
 from a large crick. at our camp it is 120 yds. wide, tho it gets
 narrower above. it rained but little on us today tho it was cloudy
 generally.--Wind from N. E.--saw a great abundance of fowls, brant,
 large geese, white brant sandhill Cranes, common blue crains,
 cormarants, haulks, ravens, crows, gulls and a great variety of ducks,
 the canvas back, duckinmallard, black and white diver, brown duck--&c &c
 
 
 [Clark, November 30, 1805]
 November 30th Saturday 1805
 Some rain and hail with intervales of fair weather for 1 and 2 hours
 dureing the night and untill 9 oClock this morning at which time it
 Cleared up fair and the Sun Shown, I Send 5 men in a Canoe in the Deep
 bend above the Peninsulear to hunt fowles, & 2 men in the thick woods
 to hunt Elk had all our wet articles dried & the men all employed
 dressing their Skins, I observe but few birds in this Countrey of the
 Small kindsgreat numbers of wild fowl, The large Buzzard with white
 under their wings Grey & Bald eagle large red tailed hawk, ravins,
 Crows, & a small brown bird which is found about logs &c. but fiew
 small hawks or other smaller birds to be seen at this time Snakes,
 Lizzards, Snales bugs worms Spiders, flies & insects of different kinds
 are to be Seen in plenty at this time. The Squar, gave me a piece of
 Bread to day made of Some flower She had Cearfully kept for her child,
 and had unfortunately got wet The hunters killed only 3 hawks, saw 3
 Elk but Could not git a Shot at them, The fowlers, killed 3 black
 ducks, with white Sharp bills, a brown Spot in their foward, Some white
 under the tail, which Short, and a fiew of the tips of the wing
 feathers white, Their toes are long Seperated and flaped, no Craw, keep
 in emence large flocks in the Shallow waters & feed on Grass &c.-
 Several men Complaining of being unwell to day--a Broock comes in to
 the bend above the 1st point above, and a river falls in the next nitch
 above this river is Small,--I observe rose bushes Pine, a kind of ash a
 Species of Beech and a Species of Maple, in addition to the pine Lorrel
 and under groth Common to the woods in this Lower Countrey the hills
 are not high & Slope to the river
 
 
 [Clark, November 30, 1805]
 Saturday 30th of November 1805
 Some rain and hail with intervales of fair weather for the Space of one
 or two hours at a time dureing the night untill 9 oClock this morning,
 at which time it Cleared away and the Sun Shewn for ____ hours, Several
 men out hunting I Send 5 men in the bend above to hunt fowl &c. in a
 Canoe, employ all the others in drying our wet articles by the fire
 Several men Complain of a looseness and gripeing which I contribute to
 the diet, pounded fish mixed with Salt water, I derect that in future
 that the party mix the pounded fish with fresh water--The Squar gave me
 a piece of bread made of flour which She had reserved for her child and
 carefully Kept untill this time, which has unfortunately got wet, and a
 little Sour--this bread I eate with great Satisfaction, it being the
 only mouthfull I had tasted for Several months past. my hunters killed
 three Hawks, which we found fat and delicious, they Saw 3 Elk but Could
 not get a Shot at them. The fowlers killed 3 black Ducks with Sharp
 White beeks keep in large flocks & feed on Grass, they have no Craw and
 their toes are Seperate, Common in the U. States
 The Chinnooks Cath ldh mah & others in this neighbourhood bury their
 dead in their Canoes. for this purpose 4 pieces of Split timber are Set
 erect on end, and sunk a fiew feet in the ground, each brace having
 their flat Sides opposit to each other and Sufficiently far assunder to
 admit the width of the Canoe in which the dead are to be deposited;
 through each of those perpindicular posts, at the hight of 6 feet a
 mortice is Cut, through which two bars of wood are incerted; on those
 Cross bars a Small Canoe is placed, in which the body is laid after
 beaing Carefully roled in a robe of Some dressed Skins; a paddle is
 also deposited with them; a larger Canoe is now reversed, overlaying
 and imbracing the Small one, and resting with its gunnals on the Cross
 bars; one or more large mats of flags or rushes are then rold. around
 the Canoe and the whole Securely lashed with a long Cord usially made
 of the bark of the arbar vita or white Cedar. on the Cross bars which
 Support the Canoes is frequently hung or laid various articles of
 Clothing Culinary utensils &c. we cannot understand them Sufficiently
 to make any enquiries relitive to their religious opinions, from their
 depositing Various articles with their dead, beleve in a State of
 future ixistance.
 I walked on the point and observed rose bushes different Species of
 pine, a Spcies of ash, alder, a Species of wild Crab Loral and Several
 Species of under Broth Common to this lower part of the Columbia river-
 The hills on this Coast rise high and are thickly covered with lofty
 pine maney of which are 10 & 12 feet through and more than 200 feet
 high. hills have a Steep assent.