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[Lewis, August 1, 1805]
 August 1st 1805
 At half after 8 A.M. we halted for breakfast and as had been previously
 agreed on between Capt. Clark and myself I set out with 3 men in quest
 of the Snake Indians. the men I took were the two Interpreters Drewyer
 and Sharbono and Sergt. Gass who by an accedental fall had so disabled
 himself that it was with much pain he could work in the canoes tho he
 could march with convenience. the rout we took lay over a rough high
 range of mountains on the North side of the river. the rive entered
 these mountains a few miles above where we left it. Capt Clark
 recommended this rout to me from a belief that the river as soon as it
 past the mountains boar to the N. of W. he having a few days before
 ascended these mountains to a position from which he discovered a large
 valley passing betwen the mountains and which boar to the N. West. this
 however poved to be the inlet of a large creek which discharged itself
 into the river just above this range of mountans, the river bearing to
 the S. W. we were therefore thrown several miles out of our rout. as
 soon as we discovered our mistake we directed our course to the river
 which we at length gained about 2 P.M. much exhausted by the heat of
 the day the roughnes of the road and the want of water. the mountains
 are extreemly bare of timber and our rout lay through the steep valleys
 exposed to the heat of the sun without shade and scarcely a breath of
 air; and to add to my fatiegue in this walk of about 11 miles I had
 taken a doze of glauber salts in the morning in consequence of a slight
 desentary with which I had been afflicted for several days; being
 weakened by the disorder and the opperation of the medecine I found
 myself almost exhausted before we reached the river. I felt my sperits
 much revived on our near approach to the river at the sight of a herd
 of Elk of which Drewyer and myself killed two. we then hurried to the
 river and allayed our thirst. I ordered two of the men to skin the Elk
 and bring the meat to the river while myself and the other prepared a
 fire and cooked some of the meat for our dinner. we made a comfortable
 meal of the Elk and left the ballance of the meat on the bank of the
 river the party with Capt. Clark. this supply was no doubt very
 acceptable to them as they had had no fresh meat for near two days
 except one beaver Game being very scarce and shy. we had seen a few
 deer and some goats but had not been fortunate enough to kill any of
 them. after dinner we resumed our march and encamped about 6 m. above
 on the Stard side of the river.
 [Lewis, August 1, 1805]
 Thursday August 1st 1805.
 This morning we set out early and proceeded on tolerably well untill 8
 OCT. by which time we had arrived within a few miles of a mountain
 through which the river passes. we halted on the Stard. side and took
 breakfast. after which or at 1/2 after 8 A.M. as had been previously
 concerted betwen Capt. Clark and myself I set out with three men in
 surch of the Snake Indians or Sosonees. our rout lay over a high range
 of mountains on the North side of the river. Capt C. recommended this
 rout to me no doubt from a beleif that the river as soon as it passed
 this chain of mountains boar to the N. of W. he having on the 26th ult.
 ascended these mountains to a position from whence he discoved a large
 valley passing between the mountains which boar to the N. W. and
 presumed that the river passed in that direction; this however proved
 to be the passage of a large creek which discharged itself into the
 river just above this range of mountains, the river bearing to the S.
 W. we were therefore thrown several miles out of our rout. as soon as
 we discovered our error we directed our course to the river which we at
 length gained about 2 P.M. much exhausted by the heat of the day, the
 roughness of the road and the want of water. the mountains are
 extreemly bare of timber, and our rout lay through the steep and narrow
 hollows of the mountains exposed to the intese heat of the midday sun
 without shade or scarcely a breath of air to add to my fatiegue in this
 walk of about 11 miles, I had taken a doze of glauber salts in the
 morning in consequence of a slight disentary with which I had been
 afflicted for several days. being weakened by the disorder and the
 operation of the medicine I found myself almost exhausted before we
 reached the river. I felt my sperits much revived on our near approach
 to the river at the sight of a herd of Elk, of which Drewyer and myself
 soon killed a couple. we then hurryed to the river and allayed our
 thirst. I ordered two of the men to skin the Elk and bring the meat to
 the river, while myself and the other prepared a fire and cooked some
 of the meat for our dinner. we made a comfortable meal on the Elk, and
 left the ballance of the meat and skins on the bank of the river for
 Capt. Clark and party. this supply will no doubt be acceptable to them,
 as they had had no fresh meat when I left them for almost 2 days except
 one beaver; game being very scarce and shy above the forks. we had seen
 a few deer and antelopes but had not been fortunate enough to kill any
 of them. as I passed these mountains I saw a flock of the black or dark
 brown phesants; the young phesant is almost grown we killed one of
 them. this bird is fully a third larger than the common phesant of the
 Atlantic states. it's form is much the same. it is booted nearly to the
 toes and the male has not the tufts of long black feathers on the sides
 of the neck which are so conspicuous in those of the Atlantic. their
 colour is a uniform dark brown with a small mixture of yellow or
 yelloish brown specks on some of the feathers particularly those of the
 tail, tho the extremities of these are perfectly black for about one
 inch. the eye is nearly black, the iris has a small dash of yellowish
 brown. the feathers of the tail are reather longer than that of our
 phesant or pattridge as they are Called in the Eastern States; are the
 same in number or eighteen and all nearly of the same length, those in
 the intermediate part being somewhat longest. the flesh of this bird is
 white and agreeably flavored. I also saw near the top of the mountain
 among some scattering pine a blue bird about the size of the common
 robbin. it's action and form is somewhat that of the jay bird and never
 rests long in any one position but constantly flying or hoping from
 sprey to sprey. I shot at one of them but missed it. their note is loud
 and frequently repeated both flying and when at rest and is char ah',
 char'ah, char ah', as nearly as letters can express it. after dinner we
 resumed our march and my pack felt much lighter than it had done about
 2 hours before. we traveled about six miles further and encamped on the
 stard. bank of the river, making a distance of 17 miles for this day.
 the Musquetoes were troublesome but I had taken the precaution of
 bringing my bier.
 Shortly after I left Capt. Clark this morning he proceed on and passed
 through the mountains; they formed tremendious clifts of ragged and
 nearly perpendicular rocks; the lower.part of this rock is of the
 black grannite before mentioned and the upper part a light coloured
 freestone. these clifts continue for 9 miles and approach the river
 very closely on either side. he found the current verry strong. Capt.
 C. killed a big horn on these clifts which himself and party dined on.
 after passing this range of mountains he entered this beautifull valley
 in which we also were it is from 6 to 8 miles wide. the river is
 crooked and crouded with islands, it's bottoms wide fertile and covered
 with fine grass from 9 inches to 2 feet high and possesses but a scant
 proportion of timber, which consists almost entirely of a few narrow
 leafed cottonwood trees distributed along the verge of the river. in
 the evening Capt. C. found the Elk I had left him and ascended a short
 distance above to the entrance of a large creek which falls in on
 Stard. and encamped opposite to it on the Lard. side. he sent out the
 two Fieldses to hunt this evening and they killed 5 deer, which with
 the Elk again gave them a plentifull store of fresh provisions. this
 large creek we called Field's Creek after Reubin Fields one our party.
 on the river about the mountains wich Capt. C. passed today he saw some
 large cedar trees and some juniper also just at the upper side of the
 mountain there is a bad rappid here the toe line of our canoe broke in
 the shoot of the rapids and swung on the rocks and had very nearly
 overset. a small distance above this rapid a large bold Creek falls in
 on Lard. side which we called Frazier's Creek after Robt. Frazier. They
 saw a large brown bear feeding on currants but could not get a shoot at
 [Clark, August 1, 1805]
 August 1st Wednesday 1805
 A fine day Capt. Lewis left me at 8 oClock just below the place I
 entered a verrey high mountain which jutted its tremedious Clifts on
 either Side for 9 Miles, the rocks ragide Some verry dark & other part
 verry light rock the light rocks is Sand Stone. The water Swift & very
 Sholey. I killed a Ibix on which the whole party Dined, after passing
 through the Mountain we entered a wide extesive vallie of from 4 to 8
 Miles wide verry leavell a Creek falls in at the Commencement of this
 Vallie on the Lard Side, the river widens & spreds into Small Chanels.
 We encamped on the Lard Side opposit a large Creek I sent out Jo. & R
 fields to hunt this evening they killed 5 Deer, I saw a large Bear
 eateing Currents this evining The river so rapid that the greatest
 exertion is required by all to get the boats on wind S W Murckery at
 sun rise 50° Ab. 0
 [Lewis, August 2, 1805]
 August 2nd 1805.
 We resumed our march this morning at sunrise the weather was fair and
 wind from N. W. finding that the river still boar to the south I
 determined to pass it if possible to shorten our rout this we effected
 about five miles above our camp of last evening by wading it. found the
 current very rappid about 90 yards wide and waist deep this is the
 first time that I ever dared to make the attempt to wade the river, tho
 there are many places between this and the three forks where I presume
 it migh be attempted with equal success. the valley though which our
 rout of this day lay and through which the river winds it's meandering
 course is a beatifull level plain with but little timber and that on
 the verge of the river. the land is tolerably fertile, consisting of a
 black or dark yellow loam, and covered with grass from 9 Inches to 2
 feet high. the plain ascends gradually on either side of the river to
 the bases of two ranges of mountains which ly parrallel to the river
 and which terminate the width of the vally. the tops of these mountains
 were yet partially covered with snow while we in the valley. were
 suffocated nearly with the intense heat of the midday sun. the nights
 are so could that two blankets are not more than sufficient covering.
 we found a great courants, two kinds of which were red, others yellow
 deep purple and black, also black goosburies and service buries now
 ripe and in full perfection, we feasted suptuously on our wild fruit
 particularly the yellow courant and the deep purple servicebury which I
 found to be excellent the courrant grows very much like the red currant
 common to the gardens in the atlantic states tho the leaf is somewhat
 different and the growth taller. the service burry grows on a smaller
 bush and differs from ours only in colour and the superior excellence
 of it's flavor and size, it is of a deep purple. this day we saw an
 abundance of deer and goats or antelopes and a great number of the
 tracks of Elk; of the former we killed two. we continued our rout along
 this valley which is from six to eight Miles wide untill sun set when
 we encamped for the night on the river bank having traveled about 24
 miles. I feel myself perfectly recovered of my indisposition and do not
 doubt being able to pursue my march with equal comfort in the morning.
 [Lewis, August 2, 1805]
 Friday August 2cd 1805.
 We resumed our march this morning at sunrise; the day was fair and wind
 from N. W. finding that the river still boar to the South I determined
 to pass it if possible in order to shorten our rout; this we effected
 by wading the river about 5 miles above our encampment of the last
 evening. we found the current very rapid waist deep and about 90 yd.
 wide bottom smooth pebble with a small mixture of coarse gravel. this
 is the first time that I ever dared to wade the river, tho there are
 many places between this and the forks where I presume it might be
 attempted with equal success. The vally allong which we passed today,
 and through which the river winds it's meandering course is from 6 to 8
 miles wide and consists of a beatifull level plain with but little
 timber and that confined to the verge of the river; the land is
 tolerably fertile, and is either black or a dark yellow loam, covered
 with grass from 9 inches to 2 feet high. the plain ascends gradually on
 either side of the river to the bases of two ranges of high mountains,
 which lye parallel to the river and prescribe the limits of the plains.
 the tops of these mountains are yet covered partially with snow, while
 we in the valley are nearly suffocated with the intense heat of the
 midday sun; the nights are so cold that two blankets are not more than
 sufficient covering. soon after passing the river this morning Sergt.
 Gass lost my tommahawk in the thick brush and we were unable to find
 it, I regret the loss of this usefull implement, however accedents will
 happen in the best families, and I consoled myself with the
 recollection that it was not the only one we had with us. the bones of
 the buffaloe and their excrement of an old date are to be met with in
 every part of this valley but we have long since lost all hope of
 meeting with that animal in these mountains. we met with great
 quantities of currants today, two species of which were red, others
 yellow, deep perple and black; also black goosberries and
 serviceberries now ripe and in great perfection. we feasted sumptuously
 on our wild fruits, particularly the yellow currant and the deep perple
 serviceberries, which I found to be excellent. the serviceberry grows
 on a small bush and differs from ours only in colour size and superior
 excellence of it's flavour. it is somewhat larger than ours. on our way
 we saw an abundance of deer Antelopes, of the former we killed 2. we
 also saw many tracks of the Elk and bear. no recent appearance of
 Indians. the Indians in this part of the country appear to construct
 their lodges with the willow boughs and brush; they are small of a
 conic figure and have a small aperture on one side through which they
 enter. we continued our rout up this valley on the Lard. side of the
 river untill sunset, at which time we encamped on the Lard. bank of the
 river having traveled 24 miles. we had brought with us a good stock of
 venison of which we eat a hearty supper. I feel myself perfectly
 recovered of my indisposition, and do not doubt being able to pursue my
 rout tomorrow with the same comfort I have done today.--we saw some
 very large beaver dams today in the bottoms of the river several of
 which wer five feet high and overflowed several acres of land; these
 dams are formed of willow brush mud and gravel and are so closely
 interwoven that they resist the water perfectly. the base of this work
 is thick and rises nearly perpendicularly on the lower side while the
 upper side or that within the dam is gently sloped. the brush appear to
 be laid in no regular order yet acquires a strength by the irregularity
 with which they are placed by the beaver that it would puzzle the
 engenuity of man to give them.
 Capt. Clark continued his rout early this morning. the rapidity of the
 current was such that his progress was slow, in short it required the
 utmost exertion of the men to get on, nor could they resist this
 current by any other means than that of the cord and pole. in the
 course of the day they passed some villages of burrowing squirrels, saw
 a number of beaver dams and the inhabitants of them, many young ducks
 both of the Duckanmallard and the redheaded fishing duck, gees, several
 rattle snakes, black woodpeckers, and a large gang of Elk; they found
 the river much crouded with island both large and small and passed a
 small creek on Stard. side which we called birth Creek. Capt. Clark
 discovers a tumor rising on the inner side of his ankle this evening
 which was painfull to him. they incamped in a level bottom on the Lard.
 [Clark, August 2, 1805]
 August 2nd Friday 1805
 a fine day Set out early the river has much the Same kind of banks
 Chanel Current &c. as it had in the last vallie, I walked out this
 morning on Shore & Saw Several rattle Snakes in the plain, the wind
 from the S W we proceeded on with great dificuelty from the rapidity of
 the current & rapids, abt. 15 miles and Encamped on the Lard Side, saw
 a large Gangue of Elk at Sunset to the S W. passed a Small Creek on the
 Stard Side and maney large and Small Islands. Saw a number of young
 Ducks as we have also Seen everry Day, Some geese I saw Black
 woodpeckers--I have either got my foot bitten by Some poisonous insect
 or a turner is riseing on the inner bone of my ankle which is painfull
 [Lewis, August 3, 1805]
 August the 3rd 1805.
 Set out this morning at sunrise and continued our rout through the
 valley on the Lard. side of the river. at eleven A.M. Drewyer killed a
 doe and we halted and took breakfast. the mountains continue high on
 either side of the valley, and are but skantily supplyed with timber;
 small pine appears to be the prevalent growth. there is no timber in
 the valley except a small quantity of the narrow leafed cottonwood on
 the verge of the river. the underwood consists of the narrowleafed or
 small willow, honeysuckle rosebushes, courant, goosbury and service
 bury bushes allso a small quantity of a species of dwarf burch the leaf
 of which, oval, deep green, finely indented and very small. we encamped
 this evening after sunset having traveled by estimate 23 miles. from
 the width and appearance of the valley at this place I concieved that
 the river forked not far above me and therefore resolved the next
 morning to examine the adjacent country more minutely.
 [Lewis, August 3, 1805]
 Saturday August 3rd 1805.
 Set out early this morning, or before sunrise; still continued our
 march through the level valley on the lard. side of the river. the
 valley much as yesterday only reather wider; I think it 12 Miles wide,
 tho the plains near the mountains rise higher and are more broken with
 some scattering pine near the mountain. in the leaveler parts of the
 plain and river bottoms which are very extensive there is no timber
 except a scant proportion of cottonwood neat the river. the under wood
 consists of the narrow leafed or small willow, the small honeysuckle,
 rosebushes, currant, serviceberry, and goosbery bushes; also a small
 species of berth in but small quantities the leaf which is oval finely,
 indented, small and of a deep green colour. the stem is simple
 ascending and branching, and seldom rises higher than 10 or 12 feet.
 the Mountains continue high on either side of the valley, and are but
 scantily supplyed with timber; small pine apears to be the prevalent
 growth; it is of the pith kind, with a short leaf. at 11 A.M. Drewyer
 killed a doe and we halted about 2 hours and breakfasted, and then
 continued our rout untill night without halting, when we arrived at the
 river in a level bottom which appeared to spread to greater extent than
 usual. from the appearance of the timber I supposed that the river
 forked above us and resolved to examine this part of the river minutely
 tomorrow. this evening we passed through a high plain for about 8 miles
 covered with prickley pears and bearded grass, tho we found this even
 better walking than the wide bottoms of the river, which we passed in
 the evening; these altho apparently level, from some cause which I know
 not, were formed into meriads of deep holes as if rooted up by hogs
 these the grass covered so thick that it was impossible to walk without
 the risk of falling down at every step. some parts of these bottoms
 also possess excellent terf or peat, I beleive of many feet deep. the
 mineral salts also frequently mentioned on the Missouri we saw this
 evening in these uneven bottoms. we saw many deer, Antelopes ducks,
 gees, some beaver and great appearance of their work. also a small bird
 and the Curlooe as usual. we encamped on the river bank on Lard. side
 having traveled by estimate 23 Miles. The fish of this part of the
 river are trout and a species of scale fish of a white colour and a
 remarkable small long mouth which one of our men inform us are the same
 with the species called in the Eastern states bottlenose. the snowey
 region of the mountains and for some distance below has no timber or
 herbage of any kind; the timber is confined to the lower and middle
 regions. Capt. Clark set out this morning as usual. he walked on shore
 a small distance this morning and killed a deer. in the course of his
 walk he saw a track which he supposed to be that of an Indian from the
 circumstance of the large toes turning inward. he pursued the track and
 found that the person had ascended a point of a hill from which his
 camp of the last evening was visible; this circumstance also confirmed
 the beleif of it's being an Indian who had thus discovered them and ran
 off. they found the river as usual much crouded with islands, the
 currant more rapid & much more shallow than usual. in many places they
 were obliged to double man the canoes and drag them over the stone and
 gravel. this morning they passed a small creek on Stard. at the
 entrance of which Reubin Fields killed a large Panther. we called the
 creek after that animal Panther Creek. they also passed a handsome
 little stream on Lard. which is form of several large springs which
 rise in the bottoms and along the base of the mountains with some
 little rivulets from the melting snows. the beaver have formed many
 large dams on this stream. they saw some deer Antelopes and the common
 birds of the country. in the evening they passed a very bad rappid
 where the bed of the river is formed entrely of solid rock and encamped
 on an island just above. the Panther which Fields killed measured seven
 and 1/2 feet from the nose to the extremity of the tail. it is precisely
 the same animal common to the western part of our country. the men wer
 compelled to be a great proportion of their time in the water today;
 they have had a severe days labour and are much fortiegued.
 [Clark, August 3, 1805]
 August 3rd Saturday1805
 a fine morning wind from the N E I walked on Shore & killed a Deer in
 my walk I saw a fresh track which I took to be an Indian from the Shape
 of the foot as the toes turned in, I think it probable that this Indian
 Spied our fires and Came to a Situation to view us from the top of a
 Small knob on the Lard Side. the river more rapid and Sholey than
 yesterday one R. F. man killed a large Panthor on the Shore we are
 oblige to haul over the Canoes Sholey in maney places where the Islands
 are noumerous and bottom Sholey, in the evening the river more rapid
 and Sholey we encamped on an Island avove a part of the river which
 passed thro a rockey bed enclosed on both sides with thick willow
 current & red buries &c &c passed a bold Stream which heads in the
 mountains to our right and the drean of the minting Snow in the Montn.
 on that side ar in View--at 4 oClock passed a bold Stream which falls
 from a mountn in three Channels to our left, the Greater portion of the
 Snow on this mountain is melted, but little remaining near us Some Deer
 Elk & antelopes & Bear in the bottoms. but fiew trees and they Small
 the Mountains on our left Contain pine those on our right but verry
 partially Supplied and what pine & cedar it has is on the Lower region,
 no wood being near the Snow. great numbers of Beaver Otter &c. Some
 fish trout & and bottle nose. Birds as usial. Geese young Ducks &
 [Lewis, August 4, 1805]
 August 4th 1805.
 Set out very early this morning and steered S. E. by E. about 4 Miles
 when we passed a bould runing creek about 12 yards wide the water could
 and remarkably clear, we then changed our course to S. E. passing
 obliquely across a valley which boar nearly E leaving the valley which
 we had pursued for the 2 precedeing days. at the distance of 3 miles we
 passed a handsome little river which passes through this valley; it is
 about 30 yards wide affords a considerable quantity of water and I
 believe it may be navigated some miles. I then changed my rout to S. W.
 passed a high plain which lyes between the vallies and returned to the
 S. valley, in passing which I fell in with a river about 45 yards wide
 which I waideg and then continued my rout down to it's junction with
 the river just mentioned, and from thence to the entrance of the creek
 which falls in about 2 miles below; still continuing my rout down this
 stream about three miles further and about 2 M. below our encampment of
 the last evening this river forms a junction with a river 50 yards wide
 which comes from the N. W. and falling into the S. valley runs
 parrallel with the middle fork about 12 miles. this is a bould rappid &
 clear stream it's bed so broken and obstructed by gravel bars and
 Islands that it appeared to me impossible to navigate it with safety.
 the middle fork is gentle and possesses about 2/3ds as much water as
 this rappid stream, it's cours so far as I can observe it is about S.
 W. and it appears to be navigable; its water is much warmer than that
 of the rappid fork and somewhat turbid, from which I concluded that it
 had it's source at a greater distance in the mountains and passed
 through an opener country than the other. under this impression I wrote
 a note to Capt. Clark recommending his taking the middle fork provided
 he should arrive at this place before my return which I expect will be
 the day after tomorrow. the note I left on a pole at the forks of the
 river and having refreshed ourselves and eat heartily of some venison
 we killed this morning I continued my rout up the Stard side of the N.
 W. fork, determining to pursue it untill 12 OC. the next day and then
 pass over to the middle fork and return to their junction or untill I
 met Capt. Clark. we encamped this evening near the point where the
 river leaves the valley and enters the mountains, having traveled about
 20 miles.-
 [Lewis, August 4, 1805]
 Sunday August 4th 1805.
 Set out very early this morning and Steered S. E. by E. 4 M. when we
 pased a bold runing Creek 12 yds. wide, the water of which was clear
 and very cold. it appears to be formed by four dranes from the snowey
 mountains to our left. after passing this creek we changed our
 direction to S. E. passing obliquely across a valley which boar E
 leaving the valley we had pursued for the two peceeding days. at the
 distance of 3 Ms. we passed a handsome little river which meanders
 through this valley; it is about 30 yds wide, affords a considerable
 quantity of water and appears as if it might be navigated some miles.
 the currant is not rapid nor the water very clear; the banks are low
 and the bed formed of stone and gravel. I now changed my rout to S. W.
 passed a high plain which lies betwen the valleies and returned to the
 South valley, in passing which I fell in with a river about 45 yds.
 wide gravley bottom gentle currant waist deep and water of a whitish
 blue tinge. this stream we waded and continued our rout down it to the
 entrance of the river just mentioned about 3/4 of a mile. still
 continuing down we passed the entrance of the creek about 2 miles lower
 down; and at the distance of three miles further arrived at it's
 junction with a river 50 yds. wide which Comes from the S. W. and
 falling into the South valley runs parallel with the middle fork about
 12 miles before it forms a junction. I now found that our encampment of
 the last evening was about 11/2 miles above the entrance of this large
 river on Stard. this is a bold rappid and Clear Stream, it's bed so
 much broken and obstructed by gravley bars and it's waters so much
 subdivided by Islands that it appears to me utterly impossible to
 navigate it with safety. the middle fork is gentle and possesses about
 2/3rds as much water as this stream. it's course so far as I can
 observe it is about S. W., and from the opening of the valley I beleive
 it still bears more to the West above it may be safely navigated. it's
 water is much warmer then the rapid fork and it's water more turbid;
 from which I conjecture that it has it's sources at a greater distance
 in the mountains and passes through an opener country than the other.
 under this impression I wrote a note to Capt Clark, recommending his
 taking the middle fork povided he should arrive at this place before my
 return, which I expect will be the day after tomorrow. this note I left
 on a pole at the forks of the river, and having refreshed ourselves and
 eat heartily of some venison which we killed this morning we continued
 our rout up the rapid fork on the Stard side, resolving to pursue this
 stream untill noon tomorrow and then pass over to the middle fork and
 come down it to their junction or untill I meet Capt Clark. I have seen
 no recent Indian sign in the course of my rout as yet. Charbono
 complains much of his leg, and is the cause of considerable detention
 to us. we encamped on the river bank near the place at which it leaves
 the valley and enters the mountain having traveled about 23 miles. we
 saw some Antelopes deer Grains, gees, and ducks of the two species
 common to this country. the summer duck has ceased to appear, nor do I
 beleive it is an inhabitant of this part of the country. the timber &c
 is as heretofore tho there is more in this valley on the rapid fork
 than we have seen in the same extent on the river since we entered this
 valley. the Indians appear on some parts of the river to have distroyed
 a great proportion of the little timber which there is by seting fire
 to the bottoms. This morning Capt. Clark set out at sunrise, and sent
 two hunters ahead to kill some meat. at 8 A.M. he arrived at my camp of
 the 2ed inst. where he breakfasted; here he found a note which I had
 left for him at that place informing him of the occurences of my rout
 &c. the river continued to be crouded with Islands, rapid and shoaly.
 these shoals or riffles succeeded each other every 3 or four hundred
 yards; at those places they are obliged to drag the canoes over the
 stone there not being water enough to float them, and betwen the riffles
 the current is so strong that they are compelled to have cecourse to
 the cord; and being unable to walk on the shore for the brush wade in
 the river along the shore and hawl them by the cord; this has increased
 the pain and labour extreemly; their feet soon get tender and soar by
 wading and walking over the stones. these are also so slipry that they
 frequently get severe falls. being constantly wet soon makes them feble
 also. their hunters killed 2 deer today and some gees and ducks wer
 killed by those who navigated the canoes. they saw deer antelopes
 Grains beaver Otter &c. Capt. Clark's ancle became so painfull to him
 that he was unable to walk.--This evening they encamped on the Stard.
 side in a bottom of cottonwood timber all much fatiegued.
 [Clark, August 4, 1805]
 August 4th Sunday 1805
 a fine morning cool proceeded on verry early and Brackfast at the Camp
 Capt Lewis left yesterday morning, at this Camp he left a note
 informing that he discovered no fresh Sign of Indians &c. The river
 continued to be crouded with Islands Sholey rapid & clear, I could not
 walk on Shore to day as my ankle was Sore from a turner on that part.
 the method we are compelled to take to get on is fatigueing & laborious
 in the extreen, haul the Canoes over the rapids, which Suckceed each
 other every two or three hundred yards and between the water rapid
 oblige to towe & walke on Stones the whole day except when we have
 poleing men wet all day Sore feet &c. &c Murcury at Sun rise 49 a. 0,
 [Lewis, August 5, 1805]
 Monday August 5th 1805
 As Charbono complained of being unable to march far today I ordered him
 and Sergt. Gass to pass the rappid river near our camp and proceed at
 their leasure through the level bottom to a point of high timber about
 seven miles distant on the middle fork which was in view; I gave them
 my pack that of Drewyer and the meat which we had, directing them to
 remain at that place untill we joined them. I took Drewyer with me and
 continued my rout up the stard. side of the river about 4 miles and
 then waded it; found it so rapid and shallow that it was impossible to
 navigate it. continued up it on the Lard. side about 11/2 miles further
 when the mountains put in close on both sides and arrose to great
 hight, partially covered with snow. from hence the course of the river
 was to the East of North. I took the advantage of a high projecting
 spur of the mountain which with some difficulty we ascended to it's
 summit in about half an hour. from this eminance I had a pleasing view
 of the valley through which I had passed many miles below and the
 continuation of the middle fork through the valley equally wide above
 me to the distance of about 20 miles when that also appeared to enter
 the mountains and disappeared to my view; however the mountains which
 termineate the valley in this direction appeared much lower than those
 up either of the other forks. on the rapid fork they appeared still to
 rise the one range towering above another as far as I could perceive
 them. the middle fork as I suspected dose bear considerably to the West
 of South and the gap formed by it in the mountains after the valley
 terminates is in the same direction. under these circumstances I did
 not hesitate in beleiving the middle fork the most proper for us to
 ascend. about South from me, the middle fork approached within about 5
 miles. I resolved to pass across the plains to it and return to Gass
 and Charbono, accordingly we set out and decended the mountain among
 some steep and difficult precipices of rocks. here Drewyer missed his
 step and had a very dangerous fall, he sprained one of his fingers and
 hirt his leg very much. in fifteen or 20 minutes he was able to proceed
 and we continued our rout to the river where we had desighned to
 interscept it. I quenched my thirst and rested a few minutes examined
 the river and found it still very navi-gable. an old indian road very
 large and plain leads up this fork, but I could see no tracks except
 those of horses which appeared to have passed early in the spring. as
 the river mad a great bend to the South East we again ascended the high
 plain and steered our course as streight as we could to the point where
 I had directed Gass and Sharbono to remain. we passed the plain
 regained the bottom and struck the river about 3 miles above them; by
 this time it was perfectly dark & we hooped but could hear no tidings
 of them. we had struck the river at the point of timber to which I had
 directed them, but having mistaken a point of woods lower down, had
 halted short of the place. we continued our rout after dark down the
 bottom through thick brush of the pulppy leafed thorn and prickly pears
 for about 2 hours when we arrived at their camp. they had a small
 quantity of meat left which Drewyer and myself eat it being the first
 we had taisted today. we had traveled about 25 miles. I soon laid down
 and slept very soundly untill morning. I saw no deer today nor any game
 except a few Antelopes which were very shy. the soil of the plains is a
 light yellow clay very meager and intermixed with a large proportion of
 gravel, producing nothing except the twisted or bearded grass, sedge
 and prickly pears. the dryer parts of the bottoms are also much more
 indifferent in point of soil to those below and are covered with the
 southernwood pulpy leafed thorn and prickley pears with but little
 grass. the moist parts are fertile and covered with fine grass and sand
 This morning Capt. Clark set out at sunrise and dispatched Joseph &
 Reubin Fields to hunt. they killed two deer on one of which the party
 breakfasted. the river today they found streighter and more rapid even
 than yesterday, and the labour and difficulty of the navigation was
 proportionably increased, they therefore proceeded but slowly and with
 great pain as the men had become very languid from working in the water
 and many of their feet swolen and so painfull that they could scarcely
 walk. at 4 P.M. they arrived at the confluence of the two rivers where
 I had left the note. this note had unfortunately been placed on a green
 pole which the beaver had cut and carried off together with the note;
 the possibility of such an occurrence never one occurred to me when I
 placed it on the green pole. this accedent deprived Capt. Clark of any
 information with ripect to the country and supposing that the rapid
 fork was most in the direction which it was proper we should pursue, or
 West, he took that stream and asscended it with much difficulty about a
 mile and encamped on an island that had been lately overflown and was
 yet damp; they were therefore compelled to make beds of brush to keep
 themselves out of the mud. in ascending this stream for about a quarter
 of a mile it scattered in such a maner that they were obliged to cut a
 passage through the willow brush which leant over the little channels
 and united their tops. Capt. Clarks ankle is extreemly painfull to him
 this evening; the tumor has not yet mature, he has a slight fever.--The
 men were so much fortiegued today that they wished much that navigation
 was at an end that they might go by land.-
 [Clark, August 5, 1805]
 August 5th Monday 1805
 a Cold Clear morning the wind from the S. E. the river Streight & much
 more rapid than yesterday, I Sent out Jo. & R. Fields to kill Some meat
 they killed 2 Deer & we brackfast on one of them and proceeded on with
 great dificuelety from the rapidity of the Current, and numerable
 rapids we had to encounter, at 4 oClock P M Murcury 49 ab. 0, passed
 the mouth of principal fork which falls in on the Lard. Side, this fork
 is about the Size of the Stard. one less water reather not so rapid,
 its Course as far as can be Seen is S. E & appear to pass through
 between two mountains, the N W. fork being the one most in our course
 i. e. S 25 W. as far as I can See, deturmind me to take this fork as
 the principal and the one most proper the S E fork is of a Greenish
 Colour & contains but little timber. The S W fok contains more timber
 than is below for Some distance, we assended this fork about one mile
 and Encamped on an Island which had been laterly overflown & was wet we
 raised our bead on bushes, we passed a part of the river above the
 forks which was divided and Scattered thro the willows in Such a manner
 as to render it dificuelt to pass through for a 1/4 of a mile, we wer
 oblige to Cut our way thro the willows--Men much fatigued from their
 excessive labours in hauling the Canoes over the rapids &c. verry weak
 being in the water all day. my foot verry painfull
 Assended the N W Fork 9 miles on a Course S. 30° W. to a Bluff on the
 Stard. Side passed Several Bayous & Islands
 [Lewis, August 6, 1805]
 Tuesday August 6th 1805.
 We set out this morning very early on our return to the forks. having
 nothing to eat I set Drewyer to the woodlands to my left in order to
 kill a deer, sent Sergt. Gass to the right with orders to keep
 sufficiently near to discover Capt. C. and the party should they be on
 their way up that stream, and with Sharbono I directed my course to the
 main forks through the bottom directing the others to meet us there.
 about five miles above the forks I head the hooping of the party to my
 left and changed my rout towards them; on my arrival found that they
 had taken the rapid fork and learnt from Capt. Clark that he had not
 found the note which I had left for him at that place and the reasons
 which had induced him to ascend this stream. it was easeist & more in
 our direction, and apd. to contain as much water he had hoever
 previously to my comeing up with him, met Drewyer who informed him of
 the state of the two rivers and was on his return. one of their canoes
 had just overset and all the baggage wet, the medecine box among other
 articles and several articles lost a shot pouch and horn with all the
 implements for one rifle lost and never recovered. I walked down to the
 point where I waited their return. on their arrival found that two
 other canoes had filled with water and wet their cargoes completely.
 Whitehouse had been thrown out of one of the canoes as she swing in a
 rapid current and the canoe had rubed him and pressed him to the bottom
 as she passed over him and had the water been 2 inches shallower must
 inevitably have crushed him to death. our parched meal, corn, Indian
 preasents, and a great part of our most valuable stores were wet and
 much damaged on this ocasion. to examine, dry and arrange our stores
 was the first object; we therefore passed over to the lard. side
 opposite to the entrance of the rapid fork where there was a large
 gravly bar that answered our purposes; wood was also convenient and
 plenty. here we fixed our camp, and unloaded all our canoes and opened
 and exposed to dry such articles as had been wet. a part of the load of
 each canoe consisted of the leaden canestirs of powder which were not
 in least injured, tho some of them had remained upwards of an hour
 under water. about 20 lbs. of powder which we had in a tight Keg or at
 least one which we thought sufficiently so got wet and intirely
 spoiled. this would have been the case with the other had it not have
 been for the expedient which I had fallen on of securing the powder by
 means of the lead having the latter formed into canesters which were
 filled with the necessary proportion of poder to discharge the lead
 when used, and those canesters well secured with corks and wax. in this
 country the air is so pure and dry that any vessel however well
 seasoned the timber may be will give way or shrink unless it is kept
 full of some liquid. we found that three deer skins which we had left
 at a considerable hight on a tree were taken off which we supposed had
 been done by a panther. we sent out some men to hunt this evening, they
 killed 3 deer and four Elk which gave us a plentifull supply of meat
 once more. Shannon had been dispatched up the rapid fork this morning
 to hunt, by Capt Clark before he met with Drewyer or learnt his mistake
 in the rivers. when he returned he sent Drewyer in surch of him, but he
 rejoined us this evening and reported that he had been several miles up
 the river and could find nothing of him. we had the trumpet sounded and
 fired several guns but he did not join us this evening. I am fearful he
 is lost again. this is the same man who was seperated from us 15 days
 as we came up the Missouri and subsisted 9 days of that time on grapes
 only. Whitehouse is in much pain this evening with the injury one of
 his legs sustained from the canoe today at the time it upset and swing
 over him. Capt Clarks ankle is also very painfull to him.--we should
 have given the party a days rest some where near this place had not
 this accedent happened, as I had determined to take some observations
 to fix the Latitude and longitude of these forks. our merchandize
 medecine &c are not sufficiently dry this evening we covered them
 securely for the evening. Capt Clark had ascended the river about 9
 miles from this place on a course of S 30° W. before he met with Drewyer.
 we beleive that the N. W. or rapid fork is the dane of the melting
 snows of the mountains, and that it is not as long as the middle fork
 and dose not at all seasons of the year supply any thing like as much
 water as the other and that about this season it rises to it's greatest
 hight. this last appears from the apparent bed of the river which is
 now overflown and the water in many plases spreads through old channels
 which have their bottoms covered with grass that has grown this season
 and is such as appears on the parts of the bottom not innundated. we
 therefore determined that the middle fork was that which ought of right
 to bear the name we had given to the lower portion or River Jefferson
 and called the bold rapid an clear stream Wisdom, and the more mild and
 placid one which flows in from the S. E. Philanthrophy, in
 commemoration of two of those cardinal virtues, which have so eminently
 marked that deservedly selibrated character through life.
 [Clark, August 6, 1805]
 August 6th Tuesday 1805
 a Clear morning Cool wind from the S W we proceeded on with much
 dificuelty and fatigue over rapids & Stones; river about 40 or 50 yards
 wide much divided by Islands and narrow Bayoos to a low bluff on the
 Stard Side & Brackfast, dureing the time of Brackfast Drewyer Came to
 me from Capt. Lewis and informed me that they had explored both forks
 for 30 or 40 miles & that the one we were assending was impractiabl
 much further up & turned imediately to the north, The middle fork he
 reported was jintle and after a Short distanc turned to the S. W. and
 that all the Indian roades leades up the middle fork. this report
 deturmind me to take the middle fork, accordingly Droped down to the
 forks where I met with Capt Lewis & party, Capt Lewis had left a Letter
 on a pole in the forks informing me what he had discovered & the course
 of the rivers &c. this lettr was Cut down by the beaver as it was on a
 green pole & Carried off. Three Skins which was left on a tree was
 taken off by the Panthers or wolvers. In decending to the Point one
 Canoe Struck & turned on a rapid & Sunk, and wet every thing which was
 in her, this misfortune obliged us to halt at the forks and dry those
 articles, one other Canoe nearly turning over, filled half full of
 water & wet our medison & Some Goods Corn &c. Several hunters out to
 day & killed a young Elk, Antilope, & 3 Deer, one man Shannon did not
 return to night--This evening Cool my anckle much wors than it has
 been--this evening a Violent wind from the N. W accompanied with rain
 which lasted half an hour wind N. W
 [Lewis, August 7, 1805]
 Wednesday August 7th 1805.
 The morning being fair we spread our stores to dry at an early hour.
 Dispatched Reubin Fields in surch of Shannon. our stores were now so
 much exhausted that we found we could proceed with one canoe less. we
 therefore drew out one of them into a thicket of brush and secured her
 in such manner that the water could not take her off should the river
 rise to the hight where she is. The creek which falls in above us we
 called turf creek from the cercustance of it's bottoms being composed
 of excellent turf. my air gun was out of order and her sights had been
 removed by some accedent I put her in order and regulated her. she shot
 again as well as she ever did. The clouds last night prevented my
 taking any lunar observations this day I took Equal Altitudes of the 0
 with Sextant.
 At one oclock all our baggage was dry we therefore packed it up
 reloaded the canoes and the party proceeded with Capt. Clark up
 Jefferson's river. I remained with Sergt. Gass to complete the
 observation of equal altitudes and joined them in the evening at their
 camp on the Lard. side just above the entrance of turf creek. we had a
 shower of rain wich continued about 40 minutes attended with thunder
 and lightning. this shower wet me perfectly before I reached the camp.
 the clouds continued during the night in such manner that I was unable
 to obtain any lunar observations. This evening Drewyer brought in a
 deer which he had killed. we have not heard any thing from Shannon yet,
 we expect that he has pursued Wisdom river upwards for som distance
 probably killed some heavy animal and is waiting our arrival. the large
 biteing fly or hare fly as they sometimes called are very troublesome
 to us. I observe two kinds of them a large black species and a small
 brown species with a green head. the musquetoes are not as troublesome
 as they were below, but are still in considerable quantities. the eye
 knats have disappeared. the green or blowing flies are still in swarms.
 r the courses from the entrance of Wisdom river to the forks of
 Jefferson's river are taken directly to the objects mentioned and the
 distance set down is that by land on a direct line between the points;
 the estimated distances by water is also added in the body of the
 remarks on each course.
 [Clark, August 7, 1805]
 August 7th Wednesday 1805
 a fine morning put out our Stores &c. to dry & took equal altitudes
 with the Sextant,--as our Store were a little exorsted and one Canoe
 became unnecessary deturmind to leave one. we Hauled her up in the
 bushes on the lower Side of the main fork & fastened her So that the
 water could not flote her off. The Countrey in this quarter is as
 follows i, e a Vallie of 5 or 6 miles wide Inclosed between two high
 Mountains, the bottom rich Some Small timber on the Islands & bushes on
 the edges of the river Some Bogs & verry good turf in different places
 in the vallie, Some scattering Pine & ceder on the mountains in places,
 other Parts nacked except grass and Stone The Lattitude of the Mouth of
 Wisdom River is 45° 2' 21.6" North, we proceeded up the Main Middle or S.
 E. fork, passed a Camped on the Lard. Side above the mouth of a bold
 running Stream 12 yards wide, which we call turf Creek from the number
 of bogs & quanty of turf in its waters. this Creek runs thro a open
 Plain for Several miles, takeing its rise in a high mountain to the N
 E. The river Jefferson above Wisdom is gentle Crooked and about 40
 yards wide, Containing but little timber, Some few Cotton willow Willow
 & Birch, and the Srubs common to the countrey and before mentioned at 5
 oClock a thunder Storm from the N. W. accompanied with rain which
 lasted about 40 minits.--despatched R Fields to hunt Shannon, who was
 out huntg. on Wisdom river at the time I returned down that Stream, and
 has made on up the river expecting us to follow him up that river one
 Deer killed this evening. all those Streams Contain emence number of
 Beaver orter Muskrats &c.
 [Lewis, August 8, 1805]
 Thursday August 8th 1805.
 We had a heavy dew this morning. as one canoe had been left we had now
 more hads to spear for the chase; game being scarce it requires more
 hunters to supply us. we therefore dispatched four this morning. we set
 out at sunrise and continued our rout up the river which we find much
 more gentle and deep than below the entrance of Wisdom river it is from
 35 to 45 yards wide very crooked many short bends constituteing large
 and general bends; insomuch that altho we travel briskly and a
 considerable distance yet it takes us only a few miles on our general
 course or rout. there is but very little timber on this fork
 principally the under brush frequently mentioned. I observe a
 considerable quantity of the buffaloe clover in the bottoms. the
 sunflower, flax, green swoard, thistle and several species of the rye
 grass some of which rise to the hight of 3 or 4 feet. there is a grass
 also with a soft smooth leaf that bears it's seeds very much like the
 timothy but it dose not grow very luxouriant or appear as if it would
 answer so well as the common timothy for meadows. I preserved some of
 it's seeds which are now ripe, thinking perhaps it might answer better
 if cultivated, at all events is at least worth the experi-ment. it
 rises about 3 feet high. on a direct line about 2 miles above our
 encampment of this morning we passed the entrance of Philanthrophy
 River which discharges itself by 2 channels a small distance assunder.
 this river from it's size and S. Eastwardly course no doubt heads with
 Madisons river in the snowey mountains visible in that direction. at
 Noon Reubin Fields arrived and reported that he had been up Wisdom
 river some miles above where it entered the mountain and could find
 nothing of Shannon, he had killed a deer and an Antelope. great
 quantity of beaver Otter and musk-rats in these rivers. two of the
 hunters we sent out this morning returned at noon had killed each a
 deer and an Antelope. we use the seting poles today almost altogether.
 we encamped on the Lard sides where there was but little timber were
 obliged to use willow brush for fuel; the rosebushes and bryers were
 very thick. the hunters brought in another deer this evening. to tumor
 on Capt. Clarks ankle has discharged a considerable quantity of matter
 but is still much swolen and inflamed and gives him considerable pain.
 saw a number of Gees ducks and some Crains today. the former begin to
 the evening again proved cloudy much to my mortification and prevented
 my making any lunar observations. the Indian woman recognized the point
 of a high plain to our right which she informed us was not very distant
 from the summer retreat of her nation on a river beyond the mountains
 which runs to the west. this hill she says her nation calls the
 beaver's head from a conceived remblance of it's figure to the head of
 that animal. she assures us that we shall either find her people on
 this river or on the river immediately west of it's source; which from
 it's present size cannot be very distant. as it is now all important
 with us to meet with those people as soon as possible, I determined to
 proceed tomorrow with a small party to the source of the principal
 stream of this river and pass the mountains to the Columbia; and down
 that river untill I found the Indians; in short it is my resolusion to
 find them or some others, who have horses if it should cause me a trip
 of one month. for without horses we shall be obliged to leave a great
 part of our stores, of which, it appears to me that we have a stock
 already sufficiently small for the length of the voyage before us.
 [Clark, August 8, 1805]
 August 8th Thursday 1805
 We proceeded on early wind from the S W. The Thermometer at 52 a 0 at
 Sunrise at 5 miles by water & 41/2 on a derect line from the forks we
 passed a River on the Lard Side 30 yards wide and navagable for Some
 distance takeing its rise in the Mountains Easterly & with the waters
 of Madisons River, passes thro an extensive vallie open & furtill &c.
 this river we call Philanthophy--above this river (which has but little
 timber) Jeffersons R is crooked with Short bends a fiew Islands and
 maney gravelly Sholes, no large timber, Small willow Birch & Srubs &c.
 Encamped on the Lard Side, R Fields joined us this eveng. & informes
 that he could not find Shannon my foot yet verry Swore
 [Lewis, August 9, 1805]
 Friday August 9th 1805.
 The morning was fair and fine; we set out at an early hour and
 proceeded on very well. some parts of the river more rapid than
 yesterday. I walked on shore across the land to a point which I
 presumed they would reach by 8 A.M. our usual time of halting. by this
 means I acquired leasure to accomplish some wrightings which I
 conceived from the nature of my instructions necessary lest any
 accedent should befall me on the long and reather hazardous rout I was
 now about to take. the party did not arrive and I returned about a mile
 and met them, here they halted and we breakefasted; I had killed two
 fine gees on my return. while we halted here Shannon arrived, and
 informed us that having missed the party the day on which he set out he
 had returned the next morning to the place from whence he had set out
 or furst left them and not finding that he had supposed that they wer
 above him; that he then set out and marched one day up wisdom river, by
 which time he was convinced that they were not above him as the river
 could not be navigated; he then returned to the forks and had pursued
 us up this river. he brought the skins of three deer which he had
 killed which he said were in good order. he had lived very plentifully
 this trip but looked a good deel worried with his march. he informed us
 that Wisdom river still kept it's course obliquely down the Jefferson's
 river as far as he was up it. immediately after breakfast I slung my
 pack and set out accompanyed by Drewyer Shields and McNeal who had been
 previously directed to hold themselves in readiness for this service. I
 directed my course across the bottom to the Stard. plain led left the
 beaver's head about 2 miles to my left and interscepted the river about
 8 miles from the point at which I had left it; I then waded it and
 continued my rout to the point where I could observe that it entered
 the mountain, but not being able to reach that place, changed my
 direction to the river which I struck some miles below the mountain and
 encamped for the evening having traveled 16 M. we passed a handsom
 little stream formed by some large spring which rise in this wide
 bottom on the Lard. side of the river. we killed two Antelopes on our
 way and brought with us as much meat as was necessary for our suppers
 and breakfast the next morning. we found this bottom fertile and
 covered with taller grass than usual. the river very crooked much
 divided by islands, shallow rocky in many plases and very rapid;
 insomuch that I have my doubts whether the canoes could get on or not,
 or if they do it must be with great labour.--Capt. Clark proceeded
 after I left him as usual, found the current of the river increasing in
 rapidity towards evening. his hunters killed 2 antelopes only. in the
 evening it clouded up and we experienced a slight rain attended with
 some thunder and lightning. the musquetoes very troublesome this
 evening. there are some soft bogs in these vallies covered with turf.
 the earth of which this mud is composed is white or bluish white and
 appears to be argillacious.
 [Clark, August 9, 1805]
 August 9th Friday 1805
 a fine morning wind from the N. E we proceeded on verry well rapid
 places more noumerous than below, Shannon the man whome we lost on
 Wisdom River Joined us, haveing returned to the forks & prosued us up
 after prosueing Wisdom River one day
 Capt Lewis and 3 men Set out after brackft. to examine the river above,
 find a portage if possible, also the Snake Indians. I Should have taken
 this trip had I have been able to march, from the rageing fury of a
 turner on my anckle musle, in the evening Clouded up and a fiew drops
 of rain Encamped on the Lard Side near a low bluff, the river to day as
 yesterday. the three hunters Could kill only two antelopes to day, game
 of every kind Scerce
 [Lewis, August 10, 1805]
 Saturday August 10th 1805.
 We set out very early this morning and continued our rout through the
 wide bottom on the Lard. side of the river after passing a large creek
 at about 5 miles we fel in with a plain Indian road which led towards
 the point that the river entered the mountain we therefore pursued the
 road I sent Drewyer to the wright to kill a deer which we saw feeding
 and halted on the river under an immencely high perpendicular clift of
 rocks where it entered the mountain here we kindled a fire and waited
 for Drewyer. he arrived in about an hour and a half or at noon with
 three deer skins and the flesh of one of the best of them, we cooked
 and eat a haisty meal and departed, returning a shot distance to the
 Indian road which led us the best way over the mountains, which are not
 very high but ar ruggid and approach the river closely on both sides
 just below these mountains I saw several bald Eagles and two large
 white headed fishinghawks boath these birds were the same common to our
 from the number of rattle snakes about the Clifts at which we halted we
 called them the rattle snake clifts. this serpent is the same before
 discribed with oval spots of yellowish brown. the river below the
 mountains is rapid rocky, very crooked, much divided by islands and
 withal shallow. after it enters the mountains it's bends are not so
 circuetous and it's general course more direct, but it is equally
 shallow les divided more rocky and rapid. we continued our rout along
 the Indian road which led us sometimes over the hills and again in the
 narrow bottoms of the river till at the distance of fifteen Ms. from
 the rattle snake Clifts we arrived in a hadsome open and leavel vally
 where the river divided itself nearly into two equal branches; here I
 halted and examined those streams and readily discovered from their
 size that it would be vain to attempt the navigation of either any
 further. here also the road forked one leading up the vally of each of
 these streams. I therefore sent Drewer on one and Shields on the other
 to examine these roads for a short distance and to return and compare
 their information with respect to the size and apparent plainness of
 the roads as I was now determined to pursue that which appeared to have
 been the most traveled this spring. in the mean time I wrote a note to
 Capt. Clark informing him of the occurrences which had taken place,
 recommending it to him to halt at this place untill my return and
 informing him of the rout I had taken which from the information of the
 men on their return seemed to be in favour of the S W or Left hand fork
 which is reather the smallest. accordingly I put up my note on a dry
 willow pole at the forks, and set out up the S. E. fork, after
 proceeding about 11/2 miles I discovered that the road became so blind
 that it could not be that which we had followed to the forks of
 Jefferson's river, neither could I find the tracks of the horses which
 had passed early in the spring along the other; I therefore determined
 to return and examine the other myself, which I did, and found that the
 same horses had passed up the West fork which was reather largest, and
 more in the direction that I wished to pursue; I therefore did not
 hesitate about changing my rout but determined to take the western
 road. I now wrote a second note to Capt C. informing him of this change
 and sent Drewyer to put it with the other at the forks and waited
 untill he returned. there is scarcely any timber on the river above the
 R. Snake Clifts, nor is there anything larger than willow brush in
 sight of these forks. immediately in the level plain between the forks
 and about 1/2 a mile distance from them stands a high rocky mountain,
 the base of which is surrounded by the level plain; it has a singular
 appearance. the mountains do not appear very high in any direction tho
 the tops of some of them are partially covered with snow. this
 convinces me that we have ascended to a great hight since we have
 entered the rocky Mountains, yet the ascent has been so gradual along
 the vallies that it was scarcely perceptable by land. I do not beleive
 that the world can furnish an example of a river runing to the extent
 which the Missouri and Jefferson's rivers do through such a mountainous
 country and at the same time so navigable as they are. if the Columbia
 furnishes us such another example, a communication across the continent
 by water will be practicable and safe. but this I can scarcely hope
 from a knowledge of its having in it comparitively short course to the
 ocean the same number of feet to decend which the Missouri and
 Mississippi have from this point to the Gulph of Mexico.
 The valley of the west fork through which we passed for four miles boar
 a little to N of West and was about 1 mile wide hemned in on either
 side by rough mountain and steep Clifts of rock at 41/2 miles this
 stream enters a beatifull and extensive plain about ten miles long and
 from 5 to six in width. this plain is surrounded on all sides by a
 country of roling or high wavy plains through which several little
 rivulets extend their wide vallies quite to the Mountains which
 surround the whole in an apparent Circular manner; forming one of the
 handsomest coves I ever saw, of about 16 or 18 miles in diameter. just
 after entering this cove the river bends to the N. W. and runs close
 under the Stard. hills. here we killed a deer and encamped on the
 Stard.,side and made our fire of dry willow brush, the only fuel which
 the country produces. there are not more than three or four cottonwood
 trees in this extensive cove and they are but small. the uplands are
 covered with prickly pears and twisted or bearded grass and are but
 poor; some parts of the bottom lands are covered with grass and
 tolerably fertile; but much the greater proportion is covered with
 prickly pears sedge twisted grass the pulpy leafed thorn southernwood
 wild sage &c and like the uplands is very inferior in point of soil. we
 traveled by estimate 30 Ms. today, that is 10 to the Rattle snake
 Clift, 15 to the forks of Jefferson's river and 5 to our camp in the
 cove. at the apparent extremity of the bottom above us two
 perpendicular clifts of considerable hight stand on either side of the
 river and appers at this distance like a gate, it is about 10 M. due
 Capt Clark set out at sunrise this morning and pursued his rout; found
 the river not rapid but shallow also very crooked. they were obliged to
 drag the canoes over many riffles in the course of the day. they passed
 the point which the natives call the beaver's head. it is a steep rocky
 clift of 150 feet high near the Stard. side of the river, opposite to
 it at the distance of 300 yards is a low clift of about 50 feet which
 is the extremity of a spur of the mountains about 4 miles distant on
 Lard. at 4 P.M. they experienced a heavy shower of rain attended with
 hail thunder and Lightning which continued about an hour. the men
 defended themselves from the hail by means of the willow bushes but all
 the party got perfectly wet. after the shower was over they pursued
 their march and encamped on the stard side only one deer killed by
 their hunters today. tho they took up another by the way which had been
 killed three days before by Jos. Fields and hung up near the river.
 [Clark, August 10, 1805]
 August 10th Satturday 1805
 Some rain this morning at Sun rise and Cloudy we proceeded on passed a
 remarkable Clift point on the Stard. Side about 150 feet high, this
 Clift the Indians Call the Beavers head, opposit at 300 yards is a low
 clift of 50 feet which is a Spur from the Mountain on the Lard. about 4
 miles, the river verry Crooked, at 4 oClock a hard rain from the S W
 accompanied with hail Continued half an hour, all wet, the men
 Sheltered themselves from the hail with bushes We Encamped on the Stard
 Side near a Bluff, only one Deer killed to day, the one killed Jo
 Fields 3 Days past & hung up we made use of river narrow, & Sholey but
 not rapid.
 [Lewis, August 11, 1805]
 Sunday August 11th 1805.
 We set out very early this morning; but the track which we had pursued
 last evening soon disappeared. I therefore resolved to proceed to the
 narrow pass on the creek about 10 miles West in hopes that I should
 again find the Indian road at the place, accordingly I passed the river
 which was about 12 yards wide and bared in several places entirely
 across by beaver dams and proceeded through the level plain directly to
 the pass. I now sent Drewyer to keep near the creek to my right and
 Shields to my left, with orders to surch for the road which if they
 found they were to notify me by placing a hat in the muzzle of their
 gun. I kept McNeal with me; after having marched in this order for
 about five miles I discovered an Indian on horse back about two miles
 distant coming down the plain toward us. with my glass I discovered
 from his dress that he was of a different nation from any that we had
 yet seen, and was satisfyed of his being a Sosone; his arms were a bow
 and quiver of arrows, and was mounted on an eligant horse without a
 saddle, and a small string which was attatched to the underjaw of the
 horse which answered as a bridle. I was overjoyed at the sight of this
 stranger and had no doubt of obtaining a friendly introduction to his
 nation provided I could get near enough to him to convince him of our
 being whitemen. I therefore proceeded towards him at my usual pace.
 when I had arrived within about a mile he mad a halt which I did also
 and unloosing my blanket from my pack, I mad him the signal of
 friendship known to the Indians of the Rocky mountains and those of the
 Missouri, which is by holding the mantle or robe in your hands at two
 corners and then throwing up in the air higher than the head bringing
 it to the earth as if in the act of spreading it, thus repeating three
 times. this signal of the robe has arrisen from a custom among all
 those nations of spreading a robe or skin for ther gests to set on when
 they are visited. this signal had not the desired effect, he still kept
 his position and seemed to view Drewyer an Shields who were now
 comiming in sight on either hand with an air of suspicion, I wold
 willingly have made them halt but they were too far distant to hear me
 and I feared to make any signal to them least it should increase the
 suspicion in the mind of the Indian of our having some unfriendly
 design upon him. I therefore haistened to take out of my sack some
 beads a looking glas and a few trinkets which I had brought with me for
 this purpose and leaving my gun and pouch with McNeal advanced unarmed
 towards him. he remained in the same stedfast poisture untill I arrived
 in about 200 paces of him when he turn his hose about and began to move
 off slowly from me; I now called to him in as loud a voice as I could
 command repeating the word tab-ba-bone, which in their language
 signifyes white man. but loking over his sholder he still kept his eye
 on Drewyer and Sheilds who wer still advancing neither of them haveing
 segacity enough to recollect the impropriety of advancing when they saw
 me thus in parley with the Indian. I now made a signal to these men to
 halt, Drewyer obeyed but Shields who afterwards told me that he did not
 obseve the signal still kept on the Indian halted again and turned his
 horse about as if to wait for me, and I beleive he would have remained
 untill I came up whith him had it not been for Shields who still
 pressed forward. whe I arrived within about 150 paces I again
 repepeated the word tab-ba-bone and held up the trinkits in my hands
 and striped up my shirt sieve to give him an opportunity of seeing the
 colour of my skin and advanced leasure towards him but he did not
 remain untill I got nearer than about 100 paces when he suddonly turned
 his hose about, gave him the whip leaped the creek and disapeared in
 the willow brush in an instant and with him vanished all my hopes of
 obtaining horses for the preasent. I now felt quite as much
 mortification and disappointment as I had pleasure and expectation at
 the first sight of this indian. I fet soarly chargrined at the conduct
 of the men particularly Sheilds to whom I principally attributed this
 failure in obtaining an introduction to the natives. I now called the
 men to me and could not forbare abraiding them a little for their want
 of attention and imprudence on this occasion. they had neglected to
 bring my spye-glass which in haist I had droped in the plain with the
 blanket where I made the signal before mentioned. I sent Drewyer and
 Shields back to surche it, they soon found it and rejoined me. we now
 set out on the track of the horse hoping by that means to be lead to an
 indian camp, the trail of inhabitants of which should they abscond we
 should probably be enabled to pursue to the body of the nation to which
 they would most probably fly for safety. this rout led us across a
 large Island framed by nearly an equal division of the creek in this
 bottom; after passing to the open ground on the N. side of the creek we
 observed that the track made out toward the high hills about 3 m.
 distant in that direction. I thought it probable that their camp might
 probably be among those hills & that they would reconnoiter us from the
 tops of them, and that if we advanced haistily towards them that they
 would become allarmed and probably run off; I therefore halted in an
 elivated situation near the creek had a fire kindled of willow brush
 cooked and took breakfast. during this leasure I prepared a small
 assortment of trinkits consisting of some mockkerson awls a few strans
 of several kinds of beads some paint a looking glass &c which I
 attatched to the end of a pole and planted it near our fire in order
 that should the Indians return in surch of us they might from this
 token discover that we were friendly and white persons. before we had
 finised our meal a heavy shower of rain came on with some hail wich
 continued abot 20 minutes and wet us to the skin, after this shower we
 pursued the track of the horse but as the rain had raised the grass
 which he had trodden down it was with difficulty that we could follow
 it. we pursued it however about 4 miles it turning up the valley to the
 left under the foot of the hills. we pas several places where the
 Indians appeared to have been diging roots today and saw the fresh
 tracks of 8 or ten horses but they had been wandering about in such a
 confused manner that we not only lost the track of the hose which we
 had been pursuing but could make nothing of them. in the head of this
 valley we passed a large bog covered with tall grass and moss in which
 were a great number of springs of cold pure water, we now turned a
 little to the left along the foot of the high hills and arrived at a
 small branch on which we encamped for the night, having traveled in
 different directions about 20 Miles and about 10 from the camp of last
 evening on a direct line. after meeting with the Indian today I fixed a
 small flag of the U'S. to a pole which I made McNeal carry. and planted
 in the ground where we halted or encamped.
 This morning Capt Clark dispatched several hunters a head; the morning
 being rainy and wet did not set out untill after an early breakfast. he
 passed a large Island which he called the 3000 mile Island from the
 circumstance of it's being that distance from the entrance of the
 Missouri by water. a considerable proportion of the bottom on Lard.
 side is a bog covered with tall grass and many parts would afford fine
 turf; the bottom is about 8 Ms. wide and the plains which succeed it on
 either side extend about the same distance to the base of the
 mountains. they passed a number of small Islands and bayous on both
 sides which cut and intersect the bottoms in various directions. found
 the river shallow and rapid, insomuch that the men wer compelled to be
 in the water a considerable proportion of the day in drageing the
 canoes over the shoals and riffles. they saw a number of geese ducks
 beaver & otter, also some deer and antelopes. the men killed a beaver
 with a seting pole and tommahawked several Otter. the hunters killed 3
 deer and an Antelope. Capt. C. observed some bunches of privy near the
 river. there are but few trees in this botom and those small narrow
 leafed Cottonwood. the principal growth is willow with the narrow leaf
 and Currant bushes. they encamped this evening on the upper point of a
 large Island near the Stard. shore.-
 [Clark, August 11, 1805]
 August 11th Sunday 1805.
 a Shower of rain this morning at Sun rise, Cloudy all the morning wind
 from the S W passed a large Island which I call the 3000 mile Island as
 it is Situated that distance from the mouth of the Missouri by water, a
 number of Small Bayoes running in different directions thro the Bottom,
 which is about 5 miles wide, then rises to an ellivated plain on each
 Side which extends as far. passed Several Small Islands and a number of
 Bayoes on each Side and Encamped on the upper point of a large Island,
 our hunters killed three Deer, one antilope, and Tomahawked Several
 Orter to day killed one Beaver with a Setting pole. I observed Some
 bunches of Privey on the banks
 [Lewis, August 12, 1805]
 Monday August 12th 1805
 This morning I sent Drewyer out as soon as it was light, to try and
 discover what rout the Indians had taken. he followed the track of the
 horse we had pursued yesterday to the mountain wher it had ascended,
 and returned to me in about an hour and a half. I now determined to
 pursue the base of the mountains which form this cove to the S. W. in
 the expectation of finding some Indian road which lead over the
 Mountains, accordingly I sent Drewyer to my right and Shields to my
 left with orders to look out for a road or the fresh tracks of horses
 either of which we should first meet with I had determined to pursue.
 at the distance of about 4 miles we passed 4 small rivulets near each
 other on which we saw som resent bowers or small conic lodges formed
 with willow brush. near them the indians had geathered a number of
 roots from the manner in which they had toarn up the ground; but I
 could not discover the root which they seemed to be in surch of. I saw
 several large hawks that were nearly black near this place we fell in
 with a large and plain Indian road which came into the cove from the N.
 E. and led along the foot of the mountains to the S. W. oliquely
 approaching the main stream which we had left yesterday. this road we
 now pursued to the S. W. at 5 miles it passed a stout stream which is a
 principal fork of the man stream and falls into it just above the
 narrow pass between the two clifts before mentioned and which we now
 saw below us. here we halted and breakfasted on the last of our
 venison, having yet a small peice of pork in reseve. after eating we
 continued our rout through the low bottom of the main stream along the
 foot of the mountains on our right the valley for 5 mes. further in a
 S. W. direction was from 2 to 3 miles wide the main stream now after
 discarding two stream on the left in this valley turns abruptly to the
 West through a narrow bottom betwen the mountains. the road was still
 plain, I therefore did not dispair of shortly finding a passage over
 the mountains and of taisting the waters of the great Columbia this
 evening. we saw an animal which we took to be of the fox kind as large
 or reather larger than the small wolf of the plains. it's colours were
 a curious mixture of black, redis-brown and yellow. Drewyer shot at him
 about 130 yards and knocked him dow bet he recovered and got out of our
 reach. it is certainly a different animal from any that we have yet
 seen. we also saw several of the heath cock with a long pointed tail
 and an uniform dark brown colour but could not kill one of them. they
 are much larger than the common dunghill fowls, and in their habits and
 manner of flying resemble the growse or prarie hen. at the distance of
 4 miles further the road took us to the most distant fountain of the
 waters of the mighty Missouri in surch of which we have spent so many
 toilsome days and wristless nights. thus far I had accomplished one of
 those great objects on which my mind has been unalterably fixed for
 many years, judge then of the pleasure I felt in allying my thirst with
 this pure and ice cold water which issues from the base of a low
 mountain or hill of a gentle ascent for 1/2 a mile. the mountains are
 high on either hand leave this gap at the head of this rivulet through
 which the road passes. here I halted a few minutes and rested myself.
 two miles below McNeal had exultingly stood with a foot on each side of
 this little rivulet and thanked his god that he had lived to bestride
 the mighty & heretofore deemed endless Missouri. after refreshing
 ourselves we proceeded on to the top of the dividing ridge from which I
 discovered immence ranges of high mountains still to the West of us
 with their tops partially covered with snow. I now decended the
 mountain about 3/4 of a mile which I found much steeper than on the
 opposite side, to a handsome bold running Creek of cold Clear water.
 here I first tasted the water of the great Columbia river. after a
 short halt of a few minutes we continued our march along the Indian
 road which lead us over steep hills and deep hollows to a spring on the
 side of a mountain where we found a sufficient quantity of dry willow
 brush for fuel, here we encamped for the night having traveled about 20
 Miles. as we had killed nothing during the day we now boiled and eat
 the remainder of our pork, having yet a little flour and parched meal.
 at the creek on this side of the mountain I observed a species of deep
 perple currant lower in its growth, the stem more branched and leaf
 doubly as large as that of the Missouri. the leaf is covered on it's
 under disk with a hairy pubersence. the fruit is of the ordinary size
 and shape of the currant and is supported in the usual manner, but is
 ascid & very inferior in point of flavor.
 this morning Capt. Clark set out early. found the river shoally, rapid
 shallow, and extreemly difficult. the men in the water almost all day.
 they are geting weak soar and much fortiegued; they complained of the
 fortiegue to which the navigation subjected them and wished to go by
 land Capt. C. engouraged them and passifyed them. one of the canoes was
 very near overseting in a rapid today. they proceeded but slowly. at
 noon they had a thunderstorm which continued about half an hour. their
 hunters killed 3 deer and a fawn. they encamped in a smoth plain near a
 few cottonwood trees on the Lard. side.-
 [Clark, August 12, 1805]
 August 12th Monday 1805
 We Set out early (Wind N E) proceeded on passed Several large Islands
 and three Small ones, the river much more Sholey than below which
 obliges us to haul the Canoes over those Sholes which Suckceed each
 other at Short intervales emencely laborious men much fatigued and
 weakened by being continualy in the water drawing the Canoes over the
 Sholes encamped on the Lard Side men complain verry much of the emence
 labour they are obliged to undergo & wish much to leave the river. I
 passify them. the weather Cool, and nothing to eate but venison, the
 hunters killed three Deer to day
 [Lewis, August 13, 1805]
 Tuesday August 13th 1805.
 We set out very early on the Indian road which still led us through an
 open broken country in a westerly direction. a deep valley appeared to
 our left at the base of a high range of mountains which extended from
 S. E. to N. W. having their sides better clad with pine timber than we
 had been accustomed to see the mountains and their tops were also
 partially covered with snow. at the distance of five miles the road
 after leading us down a long decending valley for 2 Ms. brought us to a
 large creek about 10 yds. wide; this we passed and on rising the hill
 beyond it had a view of a handsome little valley to our left of about a
 mile in width through which from the appearance of the timber I
 conjectured that a river passed. I saw near the creek some bushes of
 the white maple, the shumate of the small species with the winged rib,
 and a species of honeysuckle much in it's growth and leaf like the
 small honeysuckle of the Missouri only reather larger and bears a
 globular berry as large as a garden pea and as white as wax. this berry
 is formed of a thin smooth pellicle which envellopes a soft white
 musilagenous substance in which there are several small brown seed
 irregularly scattered or intermixed without any sell or perceptable
 membranous covering.--we had proceeded about four miles through a wavy
 plain parallel to the valley or river bottom when at the distance of
 about a mile we saw two women, a man and some dogs on an eminence
 immediately before us. they appeared to vew us with attention and two
 of them after a few minutes set down as if to wait our arrival we
 continued our usual pace towards them. when we had arrived within half
 a mile of them I directed the party to halt and leaving my pack and
 rifle I took the flag which I unfurled and avanced singly towards them
 the women soon disappeared behind the hill, the man continued untill I
 arrived within a hundred yards of him and then likewise absconded. tho
 I frequently repeated the word tab-ba-bone sufficiently loud for him to
 have heard it. I now haistened to the top of the hill where they had
 stood but could see nothing of them. the dogs were less shye than their
 masters they came about me pretty close I therefore thought of tying a
 handkerchief about one of their necks with some beads and other
 trinkets and then let them loose to surch their fugitive owners
 thinking by this means to convince them of our pacific disposition
 towards them but the dogs would not suffer me to take hold of them;
 they also soon disappeared. I now made a signal fror the men to come
 on, they joined me and we pursued the back tarck of these Indians which
 lead us along the same road which we had been traveling. the road was
 dusty and appeared to have been much traveled lately both by men and
 horses. these praries are very poor the soil is of a light yellow clay,
 intermixed with small smooth gravel, and produces little else but
 prickly pears, and bearded grass about 3 inches high. the prickley pear
 are of three species that with a broad leaf common to the missouri;
 that of a globular form also common to the upper part of the Missouri
 and more especially after it enters the Rocky Mountains, also a 3rd
 peculiar to this country. it consists of small circular thick leaves
 with a much greater number of thorns. these thorns are stronger and
 appear to be barbed. the leaves grow from the margins of each other as
 in the broad leafed pear of the missouri, but are so slightly attatched
 that when the thorn touches your mockerson it adhears and brings with
 it the leaf covered in every direction with many others. this is much
 the most troublesome plant of the three. we had not continued our rout
 more than a mile when we were so fortunate as to meet with three female
 savages. the short and steep ravines which we passed concealed us from
 each other untill we arrived within 30 paces. a young woman immediately
 took to flight, an Elderly woman and a girl of about 12 years old
 remained. I instantly laid by my gun and advanced towards them. they
 appeared much allarmed but saw that we were to near for them to escape
 by flight they therefore seated themselves on the ground, holding down
 their heads as if reconciled to die which the expected no doubt would
 be their fate; I took the elderly woman by the hand and raised her up
 repeated the word tab-babone and strip up my shirt sieve to sew her my
 skin; to prove to her the truth of the ascertion that I was a white man
 for my face and hads which have been constantly exposed to the sun were
 quite as dark as their own. they appeared instantly reconciled, and the
 men coming up I gave these women some beads a few mockerson awls some
 pewter looking-glasses and a little paint. I directed Drewyer to
 request the old woman to recall the young woman who had run off to some
 distance by this time fearing she might allarm the camp before we
 approached and might so exasperate the natives that they would perhaps
 attack us without enquiring who we were. the old woman did as she was
 requested and the fugitive soon returned almost out of breath. I
 bestoed an equvolent portion of trinket on her with the others. I now
 painted their tawny cheeks with some vermillion which with this nation
 is emblematic of peace. after they had become composed I informed them
 by signs that I wished them to conduct us to their camp that we wer
 anxious to become acquainted with the chiefs and warriors of their
 nation. they readily obeyed and we set out, still pursuing the road
 down the river. we had marched about 2 miles when we met a party of
 about 60 warriors mounted on excellent horses who came in nearly full
 speed, when they arrived I advanced towards them with the flag leaving
 my gun with the party about 50 paces behid me. the chief and two others
 who were a little in advance of the main body spoke to the women, and
 they informed them who we were and exultingly shewed the presents which
 had been given them these men then advanced and embraced me very
 affectionately in their way which is by puting their left arm over you
 wright sholder clasping your back, while they apply their left cheek to
 yours and frequently vociforate the word ah-hi'-e, &h-hi'-e that is, I
 am much pleased, I am much rejoiced. bothe parties now advanced and we
 wer all carresed and besmeared with their grease and paint till I was
 heartily tired of the national hug. I now had the pipe lit and gave
 them smoke; they seated themselves in a circle around us and pulled of
 their mockersons before they would receive or smoke the pipe. this is a
 custom among them as I afterwards learned indicative of a sacred
 obligation of sincerity in their profession of friendship given by the
 act of receiving and smoking the pipe of a stranger. or which is as
 much as to say that they wish they may always go bearfoot if they are
 not sincere; a pretty heavy penalty if they are to march through the
 plains of their country. after smoking a few pipes with them I
 distributed some trifles among them, with which they seemed much
 pleased particularly with the blue beads and vermillion. I now informed
 the chief that the object of our visit was a friendly one, that after
 we should reach his camp I would undertake to explain to him fully
 those objects, who we wer, from whence we had come and wither we were
 going; that in the mean time I did not care how soon we were in motion,
 as the sun was very warm and no water at hand. they now put on their
 mockersons, and the principal chief Ca-me-ah-wait made a short speach
 to the warriors. I gave him the flag which I informed him was an emblem
 of peace among whitemen and now that it had been received by him it was
 to be respected as the bond of union between us. I desired him to march
 on, which did and we followed him; the dragoons moved on in squadron in
 our rear. after we had marched about a mile in this order he halted
 them ang gave a second harang; after which six or eight of the young
 men road forward to their encampment and no further regularity was
 observed in the order of march. I afterwards understood that the
 Indians we had first seen this morning had returned and allarmed the
 camp; these men had come out armed cap a pe for action expecting to
 meet with their enemies the Minnetares of Fort de Prarie whome they
 Call Rah'-kees. they were armed with bows arrow and Shield except three
 whom I observed with small pieces such as the N. W. Company furnish the
 natives with which they had obtained from the Rocky Mountain Indians on
 the yellow stone river with whom they are at peace. on our arrival at
 their encampmen on the river in a handsome level and fertile bottom at
 the distance of 4 Ms. from where we had first met them they introduced
 us to a londge made of willow brush and an old leather lodge which had
 been prepared for our reception by the young men which the chief had
 dispatched for that purpose. Here we were seated on green boughs and
 the skins of Antelopes. one of the warriors then pulled up the grass in
 the center of the lodge forming a smal circle of about 2 feet in
 diameter the chief next produced his pipe and native tobacco and began
 a long cerimony of the pipe when we were requested to take of our
 mockersons, the Chief having previously taken off his as well as all
 the warriors present. this we complyed with; the Chief then lit his
 pipe at the fire kindled in this little magic circle, and standing on
 the oposite side of the circle uttered a speach of several minutes in
 length at the conclusion of which he pointed the stem to the four
 cardinal points of the heavens first begining at the East and ending
 with the North. he now presented the pipe to me as if desirous that I
 should smoke, but when I reached my hand to receive it, he drew it back
 and repeated the same cremony three times, after which he pointed the
 stern first to the heavens then to the center of the magic circle
 smoked himself with three whifs and held the pipe untill I took as many
 as I thought proper; he then held it to each of the white persons and
 then gave it to be consumed by his warriors. this pipe was made of a
 dense simitransparent green stone very highly polished about 21/2
 inches long and of an oval figure, the bowl being in the same direction
 with the stem. a small piece of birned clay is placed in the bottom of
 the bowl to seperate the tobacco from the end of the stem and is of an
 irregularly rounded figure not fitting the tube purfectly close in
 order that the smoke may pass. this is the form of the pipe. their
 tobacco is of the same kind of that used by the Minnetares Mandans and
 Ricares of the Missouri. the Shoshonees do not cultivate this plant,
 but obtain it from the Rocky mountain Indians and some of the bands of
 their own nation who live further south. I now explained to them the
 objects of our journey &c. all the women and children of the camp were
 shortly collected about the lodge to indulge themselves with looking at
 us, we being the first white persons they had ever seen. after the
 cerimony of the pipe was over I distributed the remainder of the small
 articles I had brought with me among the women and children. by this
 time it was late in the evening and we had not taisted any food since
 the evening before. the Chief informed us that they had nothing but
 berries to eat and gave us some cakes of serviceberries and Choke
 cherries which had been dryed in the sun; of these I made a hearty
 meal, and then walked to the river, which I found about 40 yards wide
 very rapid clear and about 3 feet deep. the banks low and abrupt as
 those of the upper part of the Missouri, and the bed formed of loose
 stones and gravel. Cameahwait informed me that this stream discharged
 itself into another doubly as large at the distance of half a days
 march which came from the S. W. but he added on further enquiry that
 there was but little more timber below the junction of those rivers
 than I saw here, and that the river was confined between inacessable
 mountains, was very rapid and rocky insomuch that it was impossible for
 us to pass either by land or water down this river to the great lake
 where the white men lived as he had been informed. this was unwelcome
 information but I still hoped that this account had been exagerated
 with a view to detain us among them. as to timber I could discover not
 any that would answer the purpose of constructing canoes or in short
 more than was bearly necessary for fuel consisting of the narrow leafed
 cottonwood and willow, also the red willow Choke Cherry service berry
 and a few currant bushes such as were common on the Missouri. these
 people had been attacked by the Minetares of Fort de prarie this spring
 and about 20 of them killed and taken prisoners. on this occasion they
 lost a great part of their horses and all their lodges except that
 which they had erected for our accomodation; they were now living in
 lodges of a conic figure made of willow brush. I still observe a great
 number of horses feeding in every direction around their camp and
 therefore entertain but little doubt but we shall be enable to furnish
 ourselves with an adiquate number to transport our stores even if we
 are compelled to travel by land over these mountains. on my return to
 my lodge an indian called me in to his bower and gave me a small morsel
 of the flesh of an antelope boiled, and a peice of a fresh salmon
 roasted; both which I eat with a very good relish. this was the first
 salmon I had seen and perfectly convinced me that we were on the waters
 of the Pacific Ocean. the course of this river is a little to the North
 of west as far as I can discover it; and is bounded on each side by a
 range of high Mountains. tho those on the E. side are lowest and more
 distant from the river.
 This evening the Indians entertained us with their dancing nearly all
 night. at 12 O'Ck. I grew sleepy and retired to rest leaving the men to
 amuse themselves with the Indians. I observe no essential difference
 between the music and manner of dancing among this nation and those of
 the Missouri. I was several times awoke in the course of the night by
 their yells but was too much fortiegued to be deprived of a tolerable
 sound night's repose.
 This morning Capt Clark set out early having previously dispatched some
 hunters ahead. it was cool and cloudy all the forepart of the day. at 8
 A.M. they had a slight rain. they passed a number of shoals over which
 they were obliged to drag the canoes; the men in the water 3/4ths of
 the day, they passed a bold runing stream 7 yds. wide on the Lard. side
 just below a high point of Limestone rocks. this stream we call
 McNeal's Creek after Hugh McNeal one of our party. this creek heads in
 the Mountains to the East and forms a handsome valley for some miles
 between the mountains. from the top of this limestone Clift above the
 creek The beaver's head boar N 24° E. 12 Ms. the course of Wisdom river
 or that which the opening of it's valley makes through the mountains is
 N. 25 W. to the gap through which Jefferson's river enters the
 mountains above is S 18° W 10 M. they killed one deer only today. saw a
 number of Otter some beaver Antelopes ducks gees and Grains. they
 caught a number of fine trout as they have every day since I left them.
 they encamped on Lrd. in a smooth level prarie near a few cottonwood
 trees, but were obliged to make use of the dry willow brush for fuel.
 [Clark, August 13, 1805]
 August 13th Tuesday 1805
 a verry Cool morning the Thermometer Stood at 52 a 0 all the fore part
 of the day. Cloudy at 8 oClock a mist of rain we proceeded on passed
 inumerable Sholes obliged to haul the boat 3/4 of the Day over the
 Shole water. passed the mouth of a bold running Stream 7 yards wide on
 the Lard Side below a high Point of Limestone rocks on the Stard Side
 this Creek heads in the mountains to the easte and forms a Vallie
 between two mountains. Call this stream McNeal Creek From the top of
 this rock the Point of the Beaver head hill bears N. 24° E 12 ms.
 The Course of the Wisdom river is--N. 25 W
 The gap at the place the river passes thro a mountain in advance is--S.
 18° W. 10 ms.
 proceeded on and Encamped on the Lard side no wood except dry willows
 and them Small, one Deer killed to day. The river obliges the men to
 undergo great fatigue and labour in hauling the Canoes over the Sholes
 in the Cold water naked.
 [Lewis, August 14, 1805]
 Wednesday August 14th
 In order to give Capt. Clark time to reach the forks of Jefferson's
 river I concluded to spend this day at the Shoshone Camp and obtain
 what information I could with rispect to the country. as we had nothing
 but a little flour and parched meal to eat except the berries with
 which the Indians furnished us I directed Drewyer and Shields to hunt a
 few hours and try to kill something, the Indians furnished them with
 horses and most of their young men also turned out to hunt. the game
 which they principally hunt is the Antelope which they pursue on
 horseback and shoot with their arrows. this animal is so extreemly
 fleet and dureable that a single horse has no possible chance to
 overtake them or run them down. the Indians are therefore obliged to
 have recorce to strategem when they discover a herd of the Antelope
 they seperate and scatter themselves to the distance of five or six
 miles in different directions arround them generally scelecting some
 commanding eminence for a stand; some one or two now pursue the herd at
 full speed over the hills values gullies and the sides of precipices
 that are tremendious to view. thus after runing them from five to six
 or seven miles the fresh horses that were in waiting head them and
 drive them back persuing them as far or perhaps further quite to the
 other extreem of the hunters who now in turn pursue on their fresh
 horses thus worrying the poor animal down and finally killing them with
 their arrows. forty or fifty hunters will be engaged for half a day in
 this manner and perhaps not kill more than two or three Antelopes. they
 have but few Elk or black tailed deer, and the common red deer they
 cannot take as they secrete themselves in the brush when pursued, and
 they have only the bow and arrow wich is a very slender dependence for
 killing any game except such as they can run down with their horses. I
 was very much entertained with a view of this indian chase; it was
 after a herd of about 10 Antelope and about 20 hunters. it lasted about
 2 hours and considerable part of the chase in view from my tent. about
 1 A.M. the hunters returned had not killed a single Antelope, and their
 horses foaming with sweat. my hunters returned soon after and had been
 equally unsuccessfull. I now directed McNeal to make me a little paist
 with the flour and added some berries to it which I found very
 The means I had of communicating with these people was by way of
 Drewyer who understood perfectly the common language of jesticulation
 or signs which seems to be universally understood by all the Nations we
 have yet seen. it is true that this language is imperfect and liable to
 error but is much less so than would be expected. the strong parts of
 the ideas are seldom mistaken.
 I now prevailed on the Chief to instruct me with rispect to the
 geography of his country. this he undertook very cheerfully, by
 delienating the rivers on the ground. but I soon found that his
 information fell far short of my expectation or wishes. he drew the
 river on which we now are to which he placed two branches just above
 us, which he shewed me from the openings of the mountains were in view;
 he next made it discharge itself into a large river which flowed from
 the S. W. about ten miles below us, then continued this joint stream in
 the same direction of this valley or N. W. for one days march and then
 enclined it to the West for 2 more days march, here he placed a number
 of beeps of sand on each side which he informed me represented the vast
 mountains of rock eternally covered with snow through which the river
 passed. that the perpendicular and even juting rocks so closely hemned
 in the river that there was no possibilyte of passing along the shore;
 that the bed of the river was obstructed by sharp pointed rocks and the
 rapidity of the stream such that the whole surface of the river was
 beat into perfect foam as far as the eye could reach. that the
 mountains were also inaccessible to man or horse. he said that this
 being the state of the country in that direction that himself nor none
 of his nation had ever been further down the river than these
 mountains. I then enquired the state of the country on either side of
 the river but he could not inform me. he said there was an old man of
 his nation a days march below who could probably give me some
 information of the country to the N. W. and refered me to an old man
 then present for that to the S. W.--the Chief further informed me that
 he had understood from the persed nosed Indians who inhabit this river
 below the rocky mountains that it ran a great way toward the seting sun
 and finally lost itself in a great lake of water which was illy
 taisted, and where the white men lived. I next commenced my enquiries
 of the old man to whom I had been refered for information relative the
 country S W. of us. this he depicted with horrors and obstructions
 scarcely inferior to that just mentioned. he informed me that the band
 of this nation to which he belonged resided at the distance of 20 days
 march from hence not far from the white people with whom they traded
 for horses mules cloth metal beads and the shells which they woar as
 orniment being those of a species of perl oister. that the course to
 his relations was a little to the West of South. that in order to get
 to his relations the first seven days we should be obliged to climb
 over steep and rocky mountains where we could find no game to kill nor
 anything but roots such as a ferce and warlike nation lived on whom he
 called the broken mockersons or mockersons with holes, and said
 inhabited those mountains and lived like the bear of other countries
 among the rocks and fed on roots or the flesh of such horses as they
 could take or steel from those who passed through their country. that
 in passing this country the feet of our horses would be so much wounded
 with the stones many of them would give out. the next part of the rout
 was about 10 days through a dry and parched sandy desert in which no
 food at this season for either man or horse, and in which we must
 suffer if not perish for the want of water. that the sun had now dryed
 up the little pools of water which exist through this desert plain in
 the spring season and had also scorched all the grass. that no animal
 inhabited this plain on which we could hope to subsist. that about the
 center of this plain a large river passed from S. E. to N. W. which was
 navigable but afforded neither Salmon nor timber. that beyond this
 plain thee or four days march his relations lived in a country
 tolerable fertile and partially covered with timber on another large
 river which ran in the same direction of the former. that this last
 discharged itself into a large river on which many numerous nations
 lived with whom his relations were at war but whether this last
 discharged itself into the great lake or not he did not know. that from
 his relations it was yet a great distance to the great or stinking lake
 as they call the Ocean. that the way which such of his nation as had
 been to the Stinking lake traveled was up the river on which they lived
 and over to that on which the white people lived which last they knew
 discharged itself into the Ocean, and that this was the way which he
 would advise me to travel if I was determined to proceed to the Ocean
 but would advise me to put off the journey untill the next spring when
 he would conduct me. I thanked him for his information and advise and
 gave him a knife with which he appeared to be much gratifyed. from this
 narative I was convinced that the streams of which he had spoken as
 runing through the plains and that on which his relations lived were
 southern branches of the Columbia, heading with the rivers Apostles and
 Collorado, and that the rout he had pointed out was to the Vermillion
 Sea or gulph of Callifornia. I therefore told him that this rout was
 more to the South than I wished to travel, and requested to know if
 there was no rout on the left of this river on which we now are, by
 means of which, I could intercept it below the mountains through which
 it passes; but he could not inform me of any except that of the barren
 plain which he said joined the mountain on that side and through which
 it was impossible for us to pass at this season even if we were
 fortunate enough to escape from the broken mockerson Indians. I now
 asked Cameahwait by what rout the Pierced nosed indians, who he
 informed me inhabited this river below the mountains, came over to the
 Missouri; this he informed me was to the north, but added that the road
 was a very bad one as he had been informed by them and that they had
 suffered excessively with hunger on the rout being obliged to subsist
 for many days on berries alone as there was no game in that part of the
 mountains which were broken rockey and so thickly covered with timber
 that they could scarcely pass. however knowing that Indians had passed,
 and did pass, at this season on that side of this river to the same
 below the mountains, my rout was instantly settled in my own mind,
 povided the account of this river should prove true on an investigation
 of it, which I was determined should be made before we would undertake
 the rout by land in any direction. I felt perfectly satisfyed, that if
 the Indians could pass these mountains with their women and Children,
 that we could also pass them; and that if the nations on this river
 below the mountains were as numerous as they were stated to be that
 they must have some means of subsistence which it would be equally in
 our power to procure in the same country. they informed me that there
 was no buffaloe on the West side of these mountains; that the game
 consisted of a few Elk deer and Antelopes, and that the natives
 subsisted on fish and roots principally. in this manner I spent the day
 smoking with them and acquiring what information I could with respect
 to their country. they informed me that they could pass to the
 Spaniards by the way of the yellowstone river in 10 days. I can
 discover that these people are by no means friendly to the Spaniard
 their complaint is, that the Spaniards will not let them have fire arms
 and amunition, that they put them off by telling them that if they
 suffer them to have guns they will kill each other, thus leaving them
 defenceless and an easy prey to their bloodthirsty neighbours to the
 East of them, who being in possession of fire arms hunt them up and
 murder them without rispect to sex or age and plunder them of their
 horses on all occasions. they told me that to avoid their enemies who
 were eternally harrassing them that they were obliged to remain in the
 interior of these mountains at least two thirds of the year where the
 suffered as we then saw great heardships for the want of food sometimes
 living for weeks without meat and only a little fish roots and berries.
 but this added Cameahwait, with his ferce eyes and lank jaws grown
 meager for the want of food, would not be the case if we had guns, we
 could then live in the country of buffaloe and eat as our enimies do
 and not be compelled to hide ourselves in these mountains and live on
 roots and berries as the bear do. we do not fear our enimies when
 placed on an equal footing with them. I told them that the Minnetares
 Mandans & Recares of the Missouri had promised us to desist from making
 war on them & that we would indevour to find the means of making the
 Minnetares of fort d Prarie or as they call them Pahkees desist from
 waging war against them also. that after our finally returning to our
 homes towards the rising sun whitemen would come to them with an
 abundance of guns and every other article necessary to their defence
 and comfort, and that they would be enabled to supply themselves with
 these articles on reasonable terms in exchange for the skins of the
 beaver Otter and Ermin so abundant in their country. they expressed
 great pleasure at this information and said they had been long anxious
 to see the whitemen that traded guns; and that we might rest assured of
 their friendship and that they would do whatever we wished them.
 I now told Cameahwait that I wished him to speak to his people and
 engage them to go with me tomorrow to the forks of Jeffersons river
 where our baggage was by this time arrived with another Chief and a
 large party of whitemen who would wait my return at that place. that I
 wish them to take with them about 30 spare horses to transport our
 baggage to this place where we would then remain sometime among them
 and trade with them for horses, and finally concert our future plans
 for geting on to the ocean and of the traid which would be extended to
 them after our return to our homes. he complyed with my request and
 made a lengthey harrangue to his village. he returned in about an hour
 and a half and informed me that they would be ready to accompany me in
 the morning. I promised to reward them for their trouble. Drewyer who
 had had a good view of their horses estimated them at 400. most of them
 are fine horses. indeed many of them would make a figure on the South
 side of James River or the land of fine horses.--I saw several with
 Spanish brands on them, and some mules which they informed me that they
 had also obtained from the Spaniards. I also saw a bridle bit of
 spanish manufactary, and sundry other articles which I have no doubt
 were obtained from the same source. notwithstanding the extreem poverty
 of those poor people they are very merry they danced again this evening
 untill midnight. each warrior keep one ore more horses tyed by a cord
 to a stake near his lodge both day and night and are always prepared
 for action at a moments warning. they fight on horseback altogether.
 lobserve that the large flies are extreemly troublesome to the horses
 as well as ourselves.
 The morning being cold and the men stif and soar from the exertions of
 yesterday Capt. Clark did not set out this morning untill 7 A.M. the
 river was so crooked and rapid that they made but little way at one
 mile he passed a bold runing stream on Stard. which heads in a mountain
 to the North, on which there is snow. this we called track Creek. it is
 4 yard wide and 3 feet deep at 7 Ms. passed a stout stream which heads
 in some springs under the foot of the mountains on Lard. the river near
 the mountain they found one continued rapid, with was extreemly
 laborious and difficult to ascend. this evening Charbono struck his
 indian Woman for which Capt. C. gave him a severe repremand. Joseph and
 Reubin Fields killed 4 deer and an Antelope, Capt. C. killed a buck.
 several of the men have lamed themselves by various accedents in
 working the canoes through this difficult part of the river, and Capt.
 C. was obliged personally to assist them in this labour. they encamped
 this evening on Lard. side near the rattlesnake clift
 [Clark, August 14, 1805]
 August 14th Wednesday 1805.
 a Cold morning wind from the S. W. The Thermometer Stood at 51° a 0, at
 Sunrise the morning being cold and men Stiff. I deturmind to delay &
 take brackfast at the place we Encamped. we Set out at 7 oClock and
 proceeded on river verry Crooked and rapid as below Some fiew trees on
 the borders near the mountain, passed a bold running Stream at 1 mile
 on the Stard. Side which heads in a mountain to the North on which
 there is Snow passed a bold running Stream on the Lard. Side which
 heads in a Spring undr. a mountain, the river near the mountain is one
 continued rapid, which requres great labour to push & haul the Canoes
 up. We Encamped on the Lard Side near the place the river passes thro
 the mountain. I checked our interpreter for Strikeing his woman at
 their Dinner.
 The hunters Jo. & R. Fields killed 4 Deer & a antilope, I killed a fat
 Buck in the evening, Several men have hurt themselves pushing up the
 Canoes. I am oblige to a pole occasionally.
 [Lewis, August 15, 1805]
 Thursday August 15th 1805.
 This morning I arrose very early and as hungary as a wolf. I had eat
 nothing yesterday except one scant meal of the flour and berries except
 the dryed cakes of berries which did not appear to satisfy my appetite
 as they appeared to do those of my Indian friends. I found on enquiry
 of McNeal that we had only about two pounds of flour remaining. this I
 directed him to divide into two equal parts and to cook the one half
 this morning in a kind of pudding with the hurries as he had done
 yesterday and reserve the ballance for the evening. on this new
 fashoned pudding four of us breakfasted, giving a pretty good allowance
 also to the Chief who declared it the best thing he had taisted for a
 long time. he took a little of the Hour in his hand, taisted and
 examined very scrutinously and asked me if we made it of roots. I
 explained to him the manner in which it grew. I hurried the departure
 of the Indians. the Chief addressed them several times before they
 would move they seemed very reluctant to accompany me. I at length
 asked the reason and he told me that some foolish persons among them
 had suggested the idea that we were in league with the Pahkees and had
 come on in order to decoy them into an ambuscade where their enimies
 were waiting to receive them. but that for his part he did not believe
 it. I readily perceived that our situation was not entirely free from
 danger as the transision from suspicion to the confermation of the fact
 would not be very difficult in the minds of these ignorant people who
 have been accustomed from their infancy to view every stranger as an
 enimy. I told Cameahwait that I was sorry to find that they had put so
 little confidence in us, that I knew they were not acquainted with
 whitemen and therefore could forgive them. that among whitemen it was
 considered disgracefull to lye or entrap an enimy by falsehood. I told
 him if they continued to think thus meanly of us that they might rely
 on it that no whitemen would ever come to trade with them or bring them
 arms and amunition and that if the bulk of his nation still entertained
 this opinion I still hoped that there were some among them that were
 not affraid to die, that were men and would go with me and convince
 themselves of the truth of what I had asscerted. that there was a party
 of whitemen waiting my return either at the forks of Jefferson's river
 or a little below coining on to that place in canoes loaded with
 provisions and merchandize. he told me for his own part he was
 determined to go, that he was not affraid to die. I soon found that I
 had touched him on the right string; to doubt the bravery of a savage
 is at once to put him on his metal. he now mounted his horse and
 haranged his village a third time; the perport of which as he
 afterwards told me was to inform them that he would go with us and
 convince himself of the truth or falsity of what we had told him if he
 was sertain he should be killed, that he hoped there were some of them
 who heard him were not affraid to die with him and if there was to let
 him see them mount their horses and prepare to set out. shortly after
 this harange he was joined by six or eight only and with these I smoked
 a pipe and directed the men to put on their packs being determined to
 set out with them while I had them in the humour at half after 12 we
 set out, several of the old women were crying and imploring the great
 sperit to protect their warriors as if they were going to inevitable
 distruction. we had not proceeded far before our party was augmented by
 ten or twelve more, and before we reached the Creek which we had passed
 in the morning of the 13th it appeared to me that we had all the men of
 the village and a number of women with us. this may serve in some
 measure to ilustrate the capricious disposition of those people who
 never act but from the impulse of the moment. they were now very
 cheerfull and gay, and two hours ago they looked as sirly as so many
 imps of satturn. when we arrived at the spring on the side of the
 mountain where we had encamped on the 12th the Chief insited on halting
 to let the horses graize with which I complyed and gave the Indians
 smoke. they are excessively fond of the pipe; but have it not much in
 their power to indulge themselves with even their native tobacco as
 they do not cultivate it themselves.--after remaining about an hour we
 again set out, and by engaging to make compensation to four of them for
 their trouble obtained the previlege of riding with an indian myself
 and a similar situation for each of my party. I soon found it more
 tiresome riding without tirrups than walking and of course chose the
 latter making the Indian carry my pack. about sunset we reached the
 upper part of the level valley of the Cove which now called Shoshone
 Cove. the grass being birned on the North side of the river we passed
 over to the south and encamped near some willow brush about 4 miles
 above the narrow pass between the hills noticed as I came up this cove
 the river was here about six yards wide, and frequently darned up by
 the beaver. I had sent Drewyer forward this evening before we halted to
 kill some meat but he was unsuccessfull and did not rejoin us untill
 after dark I now cooked and among six of us eat the remaining pound of
 flour stired in a little boiling water.--Capt. Clark delayed again this
 morning untill after breakfast, when he set out and passed between low
 and rugged mountains which had a few pine trees distributed over them
 the clifts are formed of limestone and a hard black rock intermixed. no
 trees on the river, the bottoms narrow river crooked shallow shoally
 and rapid. the water is as coald as that of the best springs in our
 country. the men as usual suffered excessively with fatiegue and the
 coldness of the water to which they were exposed for hours together. at
 the distance of 6 miles by water they passed the entrance of a bold
 creek on Stard. side 10 yds. wide and 3 f. 3 i. deep which we called
 Willard's Creek after Alexander Willard one of our party. at 4 miles by
 water from their encampment of las evening passed a bold branch which
 tumbled down a steep precipice of rocks from the mountains on the Lard.
 Capt Clark was very near being bitten twice today by rattlesnakes, the
 Indian woman also narrowly escaped. they caught a number of fine trout.
 Capt. Clark killed a buck which was the only game killed today. the
 venison has an uncommon bitter taist which is unpleasent. I presume it
 proceeds from some article of their food, perhaps the willow on the
 leaves of which they feed very much. they encamped this evening on the
 Lard. side near a few cottonwood trees about which there were the
 remains of several old Indian brush lodges.
 [Clark, August 15, 1805]
 August 15th Thursday 1805
 a Cool windey morning wind from the S W we proceeded on thro a ruged
 low mountain water rapid as usial passed a bold running Stream which
 falls from the mountain on the Lard. Side at 4 miles, also a bold
 running Stream 10 yards wide on the Stard Side 8 feet 3 In. Deep at 6
 miles, Willards Creek the bottoms narrow, the Clifs of a Dark brown
 Stone Some limestone intermixed--an Indian road passes on the Lard Side
 latterly used. Took a Meridian altitude at the Comsnt. of the Mountain
 with Octent 65° 47' 0". The Latd. 44° 0' 48 1/10" proceeded on with great
 labour & fatigue to the Mouth of a Small run on the Lard. Side
 passed Several Spring runs, the men Complain much of their fatigue and
 being repetiedly in the water which weakens them much perticularly as
 they are obliged to live on pore Deer meet which has a Singular bitter
 taste. I have no accounts of Capt Lewis Sence he Set out
 In walking on Shore I Saw Several rattle Snakes and narrowly escaped at
 two different times, as also the Squar when walking with her husband on
 Shore--I killed a Buck nothing else killed to day--This mountn. I call
 rattle Snake mountain. not one tree on either Side to day
 [Lewis, August 16, 1805]
 Friday August 16th 1805.
 I sent Drewyer and Shields before this morning in order to kill some
 meat as neither the Indians nor ourselves had any thing to eat. I
 informed the Ceif of my view in this measure, and requested that he
 would keep his young men with us lest by their hooping and noise they
 should allarm the game and we should get nothing to eat, but so
 strongly were there suspicions exited by this measure that two parties
 of discovery immediately set out one on ech side of the valley to watch
 the hunters as I beleive to see whether they had not been sent to give
 information of their approach to an enemy that they still preswaided
 themselves were lying in wait for them. I saw that any further effort
 to prevent their going would only add strength to their suspicions and
 therefore said no more. after the hunters had been gone about an hour
 we set out. we had just passed through the narrows when we saw one of
 the spies comeing up the level plain under whip, the chief pawsed a
 little and seemed somewhat concerned. I felt a good deel so myself and
 began to suspect that by some unfortunate accedent that perhaps some of
 there enimies had straggled hither at this unlucky moment; but we were
 all agreeably disappointed on the arrival of the young man to learn
 that he had come to inform us that one of the whitemen had killed a
 deer. in an instant they all gave their horses the whip and I was taken
 nearly a mile before I could learn what were the tidings; as I was
 without tirrups and an Indian behind me the jostling was disagreeable I
 therefore reigned up my horse and forbid the indian to whip him who had
 given him the lash at every jum for a mile fearing he should loose a
 part of the feast. the fellow was so uneasy that he left me the horse
 dismounted and ran on foot at full speed, I am confident a mile. when
 they arrived where the deer was which was in view of me they dismounted
 and ran in tumbling over each other like a parcel of famished dogs each
 seizing and tearing away a part of the intestens which had been
 previously thrown out by Drewyer who killed it; the seen was such when
 I arrived that had I not have had a pretty keen appetite myself I am
 confident I should not have taisted any part of the venison shortly.
 each one had a peice of some discription and all eating most
 ravenously. some were eating the kidnies the melt and liver and the
 blood runing from the corners of their mouths, others were in a similar
 situation with the paunch and guts but the exuding substance in this
 case from their lips was of a different discription. one of the last
 who attacted my attention particularly had been fortunate in his
 allotment or reather active in the division, he had provided himself
 with about nine feet of the small guts one end of which he was chewing
 on while with his hands he was squezzing the contents out at the other.
 I really did not untill now think that human nature ever presented
 itself in a shape so nearly allyed to the brute creation. I viewed
 these poor starved divils with pity and compassion I directed McNeal to
 skin the deer and reserved a quarter, the ballance I gave the Chief to
 be divided among his people; they devoured the whole of it nearly
 without cooking. I now boar obliquely to the left in order to
 interscept the creek where there was some brush to make a fire, and
 arrived at this stream where Drewyer had killed a second deer; here
 nearly the same seene was encored. a fire being kindled we cooked and
 eat and gave the ballance of the two deer to the Indians who eat the
 whole of them even to the soft parts of the hoofs. Drewyer joined us at
 breakfast with a third deer. of this I reserved a quarter and gave the
 ballance to the Indians. they all appeared now to have filled
 themselves and were in a good humour. this morning early soon after the
 hunters set out a considerable part of our escort became allarmed and
 returned 28 men and three women only continued with us. after eating
 and suffering the horses to graize about 2 hours we renued our march
 and towads evening arrived at the lower part of the cove Shields killed
 an Antelope on the way a part of which we took and gave the remainder
 to the Indians. being now informed of the place at which I expected to
 meat Capt C. and the party they insisted on making a halt, which was
 complyed with. we now dismounted and the Chief with much cerimony put
 tippets about our necks such as they temselves woar I redily perceived
 that this was to disguise us and owed it's origine to the same cause
 already mentioned. to give them further confidence I put my cocked hat
 with feather on the chief and my over shirt being of the Indian form my
 hair deshivled and skin well browned with the sun I wanted no further
 addition to make me a complete Indian in appearance the men followed my
 example and we were son completely metamorphosed. I again repeated to
 them the possibility of the party not having arrived at the place which
 I expected they were, but assured them they could not be far below,
 lest by not finding them at the forks their suspicions might arrise to
 such hight as to induce them to return precipitately. we now set out
 and rode briskly within sight of the forks making one of the Indians
 carry the flag that our own party should know who we were. when we
 arrived in sight at the distance of about 2 miles I discovered to my
 mortification that the party had not arrived, and the Indians slackened
 their pace. I now scarcely new what to do and feared every moment when
 they would halt altogether, I now determined to restore their
 confidence cost what it might and therefore gave the Chief my gun and
 told him that if his enimies were in those bushes before him that he
 could defend himself with that gun, that for my own part I was not
 affraid to die and if I deceived him he might make what uce of the gun
 he thought proper or in other words that he might shoot me. the men
 also gave their guns to other indians which seemed to inspire them with
 more confidence; they sent their spies before them at some distance and
 when I drew near the place I thought of the notes which I had left and
 directed Drewyer to go with an Indian man and bring them to me which he
 did. the indian seeing him take the notes from the stake on which they
 had been plased I now had recource to a stratagem in which I thought
 myself justifyed by the occasion, but which I must confess set a little
 awkward. it had it's desired effect. after reading the notes which were
 the same I had left I told the Chief that when I had left my brother
 Chief with the party below where the river entered the mountain that we
 both agreed not to bring the canoes higher up than the next forks of
 the river above us wherever this might happen, that there he was to
 wait my return, should he arrive first, and that in the event of his
 not being able to travel as fast as usual from the difficulty of the
 water, that he was to send up to the first forks above him and leave a
 note informing me where he was, that this note was left here today and
 that he informed me that he was just below the mountains and was coming
 on slowly up, and added that I should wait here for him, but if they
 did not beleive me that I should send a man at any rate to the Chief
 and they might also send one of their young men with him, that myself
 and two others would remain with them at this place. this plan was
 readily adopted and one of the young men offered his services; I
 promised him a knife and some beads as a reward for his confidence in
 us. most of them seemed satisfyed but there were several that
 complained of the Chief's exposing them to danger unnecessarily and
 said that we told different stories, in short a few were much
 dissatisfyed. I wrote a note to Capt. Clark by the light of some willow
 brush and directed Drewyer to set out early being confident that there
 was not a moment to spare. the chief and five or six others slept about
 my fire and the others hid themselves in various parts of the willow
 brush to avoid the enimy whom they were fearfull would attack them in
 the course of the night. I now entertained various conjectures myself
 with rispect to the cause of Capt. Clarks detention and was even fearful
 l that he had found the river so difficult that he had halted below the
 Rattlesnake bluffs. I knew that if these people left me that they would
 immediately disperse and secrete themselves in the mountains where it
 would be impossible to find them or at least in vain to pursue them and
 that they would spread the allarm to all other bands within our reach &
 of course we should be disappointed in obtaining horses, which would
 vastly retard and increase the labour of our voyage and I feared might
 so discourage the men as to defeat the expedition altogether. my mind
 was in reallity quite as gloomy all this evening as the most affrighted
 indian but I affected cheerfullness to keep the Indians so who were
 about me. we finally laid down and the Chief placed himself by the side
 of my musquetoe bier. I slept but little as might be well expected, my
 mind dwelling on the state of the expedition which I have ever held in
 equal estimation with my own existence, and the fait of which appeared
 at this moment to depend in a great measure upon the caprice of a few
 savages who are ever as fickle as the wind. I had mentioned to the
 chief several times that we had with us a woman of his nation who had
 been taken prisoner by the Minnetares, and that by means of her I hoped
 to explain myself more fully than I could do by signs. some of the
 party had also told the Indians that we had a man with us who was black
 and had short curling hair, this had excited their curiossity very
 much. and they seemed quite as anxious to see this monster as they wer
 the merchandize which we had to barter for their horses.
 at 7 A M. Capt. C. set out after breakfast. he changed the hands in
 some of the canoes; they proceeded with more ease than yesterday, yet
 they found the river still rapid and shallow insomuch that they were
 obliged to drag the large canoes the greater part of the day. the water
 excessively cold. in the evening they passed several bad rapids.
 considerable quantities of the buffaloe clover grows along the narrow
 bottoms through which they passed. there was no timber except a few
 scatiring small pine on the hills. willow service berry and currant
 bushes were the growth of the river bottoms. they geatherd considerable
 quantities of service berries, and caught some trout. one deer was
 killed by the hunters who slept out last night. and did not join the
 party untill 10 A.M.
 Capt. Clark sent the hunters this evening up to the forks of the river
 which he discovered from an eminence; they mus have left this place but
 a little time before we arrived. this evening they encamped on the
 Lard. side only a few miles below us. and were obliged like ourselves
 to make use of small willow brush for fuel. the men were much fatigued
 and exhausted this evening.
 [Clark, August 16, 1805]
 August 16th Friday 1805
 as this morning was cold and the men fatigued Stiff and Chilled
 deturmined me to detain & take brackfast before I Set out. I changed
 the hands and Set out at 7 oClock proceeded on Something better than
 yesterday for the fore part of the Day passed Several rapids in the
 latter part of the day near the hills river passed between 2 hills I
 saw a great number of Service berries now ripe. the Yellow Current are
 also Common I observe the long leaf Clover in great plenty in the
 vallie below this vallie--Some fiew tres on the river no timber on the
 hills or mountn. except a fiew Small Pine & Cedar. The Thmtr. Stood at
 48° a. 0 at Sunrise wind S W. The hunters joined me at 1 oClock, I
 dispatched 2 men to prosue an Indian roade over the hills for a fiew
 miles, at the narrows I assended a mountain from the top of which I
 could See that the river forked near me the left hand appeared the
 largest & bore S. E. the right passed from the West thro an extensive
 Vallie, I could See but three Small trees in any Direction from the top
 of this mountain. passed an Isld. and Encamped ion the Lard. Side the
 only wood was Small willows
 [Lewis, August 17, 1805]
 Saturday August 17th 1805.
 This morning I arrose very early and dispatched Drewyer and the Indian
 down the river. sent Shields to hunt. I made McNeal cook the remainder
 of our meat which afforded a slight breakfast for ourselves and the
 Cheif. Drewyer had been gone about 2 hours when an Indian who had
 straggled some little distance down the river returned and reported
 that the whitemen were coming, that he had seen them just below. they
 all appeared transported with joy, & the chef repeated his fraturnal
 hug. I felt quite as much gratifyed at this information as the Indians
 appeared to be. Shortly after Capt. Clark arrived with the Interpreter
 Charbono, and the Indian woman, who proved to be a sister of the Chif
 Cameahwait. the meeting of those people was really affecting,
 particularly between Sah cah-gar-we-ah and an Indian woman, who had
 been taken prisoner at the same time with her, and who had afterwards
 escaped from the Minnetares and rejoined her nation. At noon the Canoes
 arrived, and we had the satisfaction once more to find ourselves all
 together, with a flattering prospect of being able to obtain as many
 horses shortly as would enable us to prosicute our voyage by land
 should that by water be deemed unadvisable.
 We now formed our camp just below the junction of the forks on the
 Lard. side in a level smooth bottom covered with a fine terf of
 greenswoard. here we unloaded our canoes and arranged our baggage on
 shore; formed a canopy of one of our large sails and planted some
 willow brush in the ground to form a shade for the Indians to set under
 while we spoke to them, which we thought it best to do this evening.
 acordingly about 4 P.M. we called them together and through the medium
 of Labuish, Charbono and Sah-cah-gar-weah, we communicated to them
 fully the objects which had brought us into this distant part of the
 country, in which we took care to make them a conspicuous object of our
 own good wishes and the care of our government. we made them sensible
 of their dependance on the will of our government for every species of
 merchandize as well for their defence & comfort; and apprized them of
 the strength of our government and it's friendly dispositions towards
 them. we also gave them as a reason why we wished to petrate the
 country as far as the ocean to the west of them was to examine and find
 out a more direct way to bring merchandize to them. that as no trade
 could be carryed on with them before our return to our homes that it
 was mutually advantageous to them as well as to ourselves that they
 should render us such aids as they had it in their power to furnish in
 order to haisten our voyage and of course our return home. that such
 were their horses to transport our baggage without which we could not
 subsist, and that a pilot to conduct us through the mountains was also
 necessary if we could not decend the river by water. but that we did
 not ask either their horses or their services without giving a
 satisfactory compensation in return. that at present we wished them to
 collect as many horses as were necessary to transport our baggage to
 their village on the Columbia where we would then trade with them at
 our leasure for such horses as they could spare us.--They appeared well
 pleased with what had been said. the chief thanked us for friendship
 towards himself and nation & declared his wish to serve us in every
 rispect; that he was sorry to find that it must yet be some time before
 they could be furnished with firearms but said they could live as they
 had done heretofore untill we brought them as we had promised. he said
 they had not horses enough with them at present to remove our baggage
 to their village over the mountain, but that he would return tomorrow
 and encourage his people to come over with their horses and that he
 would bring his own and assist us. this was complying with all we
 wished at present. we next enquired who were chiefs among them.
 Cameahwait pointed out two others whom he said were Chiefs we gave him
 a medal of the small size with the likeness of Mr. Jefferson the
 President of the U States in releif on one side and clasp hands with a
 pipe and tomahawk on the other, to the other Chiefs we gave each a
 small medal which were struck in the Presidency of George Washing Esqr.
 we also gave small medals of the last discription to two young men whom
 the 1st Chief informed us wer good young men and much rispected among
 them. we gave the 1st Chief an uniform coat shirt a pair of scarlet
 legings a carrot of tobacco and some small articles to each of the
 others we gave a shirt leging handkerchief a knife some tobacco and a
 few small articles we also distributed a good quantity paint mockerson
 awls knives beads lookingglasses &c among the other Indians and gave
 them a plentifull meal of lyed corn which was the first they had ever
 eaten in their lives. they were much pleased with it. every article
 about us appeared to excite astonishment in ther minds; the appearance
 of the men, their arms, the canoes, our manner of working them, the
 back man york and the segacity of my dog were equally objects of
 admiration. I also shot my air-gun which was so perfectly
 incomprehensible that they immediately denominated it the great
 medicine. the idea which the indians mean to convey by this appellation
 is something that eminates from or acts immediately by the influence or
 power of the great sperit; or that in which the power of god is
 manifest by it's incomprehensible power of action. our hunters killed 4
 deer and an Antelope this evening of which we also gave the Indians a
 good proportion. the cerimony of our council and smoking the pipe was
 in conformity of the custom of this nation perfomed bearfoot. on those
 occasions points of etiquet are quite as much attended to by the
 Indians as among scivilized nations. To keep indians in a good humour
 you must not fatiegue them with too much business at one time.
 therefore after the council we gave them to eat and amused them a while
 by shewing them such articles as we thought would be entertaining to
 them, and then renewed our enquiries with rispect to the country. the
 information we derived was only a repetition of that they had given me
 before and in which they appeared to be so candid that I could not
 avoid yealing confidence to what they had said. Capt. Clark and myself
 now concerted measures for our future operations, and it was mutually
 agreed that he should set out tomorrow morning with eleven men
 furnished with axes and other necessary tools for making canoes, their
 arms accoutrements and as much of their baggage as they could carry.
 also to take the indians Carbono and the indian woman with him; that on
 his arrival at the Shoshone camp he was to leave Charbono and the
 Indian woman to haisten the return of the Indians with their horses to
 this place, and to proceede himself with the eleven men down the
 Columbia in order to examine the river and if he found it navigable and
 could obtain timber to set about making canoes immediately. In the mean
 time I was to bring on the party and baggage to the Shoshone Camp,
 calculating that by the time I should reach that place that he would
 have sufficiently informed himself with rispect to the state of the
 river &c. as to determine us whether to prosicute our journey from
 thence by land or water. in the former case we should want all the
 horses which we could perchase, the latter only to hire the Indians to
 transport our baggage to the place at which we made the canoes. in
 order to inform me as early as possible of the state of the river he
 was to send back one of the men with the necessary information as soon
 as he should satisfy himself on this subject. this plan being settled
 we gave orders accordingly and the men prepared for an early march. the
 nights are very cold and the sun excessively hot in the day. we have no
 fuel here but a few dry willow brush. and from the appearance of
 country I am confident we shall not find game here to subsist us many
 days. these are additional reasons why I conceive it necessary to get
 under way as soon as possible.--this morning Capt. Clark had delayed
 untill 7 A.M. before he set out just about which time Drewyer arrived
 with the Indian; he left the canoes to come on after him, and
 immediately set out and joined me as has been before mentioned.The
 sperits of the men were now much elated at the prospect of geting
 [Clark, August 17, 1805]
 August 17th Satturday 1805
 a fair Cold morning wind S. W. the Thermometer at 42 a. 0 at Sunrise,
 We Set out at 7 oClock and proceeded on to the forks I had not
 proceeded on one mile before I saw at a distance Several Indians on
 horsback Comeing towards me, The Intertrepeter & Squar who were before
 me at Some distance danced for the joyful Sight, and She made signs to
 me that they were her nation, as I aproached nearer them descovered one
 of Capt Lewis party With them dressed in their Dress; the met me with
 great Signs of joy, as the Canoes were proceeding on nearly opposit me
 I turned those people & joined Capt Lewis who had Camped with 16 of
 those Snake Indians at the forks 2 miles in advance. those Indians Sung
 all the way to their Camp where the others had provd. a cind of Shade
 of Willows Stuck up in a Circle the Three Chiefs with Capt. Lewis met
 me with great cordialliaty embraced and took a Seat on a white robe,
 the Main Chief imedeately tied to my hair Six Small pieces of Shells
 resembling perl which is highly Valued by those people and is prcured
 from the nations resideing near the Sea Coast. we then Smoked in their
 fassion without Shoes and without much cerimoney and form.
 Capt Lewis informed me he found those people on the Columbia River
 about 40 miles from the forks at that place there was a large camp of
 them, he had purswaded those with him to Come and See that what he said
 was the truth, they had been under great apprehension all the way, for
 fear of their being deceived. The Great Chief of this nation proved to
 be the brother of the Woman with us and is a man of Influence Sence &
 easey & reserved manners, appears to possess a great deel of Cincerity.
 The Canoes arrived & unloaded--every thing appeared to asstonish those
 people. the appearance of the men, their arms, the Canoes, the Clothing
 my black Servent. & the Segassity of Capt Lewis's Dog. we Spoke a fiew
 words to them in the evening respecting our rout intentions our want of
 horses &c. & gave them a fiew presents & medals--we made a number of
 inquires of those people about the Columbia River the Countrey game &c.
 The account they gave us was verry unfavourable, that the River
 abounded in emence falls, one perticularly much higher than the falls
 of the Missouri & at the place the mountains Closed So Close that it
 was impracticable to pass, & that the ridge Continued on each Side of
 perpendicular Clifts inpenetratable, and that no Deer Elk or any game
 was to be found in that Countrey, aded to that they informed us that
 there was no timber on the river Sufficiently large to make Small
 Canoes, This information (if true is alarming) I deturmined to go in
 advance and examine the Countrey, See if those dificueltes presented
 themselves in the gloomey picture in which they painted them, and if
 the river was practiable and I could find timber to build Canoes, those
 Ideas & plan appeard to be agreeable to Capt Lewis's Ideas on this
 point, and I selected 11 men, directed them to pack up their baggage
 Complete themselves with amunition, take each an ax and Such tools as
 will be Soutable to build Canoes, and be ready to Set out at 10 oClock
 tomorrow morning. Those people greatly pleased our hunters killed three
 Deer & an antilope which was eaten in a Short time the Indians being so
 harrassed & compelled to move about in those rugid mountains that they
 are half Starved liveing at this time on berries & roots which they
 geather in the plains. Those people are not begerley but generous, only
 one has asked me for anything and he for powder.
 This nation Call themselves Cho-shop-ne the Chief is name
 Too-et-te-con'l Black Gun is his war name Ka-me-ah-wah--or Come &
 Smoke. this Chief gave me the following name and pipe Ka-me-ah-wah.
 [Lewis, August 18, 1805]
 Sunday August 18th 1805.
 This morning while Capt Clark was busily engaged in preparing for his
 rout, I exposed some articles to barter with the Indians for horses as
 I wished a few at this moment to releive the men who were going with
 Capt Clark from the labour of carrying their baggage and also one to
 keep here in order to pack the meat to camp which the hunters might
 kill. I soon obtained three very good horses for which I gave an
 uniform coat, a pair of legings, a few handkerchiefs, three knives and
 some other small articles the whole of which did not cost more than
 about 20$ in the U States. the Indians seemed quite as well pleased
 with their bargin as I was. the men also purchased one for an old
 checked shirt a pair of old legings and a knife. two of those I
 purchased Capt. C. took on with him. at 10 A.M. Capt. Clark departed
 with his detatchment and all the Indians except 2 men and 2 women who
 remained with us. Two of the inferior chiefs were a little displeased
 at not having received a present equivolent to that given the first
 Chief. to releive this difficulty Capt. Clark bestoed a couple of his
 old coats on them and I promised that if they wer active in assisting
 me over the mountains with horses that I would give them an additional
 present; this seemed perfectly to satisfy them and they all set out in
 a good humour. Capt. Clark encamped this evening near the narrow pass
 between the hills on Jefferson's river in the Shoshone Cove. his
 hunters killed one deer which the party with the aid of the Indians
 readily consumed in the course of the evening.--after there departure
 this morning I had all the stores and baggage of every discription
 opened and aired. and began the operation of forming the packages in
 proper parsels for the purpose of transporting them on horseback. the
 rain in the evening compelled me to desist from my operations. I had
 the raw hides put in the water in order to cut them in throngs proper
 for lashing the packages and forming the necessary geer for pack
 horses, a business which I fortunately had not to learn on this
 occasion. Drewyer Killed one deer this evening. a beaver was also
 caught by one of the party. I had the net arranged and set this evening
 to catch some trout which we could see in great abundance at the bottom
 of the river. This day I completed my thirty first year, and conceived
 that I had in all human probability now existed about half the period
 which I am to remain in this Sublunary world. I reflected that I had as
 yet done but little, very little indeed, to further the hapiness of the
 human race, or to advance the information of the succeeding generation.
 I viewed with regret the many hours I have spent in indolence, and now
 soarly feel the want of that information which those hours would have
 given me had they been judiciously expended. but since they are past
 and cannot be recalled, I dash from me the gloomy thought and resolved
 in future, to redouble my exertions and at least indeavour to promote
 those two primary objects of human existence, by giving them the aid of
 that portion of talents which nature and fortune have bestoed on me; or
 in future, to live for mankind, as I have heretofore lived for myself.
 [Clark, August 18, 1805]
 August 18th Sunday 1805
 Purchased of the Indians three horses for which we gave a Chiefs Coat
 Some Handkerchiefs a Shirt Legins & a fiew arrow points &c. I gave two
 of my coats to two of the under Chiefs who appeared not well Satisfied
 that the first Chief was dressed so much finer than themselves. at 10
 oClock I Set out accompanied by the Indians except 3 the interpreter
 and wife, the fore part of the day worm, at 12 oClock it became hasey
 with a mist of rain wind hard from the S. W. and Cold which increased
 untill night the rain Seased in about two hours. We proceeded on thro a
 wide leavel vallie without wood except willows & Srubs for 15 miles and
 Encamped at a place the high lands approach within 200 yards in 2
 points the River here only 10 yards wide Several Small Streams
 branching out on each Side below. all the Indians proceeded on except
 the 3 Chiefs & two young men. my hunters killed two Deer which we eate.
 The Course from the forks is West 9 miles N. 60° W. 6 miles. The Laid. of
 the forks agreeable to observations is 43° 30' 43" North-
 [Lewis, August 19, 1805]
 Monday August 19th 1805.
 This morning I arrose at dylight. and sent out three hunters. some of
 the men who were much in want of legings and mockersons I suffered to
 dress some skins. the others I employed in repacking the baggage,
 making pack saddles &c. we took up the net this morning but caugt no
 fish. one beaver was caught in a trap. the frost which perfectly
 whitened the grass this morning had a singular appearance to me at this
 season. this evening I made a few of the men construct a sein of willow
 brush which we hawled and caught a large number of fine trout and a
 kind of mullet about 16 Inhes long which I had not seen before. the
 scales are small, the nose is long and obtusely pointed and exceedes
 the under jaw. the mouth is not large but opens with foalds at the
 sides, the colour of it's back and sides is of a bluish brown and
 belley white; it has the faggot bones, from which I have supposed it to
 be of the mullet kind. the tongue and pallate are smooth and it has no
 teeth. it is by no means as good as the trout. the trout are the same
 which I first met with at the falls of the Missouri, they are larger
 than the speckled trout of our mountains and equally as well flavored.-
 The hunters returned this evening with two deer. from what has been
 said of the Shoshones it will be readily perceived that they live in a
 wretched stait of poverty. yet notwithstanding their extreem poverty
 they are not only cheerfull but even gay, fond of gaudy dress and
 amusements; like most other Indians they are great egotists and
 frequently boast of heroic acts which they never performed. they are
 also fond of games of wrisk. they are frank, communicative, fair in
 dealing, generous with the little they possess, extreemly honest, and
 by no means beggarly. each individual is his own sovereign master, and
 acts from the dictates of his own mind; the authority of the Cheif
 being nothing more than mere admonition supported by the influence
 which the propiety of his own examplery conduct may have acquired him
 in the minds of the individuals who compose the band. the title of
 cheif is not hereditary, nor can I learn that there is any cerimony of
 instalment, or other epoh in the life of a Cheif from which his title
 as such can be dated. in fact every man is a chief, but all have not an
 equal influence on the minds of the other members of the community, and
 he who happens to enjoy the greatest share of confidence is the
 principal Chief. The Shoshonees may be estimated at about 100 warriors,
 and about three times that number of woomen and children. they have
 more children among them than I expected to have seen among a people
 who procure subsistence with such difficulty. there are but few very
 old persons, nor did they appear to treat those with much tenderness or
 rispect. The man is the sole propryetor of his wives and daughters, and
 can barter or dispose of either as he thinks proper. a plurality of
 wives is common among them, but these are not generally sisters as with
 the Minnetares & Mandans but are purchased of different fathers. The
 father frequently disposes of his infant daughters in marriage to men
 who are grown or to men who have sons for whom they think proper to
 provide wives. the compensation given in such cases usually consists of
 horses or mules which the father receives at the time of contract and
 converts to his own uce. the girl remains with her parents untill she
 is conceived to have obtained the age of puberty which with them is
 considered to be about the age of 13 or 14 years. the female at this
 age is surrendered to her sovereign lord and husband agreeably to
 contract, and with her is frequently restored by the father quite as
 much as he received in the first instance in payment for his daughter;
 but this is discretionary with the father. Sah-car-gar-we-ah had been
 thus disposed of before she was taken by the Minnetares, or had arrived
 to the years of puberty. the husband was yet living and with this band.
 he was more than double her age and had two other wives. he claimed her
 as his wife but said that as she had had a child by another man, who
 was Charbono, that he did not want her. They seldom correct their
 children particularly the boys who soon become masters of their own
 acts. they give as a reason that it cows and breaks the Sperit of the
 boy to whip him, and that he never recovers his independence of mind
 after he is grown. They treat their women but with little rispect, and
 compel them to perform every species of drudgery. they collect the wild
 fruits and roots, attend to the horses or assist in that duty cook
 dreess the skins and make all their apparal, collect wood and make
 their fires, arrange and form their lodges, and when they travel pack
 the horses and take charge of all the baggage; in short the man dose
 little else except attend his horses hunt and fish. the man considers
 himself degraded if he is compelled to walk any distance, and if he is
 so unfortunately poor as only to possess two horses he rides the best
 himself and leavs the woman or women if he has more than one, to
 transport their baggage and children on the other, and to walk if the
 horse is unable to carry the additional weight of their persons--the
 chastity of their women is not held in high estimation, and the husband
 will for a trifle barter the companion of his bead for a night or
 longer if he conceives the reward adiquate; tho they are not so
 importunate that we should caress their women as the siouxs were and
 some of their women appear to be held more sacred than in any nation we
 have seen I have requested the men to give them no cause of jealousy by
 having connection with their women without their knowledge, which with
 them strange as it may seem is considered as disgracefull to the
 husband as clandestine connections of a similar kind are among
 civilized nations. to prevent this mutual exchange of good officies
 altogether I know it impossible to effect, particularly on the part of
 our young men whom some months abstinence have made very polite to
 those tawney damsels. no evil has yet resulted and I hope will not from
 these connections.--notwithstanding the late loss of horses which this
 people sustained by the Minnetares the stock of the band may be very
 safely estimated at seven hundred of which they are perhaps about 40
 coalts and half that number of mules.these people are deminutive in
 stature, thick ankles, crooked legs, thick flat feet and in short but
 illy formed, at least much more so in general than any nation of
 Indians I ever saw. their complexion is much that of the Siouxs or
 darker than the Minnetares mandands or Shawnees. generally both men and
 women wear their hair in a loos lank flow over the sholders and face;
 tho I observed some few men who confined their hair in two equal cues
 hanging over each ear and drawnn in front of the body. the cue is
 formed with throngs of dressed lather or Otterskin aternately crossing
 each other. at present most of them have cut short in the neck in
 consequence of the loss of their relations by the Minnetares.
 Cameahwait has his cut close all over his head. this constitutes their
 cerimony of morning for their deceased relations. the dress of the men
 consists of a robe long legings, shirt, tippet and Mockersons, that of
 the women is also a robe, chemise, and Mockersons; sometimes they make
 use of short legings. the ornements of both men and women are very
 similar, and consist of several species of sea shells, blue and white
 beads, bras and Iron arm bands, plaited cords of the sweet grass, and
 collars of leather ornamented with the quills of the porcupine dyed of
 various colours among which I observed the red, yellow, blue, and
 black. the ear is purforated in the lower part to receive various
 ornaments but the nose is not, nor is the ear lasserated or disvigored
 for this purpose as among many nations. the men never mark their skins
 by birning, cuting, nor puncturing and introducing a colouring matter
 as many nations do. there women sometimes puncture a small circle on
 their forehead nose or cheeks and thus introduce a black matter usually
 soot and grease which leaves an indelible stane. tho this even is by no
 means common. their arms offensive and defensive consist in the bow and
 arrows sheild, some lances, and a weapon called by the Cippeways who
 formerly used it, the pog-gal'-mag-gon'. in fishing they employ wairs,
 gigs, and fishing hooks. the salmon is the principal object of their
 pursuit. they snair wolves and foxes. I was anxious to learn whether
 these people had the venerial, and made the enquiry through the
 intrepreter and his wife; the information was that they sometimes had
 it but I could not learn their remedy; they most usually die with it's
 effects. this seems a strong proof that these disorders bothe
 gonaroehah and Louis venerae are native disorders of America. tho these
 people have suffered much by the small pox which is known to be
 imported and perhaps those other disorders might have been contracted
 from other indian tribes who by a round of communication might have
 obtained from the Europeans since it was introduced into that quarter
 of the globe. but so much detatched on the other had from all
 communication with the whites that I think it most probable that those
 disorders are original with them. from the middle of May to the firt of
 September these people reside on the waters of the Columbia where they
 consider themselves in perfect security from their enimies as they have
 not as yet ever found their way to this retreat; during this season the
 salmon furnish the principal part of their subsistence and as this
 firsh either perishes or returns about the 1st of September they are
 compelled at this season in surch of subsistence to resort to the
 Missouri, in the vallies of which, there is more game even within the
 mountains. here they move slowly down the river in order to collect and
 join other bands either of their own nation or the Flatheads, and
 having become sufficiently strong as they conceive venture on the
 Eastern side of the Rockey mountains into the plains, where the
 buffaloe abound. but they never leave the interior of the mountains
 while they can obtain a scanty subsistence, and always return as soon
 as they have acquired a good stock of dryed meat in the plains; when
 this stock is consumed they venture again into the plains; thus
 alternately obtaining their food at the risk of their lives and
 retiring to the mountains, while they consume it.--These people are now
 on the eve of their departure for the Missouri, and inform us that they
 expect to be joined at or about the three forks by several bands of
 their own nation, and a band of the Flatheads. as I am now two busily
 engaged to enter at once into a minute discription of the several
 articles which compose their dress, impliments of war hunting fishing
 &c I shall pursue them at my leasure in the order they have here
 occurred to my mind, and have been mentioned. This morning capt. Clark
 continued his rout with his party, the Indians accompanying him as
 yesterday; he was obliged to feed them. nothing remarkable happened
 during the day. he was met by an Indian with two mules on this side of
 the dividing ridge at the foot of the mountain, the Indian had the
 politeness to offer Capt. C. one of his mules to ride as he was on
 foot, which he accepted and gave the fellow a waistcoat as a reward for
 his politeness. in the evening he reached the creek on this side of the
 Indian camp and halted for the night. his hunters killed nothing today.
 The Indians value their mules very highly. a good mule can not be
 obtained for less than three and sometimes four horses, and the most
 indifferent are rated at two horses. their mules generally are the
 finest I ever saw without any comparison.--today I observed time and
 distance of sun's and moon's nearest limbs with sextant sun East.
 [Clark, August 19, 1805]
 August 19th Monday 1805
 A verry Cold morning Frost to be Seen we Set out at 7 oClock and
 proceeded on thro a wide leavel Vallie the Chief Shew me the place that
 a number of his nation was killed about 1 years past this Vallie
 Continues 5 miles & then becoms narrow, the beaver has Darned up the
 River in maney places we proceeded on up the main branch with a gradial
 assent to the head and passed over a low mountain and Decended a Steep
 Decent to a butifull Stream, passed over a Second hill of a verry Steep
 assent & thro a hilley Countrey for 8 miles an Encamped on a Small
 Stream the Indians with us we wer oblige to feed--one man met one with
 a mule & Spanish Saddle to ride, I gave him a wistoat a mule is
 considered a of great value among those people we proceeded on over a
 verry mountanious Countrey across the head of hollows & Springs
 [Lewis, August 20, 1805]
 Tuesday August 20th 1805.
 This morning I sent out the two hunters and employed the ballance of
 the party pretty much as yesterday. I walked down the river about--3/4
 of a mile and scelected a place near the river bank unperceived by the
 Indians for a cash, which I set three men to make, and directed the
 centinel to discharge his gun if he pereceived any of the Indians going
 down in that direction which was to be the signal for the men at work
 on the cash to desist and seperate, least these people should discover
 our deposit and rob us of the baggage we intend leaving here. by
 evening the cash was completed unperceived by the Indians, and all our
 packages made up. the Pack-saddles and harries is not yet complete. in
 this operation we find ourselves at a loss for nails and boards; for
 the first we substitute throngs of raw hide which answer verry well,
 and for the last to cut off the blades of our oars and use the plank of
 some boxes which have heretofore held other articles and put those
 articles into sacks of raw hide which I have had made for the purpose.
 by this means I have obtained as many boards as will make 20 saddles
 which I suppose will be sufficient for our present exegencies. The
 Indians with us behave themselves extreemly well; the women have been
 busily engaged all day making and mending the mockersons of our party.
 In the evening the hunters returned unsuccessfull. Drewyer went in
 search of his trap which a beaver had taken off last night; he found
 the beaver dead with the trap to his foot about 2 miles below the place
 he had set it. this beaver constituted the whole of the game taken
 today. the fur of this animal is as good as I ever saw any, and beleive
 that they are never out of season on the upper part of the Missouri and
 it's branches within the Mountains. Goodrich caught several douzen fine
 trout. today. I made up a small assortment of medicines, together with
 the specemines of plants, minerals, seeds &c. which, I have collected
 betwen this place and the falls of the Missouri which I shall deposit
 here. the robe woarn by the Shoshonees is the same in both sexes and is
 loosly thrown about their sholders, and the sides at pleasure either
 hanging loose or drawn together with the hands, sometimes if the
 weather is cold they confine it with a girdel arround the waist; they
 are generally about the size of a 21/2 point blanket for grown persons
 and reach as low as the middle of the leg. this robe forms a garment in
 the day and constitutes their only covering at night. with these people
 the robe is formed most commonly of the skins of Antelope, Bighorn, or
 deer, dressed with the hair on, tho they prefer the buffaloe when they
 can procure them. I have also observed some robes among them of beaver,
 moonax, and small wolves. the summer robes of both sexes are also
 frequently made of the Elk's skin dressed without the hair. The shirt
 of the men is really a commodious and decent garment. it roomy and
 reaches nearly half way the thye, there is no collar, the apperture
 being sufficiently large to admit the head and is left square at top,
 or most frequently, both before and behind terminate in the tails of
 the animals of which they are made and which foald outwards being
 frequently left entire or somtimes cut into a fring on the edges and
 ornimented with the quills of the Porcupine. the sides of the shirt are
 sewed deeply fringed, and ornamented in a similar manner from the
 bottom upwards, within six or eight inches of the sieve from whence it
 is left open as well as the sieve on it's under side to the elbow
 nearly. from the elbow the sieve fits the arm tight as low as the wrist
 and is not ornimented with a fringe as the sides and under parts of the
 sieve are above the elbow. the sholder straps are wide and on them is
 generally displayed the taste of the manufacterer in a variety of
 figures wrought with the quills of the porcupine of several colours;
 beads when they have them are also displayed on this part. the tail of
 the shirt is left in the form which the fore legs and neck give it with
 the addition of a slight fringe. the hair is usually left on the tail,
 & near the hoofs of the animal; part of the hoof is also retained to
 the skin and is split into a fring by way of orniment. these shirts are
 generally made of deer's Antelope's, Bighorn's, or Elk's skins dressed
 without the hair. the Elk skin is less used for this purpose than
 either of the others. their only thread used on this or any other
 occasion is the sinews taken from the back and loins of the deer Elk
 buffaloe &c. Their legings are most usually formed of the skins of the
 Antelope dressed without the hair. in the men they are very long and
 full each leging being formed of a skin nearly entire. the legs, tail
 and neck are also left on these, and the tail woarn upwards; and the
 neck deeply fringed and ornimented with porcupine qulls drags or trails
 on the ground behind the heel. the skin is sewn in such manner as to
 fit the leg and thye closely; the upper part being left open a
 sufficient distance to permit the legs of the skin to be dran
 underneath a girdle both before and behind, and the wide part of the
 skin to cover the buttock and lap before in such manner that the
 breechcloth is unnecessary. they are much more decent in concealing
 those parts than any nation on the Missouri the sides of the legings
 are also deeply fringed and ornimented. sometimes this part is
 ornimented with little fassicles of the hair of an enimy whom they have
 slain in battle. The tippet of the Snake Indians is the most eligant
 peice of Indian dress I ever saw, the neck or collar of this is formed
 of a strip of dressed Otter skin with the fur. it is about four or five
 inches wide and is cut out of the back of the skin the nose and eyes
 forming one extremity and the tail the other. begining a little behind
 the ear of the animal at one edge of this collar and proceeding towards
 the tail, they attatch from one to two hundred and fifty little roles
 of Ermin skin formed in the following manner. the skin is first dressed
 with the fur on it and a narrow strip is cut out of the back of the
 skin reaching from the nose and imbracing the tail. this is sewed
 arround a small cord of the silk-grass twisted for the purpose and
 regularly tapering in such manner as to give it ajust proportion to the
 tail which is to form the lower extremity of the stran. thus arranged
 they are confined at the upper point in little bundles of two-three, or
 more as the disign may be to make them more full; these are then
 attatched to the collars as before mentioned, and to conceal the
 connection of this part which would otherwise have a course appearance
 they attatch a broad fringe of the Ermin skin to the collar overlaying
 that part. little bundles of fine fringe of the same materials is
 fastened to the extremity of the tails in order to shew their black
 extremities to greater advantage. the center of the otterskin collar is
 also ornamented with the shells of the perl oister. the collar is
 confined arond the neck and the little roles of Ermin skin about the
 size of a large quill covers the solders and body nearly to the waist
 and has the appearance of a short cloak and is really handsome. these
 they esteem very highly, and give or dispose of only on important
 occasions. the ermin whic is known to the traiders of the N. W. by the
 name of the white weasel is the genuine ermine, and might no doubt be
 turned to great advantage by those people if they would encourage the
 Indians to take them. they are no doubt extreemly plenty and readily
 taken, from the number of these tippets which I have seen among these
 people and the great number of skins employed in the construction of
 each timppet. scarcely any of them have employed less than one hundred
 of these skins in their formation.--This morning Capt. Clark set out at
 6 in the morning and soon after arrived near their camp they having
 removed about 2 miles higher up the river than the camp at which they
 were when I first visited them. the chief requested a halt, which was
 complyed with, and a number of the indians came out from the village
 and joined them after smoking a few pipes with them they all proceeded
 to the village where Capt C. was conducted to a large lodge prepared in
 the center of the encampment for himself and party. here they gave him
 one salmon and some cakes of dryed berries. he now repeated to them
 what had been said to them in council at this place which was repeated
 to the village by the Cheif. when he had concluded this address he
 requested a guide to accompany him down the river and an elderly man
 was pointed out by the Cheif who consented to undertake this task. this
 was the old man of whom Cameahwait had spoken as a person well
 acquainted with the country to the North of this river. Capt. C.
 encouraged the Indians to come over with their horses and assist me
 over with the baggage. he distrubuted some presents among the Indians.
 about half the men of the village turned out to hunt the antelope but
 were unsuccessfull. at 3 P.M. Capt. Clark departed, accompanyed by his
 guide and party except one man whom he left with orders to purchase a
 horse if possible and overtake him as soon as he could. he left
 Charbono and the indian woman to return to my camp with the Indians. he
 passed the river about four miles below the Indians, and encamped on a
 small branch, eight miles distant. on his way he met a rispectable
 looking indian who returned and continued with him all night; this
 indian gave them three salmon. Capt. C. killed a cock of the plains or
 mountain cock. it was of a dark brown colour with a long and pointed
 tail larger than the dunghill fowl and had a fleshey protuberant
 substance about the base of the upper chap, something like that of the
 turkey tho without the snout.
 [Clark, August 20, 1805]
 August 20th Tuesday 1805
 Set out at half past 6 oClock and proceeded on (met maney parties of
 Indians) thro a hilley Countrey to the Camp of the Indians on a branch
 of the Columbia River, before we entered this Camp a Serimonious hault
 was requested by the Chief and I Smoked with all that Came around for
 Several pipes, we then proceeded on to the Camp & I was introduced into
 the only Lodge they had which was pitched in the Center for my party
 all the other Lodges made of bushes, after a fiew Indian Seremonies I
 informed the Indians the object of our journey our good intentions
 towards them my consern for their distressed Situation, what we had
 done for them in makeing a piece with the Minitarras Mandans Rickara
 &c. for them-. and requested them all to take over their horses &
 assist Capt Leiwis across &c. also informing them the oject of my
 journey down the river and requested a guide to accompany me, all of
 which was repeited by the Chief to the whole village.
 Those pore people Could only raise a Sammon & a little dried Choke
 Cherris for us half the men of the tribe with the Chief turned out to
 hunt the antilopes, at 3 oClock after giveing a fiew Small articles as
 presents I set out accompanied by an old man as a Guide (I endevered to
 procure as much information from thos people as possible without much
 Suckcess they being but little acquainted or effecting to be So-) I lef
 one man to purchase a horse and overtake me and proceeded on thro a
 wide rich bottom on a beaten Roade 8 miles Crossed the river and
 encamped on a Small run, this evening passed a number of old lodges,
 and met a number of men women children & horses, met a man who appeared
 of Some Consideration who turned back with us, he halted a woman & gave
 us 3 Small Sammon, this man continued with me all night and partook of
 what I had which was a little Pork verry Salt. Those Indians are verry
 attentive to Strangers &c. I left our interpreter & his woman to
 accompany the Indians to Capt Lewis tomorrow the Day they informed me
 they would Set out I killed a Pheasent at the Indian Camp larger than a
 dungal fowl with feshey protuberances about the head like a turkey.
 Frost last night
 [Lewis, August 21, 1805]
 Wednesday August 21st 1805.
 This morning was very cold. the ice 1/4 of an inch thick on the water
 which stood in the vessels exposed to the air. some wet deerskins that
 had been spread the grass last evening are stiffly frozen. the ink
 feizes in my pen. the bottoms are perfectly covered with frost insomuch
 that they appear to be covered with snow. This morning early I
 dispatched two hunters to kill some meat if possible before the Indians
 arrive; Drewyer I sent with the horse into the cove for that purpose.
 The party pursued their several occupations as yesterday. by evening I
 had all the baggage, saddles, and harness completely ready for a march.
 after dark, I made the men take the baggage to the cash and deposit it.
 I beleve we have been unperceived by the Indians in this movement.
 notwithstanding the coldness of the last night the day has proved
 excessively warm. neither of the hunters returned this evening and I
 was obliged to issue pork and corn. The mockersons of both sexes are
 usually the same and are made of deer Elk or buffaloe skin dressed
 without the hair. sometimes in the winter they make them of buffaloe
 skin dressed with the hair on and turn the hair inwards as the Mandans
 Minetares and most of the nations do who inhabit the buffaloe country.
 the mockerson is formed with one seem on the outer edge of the foot is
 cut open at the instep to admit the foot and sewed up behind. in this
 rispect they are the same with the Mandans. they sometimes ornament
 their mockersons with various figures wrought with the quills of the
 Porcupine. some of the dressey young men orniment the tops of their
 mockersons with the skins of polecats and trale the tail of that animal
 on the ground at their heels as they walk.the robe of the woman is
 generally smaller than that of the man but is woarn in the same manner
 over the sholders. the Chemise is roomy and comes down below the middle
 of the leg the upper part of this garment is formed much like the shirt
 of the men except the sholder strap which is never used with the
 Chemise. in women who give suck, they are left open at the sides nearly
 as low as the waist, in others, close as high as the sleeve. the sleeve
 underneath as low as the elbow is open, that part being left very full.
 the sides tail and upper part of the sleeves are deeply fringed and
 sometimes ornimented in a similar manner with the shirts of the men
 with the addition of little patches of red cloth about the tail edged
 around with beads. the breast is usually ornament with various figures
 of party colours rought with the quills of the Porcupine. it is on this
 part of the garment that they appear to exert their greatest ingenuity.
 a girdle of dressed leather confines the Chemise around the waist. when
 either the man or woman wish to disengage their arm from the sleeve
 they draw it out by means of the opening underneath the arm an throw
 the sleeve behind the body. the legings of the women reach as high as
 the knee and are confined with a garter below. the mockerson covers and
 confins it's lower extremity. they are neither fringed nor ornamented.
 these legings are made of the skins of the antelope and the Chemise
 usually of those of the large deer Bighorn and the smallest elk.--They
 seldom wear the beads they possess about their necks at least I have
 never seen a grown person of either sex wear them on this part; some
 their children are seen with them in this way. the men and women were
 them suspen from the ear in little bunches or intermixed with
 triangular peices of the shells of the perl oister. the men also were
 them attached in a similar manner to the hare of the fore part of the
 crown of the head; to which they sometimes make the addition of the
 wings and tails of birds. the nose in neither sex is pierced nor do
 they wear any ornament in it. they have a variety of small sea shells
 of which they form collars woarn indiscriminately by both sexes. these
 as well as the shell of the perl oister they value very highly and
 inform us that they obtain them from their friends and relations who
 live beyond the barren plain towards the Ocean in a S. Westerly
 direction. these friends of theirs they say inhabit a good country
 abounding with Elk, deer, bear, and Antelope, and possess a much
 greater number of horses and mules than they do themselves; or using
 their own figure that their horses and mules are as numerous as the
 grass of the plains. the warriors or such as esteem themselves brave
 men wear collars made of the claws of the brown bear which are also
 esteemed of great value and are preserved with great care. these claws
 are ornamented with beads about the thick end near which they are
 peirced through their sides and strung on a throng of dressed leather
 and tyed about the neck commonly with the upper edge of the tallon next
 the breast or neck but sometimes are reversed. it is esteemed by them
 an act of equal celebrity the killing one of these bear or an enimy,
 and with the means they have of killing this animal it must really be a
 serious undertaking. the sweet sented grass which grows very abundant
 on this river is either twisted or plaited and woarn around the neck in
 ether sex, but most commonly by the men. they have a collar also woarn
 by either sex. it generally round and about the size of a man's finger;
 formed of leather or silk-grass twisted or firmly rolled and covered
 with the quills of the porcupine of different colours. the tusks of the
 Elk are pierced strung on a throng and woarn as an orniment for the
 neck, and is most generally woarn by the women and children. the men
 frequently wear the skin of a fox or a broad strip of that of the otter
 around the forehead and head in form of a bando. they are also fond of
 the feathers of the tail of the beautifull eagle or callumet birds with
 which they ornament their own hair and the tails and mains of their
 horses. The dress of these people is quite as desent and convenient as
 that of any nation of Indians I ever saw.
 This morning early Capt. C. resumed his march; at the distance of five
 miles he arrived at some brush lodges of the Shoshones inhabited by
 about seven families here he halted and was very friendly received by
 these people, who gave himself and party as much boiled salmon as they
 could eat; they also gave him several dryed salmon and a considerable
 quantity of dryed chokecherries. after smoking with them he visited
 their fish wear which was abut 200 yds. distant. he found the wear
 extended across four channels of the river which was here divided by
 three small islands. three of these channels were narrow, and were
 stoped by means of trees fallen across, supported by which stakes of
 willow were driven down sufficiently near each other to prevent the
 salmon from passing. about the center of each a cilindric basket of
 eighteen or 20 feet in length terminating in a conic shape at it's
 lower extremity, formed of willows, was opposed to a small apperture in
 the wear with it's mouth up stream to receive the fish. the main
 channel of the water was conducted to this basket, which was so narrow
 at it's lower extremity that the fish when once in could not turn
 itself about, and were taken out by untying the small ends of the
 longitudinal willows, which frormed the hull of the basket. the wear in
 the main channel was somewhat differently contrived. there were two
 distinct wears formed of poles and willow sticks, quite across the
 river, at no great distance from each other. each of these, were
 furnished with two baskets; the one wear to take them ascending and the
 other in decending. in constructing these wears, poles were first tyed
 together in parcels of three near the smaller extremity; these were set
 on end, and spread in a triangular form at the base, in such manner,
 that two of the three poles ranged in the direction of the intended
 work, and the third down the stream. two ranges of horizontal poles
 were next lashed with willow bark and wythes to the ranging poles, and
 on these willow sticks were placed perpendicularly, reaching from the
 bottom of the river to about 3 or four feet above it's surface; and
 placed so near each other, as not to permit the passage of the fish,
 and even so thick in some parts, as with the help of gravel and stone
 to give a direction to the water which they wished.--the baskets were
 the same in form of the others. this is the form of the work, and
 disposition of the baskets.
 After examining the wears Capt. C. returned to the lodges, and shortly
 continued his rout and passed the river to the Lard. side a little
 distance below the wears. he sent Collins with an Indian down the Lard.
 side of the river to the forks 5 me. in surch of Cruzatte who was left
 at the upper camp yesterday to purchase a horse and had followed on
 today and passed them by another road while they were at the lodges and
 had gone on to the forks. while Capt. Clark was at these lodges an
 Indian brought him a tomehawk which he said he found in the grass near
 the lodge where I had staid at the upper camp when I was first with his
 nation the tommahawk was Drewyer's he missed it in the morning before
 we had set out and surched for it but it was not to be found I beleive
 the young fellow stole it, but if he did it is the only article they
 have pilfered and this was now returned. Capt. C. after traveling about
 20 miles through the valley with the course of the river nearly N. W.
 encamped on the Stard. side in a small bottom under a high Clift of
 rocks. on his way one of the party killed a very large Salmon in a
 creek which they passed at the distance of 14 ms. he was joined this
 evening by Cruzatte and Collins who brought with them five fresh salmon
 which had been given them by the Indians at the forks. the forks of
 this river is famous as a gig fishery and is much resorted by the
 natives.--They killed one deer today. The Guide apeared to be a very
 friendly intelligent old man, Capt. C. is much pleased with him.
 [Clark, August 21, 1805]
 August 21st Wednesday 1805
 Frost last night proceeded on with the Indians I met about 5 miles to
 there Camp, I entered a lodge and after Smokeing with all who Came
 about me I went to See the place those people take the fish, a wear
 across the Creek in which there is Stuk baskets Set in different
 derections So as to take the fish either decending or assending on my
 return to the Camp which was 200 yards only the different lodges (which
 is only bushes) brought in to the lodge I was introduced into, Sammon
 boiled, and dried Choke Chers. Sufficent for all my party.--one man
 brought me a tomahawk which we expected they had Stolen from a man of
 Capt Lewis's party, this man informed me he found the tomk in the grass
 near the place the man Slept. Crossed the River and went over a point
 of high land & Struck it again near a Bluff on the right Side the man I
 left to get a horse at the upper Camp missed me & went to the forks
 which is about five miles below the last Camp.
 I sent one man by the forks with derections to join me to night with
 the one now at that place, those two men joined me at my Camp on the
 right Side below the 1st Clift with 5 Sammon which the Indians gave
 them at the forks, the place they gig fish at this Season. Their method
 of takeing fish with a gig or bone is with a long pole, about a foot
 from one End is a Strong String attached to the pole, this String is a
 little more than a foot long and is tied to the middle of a bone from 4
 to 6 inches long, one end Sharp the other with a whole to fasten on the
 end of the pole with a beard to the large end, the fasten this bone on
 one end & with the other, feel for the fish & turn and Strike them So
 hard that the bone passes through and Catches on the opposit Side,
 Slips off the End of the pole and holds the Center of the bone Those
 Indians are mild in their disposition appear Sincere in their
 friendship, punctial, and decided. kind with what they have, to Spare.
 They are excessive pore, nothing but horses there Enemies which are
 noumerous on account of there horses & Defenceless Situation, have
 Deprived them of tents and all the Small Conveniances of life. They
 have only a few indifferent Knives, no ax, make use of Elk's horn
 Sharpened to Spit ther wood, no clothes except a Short Legins & robes
 of different animals, Beaver, Bear, Buffalow, wolf Panthor, Ibex, Sheep
 Deer, but most commonly the antilope Skins which they ware loosely
 about them--Their ornements are Orter Skin dcurated with See Shells &
 the Skins & tales of the white weasel, Sea Shels of different size hung
 to their Ears hair and breast of their Shirts, beeds of Shells platted
 grass, and Small Strings of otter Skin dressed, they are fond of our
 trinkets, and give us those ornements as the most valueable of their
 possession. The women are held Sacred and appear to have an equal Shere
 in all Conversation, which is not the Case in any othe nation I have
 Seen. their boeys & Girls are also admited to Speak except in Councils,
 the women doe all the drugery except fishing and takeing care of the
 horses, which the men apr. to take upon themselves.--The men ware the
 hair loose flowing over ther Sholders & face the women Cut Short,
 orniments of the back bones of fish Strung plated grass grains of Corn
 Strung Feathers and orniments of Birds Claws of the Bear encurcling
 their necks the most Sacred of all the orniments of this nation is the
 Sea Shells of various Sizes and Shapes and colours, of the bassterd
 perl kind, which they inform us they get from the Indians to the South
 on the other Side of a large fork of this river in passing to which
 they have to pass thro Sandy & barron open plains without water to
 which place they can travel in 15 or 20 days--The men who passed by the
 forks informed me that the S W. fork was double the Size of the one I
 came down, and I observed that it was a handsom river at my camp I
 shall injustice to Capt Lewis who was the first white man ever on this
 fork of the Columbia Call this Louis's river. one Deer killed this
 morning, and a Sammon in the last Creek 21/2 feet long The Westerley
 fork of the Columbia River is double the Size of the Easterley fork &
 below those forks the river is about the Size Jeffersons River near its
 mouth or 100 yards wide, it is verry rapid & Sholey water Clear but
 little timber. This Clift is of a redish brown Colour the rocks which
 fall from it is a dark brown flint tinged with that Colour. Some
 Gullies of white Sand Stone and Sand fine & as white as Snow. The
 mountains on each Side are high, and those on the East ruged & Contain
 a fiew Scattering pine, those on the West contain pine on ther tops &
 high up the hollows--The bottoms of this is wide & rich from some
 distance above the place I struck the East fork they are also wide on
 the East Passed a large Creek which fall in on the right Side 6 miles
 below the forks a road passes up this Creek & to the Missouri.
 [Lewis, August 22, 1805]
 Thursday August 22ed 1805
 This morning early I sent a couple of men to complete the covering of
 the cash which could not be done well last night in the dark, they soon
 accomplished their work and returned. late last night Drewyer returned
 with a fawn he had killed and a considerable quantity of Indian
 plunder. the anecdote with rispect to the latter is perhaps worthy of
 relation. he informed me that while hunting in the Cove yesterday about
 12 OCk. he came suddonly upon an Indian Camp, at which there were a
 young man an Old man a boy and three women, that they seemed but little
 supprised at seeing him and he rode up to them and dismounted turning
 horse out to graize. these people had just finished their repast on
 some roots, he entered into conversation with them by signs, and after
 about 20 minutes one of the women spoke to the others of the party and
 they all went immediately and collected their horses brought them to
 camp and saddled them at this moment he thought he would also set out
 and continue his hunt, and accorgingly walked to catch his horse at
 some little distance and neglected to take up his gun which, he left at
 camp. the Indians perceiving him at the distance of fifty paces
 immediately mounted their horses, the young man took the gun and the
 whole of them left their baggage and laid whip to their horses
 directing their course to the pass of the mountains. finding himself
 deprived of his gun he immediately mounted his horse and pursued; after
 runing them about 10 miles the horses of two of the women nearly gave
 out and the young fellow with the gun from their frequent crys
 slackened his pace and being on a very fleet horse road around the
 women at a little distance at length Drewer overtook the women and by
 signs convinced them that he did not wish to hirt them they then halted
 and the young fellow approached still nearer, he asked him for his gun
 but the only part of the answer which he could understand was pah kee
 which he knew to be the name by which they called their enimies.
 watching his opportunity when the fellow was off his guard he suddonly
 rode along side of him seized his gun and wrest her out of his hands.
 the fellow finding Drewyer too strong for him and discovering that he
 must yeald the gun had pesents of mind to open the pan and cast the
 priming before he let the gun escape from his hands; now finding
 himself devested of the gun he turned his horse about and laid whip
 leaving the women to follow him as well as they could. Drewyer now
 returned to the place they had left their baggage and brought it with
 him to my camp. it consisted of several dressed and undressed skins; a
 couple of bags wove with the fingers of the bark of the silk-grass
 containing each about a bushel of dryed service berries some checherry
 cakes and about a bushel of roots of three different kinds dryed and
 prepared for uce which were foalded in as many parchment hides of
 buffaloe. some flint and the instrument of bone for manufactureing the
 flint into arrow points. some of this flint was as transparent as the
 common black glass and much of the same colour easily broken, and
 flaked off much like glass leaving a very sharp edge. one speceis of
 the roots were fusiform abot six inches long and about the size of a
 man's finger at the larger end tapering to a small point. the radicles
 larger than in most fusiform roots. the rind was white and thin. the
 body or consistence of the root was white mealy and easily reduced by
 pounding to a substance resembleing flour which thickens with boiling
 water something like flour and is agreeably flavored. this rout is
 frequently eaten by the Indians either green or in it's dryed state
 without the preparation of boiling. another speceis was much mutilated
 but appeared to be fibrous; the parts were brittle, hard of the size of
 a small quill, cilindric and as white as snow throughout, except some
 small parts of the hard black rind which they had not seperated in the
 preperation. this the Indians with me informed were always boiled for
 use. I made the exprement, found that they became perfectly soft by
 boiling, but had a very bitter taste, which was naucious to my pallate,
 and I transfered them to the Indians who had eat them heartily. a third
 speceis were about the size of a nutmeg, and of an irregularly rounded
 form, something like the smallest of the Jerusalem artichoke, which
 they also resemble in every other appearance. they had become very hard
 by being dryed these I also boiled agreeably to the instruction of the
 Indians and found them very agreeable. they resemble the Jerusalem
 Artichoke very much in their flavor and I thought them preferable,
 however there is some allowance to be made for the length of time I
 have now been without vegitable food to which I was always much
 attatched. these are certainly the best root I have yet seen in uce
 among the Indians. I asked the Indians to shew me the plant of which
 these roots formed a part but they informed me that neither of them
 grew near this place. I had set most of the men at work today to dress
 the deerskin belonging to those who had gone on command with Capt.
 Clark. at 11 A.M. Charbono the Indian Woman, Cameahwait and about 50
 men with a number of women and children arrived. they encamped near us.
 after they had turned out their horses and arranged their camp I called
 the Cheifs and warriors together and addressed them a second time; gave
 them some further presents, particularly the second and third Cheifs
 who it appeared had agreeably to their promise exerted themselves in my
 favour. having no fresh meat and these poor devils half starved I had
 previously prepared a good meal for them all of boiled corn and beans
 which I gave them as soon as the council was over and I had distributed
 the presents. this was thankfully received by them. the Chief wished
 that his nation could live in a country where they could provide such
 food. I told him that it would not be many years before the whitemen
 would put it in the power of his nation to live in the country below
 the mountains where they might cultivate corn beans and squashes. he
 appeared much pleased with the information. I gave him a few dryed
 squashes which we had brought from the Mandans he had them boiled and
 declared them to be the best thing he had ever tasted except sugar, a
 small lump of which it seems his sister Sah-cah-gar Wea had given him.
 late in the evening I made the men form a bush drag, and with it in
 about 2 hours they caught 528 very good fish, most of them large trout.
 among them I now for the first time saw ten or a douzen of a whte
 speceis of trout. they are of a silvery colour except on the back and
 head, where they are of a bluish cast. the scales are much larger than
 the speckled trout, but in their form position of their fins teeth
 mouth &c they are precisely like them they are not generally quite as
 large but equally well flavored. I distributed much the greater portion
 of the fish among the Indians. I purchased five good horses of them
 very reasonably, or at least for about the value of six dollars a peice
 in merchandize. the Indians are very orderly and do not croud about our
 camp nor attempt to disterb any article they see lying about. they
 borrow knives kettles &c from the men and always carefully return them.
 Capt. Clark says, "we set out early and passed a small creek at one
 mile, also the points of four mountains which were high steep and
 rocky. the mountains are so steep that it is almost incredible to
 mention that horses had passed them. our road in many places lay over
 the sharp fragments of rocks which had fallen from the mountains and
 lay in confused heaps for miles together; yet notwithstanding our
 horsed traveled barefoot over them as fast as we could and did not
 detain us. passed two bold runing streams, and arrived at the entrance
 of a small river" where some Indian families resided. they had some
 scaffoalds of fish and burries exposed to dry. they were not acquainted
 with the circumstance of any whitemen being in their country and were
 therefore much allarmed on our approach several of the women and
 children fled in the woods for shelter. the guide was behind and the
 wood thick in which their lodges were situated we came on them before
 they had the least notice of us. those who remained offered us every
 thing they had, which was but little; they offered us collars of elks
 tusks which their children woar Salmon beries &c. we eat some of their
 fish and buries but returned them the other articles they had offered
 with a present of some small articles which seemed to add much to their
 The guide who had by this time arrived explained to them who we were
 and our object in visiting them; but still there were some of the women
 and Children inconsoleable, they continued to cry during our stay,
 which was about an hour. a road passes up this river which my guide
 informed me led over the mountains to the Missouri. from this place I
 continued my rout along the steep side of a mountain for about 3 miles
 and arrived at the river near a small Island on the lower point of
 which we encamped in the evening we attempted to gig fish but were
 unsuccessfull only obtaining one small salmon. in the course of the day
 we had passed several women and children geathering burries who were
 very liberal in bestoing us a part of their collections. the river is
 very rapid and shoaly; many rocks lie in various derections scattered
 throughout it's bed. There are some few small pine scattered through
 the bottoms, of which I only saw one which appeared as if it would
 answer for a canoe and that was but small. the tops of the mountains on
 the Lard. side are covered with pine and some also scattered on the
 sides of all the mountains. I saw today a speceis of woodpecker, which
 fed on the seeds of the pine. it's beak and tail were white, it's wings
 were black, and every other part of a dark brown. it was about the size
 of a robin-
 [Clark, August 22, 1805]
 August 22d Thursday 1805
 We Set out early passed a Small Creek on the right at 1 mile and the
 points of four mountains verry Steap high & rockey, the assent of three
 was So Steap that it is incrediable to describe the rocks in maney
 places loose & Sliped from those mountains and is a bed of rugid loose
 white and dark brown loose rock for miles. the Indian horses pass over
 those Clifts hills Sids & rocks as fast as a man, the three horses with
 me do not detain me any on account of those dificuelties, passed two
 bold rung. Streams on the right and a Small river at the mouth of Which
 Several families of Indians were encamped and had Several Scaffolds of
 fish & buries drying we allarmed them verry much as they knew nothing
 of a white man being in their Countrey, and at the time we approached
 their lodges which was in a thick place of bushes-my guiedes were
 behind.--They offered every thing they possessed (which was verry
 littl) to us, Some run off and hid in the bushes The first offer of
 theirs were Elks tuskes from around their Childrens necks, Sammon &c.
 my guide attempted passifyed those people and they Set before me
 berres, & fish to eate, I gave a fiew Small articles to those fritened
 people which added verry much to their pasification but not entirely as
 Some of the women & Childn. Cried dureing my Stay of an hour at this
 place, I proceeded on the Side of a verry Steep & rockey mountain for 3
 miles and Encamped on the lower pt. of an Island. we attempted to gig
 fish without Suckcess. caught but one Small one.The last Creek or Small
 river is on the right Side and "a road passes up it & over to the
 Missouri" in this day passed Several womin and Children gathering and
 drying buries of which they were very kind and gave us a part. the
 river rapid and Sholey maney Stones Scattered through it in different
 directions. I Saw to day Bird of the wood pecker kind which fed on Pine
 burs its Bill and tale white the wings black every other part of a
 light brown, and about the Size of a robin. Some fiew Pine Scattered in
 the bottoms & Sides of the Mountains (the Top of the Motn. to the left
 Covered & inaxcessable) I Saw one which would make a Small Canoe.
 [Lewis, August 23, 1805]
 Friday August 23rd 1805.
 This morning I arrose very early and despatched two hunters on
 horseback with orders to extend their hunt to a greater distance up the
 S. E. fork than they had done heretofore, in order if possible to
 obtain some meet for ourselves as well as the Indians who appeared to
 depend on us for food and our store of provision is growing too low to
 indulge them with much more corn or flour. I wished to have set out
 this morning but the cheef requested that I would wait untill another
 party of his nation arrived which he expected today, to this I
 consented from necessity, and therefore sent out the hunters as I have
 mentioned. I also laid up the canoes this morning in a pond near the
 forks; sunk them in the water and weighted them down with stone, after
 taking out the plugs of the gage holes in their bottoms; hoping by this
 means to guard against both the effects of high water, and that of the
 fire which is frequently kindled in these plains by the natives. the
 Indians have promised to do them no intentional injury and beleive they
 are too lazy at any rate to give themselves the trouble to raise them
 from their present situation in order to cut or birn them. I reminded
 the chief of the low state of our stores of provision and advised him
 to send his young men to hunt, which he immediately recommended to them
 and most of them turned out. I wished to have purchased some more
 horses of them but they objected against disposing of any more of them
 untill we reach their camp beyond the mountains. the Indians pursued a
 mule buck near our camp I saw this chase for about 4 miles it was
 really entertaining, there were about twelve of them in pursuit of it
 on horseback, they finally rode it down and killed it. the all came in
 about 1 P.M. having killed 2 mule deer and three goats. this mule buck
 was the largest deer of any kind I had ever seen. it was nearly as
 large as a doe Elk. I observed that there was but little division or
 distribution of the meat they had taken among themselves. some familes
 had a large stock and others none. this is not customary among the
 nations of Indians with whom I have hitherto been acquainted I asked
 Cameahwait the reason why the hunters did not divide the meat among
 themselves; he said that meat was so scarce with them that the men who
 killed it reserved it for themselves and their own families. my hunters
 arrived about 2 in the evening with two mule deer and three common
 deer. I distributed three of the deer among those families who appeared
 to have nothing to eat. at three P.M. the expected party of Indians
 arrived, about 50 men women and Children. I now learnt that most of
 them were thus far on their way down the valley towards the buffaloe
 country, and observed that there was a good deel of anxiety on the part
 of some of those who had promised to assist me over the mountains to
 accompany this party, I felt some uneasiness on this subject but as
 they still said they would return with me as they had promised I said
 nothing to them but resolved to set out in the morning as early as
 possible. I dispatched two hunters this evening into the cove to hunt
 and leave the meat they might kill on the rout we shall pass tomorrow.
 The metal which we found in possession of these people consited of a
 few indifferent knives, a few brass kettles some arm bands of iron and
 brass, a few buttons, woarn as ornaments in their hair, a spear or two
 of a foot in length and some iron and brass arrow points which they
 informed me they obtained in exchange for horses from the Crow or Rocky
 Mountain Indians on the yellowstone River. the bridlebits and stirrips
 they obtained from the Spaniards, tho these were but few. many of them
 made use of flint for knives, and with this instrument, skined the
 animals they killed, dressed their fish and made their arrows; in short
 they used it for every purpose to which the knife is applyed. this
 flint is of no regular form, and if they can only obtain a part of it,
 an inch or two in length that will cut they are satisfyed, they renew
 the edge by fleaking off the flint by means of the point of an Elk's or
 deer's horn. with the point of a deer or Elk's horn they also form
 their arrow points of the flint, with a quickness and neatness that is
 really astonishing. we found no axes nor hatchets among them; what wood
 they cut was done either with stone or Elk's horn. the latter they use
 always to rive or split their wood. their culinary eutensils exclusive
 of the brass kettle before mentioned consist of pots in the form of
 ajar made either of earth, or of a white soft stone which becomes black
 and very hard by birning, and is found in the hills near the three
 forks of the Missouri betwen Madison's and Gallitin's rivers they have
 also spoons made of the Buffaloe's horn and those of the Bighorn. Their
 bows are made of ceader or pine and have nothing remarkable about them.
 the back of the bow is covered with sinues and glue and is about 21/2
 feet long. much the shape of those used by the Siouxs Mandans
 Minnetares &c. their arrows are more slender generally than those used
 by the nations just mentioned but much the same in construction. Their
 Sheild is formed of buffaloe hide, perfectly arrow proof, and is a
 circle of 2 feet 4 I. or 2 F. 6 I. in diameter. this is frequently
 painted with varios figures and ornamented around the edges with
 feather and a fringe of dressed leather. they sometimes make bows of
 the Elk's horn and those also of the bighorn. those of the Elk's horn
 are made of a single peice and covered on the back with glue and sinues
 like those made of wood, and are frequently ornamented with a stran
 wrought porcupine quills and sinues raped around them for some distance
 at both extremities. the bows of the bighorn are formed of small peices
 laid flat and cemented with gleue, and rolled with sinews, after which,
 they are also covered on the back with sinews and glew, and highly
 ornamented as they are much prized. forming the sheild is a cerimony of
 great importance among them, this implement would in their minds be
 devested of much of its protecting power were it not inspired with
 those virtues by their old men and jugglers. their method of preparing
 it is thus, an entire skin of a bull buffaloe two years old is first
 provided; a feast is next prepared and all the warriors old men and
 jugglers invited to partake. a hole is sunk in the ground about the
 same in diameter with the intended sheild and about 18 inches deep. a
 parcel of stones are now made red hot and thrown into the hole water is
 next thrown in and the hot stones cause it to emit a very strong hot
 steem, over this they spread the green skin which must not have been
 suffered to dry after taken off the beast. the flesh side is laid next
 to the groround and as many of the workmen as can reach it take hold on
 it's edges and extend it in every direction. as the skin becomes
 heated, the hair seperates and is taken of with the fingers, and the
 skin continues to contract untill the whoe is drawn within the compas
 designed for the shield, it is then taken off and laid on a parchment
 hide where they pound it with their heels when barefoot. this operation
 of pounding continues for several days or as long as the feast lasts
 when it is delivered to the propryeter and declared by the jugglers and
 old men to be a sufficient defence against the arrows of their enimies
 or even bullets if feast has been a satisfactory one. many of them
 beleive implisitly that a ball cannot penitrate their sheilds, in
 consequence of certain supernaural powers with which they have been
 inspired by their jugglers.--The Poggamoggon is an instrument with a
 handle of wood covered with dressed leather about the size of a whip
 handle and 22 inches long; a round stone of 2 pounds weight is also
 covered with leather and strongly united to the leather of the handle
 by a throng of 2 inches long; a loop of leather united to the handle
 passes arond the wrist. a very heavy blow may be given with this
 instrument. They have also a kind of armor which they form with many
 foalds of dressed Atelope's skin, unite with glue and sand. with this
 they cover their own bodies and those of their horses. these are
 sufficient against the effects of the arrow.--the quiver which contains
 their arrows and implements for making fire is formed of various skins.
 that of the Otter seems to be prefered. they are but narrow, of a
 length sufficent to protect the arrow from the weather, and are woarn
 on the back by means of a strap which passes over the left sholder and
 under the wright arm.their impliments for making fire is nothing more
 than a blunt arrow and a peice of well seasoned soft spongey wood such
 as the willow or cottonwood. the point of this arrow they apply to this
 dry stick so near one edge of it that the particles of wood which are
 seperated from it by the friction of the arrow falls down by it's side
 in a little pile. the arrow is held between the palms of the hand with
 the fingers extended, and being pressed as much as possible against the
 peice is briskly rolled between the palms of the hands backwards and
 forwards by pressing the arrow downwards the hands of course in rolling
 arrow also decend; they bring them back with a quick motion and repeat
 the operation till the dust by the friction takes fire; the peice and
 arrow are then removed and some dry grass or Boated wood is added. it
 astonished me to see in what little time these people would kindle fire
 in this way. in less than a minute they will produce fire.
 Capt. Clark set out this morning very early and poroceeded but slowly
 in consequence of the difficulty of his road which lay along the steep
 side of a mountain over large irregular and broken masses of rocks
 which had tumbled from the upper part of the mountain. it was with much
 wrisk and pain that the horses could get on. at the distance of four
 miles he arrived at the river and the rocks were here so steep and
 juted into the river such manner that there was no other alternative
 but passing through the river, this he attempted with success tho water
 was so deep for a short distance as to swim the horses and was very
 rapid; he continued his rout one mile along the edge of the river under
 this steep Clift to a little bottom, below which the whole current of
 the river beat against the Stard. shore on which he was, and which was
 formed of a solid rock perfectly inaccessible to horses. here also the
 little track which he had been pursuing, terminated. he therefore
 determined to leave the horses and the majority of the party here and
 with his guide and three men to continue his rout down the river still
 further, in order more fully to satisfy himself as to it's
 practicability. accordingly he directed the men to hunt and fish at
 this place untill his return. they had not killed anything today but
 one goose, and the ballance of the little provision they had brought
 with them, as well as the five salmon they had procured yesterday were
 consumed last evening; there was of tours no inducement for his halting
 any time, at this place; after a few minutes he continued his rout
 clambering over immence rocks and along the sides of lofty precepices
 on the border of the river to the distance of 12 miles, at which place
 a large creek discharged itself on the Norh side 12 yds. wide and deep.
 a short distance above the entrance of this creek there is a narrow
 bottom which is the first that he had found on the river from that in
 which he left the horses and party. a plain indian road led up this
 creek which the guide informed him led to a large river that ran to the
 North, and was frequented by another nation who occasionally visited
 this river for the purpose of taking fish. at this place he saw some
 late appearance of Indians having been encamped and the tracks of a
 number of horses. Capt. C. halted here about 2 hours, caught some small
 fish, on which, with the addition of some berries, they dined. the
 river from the place at which he left the party to his present station
 was one continued rapid, in which there were five shoals neither of
 which could be passed with loaded canoes nor even run with empty ones.
 at those several places therefore it would be necessary to unload and
 transport the baggage for a considerable distance over steep and almost
 inacassable rocks where there was no possibility of employing horses
 for the releif of the men; the canoes would next have to be let down by
 cords and even with this precaution Capt. C. conceived there would be
 much wriske of both canoes and men. at one of those shoals the lofty
 perpendicular rocks which from the bases of the mountains approach the
 river so nearly on each side, as to prevent the possibility of a
 portage, or passage for the canoes without expending much labour in
 removing rocks and cuting away the earth in some places. to surmount
 These difficulties, precautions must be observed which in their
 execution must necessarily consume much time and provision, neither of
 which we can command. the season is now far advanced to remain in these
 mountains as the Indians inform us we shall shortly have snow; the
 salmon have so far declined that they are themselves haistening from
 the country and not an animal of any discription is to be seen in this
 difficult part of the river larger than a pheasant or a squirrel and
 they not abundant; add to this that our stock of provision is now so
 low that it would not support us more than ten days. the bends of the
 river are short and the currant beats from side to side against the
 rocks with great violence. the river is about 100 yds. wide and so deep
 that it cannot be foarded but in a few places, and the rocks approach
 the river so near in most places that there is no possibility of
 passing between them and the water; a passage therefore with horses
 along the river is also impracticable. The sides of these mountains
 present generally one barren surface of confused and broken masses of
 stone. above these are white or brown and towards the base of a grey
 colour and so hard that when struck with a steel, yeald fire like
 flint. those he had just past were scarcely releived by the appearance
 of a tree; but those below the entrance of the creek were better
 covered with timber, and there were also some tall pine near the river.
 The sides of the mountains are very steep, and the torrents of water
 which roll down their sides at certain seasons appear to carry with
 them vast quantities of the loose stone into the river. after dinner
 Capt. C. continued his rout down the river and at 1/2 a mile pased
 another creek not so large as that just mentioned, or about 5 yards
 wide. here his guide informed him that by ascending this creek some
 distance they would have a better road and would cut off a considerable
 bend which the river made to the south; accordingly he pursued a well
 beaten Indian track which led up this creek about six miles, then
 leaving the creek on the wright he passed over a ridge, and at the
 distance of a mile arrived at the river where it passes through a well
 timbered bottom of about eighty acres of land; they passed this bottom
 and asscended a steep and elivated point of a mountain, from whence the
 guide shewed him the brake of the river through the mountains for about
 20 miles further. this view was terminated by one of the most lofty
 mountains, Capt. C. informed me, he had ever seen which was perfectly
 covered with snow. the river directed it's course immediately to this
 stupendous mountain at the bace of which the gude informe him those
 difficulties of which himself and nation had spoken, commenced. that
 after the river reached this mountain it continued it's rout to the
 North for many miles between high and perpendicular rocks, roling
 foaming and beating against innumerable rocks which crouded it's
 channel; that then it penetrated the mountain through a narrow gap
 leaving a perpendicular rock on either side as high as the top of the
 mountain which he beheld. that the river here making a bend they could
 not see through the mountain, and as it was impossible to decend the
 river or clamber over that vast mountain covered with eternal snow,
 neither himself nor any of his nation had ever been lower in this
 direction, than in view of the place at which the river entered this
 mountain; that if Capt. C. wished him to do so, he would conduct him to
 that place, where he thought they could probably arrive by the next
 evening. Capt. C. being now perfictly satisfyed as to the
 impractability of this rout either by land or water, informed the old
 man, that he was convinced of the varacity of his assertions and would
 now return to the village from whence they had set out where he
 expected to meet myself and party. they now returned to the upper part
 of the last creek he had passed, and encamped. it was an hour after
 dark before he reached this place. a small river falls into this fork
 of the Columbia just above the high mountain through which it passes on
 the south side.
 [Clark, August 23, 1805]
 August 23rd Friday 1805
 We Set out early proceed on with great dificuelty as the rocks were So
 Sharp large and unsettled and the hill sides Steep that the horses
 could with the greatest risque and dificulty get on, no provisions as
 the 5 Sammons given us yesterday by the Indians were eaten last night,
 one goose killed this morning; at 4 miles we came to a place the horses
 Could not pass without going into the river, we passed one mile to a
 verry bad riffle the water Confined in a narrow Channel & beeting
 against the left Shore, as we have no parth further and the Mounts. jut
 So close as to prevent the possibiley of horses proceeding down, I
 deturmined to delay the party here and with my guide and three men
 proceed on down to examine if the river continued bad or was
 practiable. I Set out with three men directing those left to hunt and
 fish until my return. I proceeded on Somtims in a Small wolf parth & at
 other times Climeing over the rocks for 12 miles to a large Creek on
 the right Side above the mouth of this Creek for a Short distance is a
 narrow bottom & the first, below the place I left my partey, a road
 passes down this Creek which I understoode passed to the water of a
 River which run to Th North & was the ground of another nation, Some
 fresh Sign about this Creek of horse and Camps. I delayd 2 hours to
 fish, Cought Some Small fish on which we dined.
 The River from the place I left my party to this Creek is almost one
 continued rapid, five verry Considerable rapids the passage of either
 with Canoes is entirely impossable, as the water is Confined betwen
 hugh Rocks & the Current beeting from one against another for Some
 distance below &c. &c. at one of those rapids the mountains Close So
 Clost as to prevent a possibility of a portage with great labour in
 Cutting down the Side of the hill removeing large rocks &c. &c. all the
 others may be passed by takeing every thing over Slipery rocks, and the
 Smaller ones Passed by letting down the Canoes empty with Cords, as
 running them would certainly be productive of the loss of Some Canoes,
 those dificuelties and necessary precautions would delay us an emince
 time in which provisions would be necessary. (we have but little and
 nothing to be precured in this quarter except Choke Cheres & red haws
 not an animal of any kind to be seen and only the track of a Bear)
 below this Creek the lofty Pine is thick in the bottom hill Sides on
 the mountains & up the runs. The river has much the resemblance of that
 above bends Shorter and no passing, after a few miles between the river
 & the mountains & the Current So Strong that is dangerous crossing the
 river, and to proceed down it would rendr it necessarey to Cross almost
 at every bend This river is about 100 yards wide and can be forded but
 in a few places. below my guide and maney other Indians tell me that
 the Mountains Close and is a perpendicular Clift on each Side, and
 Continues for a great distance and that the water runs with great
 violence from one rock to the other on each Side foaming & roreing thro
 rocks in every direction, So as to render the passage of any thing
 impossible. those rapids which I had Seen he said was Small & trifleing
 in comparrison to the rocks & rapids below, at no great distance & The
 Hills or mountains were not like those I had Seen but like the Side of
 a tree Streight up--Those Mountains which I had passed were Steep
 Contain a white, a brown, & low down a Grey hard stone which would make
 fire, those Stone were of different Sises all Sharp and are continuly
 Slipping down, and in maney places one bed of those Stones inclined
 from the river bottom to the top of the mountains, The Torrents of
 water which come down aftr a rain carries with it emence numbers of
 those Stone into the river about 1/2 a mile below the last mentioned
 Creek another Creek falls in, my guide informed me that our rout was up
 this Creek by which rout we would Save a considerable bend of the river
 to the South. we proceeded on a well beeten Indian parth up this Creak
 about 6 miles and passed over a ridge 1 mile to the river in a Small
 vally through which we passed and assended a Spur of the Mountain from
 which place my guide Shew me the river for about 20 miles lower &
 pointed out the dificulty we returned to the last Creek & camped about
 one hour after dark.
 There my guide Shewed me a road from the N Which Came into the one I
 was in which he Said went to a large river which run to the north on
 which was a Nation he called Tushapass, he made a map of it
 [Lewis, August 24, 1805]
 Saturday August 24th 1805.
 As the Indians who were on their way down the Missouri had a number of
 spare hoses with them I thought it probable that I could obtain some of
 them and therefore desired the Cheif to speak to them and inform me
 whether they would trade. they gave no positive answer but requested to
 see the goods which I was willing to give in exchange. I now produced
 some battle axes which I had made at Fort Mandan with which they were
 much pleased. knives also seemed in great demand among them. I soon
 purchased three horses and a mule. for each horse I gave an ax a knife
 handkercheif and a little paint; & for the mule the addition of a knife
 a shirt handkercheif and a pair of legings; at this price which was
 quite double that given for the horses, the fellow who sold him made a
 merit of having bestoed me one of his mules. I consider this mule a
 great acquisition. These Indians soon told me that they had no more
 horses for sale and I directed the party to prepare to set out. I had
 now nine horses and a mule, and two which I had hired made twelve these
 I had loaded and the Indian women took the ballance of the baggage. I
 had given the Interpreter some articles with which to purchase a horse
 for the woman which he had obtained. at twelve Oclock we set out and
 passed the river below the forks, directing our rout towards the cove
 along the track formerly mentioned. most of the horses were heavily
 laden, and it appears to me that it will require at least 25 horses to
 convey our baggage along such roads as I expect we shall be obliged to
 pass in the mountains. I had now the inexpressible satisfaction to find
 myself once more under way with all my baggage and party. an Indian had
 the politeness to offer me one of his horses to ride which I accepted
 with cheerfullness as it enabled me to attend better to the march of
 the party. I had reached the lower part of the cove when an Indian rode
 up and informed me that one of my men was very sick and unable to come
 on. I directed the party to halt at a small run which falls into the
 creek on Lard. at the lower part of the Cove and rode back about 2
 Miles where I found Wiser very ill with a fit of the cholic. I sent
 Sergt. Ordway who had remained with him for some water and gave him a
 doze of the essence of Peppermint and laudinum which in the course of
 half an hour so far recovered him that he was enabled to ride my horse
 and I proceeded on foot and rejoined the party. the sun was yet an hour
 high but the Indians who had for some time impatiently waited my return
 at length unloaded and turned out their horses and my party had
 followed there ex-ample. as it was so late and the Indians had prepared
 their camp for the night I thought it best to acquiess and determined
 also to remain. we had traveled only about six miles. after we encamped
 we had a slight shower of rain. Goodrich who is our principal fisherman
 caught several fine trout. Drewyer came to us late in the evening and
 had not killed anything. I gave the Indians who were absolutely engaged
 in transporting the baggage, a little corn as they had nothing to eat.
 I told Cameahwait that my stock of provision was too small to indulge
 all his people with provision and recommended it to him to advise such
 as were not assisting us with our baggage to go on to their camp to
 morrow and wait our arrival; which he did accordingly. Cameahwait
 literally translated is one who never walks. he told me that his nation
 had also given him another name by which he was signalized as a warrior
 which was Too-et'-te-con'-e or black gun. these people have many names
 in the course of their lives, particularly if they become distinguished
 characters. for it seems that every important event by which they
 happen to distinguish themselves intitles them to claim another name
 which is generally scelected by themselves and confirmed by the nation.
 those distinguishing acts are the killing and scalping an enemy, the
 killing a white bear, leading a party to war who happen to be
 successfull either in destroying their enemies or robing them of their
 horses, or individually stealing the horses of an enemy. these are
 considered acts of equal heroism among them, and that of killing an
 enemy without scalping him is considered of no importance; in fact the
 whole honour seems to be founded in the act of scalping, for if a man
 happens to slay a dozen of his enemies in action and others get the
 scalps or first lay their hand on the dead person the honor is lost to
 him who killed them and devolves on those who scalp or first touch
 them. Among the Shoshones, as well as all the Indians of America,
 bravery is esteemed the primary virtue; nor can any one become eminent
 among them who has not at some period of his life given proofs of his
 possessing this virtue. with them there can be no preferment without
 some warelike achievement, and so completely interwoven is this
 principle with the earliest Elements of thought that it will in my
 opinion prove a serious obstruction to the restoration of a general
 peace among the nations of the Missouri. while at Fort Mandan I was one
 day addressing some cheifs of the Minetares wo visited us and pointing
 out to them the advantages of a state of peace with their neighbours
 over that of war in which they were engaged. the Chiefs who had already
 geathered their havest of larals, and having forceably felt in many
 instances some of those inconveniences attending a state of war which I
 pointed out, readily agreed with me in opinon. a young fellow under the
 full impression of the Idea I have just suggested asked me if they were
 in a state of peace with all their neighhours what the nation would do
 for Cheifs?, and added that the cheifs were now oald and must shortly
 die and that the nation could not exist without cheifs. taking as
 granted that there could be no other mode devised for making Cheifs but
 that which custom had established through the medium of warlike
 The few guns which the Shoshones have are reserved for war almost
 exclusively and the bow and arrows are used in hunting. I have seen a
 few skins among these people which have almost every appearance of the
 common sheep. they inform me that they finde this animals on the high
 mountains to the West and S. W. of them. it is about the size of the
 common sheep, the wool is reather shorter and more intermixed with long
 hairs particularly on the upper part of the neck. these skins have been
 so much woarn that I could not form a just Idea of the animal or it's
 colour. the Indians however inform me that it is white and that it's
 horns are lunated comprest twisted and bent backward as those of the
 common sheep. the texture of the skin appears to be that of the sheep.
 I am now perfectly convinced that the sheep as well as the Bighorn
 exist in these mountains.
 The usual caparison of the Shoshone horse is a halter and saddle. the
 1st consists either of a round plated or twisted cord of six or seven
 strands of buffaloe's hair, or a throng of raw hide made pliant by
 pounding and rubing. these cords of bufaloe's hair are about the size
 of a man's finger and remarkably strong. this is the kind of halter
 which is prefered by them. the halter of whatever it may be composed is
 always of great length and is never taken from the neck of the horse
 which they commonly use at any time. it is first attatched at one end
 about the neck of the horse with a knot that will not slip, it is then
 brought down to his under jaw and being passed through the mouth
 imbaces the under jaw and tonge in a simple noose formed by crossing
 the rope inderneath the jaw of the horse. this when mounted he draws up
 on the near side of the horse's neck and holds in the left hand,
 suffering it to trail at a great distance behind him sometimes the
 halter is attatched so far from the end that while the shorter end
 serves him to govern his horse, the other trails on the grond as before
 mentioned. they put their horses to their full speed with those cords
 trailing on the ground. when they turn out the horse to graze the noose
 is mearly loosed from his mouth. the saddle is made of wood and covered
 with raw hide which holds the parts very firmly together. it is made
 like the pack saddles in uce among the French and Spaniards. it
 consists of two flat thin boards which fit the sides of the horses
 back, and are held frirm by two peices which are united to them behind
 and before on the outer side and which rise to a considerable hight
 terminating sometimes in flat horizontal points extending outwards, and
 alwas in an accute angle or short bend underneath the upper part of
 these peices. a peice of buffaloe's skin with the hair on, is usually
 put underneath the saddle; and very seldom any covering on the saddle.
 stirrups when used are made of wood and covered with leather. these are
 generally used by the elderly men and women; the young men scarcely
 ever use anything more than a small pad of dressed leather stuffed with
 hair, which is confined with a leather thong passing arond the body of
 the horse in the manner of a girth. they frequently paint their
 favorite horses, and cut their ears in various shapes. they also
 decorate their mains and tails, which they never draw or trim, with the
 feathers of birds, and sometimes suspend at the breast of the horse the
 finest ornaments they possess. the Spanish bridle is prefered by them
 when they can obtain them, but they never dispence with the cord about
 the neck of the horse, which serves them to take him with more ease
 when he is runing at large. They are excellent horsemen and extreemly
 expert in casting the cord about the neck of a horse. the horses that
 have been habituated to be taken with the cord in this way, however
 wild they may appear at first, surrender the moment they feel the cord
 about their necks.--There are no horses in this quarter which can with
 propriety be termed wild. there are some few which have been left by
 the indians at large for so great a length of time that they have
 become shye, but they all shew marks of having been in possession of
 man. such is that one which Capt. Clark saw just below the three forks
 of the Missouri, and one other which I saw on the Missouri below the
 entrance of the Mussle shell river.--Capt. Clark set out very early
 this morning on his return, he traveled down the creek to it's entrance
 by the same Indian track he had ascended it; at the river he marked his
 name on a pine tree, then ascended to the bottom above the second
 creek, and brekfasted on burries, which occupyed them about one hour.
 he now retraced his former track and joined the party where he had left
 them at 4 P.M. on his way Capt. C. fell from a rock and injured one of
 his legs very much. the party during his absence had killed a few
 pheasants and caught a few small fish on which together with haws and
 Serviceburies they had subsisted. they had also killed one cock of the
 Mountains Capt. Clark now wrote me a discription of the river and
 country, and stated our prospects by this rout as they have been
 heretofore mentioned and dispatched Colter on horseback with orders to
 loose no time reaching me. he set out late with the party continued his
 rout about two miles and encamped. Capt Clark had seen some trees which
 would make small canoes but all of them some distance below the Indian
 Caps which he passed at the entrance of fish Creek.
 [Clark, August 24, 1805]
 August 24th Satturday 1805
 Set out verry early this morning on my return passed down the Creek at
 the mouth marked my name on a pine Tree, proceed on to the bottom above
 the Creek & Brackfast on buries & delayed 1 hour, then proceed on up
 the river by the Same rout we decended to the place I left my party
 where we arrived at 4 oClock, (I Sliped & bruised my leg verry much on
 a rock) the party had killed Several phesents and Cought a fiew Small
 fish on which they had Subsisted in my absence. also a heath hen, near
 the Size of a Small turkey.
 I wrote a letter to Capt Lewis informing him of the prospects before us
 and information recved of my guide which I thought favourable &c. &
 Stating two plans one of which for us to pursue &c. and despatched one
 man & horse and directed the party to get ready to march back, every
 man appeared disheartened from the prospects of the river, and nothing
 to eate, I Set out late and Camped 2 miles above, nothing to eate but
 Choke Cherries & red haws which act in different ways So as to make us
 Sick, dew verry heavy, my beding wet in passing around a rock the
 horses were obliged to go deep into the water.
 The plan I stated to Capt Lewis if he agrees with me we shall adopt is
 to procure as many horses (one for each man) if possible and to hire my
 present guide who I sent on to him to interegate thro the Intprtr. and
 proceed on by land to Some navagable part of the Columbia River, or to
 the Ocean, depending on what provisions we can procure by the gun aded
 to the Small Stock we have on hand depending on our horses as the last
 a second plan to divide the party one part to attempt this deficuet
 river with what provisions we had, and the remaindr to pass by Land on
 hose back Depending on our gun &c for Provisions &c. and come together
 occasionally on the river.
 the 1s of which I would be most pleased with &c.
 I saw Several trees which would make Small Canoes and by putting 2
 together would make a Siseable one, all below the last Indian Camp
 Several miles
 [Lewis, August 25, 1805]
 Sunday August 25th 1805.
 This morning loaded our horses and set out a little after sunrise; a
 few only of the Indians unengaged in assisting us went on as I had
 yesterday proposed to the Cheif. the others flanked us on each side and
 started some Antelope which they pursued for several hours but killed
 none of them. we proceeded within 2 Ms. of the narrow pass or seven
 miles from our camp of last evening and halted for dinner. Our hunters
 joined us at noon with three deer the greater part of which I gave the
 indians. sometime after we had halted, Charbono mentioned to me with
 apparent unconcern that he expected to meet all the Indians from the
 camp on the Columbia tomorrow on their way to the Missouri. allarmed at
 this information I asked why he expected to meet them. he then informed
 me that the 1st Cheif had dispatched some of his young men this morning
 to this camp requesting the Indians to meet them tomorrow and that
 himself and those with him would go on with them down the Missouri, and
 consequently leave me and my baggage on the mountain or thereabouts. I
 was out of patience with the folly of Charbono who had not sufficient
 sagacity to see the consequencies which would inevitably flow from such
 a movement of the indians, and altho he had been in possession of this
 information since early in the morning when it had been communicated to
 him by his Indian woman yet he never mentioned it untill the after
 noon. I could not forbear speaking to him with some degree of asperity
 on this occasion. I saw that there was no time to be lost in having
 those orders countermanded, or that we should not in all probability
 obtain any more horses or even get my baggage to the waters of the
 Columbia. I therefore Called the three Cheifs together and having
 smoked a pipe with them, I asked them if they were men of their words,
 and whether I could depent on the promises they had made me; they
 readily answered in the affermative; I then asked them if they had not
 promised to assist me with my baggage to their camp on the other side
 of the mountains, or to the place at which Capt. Clark might build the
 canoes, should I wish it. they acknowledged that they had. I then asked
 them why they had requested their people on the other side of the
 mountain to meet them tomorrow on the mountain where there would be no
 possibility of our remaining together for the purpose of trading for
 their horses as they had also promised. that if they had not promised
 to have given me their assistance in transporting my baggage to the
 waters on the other side of the mountain that I should not have
 attempted to pass the mountains but would have returned down the river
 and that in that case they would never have seen anymore white men in
 their country. that if they wished the white men to be their friends
 and to assist them against their enemies by furnishing them with arms
 and keeping their enemies from attacking them that they must never
 promis us anything which they did not mean to perform. that when I had
 first seen them they had doubted what I told them about the arrival of
 the party of whitemen in canoes, that they had been convinced that what
 I told them on that occasion was true, why then would they doubt what I
 said on any other point. I told them that they had witnessed my
 liberality in dividing the meat which my hunters killed with them; and
 that I should continue to give such of them as assisted me a part of
 whatever we had ourselves to eat. and finally concluded by telling them
 if they intended to keep the promisses they had made me to dispatch one
 of their young men immediately with orders to their people to remain
 where they were untill our arrival. the two inferior cheifs said that
 they wished to assist me and be as good as their word, and that they
 had not sent for their people, that it was the first Chief who had done
 so, and they did not approve of the measure. Cameahwait remained silent
 for some time, at length he told me that he knew he had done wrong but
 that he had been induced to that measure from seeing all his people
 hungary, but as he had promised to give me his assistance he would not
 in future be worse than his word. I then desired him to send
 immediately and countermand his orders; acordingly a young man was sent
 for this purpose and I gave him a handkerchief to engage him in my
 interest. this matter being arranged to my satisfaction I called all
 the women and men together who had been assisting me in the
 transportation of the baggage and gave them a billet for each horse
 which they had imployed in that service and informed them when we
 arrived at the plaice where we should finally halt on the river I would
 take the billet back and give them merchandize for it. every one
 appeared now satisfyed and when I ordered the horses loaded for our
 departure the Indians were more than usually allert. we continued our
 march untill late in the evening and encamped at the upper part of the
 cove where the creek enters the mountains; here our hunters joined us
 with another deer which they had killed, this I gave to the women and
 Children, and for my own part remained supperless. I observed
 considerable quantities of wild onions in the bottom lands of this
 cove. I also saw several large hares and many of the cock of the plains.
 Capt. Clark set out early this morning and continued his rout to the
 indian camp at the entrance of fish Creek; here he halted about an
 hour; the indians gave himself and party some boiled salmon and
 hurries. these people appeared extreemly hospitable tho poor and dirty
 in the extreem. he still pursued the track up the river by which he had
 decended and in the evening arrived at the bluff on the river where he
 had encamped on the 21st Inst. it was late in the evening before he
 reached this place. they formed their camp, and Capt. C. sent them in
 different directions to hunt and fish. some little time after they
 halted a party of Indians passed by on their way down the river,
 consisting of a man a woman and several boys; from these people the
 guide obtained 2 salmon which together with some small fish they caught
 and a beaver which Shannon killed furnished them with a plentifull
 supper. the pine grows pretty abundantly high up on the sides of the
 mountains on the opposite side of the river. one of the hunters saw a
 large herd of Elk on the opposite side of the river in the edge of the
 timbered land.--Winsor was taken very sick today and detained Capt C.
 very much on his march. three hunters whom he had sent on before him
 this morning joined him in the evening having killed nothing; they saw
 only one deer.
 The course and the distances, of Capt. Clark's rout down this branch of
 the Columbia below this bluff, commencing opposite to an Island, are as
 This morning while passing through the Shoshone cove Frazier fired his
 musquet at some ducks in a little pond at the distance of about 60
 yards from me; the ball rebounded from the water and pased within a
 very few feet of me. near the upper part of this cove the Shoshonees
 suffered a very severe defeat by the Minnetares about six years since.
 this part of the cove on the N. E. side of the Creek has lately been
 birned by the Indians as a signal on some occasion.
 [Clark, August 25, 1805]
 August 25th Sunday 1805
 Set out verry early and halted one hour at the Indian Camp, they were
 kind gave us all a little boiled Sarnmon & dried buries to eate, abt.
 half as much as I could eate, those people are kind with what they have
 but excessive pore & Durtey.--we proceeded on over the mountains we had
 before passed to the Bluff we Encamped at on the 21s instant where we
 arrived late and turned out to hunt & fish, Cought Several Small fish,
 a party of Squars & one man with Several boys going down to guathe
 berries below, my guide got two Sammon from this party (which made
 about half a Supper for the party), after Dark Shannon came in with a
 beaver which the Party suped on Sumptiously--one man verry Sick to day
 which detained us verry much I had three hunters out all day, they saw
 one Deer, killed nothing. one of the Party Saw 9 Elk on a Mountain to
 our right assending, amongst the Pine timber which is thick on that side
 [Lewis, August 26, 1805]
 Monday August 26th 1805.
 This morning was excessively cold; there was ice on the vessels of
 water which stood exposed to the air nearly a quarter of an inch thick.
 we collected our horses and set out at sunrise. we soon arrived at the
 extreem source of the Missouri; here I halted a few minutes, the men
 drank of the water and consoled themselves with the idea of having at
 length arrived at this long wished for point. from hence we proceeded
 to a fine spring on the side of the mountain where I had lain the
 evening before I first arrived at the Shoshone Camp. here I halted to
 dine and graize our horses, there being fine green grass on that part
 of the hillside which was moistened by the water of the spring while
 the grass on the other parts was perfectly dry and parched with the
 sun. I directed a pint of corn to be given each Indian who was engaged
 in transporting our baggage and about the same quantity to each of the
 men which they parched pounded and made into supe. one of the women who
 had been assisting in the transportation of the baggage halted at a
 little run about a mile behind us, and sent on the two pack horses
 which she had been conducting by one of her female friends. I enquired
 of Cameahwait the cause of her detention, and was informed by him in an
 unconcerned manner that she had halted to bring fourth a child and
 would soon overtake us; in about an hour the woman arrived with her
 newborn babe and passed us on her way to the camp apparently as well as
 she ever was. It appears to me that the facility and ease with which
 the women of the aborigines of North America bring fourth their
 children is reather a gift of nature than depending as some have
 supposed on the habitude of carrying heavy burthens on their backs
 while in a state of pregnancy. if a pure and dry air, an elivated and
 cold country is unfavourable to childbirth, we might expect every
 difficult incident to that operation of nature in this part of the
 continent; again as the snake Indians possess an abundance of horses,
 their women are seldom compelled like those in other parts of the
 continent to carry burthens on their backs, yet they have their
 children with equal convenience, and it is a rare occurrence for any of
 them to experience difficulty in childbirth. I have been several times
 informed by those who were conversent with the fact, that the indian
 women who are pregnant by whitemen experience more difficulty in
 childbirth than when pregnant by an Indian. if this be true it would go
 far in suport of the opinion I have advanced.
 the tops of the high and irregular mountains which present themselves
 to our view on the opposite side of this branch of the Columbia are yet
 perfectly covered with snow; the air which proceeds from those
 mountains has an agreeable coolness and renders these parched and South
 hillsides much more supportable at this time of the day it being now
 about noon. I observe the indian women collecting the root of a speceis
 of fennel which grows in the moist grounds and feeding their poor
 starved children; it is really distressing to witness the situation of
 those poor wretches. the radix of this plant is of the knob kind, of a
 long ovate form terminating in a single radicle, the whole bing about 3
 or four inches in length and the thickest part about the size of a
 man's little finger. it is white firm and crisp in it's present state,
 when dryed and pounded it makes a fine white meal; the flavor of this
 root is not unlike that of annisseed but not so pungent; the stem rises
 to the hight of 3 or four feet is jointed smooth and cilindric; from r
 to 4 of those knobed roots are attatched to the base of this stem. the
 leaf is sheathing sessile, & pultipartite, the divisions long and
 narrow; the whole is of a deep green. it is now in blame; the flowers
 are numerous, small, petals white, and are of the umbellaferous kind.
 several small peduncles put forth from the main stock one at each joint
 above the sheathing leaf. it has no root leaves. the root of the
 present year declines when the seeds have been matured and the
 succeeding spring other roots of a similar kind put fourth from the
 little knot which unites the roots and stem and grow and decline with
 the stem as before mentioned. The sunflower is very abundant near the
 watercourses the seeds of this plant are now rip and the natives
 collect them in considerable quantities and reduce them to meal by
 pounding and rubing them between smooth stones. this meal is a favorite
 food their manner of using it has been beforementiond. after dinner we
 continued our rout towards the village. on our near approach we were
 met by a number of young men on horseback. Cameahwait requested that we
 would discharge our guns when we arrived in sight of the Village,
 accordingly when I arrived on an eminence above the village in the
 plain I drew up the party at open order in a single rank and gave them
 a runing fire discharging two rounds. they appeared much gratifyed with
 this exhibition. we then proceeded to the village or encampment of
 brush lodges 32 in number. we were conducted to a large lodge which had
 been prepared for me in the center of their encampmerit which was
 situated in a beautifull level smooth and extensive bottom near the
 river about 3 miles above the place I had first found them encamped.
 here we arrived at 6 in the evening arranged our baggage near my tent
 and placed those of the men on either side of the baggage facing
 outwards. I found Colter here who had just arrived with a letter from
 Capt. Clark in which Capt. C. had given me an account of his
 peregrination and the description of the river and country as before
 detailed from this view of the subject I found it a folly to think of
 attemping to decend this river in canoes and therefore to commence the
 purchase of horses in the morning from the indians in order to carry
 into execution the design we had formed of passing the rocky Mountains.
 I now informed Cameahwait of my intended expedition overland to the
 great river which lay in the plains beyond the mountains and told him
 that I wished to purchase 20 horses of himself and his people to convey
 our baggage. he observed that the Minnetares had stolen a great number
 of their horses this spring but hoped his people would spear me the
 number I wished. I also asked a guide, he observed that he had no doubt
 but the old man who was with Capt. C. would accompany us if we wished
 him and that he was better informed of the country than any of them.
 matters being thus far arranged I directed the fiddle to be played and
 the party danced very merily much to the amusement and gratification of
 the natives, though I must confess that the state of my own mind at
 this moment did not well accord with the prevailing mirth as I somewhat
 feared that the caprice of the indians might suddenly induce them to
 withhold their horses from us without which my hopes of prosicuting my
 voyage to advantage was lost; however I determined to keep the indians
 in a good humour if possible, and to loose no time in obtaining the
 necessary number of horses. I directed the hunters to turn out early in
 the morning and indeavor to obtain some meat. I had nothing but a
 little parched corn to eat this evening.
 This morning Capt. C. and party
 [Clark, August 26, 1805]
 August 26th Monday 1805
 a fine morning Despatched three men a head to hunt, our horses missing
 Sent out my guide and four men to hunt them, which detained me untill 9
 oClock a.m. at which time I Set out and proceeded on by the way of the
 forks to the Indian Camps at the first were not one mouthfull to eate
 untill night as our hunters could kill nothing and I could See & catch
 no fish except a few Small ones. The Indians gave us 2 Sammon boiled
 which I gave to the men, one of my men Shot a Sammon in the river about
 Sunset those fish gave us a Supper. all the Camp flocked about me
 untill I went to Sleep--and I beleve if they had a Sufficency to eate
 themselves and any to Spare they would be liberal of it I derected the
 men to mend their Mockessons to night and turn out in the morning early
 to hunt Deer fish birds &c. &c. Saw great numbers of the large Black
 grass hopper. Some bars which were verry wild, but few Birds. a number
 of ground Lizards; Some fiew Pigions
 [Clark, August 27, 1805]
 August 27th Tuesday 1805
 Some frost this morning every Man except one, out hunting, a young man
 Came from the upper Village & informed me that Capt Lewis would join me
 abt. 12 oClock to day. one man killed a Small Sammon, and the Indians
 gave me another which afforded us a Sleight brackfast. Those Pore
 people are here depending on what fish They Can Catch, without anything
 else to depend on; and appere Contented, my party hourly Complaining of
 their retched Situation and doubts of Starveing in a Countrey where no
 game of any kind except a fiew fish can be found, an Indian brough in
 to the Camp 5 Sammon, two of which I purchased which afforded us a
 [Clark, August 28, 1805]
 August 28th Wednesday 1805
 a frost this morning. The Inds. Cought out of their traps Several
 Sammon and gave us two, I purchased two others which we made last us to
 day. Several a Camp of about 40 Indians came from the West fork and
 passed up to day, nothing killed by my party with every exertion in all
 places where game probably might be found. I dispatched one man to the
 upper camps to enquire if Cap. Lewis was comeing &c. he returned after
 night with a letter from Capt. Lewis informing me of his Situation at
 the upper Village, and had precured 22 horses for our rout through by
 land on the plan which I had preposed in which he agreed with me in;
 and requsted me to ride up and get the horses the Indian informed him
 they had reserved for me &c. I purchased Some fish roe of those pore
 but kind people with whome I am Encamped for which I gave three Small
 fish hooks, the use of which they readily proseved, one Indian out all
 day & killed only one Sammon with his gig; my hunters killed nothing, I
 had three pack Saddles made to day for our horses which I expected Capt
 Lewis would purchase &c. Those Sammon which I live on at present are
 pleasent eateing, not with standing they weaken me verry fast and my
 flesh I find is declineing
 [Clark, August 29, 1805]
 August 29th Thursday 1805
 a Cold morning Some frost. the Wind from the South, I left our baggage
 in possession of 2 men and proceeded on up to join Capt Lewis at the
 upper Village of Snake Indians where I arrived at 1 oClock found him
 much engaged in Counceling and attempting to purchase a fiew more
 horses. I Spoke to the Indians on various Subjects endeavoring to
 impress on theire minds the advantaje it would be to them for to Sell
 us horses and expedite the our journey the nearest and best way
 possibly that we might return as Soon as possible and winter with them
 at Some place where there was plenty of buffalow,--our wish is to get a
 horse for each man to Carry our baggage and for Some of the men to ride
 occasionally, The horses are handsom and much acustomed to be changed
 as to their Parsture; we cannot Calculate on their carrying large loads
 & feed on the Grass which we may Calculate on finding in the Mountain
 Thro which we may expect to pass on our rout made Some Selestial
 observations, the Lard. of this Part the Columbia River is ____ North.
 Longtd. ____ W
 I purchased a horse for which I gave my Pistol 100 Balls Powder & a
 Knife. our hunters Killed 2 Deer near their Camp to day. 2 yesterday &
 3 The Day before, this meet was a great treat to me as I had eate none
 for 8 days past
 [Clark, August 30, 1805]
 August 30th Friday 1805
 a fine Morning, finding that we Could purchase no more horse than we
 had for our goods &c. (and those not a Sufficint number for each of our
 Party to have one which is our wish) I Gave my Fuzee to one of the men
 & Sold his musket for a horse which Completed us to 29 total horses, we
 Purchased pack Cords Made Saddles & Set out on our rout down the river
 by land guided by my old guide one other who joined him, the old gude's
 3 Sons followed him before we Set out our hunters killed three Deer
 proceded on 12 miles and encamped on the river South Side--at the time
 we Set out from the Indian Camps the greater Part of the Band Set out
 over to the waters of the Missouri. we had great attention paid to the
 horses, as they were nearly all Sore Backs and Several pore, & young
 Those horses are indifferent, maney Sore backs and others not acustomed
 to pack, and as we Cannot put large loads on them are Compelled to
 purchase as maney as we Can to take our Small propotion of baggage of
 the Parties. (& Eate if necessary) Proceeded on 12 miles to day
 [Clark, August 31, 1805]
 August 31st 1805 Satturday
 A fine morning Set out before Sun rise, as we passed the lodges at
 which place I had encamped for thre nights and left 2 men, Those 2 men
 joined us and we proceeded on in the Same rout I decended the 21st
 Instant, halted 3 hours on Sammon Creek to Let our horses graze the
 wind hard from the S. W. I met an Indian on horse back who fled with
 great Speed to Some lodges below & informed them that the Enemis were
 Coming down, armd with guns &c. the inhabitents of the Lodges
 indisceved him, we proceeded on the road on which I had decended as far
 as the 1st run below & left the road & Proceeded up the Run in a
 tolerable road 4 miles & Encamped in Some old lodjes at the place the
 road leaves the Creek and assends the high Countrey Six Indians
 followed us four of them the Sons of our guide; our hunters killed one
 Deer a goose & Prarie fowl. This day warm and Sultrey, Praries or open
 Valies on fire in Several places--The Countrey is Set on fire for the
 purpose of Collecting the different bands, and a Band of the Flatheads
 to go to the Missouri where They intend passing the winter near the
 Buffalow Proceeded on 22 miles to Day, 4 miles of which up a run