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[Clark, October 1, 1805]
 October 1st 1805 Tuesday
 a cool morning wind from the N. E. I examine & Dry all our article
 Cloths &. nothing to eate except Drid fish verry bad diet Capt Lewis
 getting much better than for Several days past Several Indians visit us
 from the different villages below and on the main fork S. nothing killed
 [Clark, October 1, 1805]
 October 1st Tuesday 1805
 A cool morning wind from the East had Examined and dried all our
 clothes and other articles and laid out a Small assortment of Such
 articles as those Indians were fond of to trade with them for Some
 provisions (they are remarkably fond of Beeds) nothin to eate except a
 little dried fish which they men complain of as working of them as as
 much as a dost of Salts. Capt Lewis getting much better. Several
 Indians visit us from the different tribes below Some from the main
 South fork our hunters killed nothing to day worm evening
 [Clark, October 2, 1805]
 Oct. 2nd 1805 Wednesday
 dispatch 2 men & an Indian up to the villages we first Came too to
 purchase roots fish &c. nothing to eate but roots. gave a small pice of
 Tobacco to the Indians, 3 broachs & 2 rings with my Handkerchif divided
 between 5 of them. I walked on the hills to hunt to day, Saw only one
 deer, Could kill nothing day excesively hot in the river bottom wind
 North, Burning out the holler of our canoes, men Something better
 nothing except a Small Prarie wolf Killed to day, our Provisions all
 out except what fiew fish we purchase of the Indians with us; we kill a
 horse for the men at work to eate &c. &c.
 [Clark, October 2, 1805]
 October 2nd Wednesday 1805
 Despatched 2 men Frasure & S. Guterich back to the village with 1
 Indian & 6 horses to purchase dried fish, roots &c. we have nothing to
 eate but roots, which give the men violent pains in their bowels after
 eating much of them. To the Indians who visited us yesterday I gave
 divided my Handkerchief between 5 of them, with a Small piece of
 tobacco & a pece of riebin & to the 2 principal men each a ring &
 brooch. I walked out with my gun on the hills which is verry Steep &
 high could kill nothing. day hot wind N. Hunters killed nothing excep a
 Small Prarie wolf. Provisions all out, which Compells us to kill one of
 our horses to eate and make Suep for the Sick men.
 [Clark, October 3, 1805]
 October 3rd Thursday 1805 Canoe Camp
 a fair cool morning wind from the East all our men getting well and at
 work at the canoes &c.
 [Clark, October 3, 1805]
 October 3rd Thursday 1805
 a fine morning cool wind East all our men getting better in helth, and
 at work at the Canoes &. The Indians who visited us from below Set out
 on their return early. Several others Came from different directions
 [Clark, October 4, 1805]
 October 4th 1805 Friday
 This morning is a little cool wind from the East. displeased an Indian
 by refuseing to let him have a pice of Tobacco. thre Inds. from the S.
 fork visit us Frasur and Guterich return from the village with fish
 roots &c. which they purchased
 [Clark, October 4, 1805]
 October 4th Friday 1805
 a Cool wind from off the Eastern mountains I displeased an Indian by
 refuseing him a pice of Tobacco which he tooke the liberty to take out
 of our Sack Three Indians visit us from the Grat River South of us. The
 two men Frasure and Guterich return late from the Vllage with Fish
 roots &c. which they purchased as our horse is eaten we have nothing to
 eate except dried fish & roots which disagree with us verry much. The
 after part of this day verry warm. Capt Lewis Still Sick but able to
 walk about a little.
 [Clark, October 5, 1805]
 October 5th Saturday 1805
 a Cool morning wind from the East, Collected all our horses, & Branded
 them 38 in No. and delivered them to the men who were to take Charge of
 them, each of which I gave a Knife & one a wampom Shell gorget, The
 Lattd. of this place the mean of 2 observations is 46° 34' 56.3" North.
 nothing to eate but dried roots & Dried fish, Capt Lewis & my Self eate
 a Supper of roots boiled, which filled us So full of wind, that we were
 Scercely able to Breathe all night felt the effects of it. Lanced 2
 Canoes to day one proved a little leakey the other a verry good one
 [Clark, October 5, 1805]
 October 5th Saty 1805
 Wind Easterley and Cool, had all our horses 38 in number Collected and
 branded Cut off their fore top and delivered them to the 2 brothers and
 one Son of one of the Chiefs who intends to accompany us down the river
 to each of those men I gave a Knife & Some Small articles &c. they
 promised to be attentive to our horses untill we Should return.
 Lattitude of this place from the mean of two observations is 46° 34'
 56.3" North
 Nothing to eate except dried fish & roots. Capt Lewis & myself eate a
 Supper of roots boiled, which Swelled us in Such a manner that we were
 Scercely able to breath for Several hours--finished and lanced 2 of our
 Canoes this evening which proved to be verry good our hunters with
 every diligence Could kill nothing. The hills high and ruged and woods
 too dry to hunt the deer which is the only game in our neighbourhood.
 Several Squars Came with Fish and roots which we purchased of them for
 Beeds, which they were fond of--Capt Lewis not So well to day as
 [Clark, October 6, 1805]
 October 6th Sunday 1805
 A Col Easterley wind which Spring up in the latter part of the night
 and Continues untill about 7 or 8 oClock A.M. had all our Saddles
 Collected a whole dug and in the night buried them, also a Canister of
 powder and a bag of Balls at the place the Canoe which Shields made was
 cut from the body of the tree--The Saddles were buried on the Side of a
 bend about 1/2 a mile below--all the Canoes finished this evening ready
 to be put into the water. I am taken verry unwell with a paine in the
 bowels & Stomach, which is certainly the effects of my diet-which last
 all night-.
 The winds blow cold from a little before day untill the Suns gets to
 Some hight from the Mountans East as they did from the mountans at the
 time we lay at the falls of Missouri from the West The river below this
 forks is Called Kos kos keel it is Clear rapid with Shoals or Swift
 places The open Countrey Commences a fiew miles below This on each side
 of the river, on the Lard Side below the 1st Creek. with a few trees
 Scattered near the river. passd maney bad rapids, one Canoe that in
 which I went in front Sprung a Leak in passing the 3rd rapid
 Set out at 3 oClock P M & proceeded on
 [Clark, October 7, 1805]
 October 7th Monday 1805
 I continu verry unwell but obliged to attend every thing all the Canoes
 put into the water and loaded, fixed our Canoes as well as possible and
 Set out as we were about to Set out we missd. both of the Chiefs who
 promised to accompany us; I also missed my Pipe Tomahawk which Could
 not be found.
 The after part of the day Cloudy proceded on passed 10 rapids which wer
 danjerous the Canoe in which I was Struck a rock and Sprung a leak in
 the 3rd rapid, we proceeded on 20 miles and Encamped on a Stard point
 oppost a run. passed a Creek Small on the Lard. Side at 9 miles, a
 Short distanc from the river at 2 feet 4 Inches N. of a dead toped pine
 Treee had burid 2 Lead Canisters of Powder
 Had the Canoes unloaded examined and mended a Small leake which we
 discovered in a thin place in her Side passed Several Camps of Indians
 to day our Course and distance Shall be given after I get to the forks.
 &c.which the Indians Say is the last of the bad water untill we get to
 the great falls 10 day below, where the white people live &c. The
 Lodges are of Sticks set in a form of roof of a house & covered with
 mats and Straw
 [Clark, October 8, 1805]
 8th Octr. 1805 Tuesday
 a cloudy morning Changed Canoes and buried 2 Lead canisters of Powder 2
 foot 4 In. North of a dead toped pine opposit our Camp & opposit the
 mouth of a run after repareing leaks in the Canoes Sprung Coming over
 the rapids yesterday Set out at 9 oClock
 [Clark, October 8, 1805]
 October 8th Tuesday 1805
 A Cloudy morning loaded our Canoes which was unloaded last night and
 Set out at 9 oClock passed 15 rapids four Islands and a Creek on the
 Stard Side at 16 miles just below which one canoe in which Serjt. Gass
 was Stearing and was nearle turning over, She Sprung a leak or Split
 open on one Side and Bottom filled with water & Sunk on the rapid, the
 men, Several of which Could not Swim hung on to the Canoe, I had one of
 the other Canoes unloaded & with the assistance of our Small Canoe and
 one Indian Canoe took out every thing & toed the empty Canoe on Shore,
 one man Tompson a little hurt, every thing wet perticularly the greater
 part of our Small Stock of merchindize, had every thing opened, and two
 Sentinals put over them to keep off the Indians, who are enclined to
 theave haveing Stole Several Small articles those people appeared
 disposed to give us every assistance in their power dureing our
 distress--We passed Several Encampments of Indians on the Islands and
 those near the rapids in which places they took the Salmon, at one of
 Those Camps we found our two Chiefs who had promised to accompany us,
 we took them on board after the Serimony of Smokeing
 [Clark, October 9, 1805]
 Octo. 9th all day drying our roots good & articles which got wet in the
 Canoe last night. our 2 Snake Indian guides left us without our
 knowledge, The Indians troublesom Stole my Spoon which they returned.
 men merry at night & Singular acts of a Ind. woman
 [Clark, October 9, 1805]
 October 9th Wednesday 1805
 The morning Cool as usial the greater part of the day proved to be
 Cloudy, which was unfavourable for drying our things &c. which got wet
 yesterday. In examoning our canoe found that by putting Knees & Strong
 peces pined to her Sides and bottom &c. She Could be made fit for
 Service in by the time the goods dried, Set 4 men to work at her,
 Serjt. Pryor & Gass, Jo Fields & Gibson, others to Collect rosin, at 1
 oClock She was finished Stronger than ever The wet articles not
 Sufficiently dried to pack up obliged us to delay another night dureing
 the time one man was tradeing for fish for our voyage, at Dark we were
 informed that our old guide & his Son had left us and had been Seen
 running up the river Several miles above, we Could not account for the
 Cause of his leaveing us at this time, without receiving his pay for
 the Services he had rendered us, or letting us know anything of his
 we requested the Chief to Send a horseman after our old guide to come
 back and recive his pay &c. which he advised us not to do as his nation
 would take his things from him before he passed their camps The Indians
 and our party were very mery this after noon a woman faind madness &c.
 &c. Singular acts of this woman in giveing in Small potions all She had
 & if they were not received She would Scarrify her Self in a horid
 manner &c. Capt Lewis recovring fast.
 a verry worm day, Indians continue all day on the banks to view us as
 low as the forks. Two Indians come up in a Canoe, who means to
 accompany us to the Great rapids, Could get no observations, worm night
 The water of the South fork is of a bluish green colour
 [Clark, October 10, 1805]
 October 10th Wednesday Thursday
 a fine Morning loaded and Set out at 7 oClock at 21/2 miles passed a
 run on the Stard. Side haveing passed 2 Islands and two bad rapids at 3
 miles lower passed a Creek on the Lard. with wide Cotton willow bottoms
 haveing passed an Island and a rapid an Indian Camp of three Lodgs
 below the Creek at 81/2 miles lower we arrived at the heade of a verry
 bad riffle at which place we landed near 8 Lodges of Indians on the
 Lard Side to view the riffle, haveing passed two Islands & Six rapids
 Several of them verry bad-after view'g this riffle two Canoes were
 taken over verry well; the third Stuck on a rock which took us an hour
 to get her off which was effected without her receving a greater
 injurey than a Small Split in her Side which was repared in a Short
 time, we purchased fish & dogs of those people, dined and proceeded on-
 here we met with an Indian from the falls at which place he Sais he Saw
 white people, and expressd an inclination to accompany us, we passd. a
 fiew miles above this riffle 2 Lodges and an Indian batheing in a hot
 bath made by hot Stones thrown into a pon of water. at this riffle
 which we Call ragid rapid took meridian altitude of the Suns upper Limb
 with Sextt. 74° 26' 0" Latd. produced ____ North at five miles lower and
 Sixty miles below the forks arived at a large Southerly fork which is
 the one we were on with the Snake or So-So-nee nation (haveing passed 5
 rapids) This South fork or Lewis's River which has two forks which fall
 into it on the South the ist Small the upper large and about 2 days
 march up imediately parrelal to the first villages we Came to and is
 called by those Indians Par-nash-te on this fork a little above its
 mouth resides a Chief who as the Indian Say has more horses than he can
 Count and further Sayeth that Louises River is navagable about 60 miles
 up with maney rapids at which places the Indians have fishing Camps and
 Lodjes built of an oblong form with flat ruffs. below the 1st river on
 the South Side there is ten established fishing places on the 1st fork
 which fall in on the South Side is one fishing place, between that and
 the Par nash to River, five fishing places, above two, and one on that
 river all of the Cho-pun-nish or Pierced Nose Nation many other Indians
 reside high up those rivers The Countrey about the forks is an open
 Plain on either Side I can observe at a distance on the lower Stard.
 Side a high ridge of Thinly timbered Countrey the water of the South
 fork-is a greenish blue, the north as clear as cristial
 Imediately in the point is an Indian Cabin & in the South fork a Small
 Island, we came to on the Stard. Side below with a view to make some
 luner observations the night proved Cloudy and we were disapointed The
 Indians Came down all the Couses of this river on each Side on horses
 to view us as we were desending,--The man whome we saw at the ruged
 rapid and expressed an inclination to accompany us to the great rapids,
 came up with his Son in a Small Canoe and procisted in his intentions-
 worthey of remark that not one Stick of timber on the river near the
 forks and but a fiew trees for a great distance up the River we
 decended I think Lewis's River is about 250 yards wide, the Koos koos
 ke River about 150 yards wide and the river below the forks about 300
 yards wide. a miss understanding took place between Shabono one of our
 interpreters, and Jo. & R Fields which appears to have originated in
 just--our diet extremely bad haveing nothing but roots and dried fish
 to eate, all the Party have greatly the advantage of me, in as much as
 they all relish the flesh of the dogs, Several of which we purchased of
 the nativs for to add to our Store of fish and roots &c. &c.-
 The Cho-pun-nish or Pierced nose Indians are Stout likeley men, handsom
 women, and verry dressey in their way, the dress of the men are a white
 Buffalow robe or Elk Skin dressed with Beeds which are generally white,
 Sea Shells-i e the Mother of Pirl hung to ther hair & on a pice of
 otter Skin about their necks hair Cewed in two parsels hanging forward
 over their Sholders, feathers, and different Coloured Paints which they
 find in their Countrey Generally white, Green & light Blue. Some fiew
 were a Shirt of Dressed Skins and long legins, & Mockersons Painted,
 which appears to be their winters dress, with a plat of twisted grass
 about their necks.
 The women dress in a Shirt of Ibex, or Goat Skins which reach quite
 down to their anckles with a girdle, their heads are not ornemented,
 their Shirts are ornemented with quilled Brass, Small peces of Brass
 Cut into different forms, Beeds, Shells & curios bones &c. The men
 expose those parts which are generally kept from view by other nations
 but the women are more perticular than any other nation which I have
 passed in Screting the parts
 Their amusements appear but fiew as their Situation requires the utmost
 exertion to prcure food they are generally employed in that pursute,
 all the Summer & fall fishing for the Salmon, the winter hunting the
 deer on Snow Shoes in the plains and takeing care of ther emence
 numbers of horses, & in the Spring cross the mountains to the Missouri
 to get Buffalow robes and meet &c. at which time they frequent meet
 with their enemies & lose their horses & maney of ther people
 Ther disorders are but fiew and those fiew of a Scofelous nature. they
 make great use of Swetting. The hot and cold baethes, They are verry
 Selfish and Stingey of what they have to eate or ware, and they expect
 in return Something for everything give as presents or the Survices
 which they doe let it be however Small, and fail to make those returns
 on their part.
 [Clark, October 11, 1805]
 October 11th 1805
 a cloudy morning wind from the East We Set out early and proceeded on
 passed a rapid at two miles, at 6 miles we came too at Some Indian
 lodges and took brackfast, we purchased all the fish we could and Seven
 dogs of those people for Stores of Provisions down the river. at this
 place I saw a curious Swet house under ground, with a Small whole at
 top to pass in or throw in the hot Stones, which those in threw on as
 much water as to create the temporature of heat they wished--at 9 mile
 passed a rapid at 15 miles halted at an Indian Lodge, to purchase
 provisions of which we precred some of the Pash-he-quar roots five dogs
 and a few fish dried, after takeing Some dinner of dog &c we proceeded
 on. Came to and encamped at 2 Indian Lodges at a great place of fishing
 here we met an Indian of a nation near the mouth of this river.
 we purchased three dogs and a fiew fish of those Indians, we Passed
 today nine rapids all of then great fishing places, at different places
 on the river saw Indian houses and Slabs & Spilt timber raised from the
 ground being the different parts of the houses of the natives when they
 reside on this river for the purpose of fishing at this time they are
 out in the Plain on each side of the river hunting the antilope as we
 are informed by our Chiefs, near each of those houses we observe Grave
 yards picketed, or pieces of wood stuck in permiscuesly over the grave
 or body which is Covered with earth, The Country on either Side is an
 open plain leavel & fertile after assending a Steep assent of about 200
 feet not a tree of any kind to be Seen on the river The after part of
 the day the wind from the S. W. and hard. The day worm.
 [Clark, October 12, 1805]
 October 12th 1805 Saturday
 a fair cool morning wind from E after purchasing all the drid fish
 those people would Spear from their hole in which they wer buried we
 Set out at 7 oClock and proceeded on
 [Clark, October 12, 1805]
 October 12th Saturday 1805
 A fair Cool morning wind from the East. after purchaseing every Speces
 of the provisions those Indians could Spare we Set out and proceeded on
 at three miles passed four Islands Swift water and a bad rapid opposit
 to those Islands on the Lard. Side. at 141/2 miles passed the mouth of
 a large Creek on the Lard Side opposit a Small Island here the Countrey
 assends with a gentle assent to the high plains, and the River is 400
 yards wide about 1 mile below the Creek on the Same Side took meridian
 altitude which gave 72° 30' 00" Latitude produced ____ North in the
 afternoon the wind Shifted to the S. W. and blew hard we passed to day
 ____ rapids Several of them very bad and came to at the head of one (at
 30 miles) on the Stard. Side to view it before we attemptd. to dsend
 through it. The Indians had told us was verry bad--we found long and
 dangerous about 2 miles in length, and maney turns necessary to Stear
 Clare of the rocks, which appeared to be in every direction. The
 Indians went through & our Small Canoe followed them, as it was late we
 deturmined to camp above untill the morning. we passed Several Stoney
 Islands today Country as yesterday open plains, no timber of any kind a
 fiew Hack berry bushes & willows excepted, and but few drift trees to
 be found So that fire wood is verry Scerce--The hills or assents from
 the water is faced with a dark ruged Stone. The wind blew hard this
 [Clark, October 13, 1805]
 October 13th Sunday 1805
 rained a little before day, and all the morning, a hard wind from the S
 West untill 9 oClock, the rained Seased & wind luled, and Capt Lewis
 with two Canoes Set out & passed down the rapid The others Soon
 followed and we passed over this bad rapid Safe. We Should make more
 portages if the Season was not So far advanced and time precious with us
 The wife of Shabono our interpetr we find reconsiles all the Indians,
 as to our friendly intentions a woman with a party of men is a token of
 [Clark, October 13, 1805]
 October 13th Sunday 1805
 a windey dark raney morning The rain commenced before day and Continued
 moderately until) near 12 oClock--we took all our Canoes through This
 rapid without any injurey. a little below passed through another bad
 rapid at ____ miles passed the Mo. of a large Creek little river in a
 Stard. bend, imediately below a long bad rapid; in which the water is
 Confined in a Chanel of about 20 yards between rugid rocks for the
 distance of a mile and a half and a rapid rockey Chanel for 2 miles
 above. This must be a verry bad place in high water, here is great
 fishing place, the timbers of Several houses piled up, and a number of
 wholes of fish, and the bottom appears to have been made use of as a
 place of deposit for their fish for ages past, here two Indians from
 the upper foks over took us and continued on down on horse back, two
 others were at this mouth of the Creek--we passed a rapid about 9 mile
 lower. at dusk came to on the Std. Side & Encamped. The two Inds. on
 horse back Stayed with us. The Countery Thro which we passed to day is
 Simlar to that of yesterday open plain no timber passed Several houses
 evacuated at established fishing places, wind hard from The S. W. in
 the evening and not very cold
 [Clark, October 14, 1805]
 October 14th Monday 1805
 a verry Cool morning wind from the West Set out at 8 oClock proceeded on
 at this rapid the Canoe a Stern Steared by drewyer Struck a rock turned
 the men got out on a rock the Stern of the Canoe took in water and She
 Sunk the men on the rock hel her, a number of articles floated all that
 Could be Cought were taken by 2 of the othr Canoes, Great many articles
 lost among other things 2 of the mens beding Shot pouches Tomahaws &c.
 &c. and every article wet of which we have great Cause to lament as all
 our loose Powder two Canisters, all our roots prepared in the Indian
 way, and one half of our goods, fortunately the lead canisters which
 was in the canoe was tied down, otherwise they must have been lost as
 the Canoe turned over we got off the men from the rock toed our canoe
 on Shore after takeing out all the Stores &c. we Could & put them out
 to dry on the Island on which we found Some wood which was covered with
 Stones, this is the Parts of an Indian house, which we used for fire
 wood, by the wish of our two Chiefs--Those Chees, one of them was in
 the Canoe, Swam in & Saved Some property, The Inds. have buried fish on
 this Isld. which we are Cautious not to touch. our Small Canoe & three
 Indians in another was out of Sight at the time our missfortune
 hapined, and did not join us. wind hard S W.
 [Clark, October 14, 1805]
 October 14th Monday 1805
 a Verry Cold morning wind from the West and Cool untill about 12 oClock
 When it Shifted to the S. W. at 21/2 miles passed a remarkable rock
 verry large and resembling the hull of a Ship Situated on a Lard point
 at Some distance from the assending Countrey passed rapids at 6 and 9
 miles. at 12 miles we Came too at the head of a rapid which the Indians
 told me was verry bad, we viewed the rapid found it bad in decending
 three Stern Canoes Stuk fast for Some time on the head of the rapid and
 one Struk a rock in the worst part, fortunately all landed Safe below
 the rapid which was nearly 3 miles in length. here we dined, and for
 the first time for three weeks past I had a good dinner of Blue wing
 Teel, after dinner we Set out and had not proceded on two miles before
 our Stern Canoe in passing thro a Short rapid opposit the head of an
 Island, run on a Smoth rock and turned broad Side, the men got out on
 the rock all except one of our Indian Chiefs who Swam on Shore, The
 Canoe filed and Sunk a number of articles floated out, Such as the mens
 bedding clothes & Skins, the Lodge &c. &c. the greater part of which
 were cought by 2 of the Canoes, whilst a 3rd was unloading & Steming
 the Swift Current to the relief of the men on the rock who could with
 much dificuelty hold the Canoe. however in about an hour we got the men
 an Canoe to Shore with the Loss of Some bedding Tomahaws Shot pouches
 Skins Clothes &c &c. all wet we had every articles exposed to the Sun
 to dry on the Island, our loss in provisions is verry Considerable all
 our roots was in the Canoe that Sunk, and Cannot be dried Sufficint to
 Save, our loose powder was also in the Canoe and is all wett This I
 think, we Shall saved.--In this Island we found some Split timber the
 parts of a house which the Indians had verry Securely covered with
 Stone, we also observed a place where the Indians had buried there
 fish, we have made it a point at all times not to take any thing
 belonging to the Indians even their wood. but at this time we are
 Compelled to violate that rule and take a part of the Split timber we
 find here bured for fire wood, as no other is to be found in any
 direction. our Small Canoe which was a head returned at night with 2
 ores which they found floating below. The wind this after noon from the
 S. W. as usial and hard way of the forks to the Indian Camps at the
 first were not one mouthfull to eate untill night as our hunters could
 kill nothing and I could See & catch no fish except a few Small ones.
 The Indians gave us 2 Sammon boiled which I gave to the men, one of my
 men Shot a Sammon in the river about Sunset those fish gave us a
 Supper. all the Camp flocked about me untill I went to Sleep--and I
 beleve if they had a Sufficency to eate themselves and any to Spare
 they would be liberal of it I detected the men to mend their Mockessons
 to night and turn out in the morning early to hunt Deer fish birds &c.
 &c. Saw great numbers of the large Black grass hopper. Some bars which
 were verry wild, but few Birds. a number of ground Lizards; Some fiew
 Pigions plainly See a rainge of mountains which bore S. E. & N. W. the
 nearest point south about 60 miles, and becoms high toward the N. W.
 The plaines on each Side is wavering. Labiesh killed 2 gees & 2 Ducks
 of the large kind. at two oClock we loaded & Set out, our Powder &
 Provisions of roots not Sufficently dry. we Shall put them out at the
 forks or mouth of this river which is at no great distance, and at
 which place we Shall delay to make Some Selestial observations &c.
 passed Eleven Island and Seven rapids to day. Several of the rapids
 verry bad and dificuelt to pass. The Islands of different Sizes and all
 of round Stone and Sand, no timber of any kind in Sight of the river, a
 fiew Small willows excepted; in the evening the countrey becomes lower
 not exceding 90 or 100 feet above the water and back is a wavering
 Plain on each Side, passed thro narrows for 3 miles where the Clifts of
 rocks juted to the river on each Side compressing the water of the
 river through a narrow chanel; below which it widens into a kind of
 bason nearly round without any proceptiable current, at the lower part
 of this bason is a bad dificuelt and dangerous rapid to pass, at the
 upper part of this rapid we over took the three Indians who had Polited
 us thro the rapids from the forks. those people with our 2 Chiefs had
 proceeded on to this place where they thought proper to delay for us to
 warn us of the difficulties of this rapid. we landed at a parcel of
 Split timber, the timber of a house of Indians out hunting the Antilope
 in the plains; and raised on Scaffolds to Save them from the Spring
 floods. here we were obliged for the first time to take the property of
 the Indians without the consent or approbation of the owner. the night
 was cold & we made use of a part of those boards and Split logs for
 fire wood. Killed two teel this evening. Examined the rapids which we
 found more dificuelt to pass than we expected from the Indians
 information. a Suckcession of Sholes, appears to reach from bank to
 bank for 3 miles which was also intersepted with large rocks Sticking
 up in every direction, and the chanel through which we must pass
 crooked and narrow. we only made 20 miles today, owing to the detention
 in passing rapids &c.
 [Clark, October 16, 1805]
 Oar. 16th 1805 Wednesday
 a cool morning Set out early passed the rapid with all the Canoes
 except Sgt. Pryors which run on a rock near the lower part of the rapid
 and Stuck fast, by the assistance of the 3 other Canoes She was
 unloaded and got off the rock without any further injorey than, the
 wetting the greater part of her loading--loaded and proceeded on I
 walked around this rapid
 We halted a Short time above the Point and Smoked with the Indians, &
 examined the Point and best place for our Camp, we Camped on the
 Columbia River a little above the point I Saw about 200 men Comeing
 down from their villages & were turned back by the Chief, after we
 built our fires of what wood we Could Collect, & get from the Indians,
 the Chief brought down all his men Singing and dancing as they Came,
 formed a ring and danced for Some time around us we gave them a Smoke,
 and they returned the village a little above, the Chief & Several delay
 untill I went to bead. bought 7 dogs & they gave us Several fresh
 Salmon & Som horse dried
 [Clark, October 16, 1805]
 October 16th Wednesday 1805
 A cool morning deturmined to run the rapids, put our Indian guide in
 front our Small Canoe next and the other four following each other, the
 canoes all passed over Safe except the rear Canoe which run fast on a
 rock at the lower part of the Rapids, with the early assistance of the
 other Canoes & the Indians, who was extreamly ellert every thing was
 taken out and the Canoe got off without any enjorie further than the
 articles which it was loaded all wet. at 14 miles passed a bad rapid at
 which place we unloaded and made a portage of 3/4 of a mile, haveing
 passd. 4 Smaller rapids, three Islands and the parts of a house above,
 I Saw Indians & Horses on the South Side below. five Indians came up
 the river in great haste, we Smoked with them and gave them a piece of
 tobacco to Smoke with their people and Sent them back, they Set out in
 a run & continued to go as fast as They Could run as far as we Could
 See them. after getting Safely over the rapid and haveing taken Diner
 Set out and proceeded on Seven miles to the junction of this river and
 the Columbia which joins from the N. W. passd. a rapid two Islands and
 a graveley bare, and imediately in the mouth a rapid above an Island.
 In every direction from the junction of those rivers the Countrey is
 one Continued plain low and rises from the water gradually, except a
 range of high Countrey which runs from S. W & N E and is on the opposit
 Side about 2 miles distant from the Collumbia and keeping its detection
 S W untill it joins a S W. range of mountains.
 We halted above the point on the river Kimooenim to Smoke with the
 Indians who had collected there in great numbers to view us, here we
 met our 2 Chiefs who left us two days ago and proceeded on to this
 place to inform those bands of our approach and friendly intentions
 towards all nations &c. we also met the 2 men who had passed us Several
 days ago on hors back, one of them we observed was a man of great
 influence with those Indians, harranged them; after Smokeing with the
 Indians who had collected to view us we formed a camp at the point near
 which place I Saw a fiew pieces of Drift wood after we had our camp
 fixed and fires made, a Chief came from their Camp which was about 1/4
 of a mile up the Columbia river at the head of about 200 men Singing
 and beeting on their drums Stick and keeping time to the musik, they
 formed a half circle around us and Sung for Some time, we gave them all
 Smoke, and Spoke to their Chiefs as well as we could by Signs informing
 them of our friendly disposition to all nations, and our joy in Seeing
 those of our Children around us, Gave the principal chief a large Medal
 Shirt and Handkf. a 2nd Chief a Meadel of Small Size, and to the Cheif
 who came down from the upper villages a Small Medal & Handkerchief.
 The Chiefs then returned with the men to their camp; Soon after we
 purchased for our Provisions Seven Dogs, Some fiew of those people made
 us presents of fish and Several returned and delayed with us untill
 bedtime--The 2 old Chiefs who accompanied us from the head of the river
 precured us Some full Such as the Stalks of weed or plant and willow
 bushes--one man made me a present of a about 20 lb. of verry fat Dried
 horse meat.
 Great quantities of a kind of prickley pares, much worst than any I
 have before Seen of a tapering form and attach themselves by bunches.
 [Clark, October 17, 1805]
 October 17th Thursday 1805 Forks of Columbia
 This morning after the Luner observations, the old chief came down, and
 Several men with dogs to Sell & womin with fish &c. the Dogs we
 purchased the fish not good.
 I took 2 men and Set out in a Small Canoe with a view to go as high up
 the Columbia river as the 1st forks which the Indians made Signs was
 but a Short distance, I set out at 2 oClock firs course was N. 83° W 6
 miles to the lower point of a Island on the Lard. Side, passed an
 Island in the middle of the river at 5 miles, at the head of which is a
 rapid not bad at this rapid 3 Lodges of mats on the Lard emenc
 quantites of dried fish, then West 4 miles to the Lower point of an
 Island on the Stard. Side, 2 lodges of Indians large and built of mats-
 passed 3 verry large mat lodges at 2 mile on the Stard Side large
 Scaffols of fish drying at every lodge, and piles of Salmon lying. the
 Squars engaged prepareing them for the Scaffol--a Squar gave me a dried
 Salmon from those lodes on the Island an Indian Showed me the mouth of
 the river which falls in below a high hill on the Lard. N. 80° W. 8 miles
 from the Island. The river bending Lard.--This river is remarkably
 Clear and Crouded with Salmon in maney places, I observe in assending
 great numbers of Salmon dead on the Shores, floating on the water and
 in the Bottoms which can be seen at the debth of 20 feet. the Cause of
 the emence numbers of dead Salmon I can't account for So it is I must
 have seen 3 or 400 dead and maney living the Indians, I believe make
 use of the fish which is not long dead as, I Struck one nearly dead and
 left him floating, Some Indians in a canoe behind took the fish on
 board his canoe
 The bottoms on the South Side as high as the Tarcouche tesse is from 1
 to 2 miles wide, back of the bottoms rises to hilly countrey, the Plain
 is low on the North & Easte for a great distance no wood to be Seen in
 any direction.
 The Tarcouche tesse bears South of West, the Columbia N W above range
 of hills on the West Parrelel a range of mountains to the East which
 appears to run nearly North & South distance not more than 50 miles--I
 returned to the point at Dusk followed by three canoes of Indians 20 in
 number--I killed a Fowl of the Pheasent kind as large as a turkey. The
 length from his Beeck to the end of its tail 2 feet 6--3/4 Inches, from
 the extremity of its wings across 3 feet 6 Inches. the tail feathers 13
 Inches long, feeds on grass hoppers, and the Seed of wild Isoop 6
 Those Indians are orderly, badly dressed in the Same fashions of those
 above except the women who wore Short Shirts and a flap over them 22
 Fishing houses of Mats robes of Deer, Goat & Beaver.
 [Clark, October 17, 1805]
 October 17th Thursday 1805
 A fair morning made the above observations during which time the
 principal Chief came down with Several of his principal men and Smoked
 with us. Several men and woman offered Dogs and fish to Sell, we
 purchased all the dogs we could, the fish being out of Season and
 dieing in great numbers in the river, we did not think proper to use
 them, Send out Hunters to Shute the Prarie Cock a large fowl which I
 have only Seen on this river; Several of which I have killed, they are
 the Size of a Small turkey, of the pheasant kind, one I killed on the
 water edge to day measured from the Beek to the end of the toe 2 feet 6
 & 3/4 Inches; from the extremities of its wings 3 feet 6 inches; the
 tale feathers is 13 inches long; they feed on grasshoppers and the Seed
 of the wild plant which is also peculiar to this river and the upper
 parts of the Missoury somewhat resembling the whins-. Capt. Lewis took
 a vocabelary of the Language of those people who call themselves So
 hulk, and also one of the language of a nation resideing on a Westerly
 fork of the Columbia which mouthes a fiew miles above this place who
 Call themselves Chim na pum Some fiew of this nation reside with the So
 kulks nation, Their language differ but little from either the Sokulks
 or the Cho-pun-nish (or pierced nose) nation which inhabit the
 Koskoskia river and Lewis's R below.
 I took two men in a Small Canoe and assended the Columbia river 10
 miles to an Island near the Stard. Shore on which two large Mat Lodges
 of Indians were drying Salmon, (as they informed me by Signs for the
 purpose of food and fuel, & I do not think at all improbable that those
 people make use of Dried fish as fuel,) The number of dead Salmon on
 the Shores & floating in the river is incrediable to Say and at this
 Season they have only to collect the fish Split them open and dry them
 on their Scaffolds on which they have great numbers, how far they have
 to raft their timber they make their Scaffolds of I could not lern; but
 there is no timber of any Sort except Small willow bushes in Sight in
 any directionfrom this Island the natives showed me the enterance of a
 large Westerly fork which they Call Tapetett at about 8 miles distant,
 the evening being late I deturmined to return to the forks, at which
 place I reached at Dark. from the point up the Columbia River is N. 83°
 W. 6 miles to the lower point of an Island near the Lard. Side passed a
 Island in the middle of the river at 5 miles at the head of which is a
 rapid, not dangerous on the Lard Side opposit to this rapid is a
 fishing place 3 Mat Lodges, and great quants. of Salmon on Scaffolds
 drying. Saw great numhers of Dead Salmon on the Shores and floating in
 the water, great numbers of Indians on the banks viewing me and 18
 canoes accompanied me from the point--The Waters of this river is
 Clear, and a Salmon may be Seen at the deabth of 15 or 20 feet. West 4
 miles to the lower point of a large Island near the Stard. Side at 2
 Lodges, passed three large lodges on the Stard Side near which great
 number of Salmon was drying on Scaffolds one of those Mat lodges I
 entered found it crouded with men women and children and near the
 enterance of those houses I saw maney Squars engaged Splitting and
 drying Salmon. I was furnished with a mat to Sit on, and one man Set
 about prepareing me Something to eate, first he brought in a piece of a
 Drift log of pine and with a wedge of the elks horn, and a malet of
 Stone curioesly Carved he Split the log into Small pieces and lay'd it
 open on the fire on which he put round Stones, a woman handed him a
 basket of water and a large Salmon about half Dried, when the Stones
 were hot he put them into the basket of water with the fish which was
 Soon Suflicently boiled for use. it was then taken out put on a platter
 of rushes neetly made, and Set before me they boiled a Salmon for each
 of the men with me, dureing those preperations, I Smoked with those
 about me who Chose to Smoke which was but fiew, this being a custom
 those people are but little accustomed to and only Smok thro form.
 after eateing the boiled fish which was delicious, I Set out & halted
 or came too on the Island at the two Lodges. Several fish was given to
 me, in return for Which I gave Small pieces of ribbond from those
 Lodges the natives Showed me the mouth of Tap teel River about 8 miles
 above on the west Side this western fork appears to beare nearly West,
 The main Columbia river N W.--a range of high land to the S W and
 parralal to the river and at the distance of 2 miles on the Lard. Side,
 the countrey low on the Stard. Side, and all Coverd. with a weed or
 plant about 2 & three feet high and resembles the whins. I can proceive
 a range of mountains to the East which appears to bare N. & South
 distant about 50 or 60 miles. no wood to be Seen in any derection--On
 my return I was followd. by 3 canoes in which there was 20 Indians I
 shot a large Prairie Cock Several Grouse, Ducks and fish. on my return
 found Great Numbr. of the nativs with Capt Lewis, men all employd in
 dressing ther Skins mending their clothes and putting ther arms in the
 best order the latter being always a matter of attention with us. The
 Dress of those natives differ but little from those on the Koskoskia
 and Lewis's rivers, except the women who dress verry different in as
 much as those above ware long leather Shirts which highly ornimented
 with heeds Shells &c. &c. and those on the main Columbia river only
 ware a truss or pece of leather tied around them at their hips and
 drawn tite between ther legs and fastened before So as barly to hide
 those parts which are So Sacredly hid & Scured by our women. Those
 women are more inclined to Copulency than any we have yet Seen, with
 low Stature broad faces, heads flatened and the foward compressed so as
 to form a Streight line from the nose to the Crown of the head, their
 eyes are of a Duskey black, their hair of a corse black without
 orniments of any kind braded as above, The orniments of each Sects are
 Similar, Such as large blue & white beeds, either pendant from their
 ears or encircling their necks, or wrists & arms. they also ware
 bracelets of Brass, Copper & horn, and trinkets of Shells, fish bones
 and curious feathers. Their garments Consists of a short Shirt of
 leather and a roabe of the Skins of Deer or the Antilope but fiew of
 them ware Shirts all have Short robes. Those people appears to live in
 a State of comparitive happiness; they take a greater Share labor of
 the woman, than is common among Savage tribes, and as I am informd.
 Content with one wife (as also those on the Ki moo e nim river) Those
 people respect the aged with veneration, I observed an old woman in one
 of the Lodges which I entered She was entirely blind as I was informed
 by Signs, had lived more than 100 winters, She occupied the best
 position in the house, and when She Spoke great attention was paid to
 what She Said-. Those people as also those of the flat heads which we
 had passed on the Koskoske and Lewis's rivers are Subject to Sore eyes,
 and maney are blind of one and Some of both eyes. this misfortune must
 be owing to the reflections of the Sun &c. on the waters in which they
 are continually fishing during the Spring Summer & fall, & the Snows
 dureing the, winter Seasons, in this open countrey where the eye has no
 rest. I have observed amongst those, as well in all other tribes which
 I have passed on these waters who live on fish maney of different
 Sectes who have lost their teeth about middle age, Some have their
 teeth worn to the gums, perticelar those of the upper jaws, and the
 tribes generally have bad teeth the cause of it I cannot account sand
 attachd. to the roots &c the method they have of useing the dri'd
 Salmon, which is mearly worming it and eating the rine & Scales with
 the flesh of the fish, no doubt contributes to it
 The Houses or Lodges of the tribes of the main Columbia river is of
 large mats made of rushes, Those houses are from 15 to 60 feet in
 length generally of an Oblong Squar form, Suported by poles on forks in
 the iner Side, Six feet high, the top is covered also with mats
 leaveing a Seperation in the whole length of about 12 or 15 inches
 wide, left for the purpose of admitting light and for the Smok of the
 fire to pass which is made in the middle of the house.--The roughfs are
 nearly flat, which proves to me that rains are not common in this open
 Those people appeare of a mild disposition and friendly disposedThey
 have in their huts independant of their nets gigs & fishing tackling
 each bows & large quivers of arrows on which they use flint Spikes.
 Theire ammusements are Similar to those of the Missouri. they are not
 beggerley and receive what is given them with much joy.
 I saw but flew horses they appeared make but little use of those
 animals principally useing Canoes for their uses of procureing food &c.
 [Clark, October 18, 1805]
 October 18th Friday 1805
 a cold morning faire & wind from S E Several Heath hens or large
 Pheasents lit near us & the men killed Six of them.
 Took one altitude of the Suns upper Limb 28° 22' 15" at h m s 8 1 24 A.M.
 Several Indian Canoes Come down & joind those with us, made a Second
 Chief by giveing a meadel & wampom I also gave a String of wampom to
 the old Chief who came down with us and informed the Indians of our
 views and intentions in a council
 Measured the width of the Columbia River, from the Point across to a
 Point of view is S 22° W from the Point up the Columa to a Point of view
 is N. 84° W. 148 poles, thence across to the 1st point of view is S 281/2
 Measured the width of Ki moo e nim River, from the Point across to an
 object on the opposit side is N. 411/2 E from the Point up the river is
 N. 8 E. 82 poles thence accross to the Point of view is N. 79° East
 Distance across the Columbia 9603/4 yds water
 Distance across the Ki-moo-e nim 575 yds water
 Names of this nation above the mouth of the Ki-moo-e-nim is So-Kulk
 Perced noses The Names of the nation on the Kimoenim River is
 Chopun-nish Piercd noses at the Prarie the name of a nation at the
 Second forks of the Tape tele River, or Nocktock fork Chim-na-pum, Some
 of which reside with the So kulkc above this-at and a few miles
 distance,--4 men in a Canoe come up from below Stayed a fiew minits and
 Took a meridian altitude 68° 57' 30" the Suns upper Limb. The Lattitudes
 produced is 46° 15' 13 9/10" North, Capt Lewis took a vocabillary of the
 So kulk or Pierced noses Language and Chim-nd-pum Language whic is in
 Some words different but orriginally the Same people The Great Chief
 Cuts-Sa.h nim gave me a Sketch of the rivers & Tribes above on the
 great river & its waters on which he put great numbers of villages of
 his nation & friends, as noted on the Sketch
 The fish being very bad those which was offerd to us we had every
 reason to believe was taken up on the Shore dead, we thought proper not
 to purchase any, we purchased forty dogs for which we gave articles of
 little value, Such as beeds, bell, & thimbles, of which they appeard
 verry fond, at 4 OClock we Set out down the Great Columbia accompand by
 our two old Chiefs, one young man wished to accompany us, but we had no
 room for more, & he could be of no Service to us
 The Great Chief Continued with us untill our departure.
 we Encamped a little below & opsd. the lower point of the Island on the
 Lard. Side no wood to be found we were obliged to make use Small drid
 willows to Cook--our old Chief informed us that the great Chief of all
 the nations about lived at the 9 Lodges above and wished us to land &c.
 he Said he would go up and Call him over they went up and did not
 return untill late at night, about 20 came down & built a fire above
 and Stayed all night. The chief brought a basket of mashed berries.
 [Clark, October 18, 1805]
 October 18th Friday 1805
 This morning Cool and fare wind from the S. E. Six of the large Prarie
 cock killed this morning. Several canoes of Indians Came down and
 joined those with us, we had a council with those in which we informed
 of our friendly intentions towards them and all other of our red
 children; of our wish to make a piece between all of our red Children
 in this quarter &c. &c. this was conveyed by Signs thro our 2 Chiefs
 who accompanied us, and was understood, we made a 2d Chief and gave
 Strings of wompom to them all in remembrance of what we Said--four men
 in a Canoe came up from a large encampment on an Island in the River
 about 8 miles below, they delayed but a fiew minits and returned,
 without Speaking a word to us.
 The Great Chief and one of the Chim-na pum nation drew me a Sketch of
 the Columbia above and the tribes of his nation, living on the bank,
 and its waters, and the Tape tett river which falls in 18 miles above
 on the westerly side See Sketch below for the number of villages and
 nations &c. &c.
 We thought it necessary to lay in a Store of Provisions for our voyage,
 and the fish being out of Season, we purchased forty dogs for which we
 gave articles of little value, Such as bells, thimbles, knitting pins,
 brass wire & a few beeds all of which they appeared well Satisfied and
 every thing being arranged we took in our Two Chiefs, and Set out on
 the great Columbia river, haveing left our guide and the two young men
 two of them enclined not to proceed on any further, and the 3rd could
 be of no Service to us as he did not know the river below
 Took our leave of the Chiefs and all those about us and proceeded on
 down the great Columbia river passed a large Island at 8 miles about 3
 miles in length, a Island on the Stard. Side the upper point of which
 is opposit the center of the last mentioned Island and reaches 31/2
 miles below the 1st. Island and opposit to this near the middle of the
 river nine Lodges are Situated on the upper point at a rapid which is
 between the lower point of the 1st Island and upper point of this;
 great numbers of Indians appeared to be on this Island, and emence
 quantites of fish Scaffold we landed a few minits to view a rapid which
 Commenced at the lower point, passd this rapid which was verry bad
 between 2 Small Islands two Still Smaller near the Lard. Side, at this
 rapid on the Stard. Side is 2 Lodges of Indians Drying fish, at 21/2
 miles lower and 141/2 below the point passed an Island Close under the
 Stard. Side on which was 2 Lodges of Indians drying fish on Scaffolds
 as above at 16 miles from the point the river passesinto the range of
 high Countrey at which place the rocks project into the river from the
 high clifts which is on the Lard. Side about 2/3 of the way across and
 those of the Stard Side about the Same distance, the Countrey rises
 here about 200 feet above The water and is bordered with black rugid
 rocks, at the Commencement of this high Countrey on Lard Side a Small
 riverlet falls in which appears to passed under the high County in its
 whole cose Saw a mountain bearing S. W. Conocal form Covered with Snow.
 passed 4 Islands, at the upper point of the 3rd is a rapid, on this
 Island is two Lodges of Indians, drying fish, on the fourth Island
 Close under the Stard. Side is nine large Lodges of Indians Drying fish
 on Scaffolds as above at this place we were called to land, as it was
 near night and no appearance of wood, we proceeded on about 2 miles
 lower to Some willows, at which place we observed a drift log formed a
 Camp on the Lard Side under a high hill nearly opposit to five Lodges
 of Indians; Soon after we landed, our old Chiefs informed us that the
 large camp above "was the Camp of the 1st Chief of all the tribes in
 this quarter, and that he had called to us to land and Stay all night
 with him, that he had plenty of wood for us &" This would have been
 agreeable to us if it had have been understood perticelarly as we were
 compelled to Use drid willows for fuel for the purpose of cooking, we
 requested the old Chiefs to walk up on the Side we had landed and call
 to the Chief to come down and Stay with us all night which they did;
 late at night the Chief came down accompanied by 20 men, and formed a
 Camp a Short distance above, the chief brought with him a large basket
 of mashed berries which he left at our Lodge as a present. I saw on the
 main land opposit those Lodges a number of horses feeding, we made 21
 miles to day.
 [Clark, October 19, 1805]
 October 19th Saturday, The Great Chief 2d Chief and a Chief of a band
 below Came and Smoked with us we gave a Meadel a String of Wampom &
 handkerchef to the Great Chief by name Yel-leppit The 2d Chief we gave
 a String of wampom, his name is ____ The 3d who lives below a String of
 Wampom his name I did not learn. the Chief requested us to Stay untill
 12 we excused our Selves and Set out at 9 oClock
 P. Crusat played on the Violin which pleasd and astonished those reches
 who are badly Clad, 3/4 with robes not half large enough to cover them,
 they are homeley high Cheeks, and but fiew orniments. I Suped on the
 Crane which I killed to day.
 [Clark, October 19, 1805]
 October 19th Saturday 1805
 The great chief Yel-lep-pit two other chiefs, and a Chief of Band below
 presented themselves to us verry early this morning. we Smoked with
 them, enformed them as we had all others above as well as we Could by
 Signs of our friendly intentions towards our red children Perticular
 those who opened their ears to our Councils. we gave a Medal, a
 Handkercheif & a String of Wompom to Yelleppit and a String of wompom
 to each of the others. Yelleppit is a bold handsom Indian, with a
 dignified countenance about 35 years of age, about 5 feet 8 inches high
 and well perpotiond. he requested us to delay untill the Middle of the
 day, that his people might Come down and See us, we excused our Selves
 and promised to Stay with him one or 2 days on our return which
 appeared to Satisfy him; great numbers of Indians Came down in Canoes
 to view us before we Set out which was not untill 9 oClock A M. we
 proceeded on passed a Island, close under the Lard Side about Six miles
 in length opposit to the lower point of which two Isds. are situated on
 one of which five Lodges vacent & Saffolds drying fish at the upper
 point of this Island Swift water. a Short distance below passed two
 Islands; one near the middle of the river on which is Seven lodges of
 Indians drying fish, at our approach they hid themselves in their
 Lodges and not one was to be seen untill we passed, they then Came out
 in greater numbers than is common in Lodges of their Size, it is
 probable that, the inhabitants of the 5 Lodges above had in a fright
 left their lodges and decended to this place to defend them Selves if
 attackted there being a bad rapid opposit the Island thro which we had
 to pass prevented our landing on this Island and passifying those
 people, about four miles below this fritened Island we arrived at the
 head of a verry bad rapid, we came too on the Lard Side to view the
 rapid before we would venter to run it, as the Chanel appeared to be
 close under the oppd. Shore, and it would be necessary to liten our
 canoe, I deturmined to walk down on the Lard Side, with the 2 Chiefs
 the interpreter & his woman, and derected the Small canoe to prcede
 down on the Lard Side to the foot of the rapid which was about 2 miles
 in length I Sent on the Indian Chiefs &c. down and I assended a high
 clift about 200 feet above the water from the top of which is a leavel
 plain extending up the river and off for a great extent, at this place
 the Countrey becoms low on each Side of the river, and affords a
 prospect of the river and countrey below for great extent both to the
 right and left; from this place I descovered a high mountain of emence
 hight covered with Snow, this must be one of the mountains laid down by
 Vancouver, as Seen from the mouth of the Columbia River, from the
 Course which it bears which is West I take it to be Mt. St. Helens,
 destant 156 miles a range of mountains in the Derection crossing, a
 conacal mountain S. W. toped with Snow This rapid I observed as I
 passed opposit to it to be verry bad interseped with high rock and
 Small rockey Islands, here I observed banks of Muscle Shells banked up
 in the river in Several places, I Delayed at the foot of the rapid
 about 2 hours for the Canoes which I Could See met with much dificuelty
 in passing down the rapid on the oposit Side maney places the men were
 obliged to get into the water and haul the canoes over Sholes--while
 Setting on a rock wateing for Capt Lewis I Shot a Crain which was
 flying over of the common kind. I observed a great number of Lodges on
 the opposit Side at Some distance below and Several Indians on the
 opposit bank passing up to where Capt. Lewis was with the Canoes,
 others I Saw on a knob nearly opposit to me at which place they delayed
 but a Short time before they returned to their Lodges as fast as they
 could run, I was fearfull that those people might not be informed of
 us, I deturmined to take the little Canoe which was with me and proceed
 with the three men in it to the Lodges, on my aproach not one person
 was to be Seen except three men off in the plains, and they Sheared off
 as I aproached near the Shore, I landed in front of five Lodges which
 was at no great distance from each other, Saw no person the enteranc or
 Dores of the Lodges wer Shut with the Same materials of which they were
 built a mat, I approached one with a pipe in my hand entered a lodge
 which was the nearest to me found 32 persons men, women and a few
 children Setting permiscuesly in the Lodg, in the greatest agutation,
 Some crying and ringing there hands, others hanging their heads. I gave
 my hand to them all and made Signs of my friendly dispotion and offered
 the men my pipe to Smok and distributed a fiew Small articles which I
 had in my pockets,-this measure passified those distressed people verry
 much, I then Sent one man into each lodge and entered a Second myself
 the inhabitants of which I found more fritened than those of the first
 lodge I destributed Sundrey Small articles amongst them, and Smoked
 with the men, I then entered the third 4h & fifth Lodge which I found
 Somewhat passified, the three men, Drewer Jo. & R. Fields, haveing
 useed everey means in their power to convince them of our friendly
 disposition to them, I then Set my Self on a rock and made Signs to the
 men to come and Smoke with me not one Come out untill the Canoes
 arrived with the 2 Chiefs, one of whom spoke aloud, and as was their
 Custom to all we had passed the Indians came out & Set by me and Smoked
 They said we came from the clouds &c &c and were not men &c. &c. this
 time Capt. Lewis came down with the Canoes rear in which the Indian, as
 Soon as they Saw the Squar wife of the interperters they pointed to her
 and informed those who continued yet in the Same position I first found
 them, they imediately all came out and appeared to assume new life, the
 sight of This Indian woman, wife to one of our interprs. confirmed
 those people of our friendly intentions, as no woman ever accompanies a
 war party of Indians in this quarter--Capt Lewis joined us and we
 Smoked with those people in the greatest friendship, dureing which time
 one of our Old Chiefs informed them who we were from whence we Came and
 where we were going giveing them a friendly account of us, those people
 do not Speak prosisely the Same language of those above but understand
 them, I Saw Several Horses and persons on hors back in the plains maney
 of the men womin and children Came up from the Lodges below; all of
 them appeared pleased to See us, we traded some fiew articles for fish
 and berries, Dined, and proceeded on passed a Small rapid and 15 Lodges
 below the five, and Encamped below an Island Close under the Lard Side,
 nearly opposit to 24 Lodges on an Island near the middle of the river,
 and the Main Stard Shor Soon after we landed which was at a fiew willow
 trees about 100 Indians Came from the different Lodges, and a number of
 them brought wood which they gave us, we Smoked with all of them, and
 two of our Party Peter Crusat & Gibson played on the violin which
 delighted them greatly, we gave to the principal man a String of wompon
 treated them kindly for which they appeared greatfull, This Tribe can
 raise about 350 men their Dress are Similar to those at the fork except
 their robes are Smaller and do not reach lower than the waste and 3/4
 of them have Scercely any robes at all, the women have only a Small
 pece of a robe which Covers their Sholders neck and reaching down
 behind to their wastes, with a tite piece of leather about the waste,
 the brests are large and hang down verry low illy Shaped, high Cheeks
 flattened heads, & have but fiew orniments, they are all employed in
 fishing and drying fish of which they have great quantites on their
 Scaffolds, their habits customs &c. I could not lern. I killed a Duck
 that with the Crain afforded us a good Supper. the Indians continued
 all night at our fires
 This day we made 36 miles.
 [Clark, October 20, 1805]
 October 20th 1805 Sunday
 a very cold morning wind S. W. about 100 Indians Came over this morning
 to See us, after a Smoke, a brackfast on Dogs flesh we Set out. about
 350 men
 Killed 2 large speckle guts 4 Duck in Malade Small ducks the flavour of
 which much resembles the Canvis back no timber of any kind on the
 river, we Saw in the last Lodges acorns of the white oake which the
 Inds. inform they precure above the falls The men are badly dressed,
 Some have scarlet & blue cloth robes. one has a Salors jacket, The
 women have a Short indiferent Shirt, a Short robe of Deer or Goat
 Skins, & a Small Skin which they fastend. tite around their bodies &
 fastend. between the legs to hide the
 [Clark, October 20, 1805]
 October 20th Sunday 1805
 A cool morning wind S. W. we concluded to delay untill after brackfast
 which we were obliged to make on the flesh of dog. after brackfast we
 gave all the Indian men Smoke, and we Set out leaveing about 200 of the
 nativs at our Encampment; passd. three Indian Lodges on the Lard Side a
 little below our Camp which lodges I did not discover last evening,
 passed a rapid at Seven miles one at a Short distance below we passed a
 verry bad rapid, a chane of rocks makeing from the Stard. Side and
 nearly Chokeing the river up entirely with hugh black rocks, an Island
 below close under the Stard. Side on which was four Lodges of Indians
 drying-fish,--here I Saw a great number of pelicons on the wing, and
 black Comerants. at one oClock we landed on the lower point of an
 Island at Some Indian Lodges, a large Island on the Stard Side nearly
 opposit and a Small one a little below on the Lard Side on those three
 Island I counted Seventeen Indian Lodges, those people are in every
 respect like those above, prepareing fish for theire winter consumption
 here we purchased a fiew indifferent Dried fish & a fiew berries on
 which we dined-(On the upper part of this Island we discovered an
 Indian vault) our curiosity induced us to examine the methot those
 nativs practicd in diposeing the dead, the Vaut was made by broad poads
 and pieces of Canoes leaning on a ridge pole which was Suported by 2
 forks Set in the ground Six feet in hight in an easterly and westerly
 direction and about 60 feet in length, and 12 feet wide, in it I
 observed great numbers of humane bones of every description
 perticularly in a pile near the Center of the vault, on the East End 21
 Scul bomes forming a circle on Mats-; in the Westerley part of the
 Vault appeared to be appropriated for those of more resent death, as
 many of the bodies of the deceased raped up in leather robes lay on
 board covered with mats, &c we observed, independant of the canoes
 which Served as a Covering, fishing nets of various kinds, Baskets of
 different Sizes, wooden boles, robes Skins, trenchers, and various Kind
 of trinkets, in and Suspended on the ends of the pieces forming the
 vault; we also Saw the Skeletons of Several Horses at the vault & great
 number of bones about it, which Convinced me that those animals were
 Sacrefised as well as the above articles to the Deceased.) after diner
 we proceeded on to a bad rapid at the lower point of a Small Island on
 which four Lodges of Indians were Situated drying fish; here the high
 countrey Commences again on the Stard. Side leaveing a vallie of 40
 miles in width, from the mustle Shel rapid. examined and passed this
 rapid close to the Island at 8 miles lower passed a large Island near
 the middle of the river a brook on the Stard. Side and 11 Islds. all in
 view of each other below, a riverlit falls in on the Lard. Side behind
 a Small Island a Small rapid below. The Star Side is high rugid hills,
 the Lard. Side a low plain and not a tree to be Seen in any Direction
 except a fiew Small willow bushes which are Scattered partially on the
 Sides of the bank
 The river to day is about 1/4 of a mile in width; this evening the
 Countrey on the Lard. Side rises to the hight of that on the Starboard
 Side, and is wavering--we made 42 miles to day; the current much more
 uniform than yesterday or the day before. Killed 2 Speckle guls Severl.
 ducks of a delicious flavour.
 [Clark, October 21, 1805]
 October 21st 1805 Monday
 a verry Cold morning we Set out early wind from the S W. we Could not
 Cook brakfast before we embarked as usial for the want of wood or
 Something to burn.-
 [Clark, October 21, 1805]
 October 21st Monday 1805
 A verry cool morning wind from the S. W. we Set out verry early and
 proceeded on, last night we could not Collect more dry willows the only
 fuel, than was barely Suffient to cook Supper, and not a Sufficency to
 cook brackfast this morning, passd. a Small Island at 51/2 miles a
 large one 8 miles in the middle of the river, Some rapid water at the
 head and Eight Lodges of nativs opposit its Lower point on the Stard.
 Side, we came too at those lodges, bought some wood and brackfast.
 Those people recived us with great kindness, and examined us with much
 attention, their employments custom Dress and appearance Similar to
 those above; Speak the Same language, here we Saw two Scarlet and a
 blue cloth blanket, also a Salors Jacket the Dress of the men of this
 tribe only a Short robe of Deer or Goat Skins, and that of the womn is
 a Short piece of Dressed Skin which fall from the neck So as to Cover
 the front of the body as low as the waste, a Short robe, which is of
 one Deer or antilope Skin, and a Hap, around their waste and Drawn tite
 between their legs as before described, their orniments are but fiew,
 and worn as those above.
 we got from those people a fiew pounded rotes fish and Acorns of the
 white oake, those Acorns they make use of as food, and inform us they
 precure them of the nativs who live near the falls below which place
 they all discribe by the term Timm at 2 miles lower passed a rapid,
 large rocks Stringing into the river of large Size opposit to this
 rapid on the Stard. Shore is Situated two Lodges of the nativs drying
 fish here we halted a fiew minits to examine the rapid before we
 entered it which was our constant Custom, and at all that was verry
 dangerous put out all who could not Swim to walk around, after passing
 this rapid we proceeded on passed anoothe rapid at 5 miles lower down,
 above this rapid on five Lodges of Indians fishing &c. above this rapid
 maney large rocks on each Side at Some distance from Shore, one mile
 passed an Island Close to the Stard. Side, below which is two Lodge of
 nativs, a little below is a bad rapid which is bad crouded with hugh
 rocks Scattered in every Direction which renders the pasage verry
 Difficuelt a little above this rapid on the Lard. Side emence piles of
 rocks appears as if Sliped from the Clifts under which they lay, passed
 great number of rocks in every direction Scattered in the river 5
 Lodges a little below on the Stard. Side, and one lodge on an Island
 near the Stard. Shore opposit to which is a verry bad rapid, thro which
 we found much dificuelty in passing, the river is Crouded with rocks in
 every direction, after Passing this dificult rapid to the mouth of a
 Small river on the Larboard Side 40 yards wide descharges but little
 water at this time, and appears to take its Sourse in the Open plains
 to the S. E. from this place I proceved Some fiew Small pines on the
 tops of the high hills and bushes in the hollars. imediately above &
 below this little river comences a rapid which is crouded with large
 rocks in every direction, the pasage both crooked and dificuelt, we
 halted at a Lodge to examine those noumerous Islands of rock which apd.
 to extend maney miles below,-. great numbs. of Indians came in Canoes
 to View us at this place, after passing this rapid which we
 accomplished without loss; winding through between the hugh rocks for
 about 2 miles-. (from this rapid the Conocil mountain is S. W. which
 the Indians inform me is not far to the left of the great falls; this I
 call the Timm or falls mountain it is high and the top is covered with
 Snow) imediately below the last rapids there is four Lodges of Indians
 on the Stard. Side, proceeded on about two miles lower and landed and
 encamped near five Lodges of nativs, drying fish those are the
 relations of those at the Great falls, they are pore and have but
 little wood which they bring up the river from the falls as they Say,
 we purchased a little wood to cook our Dog meat and fish; those people
 did not recive us at first with the same cordiality of those above,
 they appeare to be the Same nation Speak the Same language with a
 little curruption of maney words Dress and fish in the Same way, all of
 whome have pierced noses and the men when Dressed ware a long taper'd
 piece of Shell or beed put through the nose-this part of the river is
 furnished with fine Springs which either rise high up the Sides of the
 hills or on the bottom near the river and run into the river. the hills
 are high and rugid a fiew scattering trees to be Seen on them either
 Small pine or Scrubey white oke.
 The probable reason of the Indians residing on the Stard. Side of this
 as well as the waters of Lewis's River is their fear of the Snake
 Indians who reside, as they nativs Say on a great river to the South,
 and are at war with those tribes, one of the Old Chiefs who accompanies
 us pointed out a place on the lard. Side where they had a great battle,
 not maney years ago, in which maney were killed on both Sides-, one of
 our party J. Collins presented us with Some verry good beer made of the
 Pashi-co-quar-mash bread, which bread is the remains of what was laid
 in as Stores of Provisions, at the first flat heads or Cho-punnish
 Nation at the head of the Kosskoske river which by being frequently wet
 molded & Sowered &c. we made 33 miles to day.
 [Clark, October 22, 1805]
 October 22nd Tuesday 1805
 a fine morning Calm. we Set out at 9 oClock and on the Course S. 52° W.
 10 miles passed lodges & Inds. and rapids as mentioned in the Cours of
 yesterday, from the expiration of
 Took our Baggage & formed a Camp below the rapids in a cove on the
 Stard Side the distance 1200 yards haveing passed at the upper end of
 the portage 17 Lodges of Indians, below the rapids & above the Camp 5
 large Loges of Indians, great numbers of baskets of Pounded fish on the
 rocks Islands & near their Lodges thos are neetly pounded & put in
 verry new baskets of about 90 or 100 pounds wight. hire Indians to take
 our heavy articles across the portage purchased a Dog for Supper Great
 numbers of Indians view us, we with much dificuelty purchd. as much
 wood as Cooked our dogs this evening, our men all in helth--The Indians
 have their grave yards on an Island in the rapids. The Great Chief of
 those Indians is out hunting. no Indians reside on the Lard Side for
 fear of the Snake Indians with whome they are at war and who reside on
 the large fork on the lard. a little above
 [Clark, October 22, 1805]
 October 22d Tuesday 1805
 A fine morning calm and fare we Set out at 9 oClock passed a verry bad
 rapid at the head of an Island close under the Stard. Side, above this
 rapid on the Stard Side is Six Lodges of nativs Drying fish, at 9 mls.
 passed a bad rapid at the head of a large Island of high, uneaven
 rocks, jutting over the water, a Small Island in a Stard. Bend opposit
 the upper point, on which I counted 20 parcels of dryed and pounded
 fish; on the main Stard Shore opposit to this Island five Lodges of
 Indians are Situated Several Indians in Canoes killing fish with gigs,
 &c. opposit the center of this Island of rocks which is about 4 miles
 long we discovered the enterence of a large river on the Lard. Side
 which appeared to Come from the S. E.--we landed at Some distance above
 the mouth of this river and Capt. Lewis and my Self Set out to view
 this river above its mouth, as our rout was intersepted by a deep
 narrow Chanel which runs out of this river into the Columbia a little
 below the place we landed, leaveing a high dry rich Island of about 400
 yards wide and 800 yards long here we Seperated, I proceeded on to the
 river and Struck it at the foot of a verry Considerable rapid, here I
 beheld an emence body of water Compressd in a narrow Chanel of about
 200 yds in width, fomeing over rocks maney of which presented their
 tops above the water, when at this place Capt. Lewis joined me haveing
 delayed on the way to examine a root of which the nativs had been
 digging great quantities in the bottoms of this River. at about two
 miles above this River appears to be confined between two high hils
 below which it divided by numbers of large rocks, and Small Islands
 covered with a low groth of timber, and has a rapid as far as the
 narrows three Small Islands in the mouth of this River, this River
 haveing no Indian name that we could find out, except "the River on
 which the Snake Indians live," we think it best to leave the nameing of
 it untill our return.
 we proceeded on pass the mouth of this river at which place it appears
 to discharge 1/4 as much water as runs down the Columbia. at two miles
 below this River passed Eight Lodges on the Lower point of the Rock
 Island aforesaid at those Lodges we saw large logs of wood which must
 have been rafted down the To war-ne hi ooks River, below this Island on
 the main Stard Shore is 16 Lodges of nativs; here we landed a fiew
 minits to Smoke, the lower point of one Island opposit which heads in
 the mouth of Towarnehiooks River which I did not observe untill after
 passing these lodges about 1/2 a mile lower passed 6 more Lodges on the
 Same Side and 6 miles below the upper mouth of Towarnehiooks River the
 comencement of the pitch of the Great falls, opposit on the Stard. Side
 is 17 Lodges of the nativs we landed and walked down accompanied by an
 old man to view the falls, and the best rout for to make a portage
 which we Soon discovered was much nearest on the Stard. Side, and the
 distance 1200 yards one third of the way on a rock, about 200 yards
 over a loose Sand collected in a hollar blown by the winds from the
 bottoms below which was disagreeable to pass, as it was Steep and
 loose. at the lower part of those rapids we arrived at 5 Large Lodges
 of nativs drying and prepareing fish for market, they gave us
 Philburts, and berries to eate, we returned droped down to the head of
 the rapids and took every article except the Canoes across the portag
 where I had formed a camp on ellegable Situation for the protection of
 our Stores from Thieft, which we were more fearfull of, than their
 arrows. we despatched two men to examine the river on the opposit Side,
 and reported that the Canoes could be taken down a narrow Chanel on the
 opposit Side after a Short portage at the head of the falls, at which
 place the Indians take over their Canoes. Indians assisted us over the
 portage with our heavy articles on their horses, the waters is divided
 into Several narrow chanels which pass through a hard black rock
 forming Islands of rocks at this Stage of the water, on those Islands
 of rocks as well as at and about their Lodges I observe great numbers
 of Stacks of pounded Salmon neetly preserved in the following manner, i
 e after Suffiently Dried it is pounded between two Stones fine, and put
 into a speces of basket neetly made of grass and rushes of better than
 two feet long and one foot Diamiter, which basket is lined with the
 Skin of Salmon Stretched and dried for the purpose, in theis it is
 pressed down as hard as is possible, when full they Secure the open
 part with the fish Skins across which they fasten tho the loops of the
 basket that part very Securely, and then on a Dry Situation they Set
 those baskets the Corded part up, their common Custom is to Set 7 as
 close as they can Stand and 5 on the top of them, and secure them with
 mats which is raped around them and made fast with cords and Covered
 also with mats, those 12 baskets of from 90 to 100 w. each form a
 Stack. thus preserved those fish may be kept Sound and Sweet Several
 years, as those people inform me, Great quantities as they inform us
 are Sold to the whites people who visit the mouth of this river as well
 as to the nativs below.
 on one of those Island I saw Several tooms but did not visit them The
 principal Chiefs of the bands resideing about this Place is out hunting
 in the mountains to the S. W.--no Indians reside on the S. W.side of
 this river for fear (as we were informed) of the Snake Indians, who are
 at war with the tribes on this river---they represent the Snake Indians
 as being verry noumerous, and resideing in a great number of villages
 on Towarnehiooks River which falls in 6 miles above on the Lard. Side
 and is reaches a great ways and is large a little abov its mouth at
 which part it is not intersepted with rapids, they inform that one
 considerable rapid & maney Small ones in that river, and that the Snake
 live on Salmon, and they go to war to their first villages in 12 days,
 the Couse they pointed is S. E. or to the S of S. E. we are visited by
 great numbers of Indians to Day to view us, we purchased a Dog for
 Supper, Some fish and with dificuelty precured as much wood as Cooked
 Supper, which we also purchased we made 19 miles to day
 [Clark, October 23, 1805]
 October 23rd (Saturday) Wednesday 1805
 Took the Canoes over the Portage on the Lard. Side with much
 dificuelty, description on another Paper one Canoe got loose & cought
 by the Indians which we were obliged to pay. our old Chiefs over herd
 the Indians from below Say they would try to kill us & informed us of
 it, we have all the arm examined and put in order, all th Inds leave us
 early, Great numbers of flees on the Lard Side--Shot a Sea Oter which I
 did not get, Great Numbers about those rapids we purchased 8 dogs,
 Small & fat for our party to eate, the Indians not verry fond of
 Selling their good fish, compells us to make use of dogs for food
 Exchanged our Small canoe for a large & a very new one built for riding
 the waves obsd Merdn. altd. 66° 27' 30" Latd. prodsd. 45° 42' 57 3/10" North
 [Clark, October 23, 1805]
 October 23d Wednesday 1805
 a fine morning, I with the greater part of the men Crossed in the
 Canoes to opposit Side above the falls and hauled them across the
 portage of 457 yards which is on the Lard. Side and certainly the best
 side to pass the canoes I then decended through a narrow chanel of
 about 150 yards wide forming a kind of half circle in it course of a
 mile to a pitch of 8 feet in which the chanel is divided by 2 large
 rocks at this place we were obliged to let the Canoes down by Strong
 ropes of Elk Skin which we had for the purpose, one Canoe in passing
 this place got loose by the Cords breaking, and was cought by the
 Indians below. I accomplished this necessary business and landed Safe
 with all the Canoes at our Camp below the falls by 3 oClock P.M. nearly
 covered with flees which were So thick amongst the Straw and fish Skins
 at the upper part of the portage at which place the nativs had been
 Camped not long Since; that every man of the party was obliged to Strip
 naked dureing the time of takeing over the canoes, that they might have
 an oppertunity of brushing the flees of their legs and bodies--Great
 numbers of Sea Otters in the river below the falls, I Shot one in the
 narrow chanel to day which I could not get. Great numbers of Indians
 visit us both from above and below---one of the old Chiefs who had
 accompanied us from the head of the river, informed us that he herd the
 Indians Say that the nation below intended to kill us, we examined all
 the arms &c. complete the amunition to 100 rounds. The nativs leave us
 earlyer this evening than usial, which gives a Shadow of Confirmation
 to the information of our Old Chief, as we are at all times & places on
 our guard, are under no greater apprehention than is common.
 we purchased 8 Small fat dogs for the party to eate the nativs not
 being fond of Selling their good fish, compells us to make use of Dog
 meat for food, the flesh of which the most of the party have become
 fond of from the habits of useing it for Some time past. The Altitude
 of this day 66° 27' 30" gave for Latd. 45° 42' 57 1/10 N.
 I observed on the beach near the Indian Lodges two Canoes butifull of
 different Shape & Size to what we had Seen above wide in the midde and
 tapering to each end, on the bow curious figures were Cut in the wood
 &c. Capt. Lewis went up to the Lodges to See those Canoes and exchanged
 our Smallest Canoe for one of them by giveing a Hatchet & few trinkets
 to the owner who informed that he purchased it of a white man below for
 a horse, these Canoes are neeter made than any I have ever Seen and
 Calculated to ride the waves, and carry emence burthens, they are dug
 thin and are suported by cross pieces of about 1 inch diamuter tied
 with Strong bark thro holes in the Sides. our two old Chiefs appeared
 verry uneasy this evening.
 [Clark, October 24, 1805]
 October 24th Thursday 1805
 a fine morning the Indians approached us with caution. our 2 old Chiefs
 deturmin to return home, Saying they were at war with Indians below and
 they would kill them we pursuaded them to Stay 2 nights longer with us,
 with a view to make a peace with those Indians below as well as to have
 them with us dureing our Delay with this tribe. Capt Lewis went to view
 the falls I Set out with the party at 9 oClock a m at 21/2 miles passed
 a rock which makes from the Stard Side 4 Lodges above 1 below and
 Confined the river in a narrow channel of about 45 yards this continued
 for about 1/4 of a mile & widened to about 200 yards, in those narrows
 the water was agitated in a most Shocking manner boils Swell & whorl
 pools, we passed with great risque It being impossible to make a
 portage of the Canoes, about 2 miles lower passed a verry Bad place
 between 2 rocks one large & in the middle of the river here our Canoes
 took in Some water, I put all the men who Could not Swim on Shore; &
 Sent a fiew articles Such as guns & papers, and landed at a village of
 20 houses on the Stard Side in a Deep bason where the river ap-prd. to
 be blocked up with emence rocks I walked down and examined the pass
 found it narrow, and one verry bad place a little in the narrows I
 pursued this Chanel which is from 50 to 100 yards wide and Swels and
 boils with a most Tremendeous manner; prosued this channel 5 ms &
 returned found Capt Lewis & a Chief from below with maney of his men on
 a visit to us, one of our Party Pete Crusat played on the violin which
 pleased the Savage, the men danced, Great numbers of Sea Orter Pole
 Cats about those fishories. the houses of those Indians are 20 feet
 Square and Sunk 8 feet under ground & Covered with bark with a Small
 door round at top rose about 18 Inches above ground, to keep out the
 Snow I saw 107 parcels of fish Stacked, and great quantites in the
 [Clark, October 24, 1805]
 October 24th Thursday 1805
 The morning fare after a beautifull night, the nativs approached us
 this morning with great caution. our two old chiefs expressed a desire
 to return to their band from this place, Saying "that they Could be of
 no further Service to us, as their nation extended no further down the
 river than those falls, and as the nation below had expressed hostile
 intentions against us, would Certainly kill them; perticularly as They
 had been at war with each other;" we requested them to Stay with us two
 nights longer, and we would See the nation below and make a peace
 between them, they replied they "were anxious to return and See our
 horses" we insisted on their Staying with us two nights longer to which
 they agreed; our views were to detain those Chiefs with us untill we
 Should pass the next falls, which we were told was verry bad, and at no
 great distance below, that they might inform us of any designs of the
 nativs, and if possible to bring about a peace between them and the
 tribes below.
 The first pitch of this falls is 20 feet perpendicular, then passing
 thro a narrow Chanel for 1 mile to a rapid of about 18 feet fall below
 which the water has no perceptable fall but verry rapid See Sketch No.
 1. It may be proper here to remark that from Some obstruction below,
 the cause of which we have not yet learned, the water in high fluds
 (which are in the Spring) rise below these falls nearly to a leavel
 with the water above the falls; the marks of which can be plainly
 trac'd around the falls. at that Stage of the water the Salmon must
 pass up which abounds in Such great numbers above--below those falls
 are Salmon trout and great numbers of the heads of a Species of trout
 Smaller than the Salmon. those fish they catch out of the Salmon
 Season, and are at this time in the act of burrying those which they
 had drid for winter food. the mode of buring those fish is in holes of
 various Sizes, lined with Straw on which they lay fish Skins in which
 they inclose the fish which is laid verry close, and then Covered with
 earth of about 12 or 15 inches thick. Capt Lewis and three men crossed
 the river and on the opposit Side to view the falls which he had not
 yet taken a full view of--At 9 oClock a.m. I Set out with the party and
 proceeded on down a rapid Stream of about 400 yards wide at 21/2 miles
 the river widened into a large bason to the Stard. Side on which there
 is five Lodges of Indians. here a tremendious black rock Presented
 itself high and Steep appearing to choke up the river nor could I See
 where the water passed further than the Current was drawn with great
 velocity to the Lard Side of this rock at which place I heard a great
 roreing. I landed at the Lodges and the natives went with me to the top
 of this rock which makes from the Stard. Side; from the top of which I
 could See the dificuelties we had to pass for Several miles below; at
 this place the water of this great river is compressed into a Chanel
 between two rocks not exceeding forty five yards wide and continues for
 a 1/4 of a mile when it again widens to 200 yards and continues this
 width for about 2 miles when it is again intersepted by rocks. This
 obstruction in the river accounts for the water in high floods riseing
 to Such a hite at the last falls. The whole of the Current of this
 great river must at all Stages pass thro this narrow chanel of 45 yards
 wide. as the portage of our canoes over this high rock would be
 impossible with our Strength, and the only danger in passing thro those
 narrows was the whorls and Swills arriseing from the Compression of the
 water, and which I thought (as also our principal watermen Peter
 Crusat) by good Stearing we could pass down Safe, accordingly I detur
 mined to pass through this place notwithstanding the horrid appearance
 of this agitated gut Swelling, boiling & whorling in every direction
 (which from the top of the rock did not appear as bad as when I was in
 it;) however we passed Safe to the astonishment of all the Inds. of the
 last Lodges who viewed us from the top of the rock. passed one Lodge
 below this rock and halted on the Stard. Side to view a verry bad
 place, the Current divided by 2 Islands of rocks the lower of them
 large and in the middle of the river, this place being verry bad I Sent
 by land all the men who could not Swim and Such articles as was most
 valuable to us Such as papers Guns & amunition, and proceeded down with
 the Canoes two at a time to a village of 20 wood housies in a Deep bend
 to the Stard. Side below which a rugid black rock about 20 feet biter
 than the Common high fluds of the river with Several dry Chapels which
 appeared to Choke the river up quite across; this I took to be the 2d
 falls or the place the nativs above call timm, The nativs of this
 village reived me verry kindly, one of whome envited me into his house,
 which I found to be large and comodious, and the first wooden houses in
 which Indians have lived Since we left those in the vicinty of the
 Illinois, they are scattered permiscuisly on a elivated Situation near
 a mound of about 30 feet above the Common leavel, which mound has Some
 remains of houses and has every appearance of being artificial--those
 houses are about the Same Shape Size and form 20 feet wide and 30 feet
 long with one Dore raised 18 Inches above ground, they are 291/2 inches
 high & 14 wide, forming in a half Circle above those houses were Sunk
 into the earth Six feet, the roofs of them was Supported by a ridge
 pole resting on three Strong pieces of Split timber thro one of which
 the dore was cut that and the walls the top of which was just above
 ground Suported a certain number of Spars which are Covered with the
 Bark of the white Ceadar, or Arber Vitea; and the whole attached and
 Secured by the fibers of the Cedar. the eaves at or near the earth, the
 gable ends and Side walls are Secured with Split boards which is
 Seported on iner Side with Strong pieces of timber under the eves &c.
 to keep those pieces errect & the earth from without pressing in the
 boards, Suported by Strong posts at the Corners to which those poles
 were attached to give aditional Strength, Small openings were left
 above the ground, for the purpose, as I conjectured, of deschargeing
 Their arrows at a besiegeing enimey; Light is admited Thro an opening
 at top which also Serves for the Smoke to pass through. one half of
 those houses is apropriated for the Storeing away Dried & pounded fish
 which is the principal food The other part next the dore is the part
 occupied by the nativs who have beds raised on either Side, with a fire
 place in the center of this Space each house appeared to be occupied by
 about three families; that part which is apropriated for fish was
 crouded with that article, and a fiew baskets of burries--I dispatched
 a Sufficent number of the good Swimers back for the 2 canoes above the
 last rapid and with 2 men walked down three miles to examine the river
 Over a bed of rocks, which the water at verry high fluds passes over,
 on those rocks I Saw Several large Scaffols on which the Indians dry
 fish; as this is out of Season the poles on which they dry those fish
 are tied up verry Securely in large bundles and put upon the Scaffolds,
 I counted 107 Stacks of dried pounded fish in different places on those
 rocks which must have contained io,ooo w. of neet fish, The evening
 being late I could not examine the river to my Satisfaction, the Chanel
 is narrow and compressed for about 2 miles, when it widens into a deep
 bason to the Stard. Side, & again contracts into a narrow chanel
 divided by a rock I returned through a rockey open countrey infested
 with pole-cats to the village where I met with Capt. Lewis the two old
 Chiefs who accompanied us & the party & canoes who had all arrived
 Safe; the Canoes haveing taken in Some water at the last rapids. here
 we formed a Camp near the Village, The principal Chief from the nation
 below with Several of his men visited us, and afforded a favourable
 oppertunity of bringing about a Piece and good understanding between
 this chief and his people and the two Chiefs who accompanied us which
 we have the Satisfaction to Say we have accomplished, as we have every
 reason to believe and that those two bands or nations are and will be
 on the most friendly terms with each other. gave this Great Chief a
 Medal and Some other articles, of which he was much pleased, Peter
 Crusat played on the violin and the men danced which delighted the
 nativs, who Shew every civility towards us. we Smoked with those people
 untill late at night, when every one retired to rest.
 [Clark, October 25, 1805]
 October 25th Friday 1805
 A Cold morning, we deturmined to attempt the Chanel after brackfast I
 took down all the party below the bad places with a load & one Canoe
 passed well, a 2d passed well I had men on the Shore with ropes to
 throw in in Case any acidence happened at the Whirl &c--the Inds on the
 rocks veiwing us the 3rd Canoe nearly filled with water we got her Safe
 to Shore. The last Canoe Came over well which to me was truly
 gratifying Set out and had not passed 2 mils before 3 Canoes run
 against a rock in the river with great force no damg. met with a 2d
 Chief of the nation from hunting, we Smoked with him and his party and
 gave a medal of The Small Size & Set out passed great numbers of rocks,
 good water and Came to at a high point of rocks below the mouth of a
 Creek which falls in on the Lard Side and head up towards the high Snow
 mountain to the S W. this Creek is 20 yards wide and has Some beaver
 Signs at its mouth river about 1/2 a mile wide and Crouded with Sea
 otters, & drum was Seen this evening we took possession of a high Point
 of rocks to defend our Selves in Case the threts of those Indians below
 Should be put in execution against us. Sent out Some hunters to look if
 any Signs of game, one man killed a Small deer & Several others Seen I
 killed a goose, and Suped hartily on venison & goose. Camped on the
 rock guard under the hill.
 [Clark, October 25, 1805]
 October 25th Friday 1805
 a cool morning Capt Lewis and my Self walked down to See the place the
 Indians pointed out as the worst place in passing through the gut,
 which we found difficuelt of passing without great danger, but as the
 portage was impractiable with our large Canoes, we Concluded to Make a
 portage of our most valuable articles and run the canoes thro
 accordingly on our return divided the party Some to take over the
 Canoes, and others to take our Stores across a portage of a mile to a
 place on the Chanel below this bad whorl & Suck, with Some others I had
 fixed on the Chanel with roapes to throw out to any who Should
 unfortunately meet with difficuelty in passing through; great number of
 Indians viewing us from the high rocks under which we had to pass, the
 3 firt Canoes passed thro very well, the 4th nearly filled with water,
 the last passed through by takeing in a little water, thus Safely below
 what I conceved to be the worst part of this Chanel, felt my Self
 extreamly gratified and pleased. we loaded the Canoes & Set out, and
 had not proceeded, more than two mile before the unfortunate Canoe
 which filled crossing the bad place above, run against a rock and was
 in great danger of being lost, This Chanel is through a hard rough
 black rock, from 50-100 yards wide. Swelling and boiling in a most
 tremendious maner Several places on which the Indians inform me they
 take the Salmon as fast as they wish; we passed through a deep bason to
 the Stard Side of 1 mile below which the River narrows and divided by a
 rock The Curent we found quit jentle, here we met with our two old
 Chiefs who had been to a village below to Smoke a friendly pipe, and at
 this place they met the Cheif & party from the village above on his
 return from hunting all of whome were then crossing over their horses,
 we landed to Smoke a pipe with this Chief whome we found to be a bold
 pleasing looking man of about 50 years of age dressd. in a war jacket a
 cap Legins & mockersons. he gave us Some meat of which he had but
 little and informed us he in his rout met with a war party of Snake
 Indians from the great river of the S. E. which falls in a few miles
 above and had a fight. we gave this Chief a Medal, &c. a parting Smoke
 with our two faithful friends the Chiefs who accompanied us from the
 head of the river, (who had purchased a horse each with 2 robes and
 intended to return on horse back) we proceeded on down the water fine,
 rocks in every derection for a fiew miles when the river widens and
 becoms a butifull jentle Stream of about half a mile wide, Great
 numbers of the Sea Orter about those narrows and both below and above.
 we Came too, under a high point of rocks on the Lard. Side below a
 creek of 20 yards wide and much water, as it was necessary to make Some
 Selestial observations we formed our Camp on the top of a high point of
 rocks, which forms a kind of fortification in the Point between the
 river & Creek, with a boat guard, this Situation we Concieve well
 Calculated for defence, and Conveniant to hunt under the foots of the
 mountain to the West & S. W. where timber of different kinds grows, and
 appears to be handsom Coverts for the Deer, in oke woods, Sent out
 hunters to examine for game G. D. Killed a Small Deer & other Saw much
 Sign, I killed a goose in the creek which was verry fat--one of the
 guard saw a Drum fish to day as he Conceved our Situation well
 Calculated to defend our Selves from any designs of the natives, Should
 They be enclined to attack us.
 This little Creek heads in the range of mountains which run S S W & N W
 for a long distance on which is Scattering pine white Oake &c. The
 Pinical of the round toped mountain which we Saw a Short distance below
 the forks of this river is S. 43° W. of us and abt 37 miles, it is at
 this time toped with Snow we called this the falls mountain or Timm
 mountain. The face of the Countrey, on both Side of the river above and
 about the falls, is Steep ruged and rockey open and contain but a Small
 preportion of erbage, no timber a fiew bushes excepted, The nativs at
 the upper falls raft their timber down Towarnehooks River & those at
 the narrows take theirs up the river to the lower part of the narrows
 from this Creek, and Carry it over land 3 miles to their houses &c. at
 the mouth of this creek Saw Some beaver Sign, and a Small wolf in a
 Snare Set in the willows The Snars of which I saw Several made for to
 catch wolves, are made as follows vz: a long pole which will Spring is
 made fast with bark to a willow, on the top of this pole a String
 [Clark, October 26, 1805]
 October 26th 1805 Saturday
 a fine morning Sent out Six men to hunt deer & Collect rozin to Pitch
 our Canoes, had all our articles put out to dry--Canoes drawed out and
 repaired, the injories recved in drawing them over the rocks, every
 article wet in the Canoe which nearly Sunk yesterday-
 In the evening 2 Chief and 15 men came over in a Single Canoe, those
 Chf's proved to be the 2 great Chiefs of the tribes above, one gave me
 a dressed Elk Skin, and gave us Som deer meet, and 2 Cakes of white
 bread made of white roots, we gave to each Chief a Meadel of the Small
 Size a red Silk handkerchief & a knife to the 1st a arm ban & a pin of
 Paint & a Comb to his Son a Piece of riben tied to a tin gorget and 2
 hams of Venison They deturmined to Stay with us all night, we had a
 fire made for them & one man played on the violin which pleased them
 much my Servent danced--our hunters killed five Deer, 4 verry large
 gray Squirrels, a goose & Pheasent, one man giged a Salmon trout which
 we had fried in a little Bears oil which a Chief gave us yesterday and
 I think the finest fish I ever tasted, Saw great numbers of white Crams
 flying in Different directions verry high. The river has rose nearly 8
 Inches to day and has every appearance of a tide, from what Cause I
 can't Say--our hunters Saw Elk & bear signs to day in the white oake
 woods the Country to the Lard is broken Country thinly timbered with
 pine and white oake, a mountain which I must call Timm or falls
 Mountain rises verry high and bears to S W the Course it has bore Sinc
 we first Saw it. our men danced to night. dried all our wet articles
 and repaired our Canoes
 The flees my Self and the men got on them in passing thro the plains
 the Indians had lately lived in Lodges on the Lard. Side at the falls,
 are very troublesom and with every exertion the men Can't get rid of
 them, perticilarly as they have no clothes to change those which they
 wore Those Indians are at Ware with the Snake Indians on the river
 which falls in a few miles above this and have lately had a battle with
 them, their loss I cannot lern.
 [Clark, October 26, 1805]
 October 26th Saturday 1805
 A fine morning Sent Six men out to hunt Deer, and Collect rozin to
 pitch the Canoes which has become verry leakey, by frequently hauling
 them over rocks &c as well Striking rocks frequently in passing down.
 all our articles we have exposed to the Sun to Dry; and the Canoes
 drawn out and turned up--maney of our Stores entirely Spoiled by being
 repeetedly wet; A number of Indians came to the Oposit Side of the
 river in the fore part of the day and Shew that they were anxious to
 Cross to us, we did not think proper to cross them in our Canoes and
 did not Send for them. in the evening two Chiefs and 15 men came over
 in a Small Canoe, those two Chiefs proved to be the two Principal
 Chiefs of the tribes above at the falls, and above, who was out hunting
 at the time we passed their bands; one of those Chiefs made Capt Lewis
 and my Self each a Small present of Deer meat, and Small Cakes of white
 bread made of roots. we gave to each Chief a Meadel of the Small Size a
 red Silk handkerchief, arm band, Knife & a piece of Paint, and
 acknowledged them as chiefs; as we thought it necessary at this time to
 treat those people verry friendly & ingratiate our Selves with them, to
 insure us a kind & friendly reception on our return, we gave Small
 presents to Several, and half a Deer to them to eate. we had also a
 fire made for those people to Sit around in the middle of our Camp, and
 Peter Crusat Played on the violin, which pleased those nativs
 exceedingly. the two Chiefs and Several men deturmined to delay all
 night (yorked Danced for the Inds) with us all the others returned,
 leaving the horses for those who Staied on the opposit Side. our
 hunters returned in the evening Killed five Deer, four verry large grey
 Squirels and a grouse. one of the guard at the river guiged a Salmon
 Trout, which we had fried in a little Bears Oil which the Chief we
 passed below the narrows gave us; this I thought one of the most
 delicious fish I have ever tasted Great numbers of white Crain flying
 in different Directions verry high--The river rose 8 Inches today from
 what cause I cannot Say certainly, as the tides cannot effect the river
 here as there is a falls below, I conjecture that the rise is owing to
 the winds which has Set up the river for 24 hours past. our hunters
 inform that the countrey back is broken, Stoney and thinly timbered
 with pine and White Oake. They Saw Elk & Bear Sign in the mountains.
 Dried all our wet articles and repared our Canoes to day, and the Party
 amused themselves at night danceing. The Flees which the party got on
 them at the upper & great falls, are very troublesom and dificuelt to
 get rid of, perticularly as the men have not a Change of Clothes to put
 on, they Strip off their Clothes and kill the flees, dureing which time
 they remain neckid.
 The nations in the vicinity of this place is at War with the Snake
 Indians who they Say are noumerous and live on the river we passed
 above the falls on the Same Side on which we have encamped, and the
 nearest town is about four days march they pointed nearly S. E. and
 informed that they had a battle with those Inds. laterly, their loss I
 could not assertain
 [Clark, October 27, 1805]
 October 27th Sunday 1805
 a verry windy night and morning wind from the West and hard, Send out
 hunters and they killed 4 deer 1 pheasent and a Squirel the 2 Chiefs
 and party Continue with us, we treat them well give them to eate &
 Smoke, they were joined by Seven others, from below who Stayed about 3
 hours and returned down the river in a pet, Soon after the Chiefs
 deturmined to go home we had them put across the river the wind verry
 high, we took a vocabelary of the Languages of the 2 nations, the one
 liveing at the Falls call themselves E-nee-shur The other resideing at
 the levels or narrows in a village on the Std. Side call themselves
 E-chee-lute not withstanding those people live only 6 miles apart, but
 fiew words of each others language--the language of those above having
 great Similarity with those tribes of flat heads we have passed--all
 have the Clucking tone anexed which is predomint. above, all flatten
 the heads of their female children near the falls, and maney above
 follow the Same Custom The language of the Che-luc-it-to-quar a fiew
 miles below is different from both in a Small degree. The wind
 increased in the evening and blew verry hard from the Same point W. day
 fair and Cold--The Creek at which we are Encamped is Called by the
 natives-Que-nett Some words with Shabono about his duty--The pinical of
 Falls mountain bears S 43° W. about 35 miles
 [Clark, October 27, 1805]
 October 27th Sunday 1805
 Wind hard from the west all the last night and this morning. Some words
 with Shabono our interpreter about his duty. Sent out Several hunters
 who brought in four Deer, one Grouse & a Squirel. The two Chiefs &
 party was joined by Seven others from below in two canoes, we gave them
 to eate & Smoke Several of those from below returned down the river in
 a bad humer, haveing got into this pet by being prevented doeing as
 they wished with our articles which was then exposed to dry--we took a
 Vocabelary of the Languages of those two chiefs which are verry
 different notwithstanding they are Situated within Six miles of each
 other, Those at the great falls Call themselves E-nee-shur and are
 understood on the river above. Those at the Great Narrows Call
 themselves Eche-lute and is understood below, maney words of those
 people are the Same, and Common to all the flat head Bands which we
 have passed on the river, all have the clucking tone anexed which is
 prodomonate above. all the Bands flatten the heads of the female
 Children, and maney of the male children also. Those two Chief leave us
 this evening and returned to their bands, the wind verry high & from
 the West, day proved fair and Cool.
 The nativs Call this Creek near which we are encamped-Que-nett.
 [Clark, October 28, 1805]
 October 28th Monday 1805
 a windey morning loaded our Canoes and Set out at 9 oClock a m 3 Canoes
 Came down from the Village above & 2 from that below in one of those
 Canoes a Indian wore his hair cued, and had on a round hat. Wind from
 Those Indians have a musket a Sword, and Several Brass Tea kitties
 which they appear to be verry fond of we purchased of those people five
 Small dogs, and Some Dried beries & white bread of roots, the wind rose
 and we were obliged to lie by about 1 mile below on the Lard. Side
 North 1 mile to a rock Island on the Stard. Side. we had not landed
 long eer an Indian Canoe Came from below with 3 Indians in it, those
 Indians make verry nice Canoes of Pine. Thin with aporns & Carve on the
 head imitation of animals & other heads; The Indians above Sacrafise
 the property of the Deceased to wit horses Canoes, bowls Basquets of
 which they make great use to hold water boil their meet &c. &c. great
 many Indians came down from the uppr Village & Sat with us, Smoked,
 rained all the evenig & blew hard from the West encamped on the Lard
 Side opsd. an Rock in a verry Bad place
 [Clark, October 28, 1805]
 October 28th Monday 1805
 A cool windey morning we loaded our Canoes and Set out at 9 oClock,
 a.m. as we were about to Set out 3 canoes from above and 2 from below
 came to view us in one of those Canoes I observed an Indian with round
 hat jacket & wore his hair cued we proceeded on river inclosed on each
 Side in high Clifts of about 90 feet of loose dark coloured rocks at
 four miles we landed at a village of 8 houses on the Stard. Side under
 Some rugid rocks, Those people call themselves Chil-luckit-tequaw, live
 in houses Similar to those described, Speake Somewhat different
 language with maney words the Same & understand those in their
 neighbourhood Cap Lewis took a vocabilary of this Language I entered
 one of the houses in which I Saw a British musket, a cutlass and
 Several brass Tea kittles of which they appeared verry fond Saw them
 boiling fish in baskets with Stones, I also Saw figures of animals &
 men Cut & painted on boards in one Side of the house which they
 appeared to prize, but for what purpose I will not venter to Say,-.
 here we purchased five Small Dogs, Some dried buries, & white bread
 made of roots, the wind rose and we were obliged to lie by all day at 1
 mile below on the Lard. Side. we had not been long on Shore before a
 Canoe came up with a man woman & 2 children, who had a fiew roots to
 Sell, Soon after maney others joined them from above, The wind which is
 the cause of our delay, does not retard the motions of those people at
 all, as their canoes are calculated to ride the highest waves, they are
 built of white cedar or Pine verry light wide in the middle and tapers
 at each end, with aperns, and heads of animals carved on the bow, which
 is generally raised. Those people make great use of Canoes, both for
 transpotation and fishing, they also use of bowls & baskets made of
 Grass & Splits to hold water and boil their fish & meat. Maney of the
 nativs of the last Village Came down Set and Smoke with us, wind blew
 hard accompanied with rain all the evening, our Situation not a verry
 good one for an encampment, but Such as it is we are obliged to put up
 with, the harbor is a Safe one, we encamped on the Sand wet and
 disagreeable one Deer killed this evening, and another wounded near our
 [Clark, October 29, 1805]
 October 29th Tuesday 1805
 a Cloudy morning wind Still from th West not hard, we Set out at day
 light proceeded on about 5 miles and Came too at a Lodge of a Chief
 which we made at the upper village at th falls about his house there is
 Six others This chief gave us to eate Sackacommis burries Hasel nuts
 fish Pounded, and a kind of Bread made of roots--we gave to the Women
 pices of ribon, which they appeared pleased with--those houses are
 large 25 feet Sqr and contain abt. 8 men, Say 30 inhabitents-
 Those people are friendly gave us to eate fish Beries, nuts bread of
 roots & Drid beries and we Call this the friendly Village We purchased
 12 dogs of them & 4 Sacks of Pounded fish, and Some fiew Dried Berries
 and proceeded on at 4 miles further we landed to Smoke a pipe with the
 people of a village of 11 houses we found those people also friendly
 Their Village is Situated imediately below the mouth of a River of 60
 yards water which falls in on the Stard. Side and heads in the
 mountains to the N. & N, E, the Indians inform us that this river is
 long and full of falls no Salmon pass up it. They also inform that 10
 nations lives on this river by hunting and on buries &c. The Countrey
 begin to be thinly timbered with Pine & low white oake verry rocky and
 hilley--We purchased at this vilg 4 dogs--at the end of this Course is
 3 rocks, in the river and a rock point from the Lard. the middle rock
 is large and has a number of graves on it we call it the Sepulchar
 Island. The last River we call Caterack River from the number of falls
 which the Indians inform is on it The Indians are afraid to hunt or be
 on th Lard Side of this Columbia river for fear of the Snake Ind. who
 reside on a fork of this river which falls in above the falls a good
 Situation for winter quarters if game can be had is just below
 Sepulchar rock on the Lard Side, high & pine and oake timber the rocks
 ruged above, good hunting Countrey back, as it appears from the river
 Indian village opsd. Of 2 Lodgs river 1/2 mile wide at rocks
 The robes of those Indians are, of wolf deer Elk, wild cats, Some fox,
 & Deer I saw one of the mountain Sheep, th wool thick and long Corse
 hair on the back, resembling bristles--those animals live among the
 rocks in those mountains below, orter is much valued by those people
 they Cew their hair on each Side with it and ware it about the necks
 with the tail in front
 Came too at 3 miles on this Course at 3 Houses of flatheads and
 Encamped on the Stard. Side, a Pond lies back of those people in which
 we Saw great numbers of the Small Swan. we Purchased of those people 3
 Dogs they gave us High bush cramburies, bread of roots and roots, they
 were pleased with musick of th violin.
 [Clark, October 29, 1805]
 October 29th Tuesday 1805
 A cloudy morning wind from the West but not hard, we Set out at day
 light, and proceeded on about five miles Came too on the Stard. Side at
 a village of 7 houses built in the Same form and materials of those
 above, here we found the Chief we had Seen at the long narrows named
 we entered his lodge and he gave us to eate Pounded fish, bread made of
 roots, Filberts nuts, & the berries of Sackecomme. we gave to each
 woman of the lodge a brace of Ribon of which they were much pleased.
 each of those houses may be calculated to contain 8 men and 30 Soles,
 they are hospitable and good humered Speak the Same language of the
 inhabitants of the last village, we call this the friendly village. I
 observed in the lodge of the Chief Sundery articles which must have
 been precured from the white people, Such a Scarlet & blue Cloth Sword
 Jacket & hat. I also observed two wide Split boards with images on them
 Cut and painted in emitation of a man; I pointed to this image and
 asked a man to what use he put them to, he Said Something the only word
 I understood was "good," and then Steped to the image and took out his
 Bow & quiver to Show me, and Some other of his war emplemints, from
 behind it.
 The Chief then directed his wife to hand him his medison bag which he
 opened and Showed us 14 fingers which he Said was the fingers of his
 enemies which he had taken in war, and pointed to S. E. from which
 direction I concluded they were Snake Indians; this is the first
 Instance I ever knew of the Indians takeing any other trofea of their
 exploits off the dead bodies of their Enimies except the Scalp.--The
 Chief painted those fingers with Several other articles which was in
 his bag red and Securely put them back, haveing first mad a Short
 harrang which I Suppose was bragging of what he had done in war. we
 purchased 12 Dogs and 4 Sacks of fish, & Some fiew ascid berries, after
 brackfast we proceeded on, the mountains are high on each Side,
 containing Scattering pine white oake & under groth, hill Sides Steep
 and rockey; at 4 miles lower we observed a Small river falling in with
 great rapidity on the Stard. Side below which is a village of 11
 houses, here we landed to Smoke a pipe with the nativs and examine the
 mouth of the river, which I found to be 60 yards wide rapid and deep,
 The inhabitants of the village are friendly and Chearfull; those people
 inform us also those at the last village that this little river is long
 and full of falls, no Salmon pass up it, it runs from N. N. E. that ten
 nations live on this river and its waters, on buries, and what game
 they Can kill with their Bow & arrows
 we purchased 4 dogs and Set out--(this village is the of the Same
 nation of the one we last passed) and proceeded on The Countrey on each
 side begin to be thicker timbered with Pine and low white Oake; verry
 rockey and broken. passed three large rocks in The river the middle
 rock is large long and has Several Squar vaults on it. we call this
 rockey Island the Sepulchar--The last river we passed we Shall Call the
 Cataract River from the number of falls which the Indians say is on it-
 passed 2 Lodges of Indians a Short distance below the Sepulchar Island
 on the Stard. Side river wide, at 4 mile passed 2 houses on the Stard.
 Side, Six miles lower passed 4 houses above the mouth of a Small river
 40 yards wide on the Lard. Side a thick timbered bottom above & back of
 those houses; those are the first houses which we have Seen on the
 South Side of the Columbia River, (and the axess to those dificuelt)
 for fear of the approach of their common enemies the Snake Indians,
 passed 14 houses on the Std. Side Scattered on the bank--from the mouth
 of this little river which we shall Call Labeasche River, the falls
 mountain is South and the top is covered with Snow. one mile below pass
 the mouth of a large rapid Stream on the Stard. Side, opposit to a
 large Sand bar, in this creek the Indians above take their fish, here
 we Saw Several canoes, which induced us to call this Canoe Creek it is
 28 yards wide, about 4 miles lower and below the Sand bar is a butifull
 cascade falling over a rock of about 100 feet, a Short distance lower
 passed 4 Indian houses on the Lard. Side in a timbered bottom, a fiew
 miles further we came too at 3 houses on Stard. Side, back of which is
 a pond in which I Saw Great numbers of Small Swan, Capt. Lewis and I
 went into the houses of those people who appeared Somewhat Surprised at
 first Their houses are built on the Same Construction of those above,
 Speak the Same language and Dress in the Same way, robes of the Skins
 of wolves Deer, Elk, wild cat, or Loucirvia & fox, also Saw a mountain
 Sheap Skin the wool of which is long, thick, & corse with long corse
 hare on the top of the neck and back Something resembling bristles of a
 goat, the skin was of white hare, those animals these people inform me
 by Signs live in the mountains among the rocks, their horns are Small
 and Streight, Orter Skins are highly prised among those people as well
 as those on the river above, They Cue their hare which is divided on
 each Sholder, and also ware Small Strips about their necks with the
 tale hanging down in front.--Those people gave us, High bush cram
 berries, bread made of roots, and roots; we purchased three dogs for
 the party to eate; we Smoked with the men, all muche pleased with the
 violin-. Here the mountains are high on each Side, those to the Lard.
 Side has Some Snow on them at this time, more timber than above and of
 greater variety.
 [Clark, October 30, 1805]
 October 30th Wednesday 1805 A Cloudy morning. Some little rain all
 night, after eating a Slight brackfast of venison we Set out.
 The rocks project into the river in maney places and have the
 appearance of haveing fallen from the highe hills those projected rocks
 is common & Small Bays below & nitches in the rocks passed 4 Cascades
 or Small Streams falling from the mountains on Lard. This part of the
 river resembles a pond partly dreaned leaving many Stumps bare both in
 & out of the water, current about 1 mil pr. Hour
 The bottom above the river is about 3/4 of a mile wide and rich, Some
 deer & bear Sign--rained moderately all day we are wet and cold. Saw
 Several Specis of wood which I never Saw before, Some resembling Beech
 & others Poplar.--Day dark and disagreeable
 I with 2 men proceeded down the river 2 miles on an old Indian parth to
 view the rapids, which I found impassable for our canoes without a
 portage, the roade bad at 1 mile I saw a Town of Houses laterly
 abandoned on an elevated Situation opsd. a 2d Shute, returned at dark.
 Capt. Lewis and 5 men went to the Town found them kind they gave Beries
 & nuts, but he cd. get nothin from them in the way of Information, the
 greater part of those people out collecting roots below, rained all the
 evining Those people have one gun & maney articles which they have
 purchased of the white people their food is principally fish
 [Clark, October 30, 1805]
 October 30th Wednesday 1805
 A cool morning, a moderate rain all the last night, after eating a
 partial brackfast of venison we Set out passed Several places where the
 rocks projected into the river & have the appearance of haveing
 Seperated from the mountains and fallen promiscuisly into the river,
 Small nitches are formed in the banks below those projecting rocks
 which is comon in this part of the river, Saw 4 Cascades caused by
 Small Streams falling from the mountains on the Lard. Side, a
 remarkable circumstance in this part of the river is, the Stumps of
 pine trees are in maney places are at Some distance in the river, and
 gives every appearance of the rivers being darned up below from Some
 cause which I am not at this time acquainted with, the Current of the
 river is also verry jentle not exceeding 11/2 mile pr. hour and about
 3/4 of a mile in width. Some rain, we landed above the mouth of a Small
 river on the Stard. Side and Dined J. Shields Killed a Buck & Labiech 3
 Ducks, here the river widens to about one mile large Sand bar in the
 middle, a Great rock both in and out of the water, large Stones, or
 rocks are also permiscuisly Scattered about in the river, this day we
 Saw Some fiew of the large Buzzard Capt. Lewis Shot at one, those
 Buzzards are much larger than any other of ther Spece or the largest
 Eagle white under part of their wings &c. The bottoms above the mouth
 of this little river is rich covered with grass & firn & is about 3/4
 of a mile wide rich and rises gradually, below the river (which is 60
 yards wide above its mouth) the Countery rises with Steep assent. we
 call this little river New Timbered river from a Speces of Ash which
 grows on its banks of a verry large and different from any we had
 before Seen, and a timber resembling the beech in bark but different in
 its leaf which is Smaller and the tree smaller. passed maney large
 rocks in the river and a large creek on the Stard. Side in the mouth of
 which is an Island, passed on the right of 3 Islands near the Stard.
 Side, and landed on an Island close under the Stard. Side at the head
 of the great Shute, and a little below a village of 8 large houses on a
 Deep bend on the Stard. Side, and opposit 2 Small Islands imediately in
 the head of the Shute, which Islands are covered with Pine, maney large
 rocks also, in the head of the Shute. Ponds back of the houses, and
 Countrey low for a Short distance. The day proved Cloudy dark and
 disagreeable with Some rain all day which kept us wet. The Countary a
 high mountain on each Side thickly Covered with timber, Such as Spruc,
 Pine, Cedar, Oake Cotton &c. &c. I took two men and walked down three
 miles to examine the Shute and river below proceeded along an old
 Indian path, passd. an old village at 1 mile on an ellevated Situation
 of this village contained verry large houses built in a different form
 from any I had Seen, and laterly abandoned, and the most of the boads
 put into a pond of water near the village, as I conceived to drown the
 flees, which was emencely noumerous about the houses-. I found by
 examonation that we must make a portage of the greater perpotion of our
 Stores 21/2 miles, and the Canoes we Could haul over the rocks, I
 returned at Dark Capt Lewis and 5 men had just returned from the
 village, Cap L. informed me that he found the nativs kind, they gave
 him berries, nuts & fish to eate; but he could get nothing from them in
 the way of information. The greater part of the inhabitants of this
 village being absent down the river Some distance Colecting roots Capt.
 L. Saw one gun and Several articles which must have been precured from
 the white people. a wet disagreeable evening, the only wood we could
 get to burn on this little Island on which we have encamped is the
 newly discovered Ash, which makes a tolerable fire. we made fifteen
 miles to daye.
 [Clark, October 31, 1805]
 October 31st Thursday 1805
 a cloudey raney morning I proceed down the river to view it more at
 leasure, I took Jos. Fields & Peter Crusat and proceeded on down, Send
 Crusat back at 2 ms. to examine the rapid near the shore & I proceeded
 on down about 10 miles to a very high rock in a bottom on the Stard.
 opsd. 2 Islands covered with timber on which I saw Inds. at a distance;
 found the river rocky for 6 miles, after which the Current became
 uniform--at 1 mile I passed an old deserted village on a Pond on a high
 Situation of 8 Houses--at 31/2 miles one house the only remt. of an
 antient Village 1/2 a mile lower I saw 8 Vaults for the Dead which was
 nearly Square 8 feet Closely Covered with broad boads Curiously
 engraved, the bones in Some of those vaults wer 4 feet thick, in others
 the Dead was yet layed Side of each other nearly East & west, raped up
 & bound Securley in robes, great numbers of trinkets Brass Kittle, Sea
 Shells, Iron, Pan Hare &c. &c. was hung about the vaults and great many
 wooden gods, or Images of men Cut in wood, Set up round the vaults,
 Some of those So old and worn by time that they were nearly worn out of
 Shape, and Some of those vaults So old that they were roted entirely to
 the ground--notwithstanding they wood is of Pine & _____ or Seder as
 also the wooden gods
 I can not learn certainly if those people worship those woden emiges,
 they have them in conspicuous parts of their houses at 5 miles I passed
 4 large houses on the Stard Side a little above the last rapid and
 opposit a large Island which is Situated near the Lard. Side--The
 enhabitents of those houses had left them closely Shut up, they
 appeared to Contn. a great deel of property and Provisions Such as
 those people use, I did not disturb any thing about those houses, but
 proceed on down below the rapid which I found to be the last, a large
 village has at Some period been on the Stard. Side below this rapid The
 bottom is high Stoney and about 2 miles wide covered with grass, here C
 is the head of a large Island in high water, at this time no water
 passes on the Stard. Side I walked thro this Island which I found to be
 verry rich, open & covered with Strawberry vines, and has greatly the
 appearance of having at Some period been Cultivated, The natives has
 dug roots in Some parts of this Isld. which is about 3 miles long & 1
 Wide, a Small Island covered with timber opposit the lower point no
 water runs on the Stard. Side. of it. below and in the middle of the
 river is a large Island Covered with tall trees opposit the Strawberry
 Island on its Stard. Side a creek falls in which has no running water
 at present, it has the appearanc of throwing out emense torents--I saw
 5 Indians in a canoe below--Jo. killed a Sand hill Crane & we returned
 by the same rout to camp at the grand Shute where I found Several
 Indians, I Smoked. Two canoes loaded with fish for the Trade below Came
 down & unloaded the after noon fare
 Those Indians Cut off the hands of those they kill & proserve the
 [Clark, October 31, 1805]
 October 31st Thursday 1805
 A Cloudy rainey disagreeable morning I proceeded down the river to view
 with more attention we had to pass on the river below, the two men with
 me Jo. Fields & Peter Crusat proceeded down to examine the rapids the
 Great Shute which commenced at the Island on which we encamped Continud
 with great rapidity and force thro a narrow chanel much compressd. and
 interspersed with large rocks for 1/2 a mile, at a mile lower is a
 verry Considerable rapid at which place the waves are remarkably high,
 and proceeded on in a old Indian parth 21/2 miles by land thro a thick
 wood & hill Side, to the river where the Indians make a portage, from
 this place I dispatched Peter Crusat (our principal waterman) back to
 follow the river and examine the practibility of the Canoes passing, as
 the rapids appeared to continue down below as far as I could See, I
 with Jo. Fields proceeded on, at 1/2 a mile below the end of the
 portage passed a house where there had been an old town for ages past
 as this house was old Decayed and a plat of flees I did not enter it,
 about 1/2 a mile below this house in a verry thick part of the woods is
 8 vaults which appeared Closely Covered and highly deckerated with
 orniments. Those vaults are all nearly the Same Sise and form 8 feet
 Square, 5 feet high, Sloped a little So as to convey off the rain made
 of Pine or Cedar boards Closely Connected & Scurely Covered with wide
 boards, with a Dore left in The East Side which is partially Stoped
 with wide boards curiously engraved. In Several of those vaults the
 dead bodies wre raped up verry Securely in Skins tied around with cords
 of grass & bark, laid on a mat, all east & west and Some of those
 vaults had as maney as 4 bodies laying on the Side of each other. the
 other Vaults Containing bones only, Some contained bones for the debth
 of 4 feet. on the tops and on poles attached to those vaults hung Brass
 kitties & frying pans pearced thro their bottoms, baskets, bowls of
 wood, Sea Shels, Skins, bits of Cloth, Hair, bags of Trinkets & Small
 peices of bone &c and independant of the curious ingraveing and
 Paintings on the boards which formed the vaults I observed Several
 wooden Images, cut in the figure of men and Set up on the Sides of the
 vaults all round. Some of those So old and worn by time, that they were
 nearly out of Shape, I also observed the remains of Vaults rotted
 entirely into the ground and covered with moss. This must bee the
 burrying place for maney ages for the inhabitants of those rapids, the
 vaults are of the most lasting timber Pine & Cedar--I cannot Say
 certainly that those nativs worship those wooden idols as I have every
 reason to believe they do not; as they are Set up in the most
 conspicious parts of their houses, and treated more like orniments than
 objects of aderation. at 2 miles lower & 5 below our Camp I passed a
 village of 4 large houses abandend by the nativs, with their Bores
 bared up, I looked into those houses and observed as much property as
 is usial in the houses of those people which induced me to conclude
 that they wre at no great distance, either hunting or Colecting roots,
 to add to their winter Subsistance. from a Short distance below the
 vaults the mountain which is but low on the Stard. Side leave the
 river, and a leavel Stoney open bottom Suckceeds on the Said Std. Side
 for a great Distance down, the mountains high and rugid on the Lard
 Side this open bottom is about 2 miles a Short distance below this
 village is a bad Stoney rapid and appears to be the last in view I
 observed at this lower rapid the remains of a large and antient Village
 which I could plainly trace by the Sinks in which they had formed their
 houses, as also those in which they had buried their fish--from this
 rapid to the lower end of the portage the river is Crouded with rocks
 of various Sizes between which the water passes with great velociety
 createing in maney places large Waves, an Island which is Situated near
 the Lard. Side occupies about half the distance the lower point of
 which is at this rapid. immediately below this rapid the high water
 passes through a narrow Chanel through the Stard. Bottom forming an
 Island of 3 miles Long & one wide, I walked through this Island which I
 found to be verry rich land, and had every appearance of haveing been
 at Some distant period Cultivated. at this time it is Covered with
 grass intersperced with Strawberry vines. I observed Several places on
 this Island where the nativs had dug for roots and from its lower point
 I observed 5 Indians in a Canoe below the upper point of an Island near
 the middle of the river Covered with tall timber, which indued me to
 believe that a village was at no great distanc below, I could not See
 any rapids below in the extent of my view which was for a long distance
 down the river, which from the last rapids widened and had everry
 appearance of being effected by the tide,--I deturmind to return to
 Camp 10 miles distant, a remarkable high detached rock Stands in a
 bottom on the Stard Side near the lower point of this Island on the
 Stard. Side about 800 feet high and 400 paces around, we call the
 Beaten rock. a Brook falls into the narrow Chanel which forms the
 Strawberry Island, which at this time has no running water, but has
 every appearance of dischargeing emence torrents &c. &c. Jo. Fields
 Shot a Sand hill Crane. I returned by the Same rout on an Indian parth
 passing up on the N W. Side of the river to our Camp at the Great
 Shute. found Several Indians from the village, I Smoked with them; Soon
 after my return two Canoes loaded with fish & Bear grass for the trade
 below, came down,from the village at the mouth of the Catterack River,
 they unloaded and turned their Canoes up Side down on the beech, &
 camped under a Shelveing rock below our Camp
 one of the men Shot a goose above this Great Shute, which was floating
 into the Shute when an Indian observed it, plunged into the water &
 Swam to the Goose and brought in on Shore, at the head of the Suck, as
 this Indian richly earned the goose I Suffered him to keep it which he
 about half picked and Spited it up with the guts in it to roste.
 This Great Shute or falls is about 1/2 a mile with the water of this
 great river Compressed within the Space of 150 paces in which there is
 great numbers of both large and Small rocks, water passing with great
 velocity forming & boiling in a most horriable manner, with a fall of
 about 20 feet, below it widens to about 200 paces and current gentle
 for a Short distance. a Short distance above is three Small rockey
 Islands, and at the head of those falls, three Small rockey Islands are
 Situated Crosswise the river, Several rocks above in the river & 4
 large rocks in the head of the Shute; those obstructions together with
 the high Stones which are continually brakeing loose from the mountain
 on the Stard Side and roleing down into the Shute aded to those which
 brake loose from those Islands above and lodge in the Shute, must be
 the Cause of the rivers darning up to Such a distance above, where it
 Shows Such evidant marks of the Common current of the river being much
 lower than at the present day