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[Lewis, June 1, 1805]
 Saturday June 1st 1805
 The moring was cloudy and a few drops of rain. Set out at an early hour
 and proceeded as usual by the help of our chords. the river Clifts and
 bluffs not so high as yesterday and the country becomes more level. a
 mountain or a part of the N. Mountain appears to approach the river
 within 8 or 10 ms. bearing N. from our encampment of the last evening.
 Capt C. who walked on shore today informed me that the river hills were
 much lower than usual and that from the tops of those hills he had a
 delightfull view of rich level and extensive plains on both sides of
 the river; in those plains, which in many places reach the river
 clifts, he observed large banks of pure sand which appeared to have
 been driven by the S W. winds from the river bluffs and there
 deposited. the plains are more fertile at some distance from the river
 than near the bluffs where the surface of the earth is very generally
 covered with small smothe pebbles which have the appearance of having
 been woarn by the agitation of the waters in which they were no doubt
 once immerced. A range of high Mountains appear to the S. W. at a
 considerable distance covered with snow, they appear to run Westerly.
 no timber appears on the highlands; but much more than yesterday on the
 river and Islands. rockey points and shoals less freequent than
 yesterday but some of them quite as bad when they did occur. the river
 from 2 to 400 yards wide, courant more gentle and still becoming
 clearer. game is by no means as abundant as below; we killed one male
 bighorn and a mule deer today; saw buffalow at a distance in the plains
 particularly near a small Lake on Lard. side about 8 ms. distant. some
 few drops of rain again fell this evening. we passed six Islands and
 encamped on the 7th; they are all small but contain some timber. the
 wind has been against us all day.--I saw the choke cherry the yellow
 and red courant bushes; the wild rose appears now to be in full bloom
 as are also the prickley pear which are numerous in these plains.--We
 also saw some Indian Lodges of sticks today which did not appear to
 have been long evacuated.--some coal appear in the bluffs.
 [Clark, June 1, 1805]
 June 1st Satterday 1805
 a Cloudy morning we Set out at an early hour and proseeded on as usial
 with the toe rope The Countrey appears to be lower and the Clifts not
 So high or Common, a mountain or a part of the north Mountain about 8
 or 10 miles N. of this place, I walked on Shore to day found the Plains
 much lower than we have Seen them and on the top we behold an extencive
 plain on both Sides, in this plain I observed maney noles of fine Sand
 which appeared to have blown from the river bluffs and collected at
 these points Those plains are fertile near the river a great no. of
 Small Stone, I observed at Some distance to the S. W. a high mountain
 which appears to bear westerly The Cole appear as usial, more Cotton
 trees Scattered on the Shores & Islands than yesterday--no timber on
 the high land, the river from 2 to 400 yards wide & current more jentle
 than yesterday but fiew bad rapid points to day--the wild animals not
 So plenty as below we only killed a ram & mule Deer to day, we Saw
 Buffalow at a distance in the plains, particularly near a Lake on the
 Lard. Side about 8 miles distant from the river--We passed Six Islands
 and encamped on the 7th all those Islands are Small but contain Some
 timber on them The river riseing a little Wind to day from the S. W.
 Som fiew drops of rain in the morning and also in the evening, flying
 Clouds all day
 Saw Several Indian camps made of Sticks & bark Set up on end and do not
 appear to belong evacuated--The roses are in full bloome, I observe
 yellow berries, red berry bushes Great numbers of Wild or choke
 Cheries, prickley pares are in blossom & in great numbers
 [Lewis, June 2, 1805]
 Sunday June 2ed 1805
 The wind blew violently last night and was attended by a slight shower
 of rain; the morning was fair and we set out at an early hour. imployed
 the chord as usual the greater part of the day. the courant was strong
 tho regular, and the banks afforded us good toeing. the wind was hard
 and against us yet we proceded with infinitely more ease than the two
 precedeing days. The river bluffs still continue to get lower and the
 plains leveler and more extensive; the timber on the river increases in
 quantity; the country in all other rispects much as discribed
 yesterday. I think we are now completely above the black hills we had a
 small shower of rain today but it lasted only a few minutes and was
 very moderate. Game becomeing more abundant this morning and I thought
 it best now to loose no time or suffer an opportunity to escape in
 providing the necessary quantity of Elk's skins to cover my leather
 boat which I now expect I shall be obliged to use shortly. Accordingly
 I walked on shore most of the day with some of the hunters for that
 purpose and killed 6 Elk 2 buffale 2 Mule deer and a bear. these
 anamals were all in good order we therefore took as much of the meat as
 our canoes and perogues could conveniently carry. the bear was very
 near catching Drewyer; it also pursued Charbono who fired his gun in
 the air as he ran but fortunately eluded the vigilence of the bear by
 secreting himself very securely in the bushes untill Drewyer finally
 killed it by a shot in the head; the shot indeed that will conquer the
 farocity of those tremendious anamals.--in the course of the day we
 passed 9 Islands all of them small and most of them containing some
 we came too on the Lard. side in a handsome bottom of small cottonwood
 timber opposite to the entrance of a very considerable river; but it
 being too late to examine these rivers minutely to night we determined
 to remain here untill the morning, and as the evening was favourable to
 make some obsevations.-
 [Clark, June 2, 1805]
 June 2nd Sunday 1805
 we had a hard wind and a little rain last night, this morning fair we
 Set out at an early hour, wind from the S W. Some little rain to day
 wind hard a head, the Countrey much like that of yesterday as discribed
 Capt Lewis walked on Shore, himself & the hunters killed 6 Elk & a Bear
 and 2 mule deer, and 2 buffalow which was all in good order a beaver
 also killed to day, passed 9 Islands to day the Current Swift but
 regular, we Camped on the Lard Side at the forks of the river the
 Currents & Sizes of them we Could not examine this evening a fair night
 we took Some Luner observations of moon & Stears
 [Lewis, June 3, 1805]
 Monday June 3rd 1805
 This morning early we passed over and formed a camp on the point formed
 by the junction of the two large rivers. here in the course of the day
 I continued my observations as are above stated. An interesting
 question was now to be determined; which of these rivers was the
 Missouri, or that river which the Minnetares call Amahte Arz zha or
 Missouri, and which they had discribed to us as approaching very near
 to the Columbia river. to mistake the stream at this period of the
 season, two months of the traveling season having now elapsed, and to
 ascend such stream to the rocky Mountain or perhaps much further before
 we could inform ourselves whether it did approach the Columbia or not,
 and then be obliged to return and take the other stream would not only
 loose us the whole of this season but would probably so dishearten the
 party that it might defeat the expedition altogether. convinced we were
 that the utmost circumspection and caution was necessary in deciding on
 the stream to be taken. to this end an investigation of both streams
 was the first thing to be done; to learn their widths, debths,
 comparitive rappidity of their courants and thence the comparitive
 bodies of water furnished by each; accordingly we dispatched two light
 canoes with three men in each up those streams; we also sent out
 several small parties by land with instructions to penetrate the
 country as far as they conveniently can permiting themselves time to
 return this evening and indeavour if possible to discover the distant
 bearing of those rivers by ascending the rising grounds. between the
 time of my A.M. and meridian Capt. C & myself stroled out to the top of
 the hights in the fork of these rivers from whence we had an extensive
 and most inchanting view; the country in every derection around us was
 one vast plain in which innumerable herds of Buffalow were seen
 attended by their shepperds the wolves; the solatary antelope which now
 had their young were distributed over it's face; some herds of Elk were
 also seen; the verdure perfectly cloathed the ground, the weather was
 pleasent and fair; to the South we saw a range of lofty mountains which
 we supposed to be a continuation of the S. Mountains, streching
 themselves from S. E. to N. W. terminating abbrubtly about S. West from
 us; these were partially covered with snow; behind these Mountains and
 at a great distance, a second and more lofty range of mountains
 appeared to strech across the country in the same direction with the
 others, reaching from West, to the N of N. W., where their snowey tops
 lost themselves beneath the horizon. this last range was perfectly
 covered with snow. the direction of the rivers could be seen but little
 way, soon loosing the break of their channels, to our view, in the
 common plain. on our return to camp we boar a little to the left and
 discovered a handsome little river falling into the N. fork on Lard.
 side about 11/2 ms. above our camp. this little river has as much
 timber in it's bottoms as either of the larger streams. there are a
 great number of prickley pears in these plains; the Choke cherry grows
 here in abundance both in the river bottoms and in the steep ravenes
 along the river bluffs. saw the yellow and red courants, not yet ripe;
 also the goosberry which begins to ripen; the wild rose which grows
 here in great abundance in the bottoms of all these rivers is now in
 full bloom, and adds not a little to the beaty of the cenery. we took
 the width of the two rivers, found the left hand or S. fork 372 yards
 and the N. fork 200. The noth fork is deeper than the other but it's
 courant not so swift; it's waters run in the same boiling and roling
 manner which has uniformly characterized the Missouri throughout it's
 whole course so far; it's waters are of a whitish brown colour very
 thick and terbid, also characteristic of the Missouri; while the South
 fork is perfectly transparent runds very rappid but with a smoth
 unruffled surface it's bottom composed of round and flat smooth stones
 like most rivers issuing from a mountainous country. the bed of the N.
 fork composed of some gravel but principally mud; in short the air &
 character of this river is so precisely that of the missouri below that
 the party with very few exceptions have already pronounced the N. fork
 to be the Missouri; myself and Capt. C. not quite so precipitate have
 not yet decided but if we were to give our opinions I believe we should
 be in the minority, certain it is that the North fork gives the
 colouring matter and character which is retained from hence to the
 gulph of Mexico. I am confident that this river rises in and passes a
 great distance through an open plain country I expect that it has some
 of it's souces on the Eastern side of the rocky mountain South of the
 Saskashawan, but that it dose not penetrate the first range of these
 Mountains and that much the greater part of it's sources are in a
 northwardly direction towards the lower and middle parts of the
 Saskashawan in the open plains. convinced I am that if it penetrated
 the Rocky Mountains to any great distance it's waters would be clearer
 unless it should run an immence distance indeed after leaving those
 mountains through these level plains in order to acquire it's turbid
 hue. what astonishes us a little is that the Indians who appeared to be
 so well acquainted with the geography of this country should not have
 mentioned this river on wright hand if it be not the Missouri; the
 river that scolds at all others, as they call it if there is in
 reallity such an one, ought agreeably to their account, to have fallen
 in a considerable distance below, and on the other hand if this
 righthand or N. fork be the Missouri I am equally astonished at their
 not mentioning the S. fork which they must have passed in order to get
 to those large falls which they mention on the Missouri. thus have our
 cogitating faculties been busily employed all day.
 Those who have remained at camp today have been busily engaged in
 dressing skins for cloathing, notwithstanding that many of them have
 their feet so mangled and bruised with the stones and rough ground over
 which they passed barefoot, that they can scarcely walk or stand; at
 least it is with great pain they do either. for some days past they
 were unable to wear their mockersons; they have fallen off
 considerably, but notwithstanding the difficulties past, or those which
 seem now to mennace us, they still remain perfectly cheerfull. In the
 evening the parties whom we had sent out returned agreeably to
 instructions. The parties who had been sent up the rivers in canoes
 informed that they ascended some distance and had then left their
 canoes and walked up the rivers a considerable distance further barely
 leaving themselves time to return; the North fork was not so rappid as
 the other and afforded the easiest navigation of course; Six feet
 appeared to be the shallowest water of the S. Branch and 5 feet that of
 the N. Their accounts were by no means satisfactory nor did the
 information we acquired bring us nigher to the decision of our question
 or determine us which stream to take. Sergt. Pryor had ascended the N.
 fork and had taken the following courses and distances-viz-
 Joseph and Reubin Fields reported that they had been up the South fork
 about 7 mes. on a streight course somewhat N of W. and that there the
 little river which discharges itself into the North fork just above us,
 was within 100 yards of the S. fork; that they came down this little
 river and found it a boald runing stream of about 40 yds. wide containg
 much timber in it's bottom, consisting of the narrow and wide leafed
 cottonwood with some birch and box alder undrgrowth willows rosebushes
 currents &c. they saw a great number of Elk on this river and some
 beaver. Those accounts being by no means satisfactory as to the
 fundamental point; Capt. C. and myself concluded to set out early the
 next morning with a small party each, and ascend these rivers untill we
 could perfectly satisfy ourselves of the one, which it would be most
 expedient for us to take on our main journey to the Pacific.
 accordingly it was agreed that I should ascend the right hand fork and
 he the left. I gave orders to Sergt. Pryor Drewyer, Shields, Windsor,
 Cruzatte and La Page to hold themselves in readiness to accompany me in
 the morning. Capt. Clark also selected Reubin &Joseph Fields, Sergt.
 Gass, Shannon and his black man York, to accompany him. we agreed to go
 up those rivers one day and a halfs march or further if it should
 appear necessary to satisfy us more fully of the point in question. the
 hunters killed 2 Buffaloe, 6 Elk and 4 deer today. the evening proved
 cloudy. we took a drink of grog this evening and gave the men a dram,
 and made all matters ready for an early departure in the morning. I had
 now my sack and blanket happerst in readiness to swing on my back,
 which is the first time in my life that I had ever prepared a burthen
 of this kind, and I am fully convinced that it will not be the last. I
 take my Octant with me also, this I confide La Page.
 [Clark, June 3, 1805]
 June 3rd Monday 1805
 we formed a Camp on the point in the junction of the two rivers, and
 dispatched a Canoe & three men up each river to examine and find if
 possible which is the most probable branch, the left fork which is the
 largest we are doubtfull of, the Indians do not mention any river
 falling in on the right in this part of the Missouri, The Scolding
 river, if there is Such a one Should have fallen in below agreeable to
 their accts. we also dispatched men in different dircts. by land, to a
 mountain Covered with Snow to the South & other up each river--Capt
 Lewis and my Self walked out & assended the hill in the point observed
 a leavel open Countrey to the foot of the mountains which lye South of
 this, also a River which falls into the Right hand fork about 11/2
 miles above its mouth on the Lard. Side this little river discharges a
 great deal of water & contains as much Cotton timber in its bottoms as
 either of the others we saw Buffalow & antelopes &c. wild Cheries, red
 & yellow hurries, Goose berries &c. abound in the river bottoms,
 prickley pares on the high plains, we had a meridian altitude and the
 Lattd. produced was 47° 24' 12" N. the after part of the day proved
 Cloudy, we measured each river and found the one to Right hand 200
 yards wide of water & the Left hand fork 372 yards wide & rapid--the
 right hand fork falling the other at a Stand and Clear, the right fork
 and the river which fall into it is Coloured & a little muddey. Several
 men Complain of their feet being Sore in walking in the Sand & their
 being Cut by the Stones They to be Sure have a bad time of it obliged
 to walk on Shore & haul the rope and 9/10 of their time bear footed, in
 the evening late the Canoes returned and the men informed us that they
 had assended Some miles by water & left their Canoes & walked on land
 the greater part of the day, their accounts by no means Satisfactory,
 Serjt. Pryor assended the right hand fork and took the following
 Courses, &c
 Joseph & Rubin Fields went up the left fork 7 miles on a direct line at
 which place, the Small river which falls into the right hand fork
 approaches within 100 yards of the South fork, they Came down the Small
 river which is a bold Stream Covered with Elk & Some beaver, its
 bottoms Covered with wood, as the Information given by those parties
 respecting the rivers did not Satisfy us as to the main & principal
 branch Capt. Lewis & my Self deturmined to go up each of those rivers
 one Day & a half with a view to Satisfy ourselves which of the two was
 the principal Stream and best calculated for us to assend--The hunters
 Killed 2 buffalow, 6 Elk & Several deer to day we refreshed our party
 with a dram &c Cloudy evining.-
 [Lewis, June 4, 1805]
 Tuesday June 4th 1805
 This morning early Capt. C. departed, and at the same time I passed the
 wright hand fork opposite to our camp below a small Island; from hence
 I steered N. 30 W. 41/2 to a commanding eminence; here I took the
 following bearings of the mountains which were in view. The North
 Mountains appear to change their direction from that of being parallel
 with the Missouri turning to the North and terminating abruptly; their
 termineation bearing N. 48° E distant by estimate 30 mes. The South
 Mountains appear to turn to the S. also terminating abrubtly, their
 extremity bearing S. 8 W. distant 25 mes. The Barn Mountain, a lofty
 mountain so called from it's resemblance to the roof of a large Barn,
 is a seperate Mountain and appears reather to the wright of and
 retreating from the extremity of the S. mts.; this boar S. 38 W.
 distant 35 ms. The North fork which I am now ascending lies to my left
 and appears to make a considerable bend to the N. W. on it's Western
 border a range of hills about 10 mes. long appear to lye parallel with
 the river and from hence bear N. 60° W. to the N. of this range of hills
 an Elivated point of the river bluff on it's Lard. side boar N. 72° W.
 distant 12 mes. to this last object I now directed my course through a
 high level dry open plain. the whole country in fact appears to be one
 continued plain to the foot of the mountains or as far as the eye can
 reach; the soil appears dark rich and fertile yet the grass is by no
 means as high nor dose it look so luxurient as I should have expected,
 it is short just sufficient to conceal the ground. great abundance of
 prickly pears which are extreemly troublesome; as the thorns very
 readily perce the foot through the Mockerson; they are so numerous that
 it requires one half of the traveler's attention to avoid them In these
 plains I observed great numbers of the brown Curloos, a small species
 of curloo or plover of a brown colour about the size of the common
 snipe and not unlike it in form with a long celindric curved and
 pointed beak; it's wings are proportionately long and the tail short;
 in the act of liteing this bird lets itself down by an extention of
 it's wings without motion holding their points very much together above
 it's back, in this rispect differing ascentially from any bird I ever
 observed. a number of sparrows also of three distinct species I
 observed. also a small bird which in action resembles the lark, it is
 about the size of a large sparrow of a dark brown colour with some
 white fathers in the tail; this bird or that which I take to be the
 male rises into the air about 60 feet and supporting itself in the air
 with a brisk motion of the wings sings very sweetly, has several shrill
 soft notes reather of the plaintive order which it frequently repeats
 and varies, after remaining stationary about a minute in his aireal
 station he descends obliquely occasionly pausing and accomnying his
 decension with a note something like twit twit twit; on the ground he
 is silent. thirty or forty of these birds will be stationed in the air
 at a time in view, these larks as I shall call them add much to the
 gayety and cheerfullness of the scene. All those birds are now seting
 and laying their eggs in the plains; their little nests are to be seen
 in great abundance as we pass. there are meriads of small grasshoppers
 in these plains which no doubt furnish the principal aliment of this
 numerous progeny of the feathered creation. after walking about eight
 miles I grew thisty and there being no water in the plains I changed my
 direction and boar obliquely in towards the river, on my arrival at
 which about 3 mes. below the point of observation, we discovered two
 deer at feed at some distance near the river; I here halted the party
 and sent Drewyer to kill one of them for breakfast; this excellent
 hunter soon exceded his orders by killing of them both; they proved to
 be two Mule Bucks in fine order; we soon kindled a fire cooked and made
 a hearty meal. it was not yet twelve when we arrived at the river and I
 was anxious to take the Meridian Altd. of the sun but the clouds prevent
 ed my obtaining the observation. after refreshing ourselves we proceded
 up the river to the extremity of the first course, from whence the
 river boar on it's general course N. 15° W. 2 M. to a bluff point on
 Stard. here Drewyer killed four other deer of the common kind; we
 skined them and hung up a part of the meat and the skins as we did also
 of the first, and took as much of the meat as we thought would answer
 for our suppers and proceeded N. 30 W. 2 m. to the entrance of a large
 creek on Lard. side the part of the river we have passed is from 40 to
 60 yds. wide, is deep, has falling banks, the courant strong, the water
 terbid and in short has every appearance of the missouri below except
 as to size. it's bottoms narrow but well timbered. Salts coal and other
 mineral appearances as usual; the bluffs principally of dark brown,
 yellow and some white clay; some freestone also appears in places. The
 river now boar N. 20° E. 12 mes. to a bluff on Lard. At the commencement
 of this course we ascended the hills which are about 200 feet high, and
 passed through the plains about 3 m. but finding the dry ravines so
 steep and numerous we determined to return to the river and travel
 through it's bottoms and along the foot and sides of the bluffs,
 accordingly we again reached the river about 4 miles from the
 commencement of the last course and encamped a small distant above on
 the Stard. side in a bend among the willow bushes which defended us
 from the wind which blew hard from the N. W. it rained this evening and
 wet us to the skin; the air was extremely could. just before we
 encamped Drewyer fired at a large brown bar across the river and
 wounded him badly but it was too late to pursue him. killed a braro and
 a beaver, also at the place of our encampment, a very fine Mule deer.
 we saw a great number of Buffaloe, Elk, wolves and foxes today. the
 river bottoms form one emence garden of roses, now in full bloe.
 [Clark, June 4, 1805]
 June 4th Tuesday 1805
 Capt. Lewis & my Self each with a Small party of men Set out earlythose
 who accompanied Capt Lewis were G. Drewyer Serjt. Pryor, J Shields, P.
 Crusat J. B. de Page, R. Winser, went up the N. side of the N. fork.
 those who accompanied me were Serjt. Gass Jos. & Ruben Fields G.
 Shannon & my black man York, and we Set out to examine the South fork,
 our first Course was S. 25° W. 7 miles to the S. fork at a Spring, at
 which place the little river which falls into the N. fork is 100 yards
 distant only Seperated from the South fork by a narrow ridge. our
 course from thence S. 20° W. 8 miles to the river at an Island where we
 dined below a Small river falls in on the S E Side which heads in a
 mountain to the S. E about 20 miles. North of this place about 4 miles
 the little river brakes thro a high ridge into the open Leavel plain
 thro which we have passd. from the point, this plain is covered with
 low grass & prickley pear, emence number of Prarie dogs or barking
 Squirel are thro this plain--after eating we proceeded on N. 45° W.
 Struck the river at 3 miles 5, 9 & 13 miles at which place we encamped
 in an old Indian lodge made of Stiks and bark at the river near our
 camp we Saw two white Bear, one of them was nearly catching Joseph
 Fields who could not fire, as his gun was wet the bear was So near that
 it Struck his foot, and we were not in a Situation to give him
 assistance, a Clift of rocks Seperated us the bear got allarmed at our
 Shot & yells & took the river.--Some rain all the afternoon Saw Several
 Gangues of Buffalow at a distance in the open plains on each Side, Saw
 Mule deer antilopes & wolves--The river is rapid & Closely himed on one
 or the other Side with high bluffs, Crouded with Islands & graveley
 bars Containing but a Small quantity of timber on its bottoms & none on
 the high land.
 [Lewis, June 5, 1805]
 Wednesday June 5th 1805.
 This morning was cloudy and so could that I was obleged to have
 recourse to a blanket coat in order to keep myself comfortable altho
 walking. the rain continued during the greater part of last night. the
 wind hard from N. W. we set out at sunrise and proceded up the river
 eight miles on the course last taken yesterday evening, at the
 extremity of which a large creek falls in on the Stard. 25 yards. wide
 at it's entrance, some timber but no water, notwithstanding the rain;
 it's course upwards is N. E. it is astonishing what a quantity of water
 it takes to saturate the soil of this country, the earth of the plains
 are now opened in large crivices in many places and yet looks like a
 rich loam from the entrance of this Creek (which I called Lark C.) the
 river boar N. 50. W. 4 m. at the entrance of this creek the bluffs were
 very steep and approached the river so near on the Stard. side that we
 ascended the hills and passed through the plains; at the extremity of
 this course we returned to the river which then boar North 2 rues. from
 the same point, I discovered a lofty single mountain which appeard to
 be at a great distance, perhaps 80 or more miles it boar N. 52 W. from
 it's conic figure I called it tower Mountain. we now passed through the
 river bottoms to the extremity of the last course thence with the river
 S 60° W 11/2 m. S 10 W. 3 m N 50 W 11/2 at the extremity of which I again
 ascended the bluffs and took a course to a point of the Lard. bluffs of
 the river which boar West 10 m. the river making a deep bend to the
 south that is of at least five miles from the center of the chord line
 to the center of the bend. on this course we passed through the plains
 found the plains as yesterday extreemly leavel and beautifull, great
 quanties of Buffaloe, some wolves foxes and Antelopes seen. near the
 river the plain is cut by deep ravines in this plain and from one to
 nine miles from the river or any water, we saw the largest collection
 of the burrowing or barking squirrels that we had ever yet seen; we
 passed through a skirt of the territory of this community for about 7
 miles. I saw a flock of the mountain cock, or a large species of heath
 hen with a long pointed tail which the Indians informed us were common
 to the Rockey Mountains, I sent Shields to kill one of them but he was
 obliged to fire a long distance at them and missed his aim. as we had
 not killed or eat anything today we each killed a burrowing squrrel as
 we passed them in order to make shure of our suppers. we again
 intersepted the river at the expiration of the last course or the lard.
 bluffs, from whence it now boar N 80° W. 2 mes. from this point saw some
 other lofty mountains to the N. W. of Tower Mtn. which boar N. 65°W. 80
 or 100 mes. distant at the expiration of this course we killed five Elk
 and a blacktailed or mule deer and encamped on Stard. side of the river
 in a handsome well timbered bottom where there were several old stick
 lodges. in the forepart of the day there was but little timber in the
 river bottoms but the quantity is now greater than usual. the river is
 about 80 yds. wide with a strong steady courant and from 6 to 10 feet
 water. I had the burrowing squirrels roasted by way of experiment and
 found the flesh well flavored and tender; some of them were very fat.
 [Clark, June 5, 1805]
 June 5th Wednesday 1805
 Some little rain & Snow last night the mountains to our S E. covered
 with Snow this morning air verry Cold & raining a little, we Saw 8
 buffalow opposit, they made 2 attempts to Cross, the water being So
 Swift they Could not, about the time we were Setting out three white
 bear approached our Camp we killed the three & eate part of one & Set
 out & proceeded on N. 20° W 11 miles.--k the river at maney places in
 this distance to a ridge on the N. Side t m the top of which I could
 plainly See a mountain to the South & W. covered with Snow at a long
 distance, The mountains opposit to us to the S. E. is also Covered with
 Snow this morning.--a high ridge from those mountains approach the
 river on the S E Side forming Some Clifts of hard dark Stone.--From the
 ridge at which place I Struck the river last, I could ____ discover
 that the river run west of South a long distance, and has a Strong
 rapid Current, as this river Continued its width debth & rapidity and
 the Course west of South, going up further would be useless, I
 deturmined to return, I accordingly Set out, thro the plain on a Course
 N. 30° E on my return & Struck the little river at 20 miles passing thro
 a Leavel plain, at the little river we killed 2 buck Elk & dined on
 their marrow, proceeded on a few miles & Camped, haveing killed 2 deer
 which was verry fat, Some few drops of rain to day, the evening fair
 wind hard from the N. E. I Saw great numbers of Elk & white tale deer,
 Some beaver, antelope mule deer & wolves & one bear on this little
 river marked my name in a tree N. Side near the ridge where the little
 river brakes thro
 [Lewis, June 6, 1805]
 Thursday June 6th 1805.
 I now became well convinced that this branch of the Missouri had it's
 direction too much to the North for our rout to the Pacific, and
 therefore determined to return the next day after taking an observation
 of the sun's Meridian Altitude in order to fix the latitude of the
 place. The forepart of the last evening was fair but in the latter part
 of the night clouded up and contnued so with short intervals of
 sunshine untill a little before noon when the whole horizon was
 overcast, and I of course disappointed in making the observation which
 I much wished. I had sent Sergt. Pryor and Windsor early this morning
 with orders to procede up the river to some commanding eminence and
 take it's bearing as far as possible. in the mean time the four others
 and myself were busily engaged in making two rafts on which we purposed
 descending the river; we had just completed this work when Sergt. Pryor
 and Windsor returned, it being about noon; they reported that they had
 proceded from hence S 70 W. 6 m. to the summit of a commanding eminence
 from whence the river on their left was about 21/2 miles distant; that
 a point of it's Lard. bluff, which was visible boar S 80 W. distant
 about 15 ms.; that the river on their left bent gradually arround to
 this point, and from thence seemed to run Northwardly. we now took
 dinner and embarcked with our plunder and five Elk's skins on the rafts
 but were soon convinced that this mode of navigation was hazerdous
 particularly with those rafts they being too small and slender. we wet
 a part of our baggage and were near loosing one of our guns; I
 therefore determined to abandon the rafts and return as we had come, by
 land. I regreted much being obliged to leave my Elk's skins, which I
 wanted to assist in forming my leather boat; those we had prepared at
 Fort Mandan being injured in such manner that they would not answer. we
 again swung our packs and took our way through the open plains for
 about 12 mes. when we struck the river; the wind blew a storm from N.
 E. accompanyed by frequent showers of rain; we were wet and very could.
 continued our rout down the river only a few miles before the
 Abruptness of the clifts and their near approach to the river compelled
 us take the plains and once more face the storm; here we boar reather
 too much to the North and it was late in the evening before we reached
 the river, in our way we killed two buffaloe and took with us as much
 of the flesh as served us that night, and a part of the next day. we
 encamped a little below the entrance of the large dry Creek called Lark
 C. having traveled abut 25 mes. since noon. it continues to rain and we
 have no shelter, an uncomfortable nights rest is the natural
 [Clark, June 6, 1805]
 June 6th Thursday 1805
 a Cloudy Cold raw day wind hard from the N. E. we Set out early &
 traveled down the little river which was imedeately in our Course on
 this river we killed 7 Deer for their Skins the bottoms of this little
 river is in everry respect except in extent like the large bottoms of
 the Missouri below the forks containing a great perpotion of a kind of
 Cotton wood with a leaf resembling a wild Cherry-. I also observed wild
 Tanzey on this little river in great quantities, we halted at 12 oClock
 and eate a part of a fat Buck, after Dinner we assended the Plain at
 which time it began to rain and Continued all day, at 5 oClock we
 arrived at our Camp on the point, where I expected to meet Capt Lewis-
 he did not return this evening.--my Self and party much fatigued
 haveing walked Constantly as hard as we Could march over a Dry hard
 plain, dcending & assending the Steep river hills & gullies, in my
 absence the party had killed an Elk & 2 buffalow, I Sent out for the
 meat a part of which was brought in--nothing remarkable had transpired
 at camp in my absence
 [Lewis, June 7, 1805]
 Friday June 7th 1805.
 It continued to rain almost without intermission last night and as I
 expected we had a most disagreable and wrestless night. our camp
 possessing no allurements, we left our watery beads at an early hour
 and continued our rout down the river. it still continues to rain the
 wind hard from N. E. and could. the grownd remarkably slipry, insomuch
 that we were unable to walk on the sides of the bluffs where we had
 passed as we ascended the river. notwithstanding the rain that has now
 fallen the earth of these bluffs is not wet to a greater debth than 2
 inches; in it's present state it is precisely like walking over frozan
 grownd which is thawed to small debth and slips equally as bad. this
 clay not only appears to require more water to saturate it as I before
 observed than any earth I ever observed but when saturated it appears
 on the other hand to yeald it's moisture with equal difficulty. In
 passing along the face of one of these bluffs today I sliped at a
 narrow pass of about 30 yards in length and but for a quick and
 fortunate recovery by means of my espontoon I should been precipitated
 into the river down a craggy pricipice of about ninety feet. I had
 scarcely reached a place on which I could stand with tolerable safety
 even with the assistance of my espontoon before I heard a voice behind
 me cry out god god Capt. what shall I do on turning about I found it
 was Windsor who had sliped and fallen abut the center of this narrow
 pass and was lying prostrate on his belley, with his wright hand arm
 and leg over the precipice while he was holding on with the left arm
 and foot as well as he could which appeared to be with much difficulty.
 I discovered his danger and the trepedation which he was in gave me
 still further concern for I expected every instant to see him loose his
 strength and slip off; altho much allarmed at his situation I disguised
 my feelings and spoke very calmly to him and assured him that he was in
 no kind of danger, to take the knife out of his belt behind him with
 his wright hand and dig a hole with it in the face of the bank to
 receive his wright foot which he did and then raised himself to his
 knees; I then directed him to take off his mockersons and to come
 forward on his hands and knees holding the knife in one hand and the
 gun in the other this he happily effected and escaped. those who were
 some little distance bhind returned by my orders and waded the river at
 the foot of the bluff where the water was breast deep. it was useless
 we knew to attempt the plains on this part of the river in consequence
 of the numerous steep ravines which intersected and which were quite as
 had as the river bluffs. we therefore continued our rout down the river
 sometimes in the mud and water of the bottom lands, at others in the
 river to our breasts and when the water became so deep that we could
 not wade we cut footsteps in the face of the steep bluffs with our
 knives and proceded. we continued our disagreeable march through the
 rain mud and water untill late in the evening having traveled only
 about 18 miles, and encamped in an old Indian stick lodge which
 afforded us a dry and comfortable shelter. during the day we had killed
 six deer some of them in very good order altho none of them had yet
 entirely discarded their winter coats. we had reserved and brought with
 us a good supply of the best peices; we roasted and eat a hearty supper
 of our venison not having taisted a mosel before during the day; I now
 laid myself down on some willow boughs to a comfortable nights rest,
 and felt indeed as if I was fully repaid for the toil and pain of the
 day, so much will a good shelter, a dry bed, and comfortable supper
 revive the sperits of the waryed, wet and hungry traveler.
 [Clark, June 7, 1805]
 June 7th Friday 1805
 rained moderately all the last night and Continus this morning, the
 wind from the S. W, off the mountains, The Themometer Stood at 40° above
 0, I allow Several men to hunt a Short time to day, the rain Continue
 moderately all day the bottom verry muddey 2 buffalow an Elk & Deer
 killed to day--Capt. Lewis not returned yet. river falling
 [Lewis, June 8, 1805]
 Saturday June 8th 1805
 It continued to rain moderately all last night this morning was cloudy
 untill about ten oClock when it cleared off and became a fine day. we
 breakfasted and set out about sunrise and continued our rout down the
 river bottoms through the mud and water as yesterday, tho the road was
 somewhat better than yesterday and we were not so often compelled to
 wade in the river. we passed some dangerous and difficult bluffs. The
 river bottoms affording all the timber which is to be seen in the
 country they are filled with innumerable litle birds that resort
 thither either for shelter or to build their nests. when sun began to
 shine today these birds appeared to be very gay and sung most
 inchantingly; I observed among them the brown thrush, Robbin, turtle
 dove, linnit goaldfinch, the large and small blackbird, wren and
 several other birds of less note. some of the inhabitants of the
 praries also take reffuge in these woods at night or from a storm. The
 whole of my party to a man except myself were fully peswaided that this
 river was the Missouri, but being fully of opinion that it was neither
 the main stream or that which it would be advisable for us to take, I
 determined to give it a name and in honour of Miss Maria W-d. called it
 Maria's River. it is true that the hue of the waters of this turbulent
 and troubled stream but illy comport with the pure celestial virtues
 and amiable qualifications of that lovely fair one; but on the other
 hand it is a noble river; one destined to become in my opinion an
 object of contention between the two great powers of America and Great
 Britin with rispect to the adjustment of the North westwardly boundary
 of the former; and that it will become one of the most interesting
 brances of the Missouri in a commercial point of view, I have but
 little doubt, as it abounds with anamals of the fur kind, and most
 probably furnishes a safe and direct communication to that productive
 country of valuable furs exclusively enjoyed at present by the subjects
 of his Britanic Majesty; in adition to which it passes through a rich
 fertile and one of the most beatifully picteresque countries that I
 ever beheld, through the wide expance of which, innumerable herds of
 living anamals are seen, it's borders garnished with one continued
 garden of roses, while it's lofty and open forrests, are the habitation
 of miriads of the feathered tribes who salute the ear of the passing
 traveler with their wild and simple, yet sweet and cheerfull melody.--I
 arrived at camp about 5 OClock in the evening much fatiegued, where I
 found Capt. Clark and the ballance of the party waiting our return with
 some anxiety for our safety having been absent near two days longer
 than we had engaged to return. on our way to camp we had killed 4 deer
 and two Antelopes; the skins of which as well as those we killed while
 on the rout we brought with us. Maria's river may be stated generally
 from sixty to a hundred yards wide, with a strong and steady current
 and possessing 5 feet water in the most sholly parts.
 As the incidents which occurred Capt. C. during his rout will be more
 fully and satisfactoryley expressed by himself I here insert a copy of
 his journal during the days we wer seperated.-
 I now gave myself this evening to rest from my labours, took a drink of
 grog and gave the men who had accompanyed me each a dram. Capt. Clark
 ploted the courses of the two rivers as far as we had ascended them. I
 now began more than ever to suspect the varacity of Mr. Fidler or the
 correctness of his instruments. for I see that Arrasmith in his late
 map of N. America has laid down a remarkable mountain in the chain of
 the Rocky mountains called the tooth nearly as far South as Latitude 45°,
 and this is said to be from the discoveries of Mr. Fidler? we are now
 within a hundred miles of the Rocky Mountains, and I find from my
 observation of the 3rd Inst that the latitude of this place is 47° 24'
 12.8". the river must therefore turn much to the South, between this
 and the rocky Mountain to have permitted Mr. Fidler to have passed
 along the Eastern border of these mountains as far S. as nearly 45°
 without even seeing it. but from hence as far as Capt. C. had ascended
 the S. fork or Missouri being the distance of 55 miles it's course is
 S. 29°W. and it still appeared to bear considerably to the W. of South as
 far as he could see it. I think therefore that we shall find that the
 Missouri enters the rocky mountains to the North of 45°--we did take the
 liberty of placing his discoveries or at least the Southern extremity
 of them about a degree further N. in the sketh which we sent on to the
 government this spring mearly from the Indian information of the
 bearing from Fort Mandan of the entrance of the Missouri into the Rocky
 Mountains, and I reather suspect that actual observation will take him
 at least one other degree further North. The general Course of Maria's
 river from hence to the extremity of the last course taken by Sergt.
 pryor is N 69° W. 59 mes.
 [Clark, June 8, 1805]
 June 8th Saturday 1805
 rained moderately all the last night & Some this morning untill 10
 oClock, I am Some what uneasy for Capt. Lewis & party as days has now
 passed the time he was to have returned, I had all the arms put in
 order and permited Severall men to hunt, aired and dried our Stores &c.
 The rivers at this point has fallen 6 Inches Sinc our arrival, at 10
 oClock cleared away and became fair--the wind all the morning from the
 S. W. & hard--The water of the South fork is of a redish brown colour
 this morning the other river of a whitish colour as usual-The mountains
 to the South Covered with Snow. Wind Shifted to the N E in the evening,
 about 5 oClock Capt. Lewis arrived with the party much fatigued, and
 inform'd me that he had assended the river about 60 miles by Land and
 that the river had a bold current of about 80 or 100 yards wide the
 bottoms of Gravel & mud, and may be estimated at 5 feet water in
 Sholest parts
 Some rain in the evening. the left hand fork rose a little.
 [Lewis, June 9, 1805]
 Sunday June 9th 1805.
 We determined to deposite at this place the large red perogue all the
 heavy baggage which we could possibly do without and some provision,
 salt, tools powder and Lead &c with a view to lighten our vessels and
 at the same time to strengthen their crews by means of the seven hands
 who have been heretofore employd. in navigating the red perogue;
 accordingly we set some hands to diging a hole or cellar for the
 reception of our stores. these holes in the ground or deposits are
 called by the engages cashes; on enquiry I found that Cruzatte was well
 acquainted this business and therefore left the management of it
 intirely to him. today we examined our maps, and compared the
 information derived as well from them as from the Indians and fully
 settled in our minds the propryety of addopting the South fork for the
 Missouri, as that which it would be most expedient for us to take. The
 information of Mr. Fidler incorrect as it is strongly argued the
 necessity of taking the South fork, for if he has been along the
 Eastern side of the rocky mountains as far as even Latd. 47°, which I
 think fully as far south as he ever was in that direction, and saw only
 small rivulets making down from those mountains the presumption is very
 strong that those little streams do not penetrate the rocky Mountains
 to such distance as would afford rational grownds for a conjecture that
 they had their sources near any navigable branch of the Columbia, and
 if he has seen those rivulets as far south as 47° they are most probably
 the waters of some Nothern branch of the Missouri or South fork
 probably the river called by the Indians Medicine River; we therefore
 cannot hope by going Northwardly of this place being already in
 Latititude 47° 24" to find a stream between this place and the
 Saskashawan which dose penetrate the Rocky mountains, and which
 agreeably to the information of the Indians with rispect to the
 Missouri, dose possess a navigable curent some distance in those
 mountains. The Indian information also argued strongly in favour of the
 South fork. they informed us that the water of the Missouri was nearly
 transparent at the great falls, this is the case with the water of the
 South fork; that the falls lay a little to the South of sunset from
 them; this is also brobable as we are only a few minutes North of Fort
 Mandan and the South fork bears considerably South from hence to the
 Mountains; that the falls are below the rocky mountains and near the
 Nothern termineation of one range of those mountains. a range of
 mountains which apear behind the S. Mountains and which appear to
 terminate S. W. from this place and on this side of the unbroken chain
 of the Rocky Mountains gives us hope that this part of their
 information is also correct, and there is sufficient distance between
 this and the mountains for many and I fear for us much too many falls.
 another impression on my mind is that if the Indians had passed any
 stream as large as the South fork on their way to the Missouri that
 they would not have omitted mentioning it; and the South fork from it's
 size and complexion of it's waters must enter the Ry. Mountains and in
 my opinion penetrates them to a great distance, or els whence such an
 immence body of water as it discharges; it cannot procede from the dry
 plains to the N. W. of the Yellow Stone river on the East side of the
 Rocky Mountains for those numerous large dry channels which we
 witnessed on that side as we ascended the Missouri forbid such a
 conjecture; and that it should take it's sourses to the N. W. under
 those mountains the travels of Mr. Fidler fobid us to beleive. Those
 ideas as they occurred to me I indevoured to impress on the minds of
 the party all of whom except Capt. C. being still firm in the beleif
 that the N. Fork was the Missouri and that which we ought to take; they
 said very cheerfully that they were ready to follow us any wher we
 thought proper to direct but that they still thought that the other was
 the river and that they were affraid that the South fork would soon
 termineate in the mountains and leave us at a great distance from the
 Columbia. Cruzatte who had been an old Missouri navigator and who from
 his integrity knowledge and skill as a waterman had acquired the
 confidence of every individual of the party declared it as his opinion
 that the N. fork was the true genuine Missouri and could be no other.
 finding them so determined in this beleif, and wishing that if we were
 in an error to be able to detect it and rectify it as soon as possible
 it was agreed between Capt. C. and myself that one of us should set out
 with a small party by land up the South fork and continue our rout up
 it untill we found the falls or reached the snowy Mountains by which
 means we should be enabled to determine this question prety accurately.
 this expedition I prefered undertaking as Capt. C best waterman &c. and
 determined to set out the day after tomorrow; I wished to make some
 further observations at this place, and as we had determined to leave
 our blacksmith's bellows and tools here it was necessary to repare some
 of our arms, and particularly my Airgun the main spring of which was
 broken, before we left this place. these and some other preperations
 will necessarily detain us two perhaps three days. I felt myself very
 unwell this morning and took a portion of salts from which I feel much
 releif this evening. The cash being completed I walked to it and
 examined it's construction. it is in a high plain about 40 yards
 distant from a steep bluff of the South branch on it's nothern side;
 the situation a dry one which is always necessary. a place being fixed
 on for a cash, a circle abut 20 inches in diameter is first discribed,
 the terf or sod of this circle is carefully removed, being taken out as
 entire as possible in order that it may be replaced in the same
 situation when the chash is filled and secured. this circular hole is
 then sunk perpendicularly to the debth of one foot, if the ground be
 not firm somewhat deeper. they then begin to work it out wider as they
 proceed downwards untill they get it about six or seven feet deep
 giving it nearly the shape of the kettle or lower part of a large
 still. it's bottom is also somewhat sunk in the center. the dementions
 of the cash is in proportion to the quantity of articles intended to be
 deposited. as the earth is dug it is handed up in a vessel and
 carefully laid on a skin or cloth and then carryed to some place where
 it can be thrown in such manner as to conseal it usually into some
 runing stream wher it is washed away and leaves no traces which might
 lead to the discovery of the cash. before the goods are deposited they
 must be well dryed; a parsel of small dry sticks are then collected and
 with them a floor is maid of three or four inches thick which is then
 covered with some dry hay or a raw hide well dryed; on this the
 articles are deposited, taking care to keep them from touching the
 walls by putting other dry sticks between as you stoe away the
 merchandize, when nearly full the goods are covered with a skin and
 earth thrown in and well ramed untill with the addition of the turf
 furst removed the whole is on a level with the serface of the ground.
 in this manner dryed skins or merchandize will keep perfectly sound for
 several years. the traders of the Missouri, particularly those engaged
 in the trade with the Siouxs are obliged to have frequent recourse to
 this method in order to avoyd being robed. most of the men are busily
 engaged dressing skins for cloathing. In the evening Cruzatte gave us
 some music on the violin and the men passed the evening in dancing
 singing &c and were extreemly cheerfull.-
 [Clark, June 9, 1805]
 June 9th Sunday a fair morning the wind hard from the S. W. the river
 during the night fell 1 Inch, we conclude to burry a few of our heavy
 articles, Some Powder & Lead provisions & a fiw Tools, in case of
 accident and leave one perogue at this place, and as Soon as those
 things are accomplished to assend the South fork, which appears to be
 more in our Course than the N. fork the Genl. Course of the South fork
 for 35 miles is S. 29° W.--that of the N. fork is N. 69° W. for 59 miles,
 and as we are North of Fort mandan it is probable the most Southerley
 fork is the best for us.--Capt. Lewis a little unwell to day & take
 Salts &c. Send out 7 men to make a cache or hole to burry the Stores,
 air out Cloathes &c. &c. finish'd the cache or Seller &c. the men all
 engaged dressing Skins for their clothes, in the evening the party
 amused themselves danceing and Singing Songes in the most Social
 manner. had a meridian altitude which gave 47° 24' 29" took some Luner
 observations which gave for Longitude ____ variation 151/2° East
 [Lewis, June 10, 1805]
 Monday June 10th 1805.
 The day being fair and fine we dryed all our baggage and merchandize.
 Shields renewed the main Spring of my air gun we have been much
 indebted to the ingenuity of this man on many occasions; without having
 served any regular apprenticeship to any trade, he makes his own tools
 principally and works extreemly well in either wood or metal, and in
 this way has been extreenely servicable to us, as well as being a good
 hunter and an excellent waterman. in order to guard against accedents
 we thout it well to conceal some ammunicion here and accordingly buryed
 a tin cannester of 4 lbs. of powder and an adequate quantity of lead
 near our tent; a cannester of 6 lbs. lead and an ax in a thicket up the
 S. Fork three hundred yards distant from the point. we concluded that
 we still could spare more amunition for this deposit Capt. Clark was
 therefore to make a further deposit in the morning, in addition to one
 Keg of 20 lbs. and an adequate proportion of lead which had been laid
 by to be buryed in the large Cash. we now scelected the articles to be
 deposited in this cash which consisted of 2 best falling axes, one
 auger, a set of plains, some files, blacksmiths bellowses and hammers
 Stake tongs &c. 1 Keg of flour, 2 Kegs of parched meal, 2 Kegs of Pork,
 1 Keg of salt, some chissels, a cooper's Howel, some tin cups, 2
 Musquets, 3 brown bear skins, beaver skins, horns of the bighorned
 anamal, a part of the men's robes clothing and all their superfluous
 baggage of every discription, and beaver traps.--we drew up the red
 perogue into the middle of a small Island at the entrance of Maria's
 river, and secured and made her fast to the trees to prevent the high
 floods from carrying her off put my brand on several trees standing
 near her, and covered her with brush to shelter her from the effects of
 the sun. At 3 P.M. we had a hard wind from the S. W. which continued
 about an hour attended with thunder and rain. as soon as the shower had
 passed over we drew out our canoes, corked, repared and loaded them. I
 still feel myself somewhat unwell with the disentary, but determined to
 set out in the morning up the South fork or Missouri leaving Capt.
 Clark to compleat the deposit and follow me by water with the party;
 accordingly gave orders to Drewyer, Joseph Fields, Gibson and Goodrich
 to hold themselves in readiness to accompany me in the morning.
 Sah-cah-gah, we a, our Indian woman is very sick this evening; Capt. C.
 blead her. the night was cloudy with some rain.
 I saw a small bird today which I do not recollect ever having seen
 before. it is about the size of the blue thrush or catbird, and it's
 contour not unlike that bird. the beak is convex, moderately curved,
 black, smoth, and large in proportion to its size. the legs were black,
 it had four toes of the same colour on eah foot, and the nails appeared
 long and somewhat in form like the tallons of the haulk, the eye black
 and proportionably large. a bluish brown colour occupyed the head,
 neck, and back, the belly was white; the tail was reather long in
 proportion and appeared to be composed of feathers of equal length of
 which a part of those in the center were white the others black. the
 wings were long and were also varigated with white and black. on each
 side of the head from the beak back to the neck a small black stripe
 extended imbrasing the eye. it appeared to be very busy in catching
 insects which I presume is it's usual food; I found the nest of this
 little bird, the female which differed but little in size or plumage
 from the male was seting on four eggs of a pale blue colour with small
 black freckles or dots.--the bee martin or Kingbird is common to this
 country tho there are no bees in this country, nor have we met with a
 honey bee since we passed the entrance of the Osage river.
 [Clark, June 10, 1805]
 June 10th Monday 1805
 a fine day dry all our articles arrange our baggage burry Some Powder &
 lead in the point, Some Lead a canister of Powder & an ax in a thicket
 in the point at Some distance, buried on this day and in the large
 cache or whole we buried on the up land near the S. fork 1 mile up S.
 S. we drew up our large Perogue into the middle of a Small Island in
 the North fork and covered her with bushes after makeing her fast to
 the trees, branded several trees to prevent the Indians injureing her,
 at 3 oClock we had hard wind from the S. W. thunder and rain for about
 an hour after which we repaired & Corked the Canoes & loadded them--Sah
 cah gah, we a our Indian woman verry Sick I blead her, we deturmined to
 assend the South fork, and one of us, Capt. Lewis or My self to go by
 land as far as the Snow mountains S. 20° W. and examine the river &
 Countrey Course & to be Certain of our assending the proper river, Capt
 Lewis inclines to go by land on this expedition, according Selects 4
 men George Drewyer, Gibson, Jo. Fields & S. Gutrich to accompany him &
 deturmine to Set out in the morning--The after noon or night Cloudy
 Some rain, river riseing a little.
 [Lewis, June 11, 1805]
 Tuesday June 11th 1805
 This morning I felt much better, but somewhat weakened by my disorder.
 at 8 A.M. I swung my pack, and set forward with my little party.
 proceeded to the point where Rose River a branch Maria's River
 approaches the Missouri so nearly. from this hight we discovered a herd
 of Elk on the Missouri just above us to which we desended and soon
 killed four of them. we butchered them and hung up the meat and skins
 in view of the river in order that the party might get them. I
 determined to take dinner here, but before the meal was prepared I was
 taken with such violent pain in the intestens that I was unable to
 partake of the feast of marrowbones. my pain still increased and
 towards evening was attended with a high fever; finding myself unable
 to march, I determined to prepare a camp of some willow boughs and
 remain all night. having brought no medecine with me I resolved to try
 an experiment with some simples; and the Choke cherry which grew
 abundanly in the bottom first struck my attention; I directed a parsel
 of the small twigs to be geathered striped of their leaves, cut into
 pieces of about 2 Inches in length and boiled in water untill a strong
 black decoction of an astringent bitter tact was produced; at sunset I
 took a point of this decoction and abut an hour after repeated the dze
 by 10 in the evening I was entirely releived from pain and in fact
 every symptom of the disorder forsook me; my fever abated, a gentle
 perspiration was produced and I had a comfortable and refreshing nights
 rest. Goodrich who is remarkably fond of fishing caught several douzen
 fish of two different species--one about 9 inches long of white colour
 round and in form and fins resembles the white chub common to the
 Potomac; this fish has a smaller head than the Chubb and the mouth is
 beset both above and below with a rim of fine sharp teeth; the eye
 moderately large, the puple dark and the iris which is narrow is of a
 yellowish brown colour, they bite at meat or grasshoppers. this is a
 soft fish, not very good, tho the flesh is of a fine white colour. the
 other species is precisely the form and about the size of the well
 known fish called the Hickory Shad or old wife, with the exception of
 the teeth, a rim of which garnish the outer edge of both the upper and
 lower jaw; the tonge and pallet are also beset with long sharp teeth
 bending inwards, the eye of this fish is very large, and the iris of a
 silvery colour and wide. of the 1st species we had caught some few
 before our arrival at the entrance of Maria's river, but of the last we
 had seen none untill we reached that place and took them in Missouri
 above it's junction with that river. the latter kind are much the best,
 and do not inhabit muddy water; the white cat continue as high as the
 entrance of Maria's R, but those we have caught above Mandans never
 excede 6 lbs. I beleive that there are but few in this part of the
 Missouri. saw an abundance of game today even in our short march of 9
 [Clark, June 11, 1805]
 June 11th Tuesday 1805
 a fair morning wind from the S W. hard we burry 1 keg in the Cash & 2
 Canisters of Powder in 2 seperate places all with Lead; & in the Cash 2
 axes, auger, Plains, 1 Keg flour, 2 Kegs Pork, 2 Kegs Parchd meal 1 Keg
 salt, files Chisel, 2 Musquits, Some tin cups, bowel, 3 bear Skins,
 Beaver Skins, Horns, & parts of the mens robes & clothes.--Beaver Traps
 and blacksmith's tools. Capt. Lewis Set out at 8 oClock we delayed to
 repare Some guns out of order & complete our deposit, which took us the
 day the evening fair and fine wind from the N. W. after night it became
 cold & the wind blew hard, the Indian woman verry Sick, I blead her
 which appeared to be of great Service to her both rivers riseing fast
 [Lewis, June 12, 1805]
 Wednesday June 12th 1805.
 This morning I felt myself quite revived, took another portion of my
 decoction and set out at sunrise. I now boar out from the river in
 order to avoid the steep ravines of the river which usually make out in
 the plain to the distance of one or two miles; after gaining the leavel
 plain my couse was a litte to the West of S. W.--having traveled about
 12 miles by 9 in the morning, the sun became warm, and I boar a little
 to the south in order to gain the river as well to obtain water to
 allay my thirst as to kill something for breakfast; for the plain
 through which we had been passing possesses no water and is so level
 that we cannot approach the buffaloe within shot before they discover
 us and take to flight. we arrived at the river about 10 A.M. having
 traveled about 15 m. at this place there is a handsom open bottom with
 some cottonwood timber, here we met with two large bear, and killed
 them boath at the first fire, a circumstance which I beleive has never
 happend with the party in killing the brown bear before. we dressed the
 bear, breakfasted on a part of one of them and hung the meat and skins
 on the trees out of the reach of the wolves. I left a note on a stick
 near the river for Capt. Clark, informing him of my progress &c.--after
 refreshing ourselves abut 2 hours we again ascended the bluffs and
 gained the high plain; saw a great number of burrowing squirrels in the
 plains today. also wolves Antelopes mule deer and immence herds of
 buffaloe. we passed a ridge of land considerably higher than the
 adjacent plain on either side, from this hight we had a most beatifull
 and picturesk view of the Rocky mountains which wer perfectly covered
 with Snow and reaching from S. E. to the N. of N. W.--they appear to be
 formed of several ranges each succeeding range rising higher than the
 preceding one untill the most distant appear to loose their snowey tops
 in the clouds; this was an august spectacle and still rendered more
 formidable by the recollection that we had them to pass. we traveled
 about twelve miles when we agin struck the Missoury at a handsome
 little bottom of Cottonwood timber and altho the sun had not yet set I
 felt myself somewhat weary being weakened I presume by late disorder;
 and therfore determined to remain here during the ballance of the day
 and night, having marched about 27 miles today. on our way in the
 evening we had killed a buffaloe, an Antelope and three mule deer, and
 taken a sufficient quantity of the best of the flesh of these anamals
 for three meals, which we had brought with us. This evening I ate very
 heartily and after pening the transactions of the day amused myself
 catching those white fish mentioned yesterday; they are here in great
 abundance I caught upwards of a douzen in a few minutes; they bit most
 freely at the melt of a deer which goodrich had brought with him for
 the purpose of fishing.
 The narrow leafed cottonwood grows here in common with the other
 species of the same tree with a broad leaf or that which has
 constituted the major part of the timber of the Missouri from it's
 junction with the Mississippi to this place. The narrow leafed
 cottonwood differs only from the other in the shape of it's leaf and
 greater thickness of it's bark. the leaf is a long oval acutely
 pointed, about 21/2 or 3 Inches long and from 3/4 to an inch in width;
 it is thick, sometimes slightly grooved or channeled; margin slightly
 serrate; the upper disk of a common green while the under disk is of a
 whiteish green; the leaf is smoth. the beaver appear to be extremely
 fond of this tree and even seem to scelect it from among the other
 species of Cottonwood, probably from it's affording a deeper and softer
 bark than the other species.--saw some sign of the Otter as well as
 beaver near our camp, also a great number of tracks of the brown bear;
 these fellows leave a formidable impression in the mud or sand I
 measured one this evening which was eleven inches long exclusive of the
 tallons and seven and 1/4 in width.
 [Clark, June 12, 1805]
 June 12th 1805 Wednesday
 last night was Clear and Cold, this morning fair we Set out at 8 oClock
 & proceeded on verry well wind from the S. W. The interpreters wife
 verry Sick So much So that I move her into the back part of our Covered
 part of the Perogue which is Cool, her own situation being a verry hot
 one in the bottom of the Perogue exposed to the Sun--Saw emence No. of
 Swallows in the 1st bluff on the Lard. Side, water verry Swift, the
 bluff are blackish Clay & Coal for about 80 feet. the earth above that
 for 30 or 40 feet is a brownish yellow, a number of bars of corse
 gravil and Stones of different Shape & Size &c. Saw a number of rattle
 Snakes to day one of the men cought one by the head in Catch'g hold of
 a bush on which his head lay reclined three canoes were in great danger
 today one diped water, another was near turning over &c. at 2 oClock P
 M a fiew drops of rain I walked thro a point and killed a Buck Elk &
 Deer, and we camped on the Stard Side, the Interpreters woman verry
 Sick worse than She has been. I give her medison one man have a fellon
 riseing on his hand one other with the Tooth ake has taken cold in the
 jaw &c.
 [Lewis, June 13, 1805]
 Thursday June 13th 1805.
 This morning we set out about sunrise after taking breakfast off our
 venison and fish. we again ascended the hills of the river and gained
 the level country. the country through which we passed for the first
 six miles tho more roling than that we had passed yesterday might still
 with propryety he deemed a level country; our course as yesterday was
 generally S W. the river from the place we left it appeared to make a
 considerable bend to the South. from the extremity of this roling
 country I overlooked a most beatifull and level plain of great extent
 or at least 50 or sixty miles; in this there were infinitely more
 buffaloe than I had ever before witnessed at a view. nearly in the
 direction I had been travling or S. W. two curious mountains presented
 themselves of square figures, the sides rising perpendicularly to the
 hight of 250 feet and appeared to be formed of yellow clay; their tops
 appeared to be level plains; these inaccessible hights appeared like
 the ramparts of immence fortifications; I have no doubt but with very
 little assistance from art they might be rendered impregnable. fearing
 that the river boar to the South and that I might pass the falls if
 they existed between this an the snowey mountains I altered my course
 nealy to the South leaving those insulated hills to my wright and
 proceeded through the plain; I sent Feels on my right and Drewyer and
 Gibson on my left with orders to kill some meat and join me at the
 river where I should halt for dinner. I had proceded on this course
 about two miles with Goodrich at some distance behind me whin my ears
 were saluted with the agreeable sound of a fall of water and advancing
 a little further I saw the spray arrise above the plain like a collumn
 of smoke which would frequently dispear again in an instant caused I
 presume by the wind which blew pretty hard from the S. W. I did not
 however loose my direction to this point which soon began to make a
 roaring too tremendious to be mistaken for any cause short of the great
 falls of the Missouri. here I arrived about 12 OClock having traveled
 by estimate about 15 Miles. I hurryed down the hill which was about 200
 feet high and difficult of access, to gaze on this sublimely grand
 specticle. I took my position on the top of some rocks about 20 feet
 high opposite the center of the falls. this chain of rocks appear once
 to have formed a part of those over which the waters tumbled, but in
 the course of time has been seperated from it to the distance of 150
 yards lying prarrallel to it and forming a butment against which the
 water after falling over the precipice beats with great fury; this
 barrier extends on the right to the perpendicular clift which forms
 that board of the river but to the distance of 120 yards next to the
 clift it is but a few feet above the level of the water, and here the
 water in very high tides appears to pass in a channel of 40 yds. next
 to the higher part of the ledg of rocks; on the left it extends within
 80 or ninty yards of the lard. Clift which is also perpendicular;
 between this abrupt extremity of the ledge of rocks and the
 perpendicular bluff the whole body of water passes with incredible
 swiftness. immediately at the cascade the river is about 300 yds. wide;
 about ninty or a hundred yards of this next the Lard. bluff is a smoth
 even sheet of water falling over a precipice of at least eighty feet,
 the remaining part of about 200 yards on my right formes the grandest
 sight I ever beheld, the hight of the fall is the same of the other but
 the irregular and somewhat projecting rocks below receives the water in
 it's passage down and brakes it into a perfect white foam which assumes
 a thousand forms in a moment sometimes flying up in jets of sparkling
 foam to the hight of fifteen or twenty feet and are scarcely formed
 before large roling bodies of the same beaten and foaming water is
 thrown over and conceals them. in short the rocks seem to be most
 happily fixed to present a sheet of the whitest beaten froath for 200
 yards in length and about 80 feet perpendicular. the water after
 decending strikes against the butment before mentioned or that on which
 I stand and seems to reverberate and being met by the more impetuous
 courant they role and swell into half formed billows of great hight
 which rise and again disappear in an instant. this butment of rock
 defends a handsom little bottom of about three acres which is
 deversified and agreeably shaded with some cottonwood trees; in the
 lower extremity of the bottom there is a very thick grove of the same
 kind of trees which are small, in this wood there are several Indian
 lodges formed of sticks. a few small cedar grow near the ledge of rocks
 where I rest. below the point of these rocks at a small distance the
 river is divided by a large rock which rises several feet above the
 water, and extends downwards with the stream for about 20 yards. about
 a mile before the water arrives at the pitch it decends very rappidly,
 and is confined on the Lard. side by a perpendicular clift of about 100
 feet, on Stard. side it is also perpendicular for about three hundred
 yards above the pitch where it is then broken by the discharge of a
 small ravine, down which the buffaloe have a large beaten road to the
 water, for it is but in very few places that these anamals can obtain
 water near this place owing to the steep and inaccessible banks. I see
 several skelletons of the buffaloe lying in the edge of the water near
 the Stard. bluff which I presume have been swept down by the current
 and precipitated over this tremendious fall. about 300 yards below me
 there is another butment of solid rock with a perpendicular face and
 abot 60 feet high which projects from the Stard. side at right angles
 to the distance of 134 yds. and terminates the lower part nearly of the
 bottom before mentioned; there being a passage arround the end of this
 butment between it and the river of about 20 yardes; here the river
 again assumes it's usual width soon spreading to near 300 yards but
 still continues it's rappidity. from the reflection of the sun on the
 spray or mist which arrises from these falls there is a beatifull
 rainbow produced which adds not a little to the beauty of this
 majestically grand senery. after wrighting this imperfect discription I
 again viewed the falls and was so much disgusted with the imperfect
 idea which it conveyed of the scene that I determined to draw my pen
 across it and begin agin, but then reflected that I could not perhaps
 succeed better than pening the first impressions of the mind; I wished
 for the pencil of Salvator Rosa or the pen of Thompson, that I might be
 enabled to give to the enlightened world some just idea of this truly
 magnifficent and sublimely grand object, which has from the
 commencement of time been concealed from the view of civilized man; but
 this was fruitless and vain. I most sincerely regreted that I had not
 brought a crimee obscura with me by the assistance of which even I
 could have hoped to have done better but alas this was also out of my
 reach; I therefore with the assistance of my pen only indeavoured to
 traces some of the stronger features of this seen by the assistance of
 which and my recollection aided by some able pencil I hope still to
 give to the world some faint idea of an object which at this moment
 fills me with such pleasure and astonishment, and which of it's kind I
 will venture to ascert is second to but one in the known world. I
 retired to the shade of a tree where I determined to fix my camp for
 the present and dispatch a man in the morning to inform Capt. C. and
 the party of my success in finding the falls and settle in their minds
 all further doubts as to the Missouri. the hunters now arrived loaded
 with excellent buffaloe meat and informed me that they had killed three
 very fat cows about 3/4 of a mile hence. I directed them after they had
 refreshed themselves to go back and butcher them and bring another load
 of meat each to our camp determining to employ those who remained with
 me in drying meat for the party against their arrival. in about 2 hours
 or at 4 OClock P.M. they set out on this duty, and I walked down the
 river about three miles to discover if possible some place to which the
 canoes might arrive or at which they might be drawn on shore in order
 to be taken by land above the falls; but returned without effecting
 either of these objects; the river was one continued sene of rappids
 and cascades which I readily perceived could not be encountered with
 our canoes, and the Clifts still retained their perpendicular structure
 and were from 150 to 200 feet high; in short the river appears here to
 have woarn a channel in the process of time through a solid rock. on my
 return I found the party at camp; they had butchered the buffaloe and
 brought in some more meat as I had directed. Goodrich had caught half a
 douzen very fine trout and a number of both species of the white fish.
 these trout are from sixteen to twenty three inches in length,
 precisely resemble our mountain or speckled trout in form and the
 position of their fins, but the specks on these are of a deep black
 instead of the red or goald colour of those common to the U. States.
 these are furnished long sharp teeth on the pallet and tongue and have
 generally a small dash of red on each side behind the front ventral
 fins; the flesh is of a pale yellowish red, or when in good order, of a
 rose red.
 I am induced to believe that the Brown, the white and the Grizly bear
 of this country are the same species only differing in colour from age
 or more probably from the same natural cause that many other anamals of
 the same family differ in colour. one of those which we killed
 yesterday was of a creemcoloured white while the other in company with
 it was of the common bey or rdish brown, which seems to be the most
 usual colour of them. the white one appeared from it's tallons and
 teath to be the youngest; it was smaller than the other, and although a
 monstrous beast we supposed that it had not yet attained it's growth
 and that it was a little upwards of two years old. the young cubs which
 we have killed have always been of a brownish white, but none of them
 as white as that we killed yesterday. one other that we killed sometime
 since which I mentioned sunk under some driftwood and was lost, had a
 white stripe or list of about eleven inches wide entirely arround his
 body just behind the shoalders, and was much darker than these bear
 usually are. the grizly bear we have never yet seen. I have seen their
 tallons in possession of the Indians and from their form I am perswaded
 if there is any difference between this species and the brown or white
 bear it is very inconsiderable. There is no such anamal as a black bear
 in this open country or of that species generally denominated the black
 my fare is really sumptuous this evening; buffaloe's humps, tongues and
 marrowbones, fine trout parched meal pepper and salt, and a good
 appetite; the last is not considered the least of the luxuries.
 [Clark, June 13, 1805]
 June 13th Thursday 1805
 a fair morning, Some dew this morning the Indian woman Verry sick I
 gave her a doste of Salts. We Set out early, at a mile & 1/2 passed a
 Small rapid Stream on the Lard Side which heads in a mountain to the S.
 E 12 or 15 miles, which at this time covered with Snow, we call this
 stream Snow river, as it is the conveyance of the melted snow from that
 mountain at present. numbers of gees & goslings, the gees cannot fly at
 this Season--goose berries are ripe and in great abundance, the yellow
 Current is also Common, not yet ripe Killed a buffalow & Campd on the
 Lard Side near an old Indian fortified campy one man Sick & 3 with
 Swellings, the Indian woman verry Sick. Killed a goat & fraser 2
 The river verry rapid maney Sholes great nos of large Stones passed
 Some bluffs or low cliffts of Slate to day
 [Lewis, June 14, 1805]
 Friday June 14th 1805.
 This morning at sunrise I dispatched Joseph Fields with a letter to
 Capt. Clark and ordered him to keep sufficiently near the river to
 observe it's situation in order that he might be enabled to give Capt.
 Clark an idea of the point at which it would be best to halt to make
 our portage. I set one man about preparing a saffold and collecting
 wood to dry the meat Sent the others to bring in the ballance of the
 buffaloe meat, or at least the part which the wolves had left us, for
 those fellows are ever at hand and ready to partake with us the moment
 we kill a buffaloe; and there is no means of puting the meat out of
 their reach in those plains; the two men shortly after returned with
 the meat and informed me that the wolves had devoured the greater part
 of the meat. about ten OClock this morning while the men were engaged
 with the meat I took my Gun and espontoon and thought I would walk a
 few miles and see where the rappids termineated above, and return to
 dinner. accordingly I set out and proceeded up the river about S. W.
 after passing one continued rappid and three small cascades of abut for
 or five feet each at the distance of about five miles I arrived at a
 fall of about 19 feet; the river is hereabout 400 yds. wide. this pitch
 which I called the crooked falls occupys about three fourths of the
 width of the river, commencing on the South side, extends obliquly
 upwards about 150 yds. then forming an accute angle extends downwards
 nearly to the commencement of four small Islands lying near the N.
 shore; among these Islands and between them and the lower extremity of
 the perpendicular pitch being a distance of 100 yards or upwards, the
 water glides down the side of a sloping rock with a volocity almost
 equal to that of it's perpendicular decent. just above this rappid the
 river makes a suddon bend to the right or Northwardly. I should have
 returned from hence but hearing a tremendious roaring above me I
 continued my rout across the point of a hill a few hundred yards
 further and was again presented by one of the most beatifull objects in
 nature, a cascade of about fifty feet perpendicular streching at
 rightangles across the river from side to side to the distance of at
 least a quarter of a mile. here the river pitches over a shelving rock,
 with an edge as regular and as streight as if formed by art, without a
 nich or brake in it; the water decends in one even and uninterupted
 sheet to the bottom wher dashing against the rocky bottom rises into
 foaming billows of great hight and rappidly glides away, hising
 flashing and sparkling as it departs the sprey rises from one extremity
 to the other to 50 f. I now thought that if a skillfull painter had
 been asked to make a beautifull cascade that he would most probably
 have pesented the precise immage of this one; nor could I for some time
 determine on which of those two great cataracts to bestoe the palm, on
 this or that which I had discovered yesterday; at length I determined
 between these two great rivals for glory that this was pleasingly
 beautifull, while the other was sublimely grand. I had scarcely infixed
 my eyes from this pleasing object before I discovered another fall
 above at the distance of half a mile; thus invited I did not once think
 of returning but hurried thither to amuse myself with this newly
 discovered object. I found this to be a cascade of about 14 feet
 possessing a perpendicular pitch of about 6 feet. this was tolerably
 regular streching across the river from bank to bank where it was about
 a quarter of a mile wide; in any other neighbourhood but this, such a
 cascade would probably be extoled for it's beaty and magnifficence, but
 here I passed it by with but little attention, determining as I had
 proceded so far to continue my rout to the head of the rappids if it
 should even detain me all night. at every rappid cateract and cascade I
 discovered that the bluffs grew lower or that the bed of the river rose
 nearer to a level with the plains. still pursuing the river with it's
 course about S. W. passing a continued sene of rappids and small
 cascades, at the distance of 21/2 miles I arrived at another cataract
 of 26 feet. this is not immediately perpendicular, a rock about 1/3 of
 it's decent seems to protrude to a small distance and receives the
 water in it's passage downwards and gives a curve to the water tho it
 falls mostly with a regular and smoth sheet. the river is near six
 hundred yards wide at this place, a beatifull level plain on the S.
 side only a few feet above the level of the pitch; on the N. side where
 I am the country is More broken and immediately behind me near the
 river a high hill. below this fall at a little distance a beatifull
 little Island well timbered is situated about the middle of the river.
 in this Island on a Cottonwood tree an Eagle has placed her nest; a
 more inaccessable spot I beleive she could not have found; for neither
 man nor beast dare pass those gulphs which seperate her little domain
 from the shores. the water is also broken in such manner as it decends
 over this pitch that the mist or sprey rises to a considerable hight.
 this fall is certainly much the greatest I ever behald except those two
 which I have mentioned below. it is incomparably a geater cataract and
 a more noble interesting object than the celibrated falls of Potomac or
 Soolkiln &c. just above this is another cascade of about 5 feet, above
 which the water as far as I could see began to abate of it's valosity,
 and I therefore determined to ascend the hill behind me which promised
 a fine prospect of the adjacent country, nor was I disappointed on my
 arrival at it's summit. from hence I overlooked a most beatifull and
 extensive plain reaching from the river to the base of the Snowclad
 mountains to the S. and S. West; I also observed the missoury streching
 it's meandering course to the South through this plain to a great
 distance filled to it's even and grassey brim; another large river
 flowed in on it's Western side about four miles above me and extended
 itself though a level and fertile valley of 3 miles in width a great
 distance to the N. W. rendered more conspicuous by the timber which
 garnished it's borders. in these plains and more particularly in the
 valley just below me immence herds of buffaloe are feeding. the
 missouri just above this hill makes a bend to the South where it lies a
 smoth even and unruffled sheet of water of nearly a mile in width
 bearing on it's watry bosome vast flocks of geese which feed at
 pleasure in the delightfull pasture on either border. the young geese
 are now completely feathered except the wings which both in the young
 and old are yet deficient. after feasting my eyes on this ravishing
 prospect and resting myself a few minutes I determined to procede as
 far as the river which I saw discharge itself on the West side of the
 Missouri convinced that it was the river which the Indians call
 medicine river and which they informed us fell into the Missouri just
 above the falls I decended the hills and directed my course to the bend
 of the Missouri near which there was a herd of at least a thousand
 buffaloe; here I thought it would be well to kill a buffaloe and leave
 him untill my return from the river and if I then found that I had not
 time to get back to camp this evening to remain all night here there
 being a few sticks of drift wood lying along shore which would answer
 for my fire, and a few sattering cottonwood trees a few hundred yards
 below which would afford me at least a semblance of a shelter. under
 this impression I scelected a fat buffaloe and shot him very well,
 through the lungs; while I was gazeing attentively on the poor anamal
 discharging blood in streams from his mouth and nostrils, expecting him
 to fall every instant, and having entirely forgotton to reload my
 rifle, a large white, or reather brown bear, had perceived and crept on
 me within 20 steps before I discovered him; in the first moment I drew
 up my gun to shoot, but at the same instant recolected that she was not
 loaded and that he was too near for me to hope to perform this
 opperation before he reached me, as he was then briskly advancing on
 me; it was an open level plain, not a bush within miles nor a tree
 within less than three hundred yards of me; the river bank was sloping
 and not more than three feet above the level of the water; in short
 there was no place by means of which I could conceal myself from this
 monster untill I could charge my rifle; in this situation I thought of
 retreating in a brisk walk as fast as he was advancing untill I could
 reach a tree about 300 yards below me, but I had no sooner terned
 myself about but he pitched at me, open mouthed and full speed, I ran
 about 80 yards and found he gained on me fast, I then run into the
 water the idea struk me to get into the water to such debth that I
 could stand and he would be obliged to swim, and that I could in that
 situation defend myself with my espontoon; accordingly I ran haistily
 into the water about waist deep, and faced about and presented the
 point of my espontoon, at this instant he arrived at the edge of the
 water within about 20 feet of me; the moment I put myself in this
 attitude of defence he sudonly wheeled about as if frightened, declined
 the combat on such unequal grounds, and retreated with quite as great
 precipitation as he had just before pursued me. as soon as I saw him
 run off in that manner I returned to the shore and charged my gun,
 which I had still retained in my hand throughout this curious
 adventure. I saw him run through the level open plain about three
 miles, till he disappeared in the woods on medecine river; during the
 whole of this distance he ran at full speed, sometimes appearing to
 look behind him as if he expected pursuit. I now began to reflect on
 this novil occurrence and indeavoured to account for this sudden
 retreat of the bear. I at first thought that perhaps he had not smelt
 me before he arrived at the waters edge so near me, but I then
 reflected that he had pursued me for about 80 or 90 yards before I took
 the water and on examination saw the grownd toarn with his tallons
 immediately on the impression of my steps; and the cause of his allarm
 still remains with me misterious and unaccountable.--so it was and I
 feelt myself not a little gratifyed that he had declined the combat. My
 gun reloaded I felt confidence once more in my strength; and determined
 not to be thwarted in my design of visiting medicine river, but
 determined never again to suffer my peice to be longer empty than the
 time she necessarily required to charge her. I passed through the plain
 nearly in the direction which the bear had run to medecine river, found
 it a handsome stream, about 200 yds. wide with a gentle current,
 apparently deep, it's waters clear, and banks which were formed
 principally of darkbrown and blue clay were about the hight of those of
 the Missouri or from 3 to 5 feet; yet they had not the appearance of
 ever being overflown, a circumstance, which I did not expect so
 immediately in the neighbourhood of the mountains, from whence I should
 have supposed, that sudden and immence torrants would issue at certain
 seasons of the year; but the reverse is absolutely the case. I am
 therefore compelled to beleive that the snowey mountains yeald their
 warters slowly, being partially effected every day by the influence of
 the sun only, and never suddonly melted down by haisty showers of rain.
 having examined Medecine river I now determined to return, having by my
 estimate about 12 miles to walk. I looked at my watch and found it was
 half after six P.M.--in returning through the level bottom of Medecine
 river and about 200 yards distant from the Missouri, my direction led
 me directly to an anamal that I at first supposed was a wolf; but on
 nearer approach or about sixty paces distant I discovered that it was
 not, it's colour was a brownish yellow; it was standing near it's
 burrow, and when I approached it thus nearly, it couched itself down
 like a cat looking immediately at me as if it designed to spring on me.
 I took aim at it and fired, it instantly disappeared in it's burrow; I
 loaded my gun and exmined the place which was dusty and saw the track
 from which I am still further convinced that it was of the tiger kind.
 whether I struck it or not I could not determine, but I am almost
 confident that I did; my gun is true and I had a steady rest by means
 of my espontoon, which I have found very serviceable to me in this way
 in the open plains. It now seemed to me that all the beasts of the
 neighbourhood had made a league to distroy me, or that some fortune was
 disposed to amuse herself at my expence, for I had not proceded more
 than three hundred yards from the burrow of this tyger cat, before
 three bull buffaloe, which wer feeding with a large herd about half a
 mile from me on my left, seperated from the herd and ran full speed
 towards me, I thought at least to give them some amusement and altered
 my direction to meet them; when they arrived within a hundred yards
 they mad a halt, took a good view of me and retreated with
 precipitation. I then continued my rout homewards passed the buffaloe
 which I had killed, but did not think it prudent to remain all night at
 this place which really from the succession of curious adventures wore
 the impression on my mind of inchantment; at sometimes for a moment I
 thought it might be a dream, but the prickley pears which pierced my
 feet very severely once in a while, particularly after it grew dark,
 convinced me that I was really awake, and that it was necessary to make
 the best of my way to camp. it was sometime after dark before I
 returned to the party; I found them extremely uneasy for my safety;
 they had formed a thousand conjectures, all of which equally forboding
 my death, which they had so far settled among them, that they had
 already agreed on the rout which each should take in the morning to
 surch for me. I felt myself much fortiegued, but eat a hearty supper
 and took a good night's rest.--the weather being warm I had left my
 leather over shirt and had woarn only a yellow flannin one.
 [Clark, June 14, 1805]
 June 14th Friday 1805
 a fine morning, the Indian woman complaining all night & excessively
 bad this morning--her case is Somewhat dangerous--two men with the
 Tooth ake 2 with Turners, & one man with a Tumor & Slight fever passed
 the Camp Capt. Lewis made the 1st night at which place he had left part
 of two bear their skins &c three men with Turners went on shore and
 Staycd out all night one of them killed 2 buffalow, a part of which we
 made use of for brackfast, the Current excesevely rapid more So as we
 assend we find great difficuelty in getting the Perogue & Canoes up in
 Safety, Canoes take in water frequently, at 4 oClock this evening Jo.
 Fields returned from Capt. Lewis with a letter for me, Capt Lewis dates
 his letter from the Great falls of the Missouri, which Fields informs
 me is about 20 miles in advance & about 10 miles above the place I left
 the river the time I was up last week Capt. L. informs that those
 falls; in part answer the discription given of them by the Indians,
 much higher the Eagles nest which they describe is there, from those
 Signs he is Convinced of this being the river the Indians call the
 Missouri, he intends examineing the river above untill my arrival at a
 point from which we can make a portage, which he is apprehensive will
 be at least 5 miles & both above & below there is Several Small
 pitches, & Swift troubled water we made only 10 miles to day and Camped
 on the Lard Side, much hard Slate in the Clifts & but a Small quantity
 of timber.
 [Lewis, June 15, 1805]
 Saturday June 15th 1805.
 This morning the men again were sent to bring in some more meat which
 Drewyer had killed yesterday, and continued the opperation of drying
 it. I amused myself in fishing, and sleeping away the fortiegues of
 yesterday. I caught a number of very fine trout which I made Goodrich
 dry; goodrich also caught about two douzen and several small cat of a
 yellow colour which would weigh about 4 lbs. the tails was seperated
 with a deep angular nitch like that of the white cat of the missouri
 from which indeed they differed only in colour. when I awoke from my
 sleep today I found a large rattlesnake coiled on the leaning trunk of
 a tree under the shade of which I had been lying at the distance of
 about ten feet from him. I killed the snake and found that he had 176
 scuta on the abdomen and i'7 half formed scuta on the tale; it was of
 the same kinde which I had frequently seen before; they do not differ
 in their colours from the rattle snake common to the middle attlantic
 states, but considerably in the form and figures of those colours. This
 evening after dark Joseph Fields returned and informed me that Capt
 Clark had arrived with the party at the foot of a rappid about 5 miles
 below which he did not think proper to ascend and would wait my arrival
 there. I had discovered from my journey yesterday that a portage on
 this side of the river will be attended by much difficulty in
 consequence of several deep ravines which intersect the plains nearly
 at right angles with the river to a considerable distance, while the
 South side appears to be a delighfull smoth unbroken plain; the
 bearings of the river also make it pobable that the portage will be
 shorter on that side than on this.--I directed Fields to return early
 in the morning to Capt. C. and request him to send up a party of men
 for the dryed meat which we had made. I finde a very heavy due on the
 grass about my camp every morning which no doubt procedes from the mist
 of the falls, as it takes place no where in the plains nor on the river
 except here.
 [Clark, June 15, 1805]
 June the 15th Satturday 1805
 a fair morning and worm, we Set out at the usial time and proceeded on
 with great dificuelty as the river is more rapid we can hear the falls
 this morning verry distinctly--our Indian woman Sick &low Spirited I
 gave her the bark & apply it exteranaly to her region which revived her
 much. the curt. excessively rapid and dificuelt to assend great numbers
 of dangerous places, and the fatigue which we have to encounter is
 incretiatable the men in the water from morning untill night hauling
 the Cord & boats walking on Sharp rocks and round Sliperery Stones
 which alternately cut their feet & throw them down, not with Standing
 all this dificuelty they go with great chearfulness, aded to those
 dificuelties the rattle Snakes inumerable & require great caution to
 prevent being bitten.--we passed a Small river on the Lard Side about
 30 yards wide verry rapid which heads in the mountains to the S. E. I
 Sent up this river 5 miles, it has Some timber in its bottoms and a
 fall of 15 feet at one place, above this river the bluffs are of red
 earth mixed with Stratums of black Stone, below this little river, we
 pass a white clay which mixes with water like flour in every respect,
 the Indian woman much wors this evening, She will not take any medison,
 her husband petetions to return &c., river more rapid late in the
 evening we arrived at a rapid which appeared So bad that I did not
 think it prudent to attempt passing of it this evening as it was now
 late, we Saw great numbers of Gees Ducks, Crows Blackbirds &c Geese &
 Ducks with their young. after Landing I detached Joseph Fields to Capt.
 Lewis to let him know where I was &c river rises a little this evening
 we could not get a Sufficency of wood for our use
 [Lewis, June 16, 1805]
 Sunday June 16th 1805
 J. Fields set out early on his return to the lower camp, at noon the
 men arrived and shortly after I set out with them to rejoin the party.
 we took with us the dryed meat consisting of about 600 lbs. and several
 douzen of dryed trout. about 2 P.M. I reached the camp found the Indian
 woman extreemly ill and much reduced by her indisposition. this gave me
 some concern as well for the poor object herself, then with a young
 child in her arms, as from the consideration of her being our only
 dependence for a friendly negociation with the Snake Indians on whom we
 depend for horses to assist us in our portage from the Missouri to the
 columbia River. I now informed Capt. C. of my discoveries with rispect
 to the most proper side for our portage, and of it's great length,
 which I could not estimate at less than 16 miles. Capt. C. had already
 sent two men this morning to examine the country on the S. side of the
 river; he now passed over with the party to that side and fixed a camp
 about a mile blow the entrance of a Creek where there was a sufficient
 quantity of wood for fuel, an article which can be obtained but in few
 places in this neighbourhood. after discharging the loads four of the
 canoes were sent back to me, which by means of strong ropes we hawled
 above the rappid and passed over to the south side from whence the
 water not being rappid we can readily convey them into the creek by
 means of which we hope to get them on the high plain with more ease.
 one of the small canoes was left below this rappid in order to pass and
 repass the river for the purpose of hunting as well as to procure the
 water of the Sulpher spring, the virtues of which I now resolved to try
 on the Indian woman. this spring is situated about 200 yards from the
 Missouri on the N. E. side nearly opposite to the entrance of a large
 creek; it discharges itself into the Missouri over a precepice of rock
 about 25 feet, forming a pretty little ____ the water is as transparent
 as possible strongly impregnated with sulpher, and I suspect Iron also,
 as the colour of the hills and bluffs in the neighbourhood indicate the
 existence of that metal. the water to all appearance is precisely
 similar to that of Bowyer's Sulpher spring in Virginia. Capt. Clark
 determined to set out in the morning to examine and survey the portage,
 and discover the best rout. as the distance was too great to think of
 transporting the canoes and baggage on the men's shoulders, we
 scelected six men, and ordered them to look out some timber this
 evening, and early in the morning to set about making a parsel of truck
 wheels in order to convey our canoes and baggage over the portage. we
 determined to leave the white perogue at this place, and substitute the
 Iron boat, and also to make a further deposit of a part of our stores.
 in the evening the men who had been sent out to examine the country and
 made a very unfavourable report. they informed us that the creek just
 above us and two deep ravenes still higher up cut the plain between the
 river and mountain in such a manner, that in their opinions a portage
 for the canoes on this side was impracticable. good or bad we must make
 the portage. notwithstanding this report I am still convinced from the
 view I had of the country the day before yesterday that a good portage
 may be had on this side at least much better than on the other, and
 much nearer also. I found that two dozes of barks and opium which I had
 given her since my arrival had produced an alteration in her pulse for
 the better; they were now much fuller and more regular. I caused her to
 drink the mineral water altogether. wen I first came down I found that
 her pulse were scarcely perceptible, very quick frequently irregular
 and attended with strong nervous symptoms, that of the twitching of the
 fingers and leaders of the arm; now the pulse had become regular much
 fuller and a gentle perspiration had taken place; the nervous symptoms
 have also in a great measure abated, and she feels herself much freeer
 from pain. she complains principally of the lower region of the
 abdomen, I therefore continued the cataplasms of barks and laudnumn
 which had been previously used by my friend Capt Clark. I beleive her
 disorder originated principally from an obstruction of the mensis in
 consequence of taking could.--I determined to remain at this camp in
 order to make some celestial observations, restore the sick woman, and
 have all matters in a state of readiness to commence the portage
 immediately on the return of Capt. Clark, who now furnished me with the
 dayly occurrences which had taken place with himself and party since
 our seperation which I here enter in his own words.
 [Clark, June 16, 1805]
 June 16th of Sunday 1805
 Some rain last night a cloudy morning wind hard from the S. W. we Set
 out passed the rapid by double manning the Perogue & Canoes and halted
 at 1/4 of a mile to examine the rapids above, which I found to be an
 Continued Cascade for as far as could be Seen which was about 2 miles,
 I walked up on the Lard Side as high as a large Creek, which falls in
 on the Lard. Side one mile above & opposit a large Sulpher Spring which
 falls over the rocks on the Std. Side the wind rored from the S. W.
 hard & Some rain, at about 2 oClock Capt Lewis joined me from the falls
 5 miles distant, & infd. that the Lard Side was the best portage I
 despatched 2 men this morning on the Lard. Side to examine the
 portage.--the Indian woman verry bad, & will take no medisin what ever,
 untill her husband finding her out of her Senses, easyly provailed on
 her to take medison, if She dies it will be the fault of her husband as
 I am now convinced-. we crossed the river after part of the day and
 formed a Camp from which we intended to make the first portage, Capt.
 Lewis stayed on the Std Side to direct the Canoes over the first riffle
 4 of them passed this evening the others unloaded & part of the Perogue
 Loading taken out--I deturmined to examine & Survey the Portage find a
 leavel rout if possible--The 2 men despatched to examine the Portage
 gave an unfavourable account of the Countrey, reporting that the Creek
 & 2 deep reveens cut the Prarie in such a manner between the river and
 mountain as to render a portage in their oppinion for the Canoes
 impossible--we Selected 6 men to make wheels & to draw the Canoes on as
 the distance was probably too far for to be caried on the mens Sholders
 [Lewis, June 17, 1805]
 Monday June 17th 1805.
 Capt. Clark set out early this morning with five men to examine the
 country and survey the river and portage as had been concerted last
 evening. I set six men at work to pepare four sets of truck wheels with
 couplings, toungs and bodies, that they might either be used without
 the bodies for transporting our canoes, or with them in transporting
 our baggage I found that the Elk skins I had prepared for my boat were
 insufficient to compleat her, some of them having become dammaged by
 the weather and being frequently wet; to make up this deficiency I sent
 out two hunters this morning to hunt Elk; the ballance of the party I
 employed first in unloading the white perogue, which we intend leaving
 at this place, and bring the whole of our baggage together and
 arranging it in proper order near our camp. this duty being compleated
 I employed them in taking five of the small canoes up the creek which
 we now call portage creek about 13/4 miles; here I had them taken out
 and lyed in the sun to dry. from this place ther is a gradual ascent to
 the top of the high plain to which we can now take them with ease; the
 bluffs of this creek below and those of the river above it's entrance
 are so steep that it would be almost impracticable to have gotten them
 on the plain. we found much difficulty in geting the canoes up this
 creek to the distance we were compelled to take them, in consequence of
 the rappids and rocks which obstruct the channel of the creek. one of
 the canoes overset and was very near injuring 2 men essencially. just
 above the canoes the creek has a perpendicular fall of 5 feet and the
 cliffts again become very steep and high. we were fortunate enough to
 find one cottonwood tree just below the entrance of portage creek that
 was large enough to make our carrage wheels about 22 Inches in
 diameter; fortunate I say because I do not beleive that we could find
 another of the same size perfectly sound within 20 miles of us. the
 cottonwood which we are obliged to employ in the other parts of the
 work is extreemly illy calculated for it being soft and brittle. we
 have made two axeltrees of the mast of the white peroge, which I hope
 will answer tolerably well tho it is reather small. The Indian woman
 much better today, I have still continued the same course of medecine;
 she is free from pain clear of fever, her pulse regular, and eats as
 heartily as I am willing to permit her of broiled buffaloe well
 seasoned with pepper and salt and rich soope of the same meat; I think
 therefore that there is every rational hope of her recovery. saw a vast
 number of buffaloe feeding in every direction arround us in the plains,
 others coming down in large herds to water at the river; the fragments
 of many carcases of these poor anamals daily pass down the river, thus
 mangled I pesume in decending those immence cataracts above us. as the
 buffaloe generally go in large herds to water and the passages to the
 river about the falls are narrow and steep the hinder part of the herd
 press those in front out of their debth and the water instatly takes
 them over the cataracts where they are instantly crushed to death
 without the possibility of escaping. in this manner I have seen ten or
 a douzen disappear in a few minutes. their mangled carcases ly along
 the shores below the falls in considerable quantities and afford fine
 amusement for the bear wolves and birds of prey; this may be one reason
 and I think not a bad one either that the bear are so tenatious of
 their right of soil in this neighbourhood.
 [Clark, June 17, 1805]
 June 17th Monday 1805
 a fine morning wind as usial Capt. Lewis with the party unloaded the
 Perogue & he determined to keep the party employed in getting the
 loading to the Creek about 1 mile over a low hill in my absence on the
 I Set out with 5 men at 8 oClock, and proceeded on up the Creek Some
 distance to examine that & if possable assend that Suffcently high,
 that a Streight Cours to the mouth of Medison river would head the 2
 reveins, the Creek I found Confined rapid and Shallow generalley
 Monday 17th of June passed through an open roleing Prarie, So as to
 head the two reveins after heading two we Stand our Course So as to
 Strike the river below the great pitch on our Course to the river
 Crossed a Deep rivein near its mouth with Steep Clifts this rivein had
 running water which was very fine, the river at this place is narrow &
 Confined in perpindicular clifts of 170 feet from the tops of those
 Clifts the Countrey rises with a Steep assent for about 250 feet more
 we proceeded up the river passing a Sucession of rapids & Cascades to
 the Falls, which we had herd for Several miles makeing a dedly Sound, I
 beheld those Cateracts with astonishment the whole of the water of this
 great river Confined in a Channel of 280 yards and pitching over a rock
 of 97 feet 3/4 of an, from the foot of the falls arrises a Continued
 mist which is extended for 150 yds. down & to near the top of the
 Clifts on L Sd. the river below is Confined a narrow Chanl. Of 93 yards
 haveing a Small bottom of timber on the Stard Side which is definded by
 a rock, rangeing Cross wise the river a little below the Shoot, a Short
 distance below this Cataract a large rock divides the Stream, I in
 assendending the Clifts to take the hith of the fall was near Slipping
 into the water, at which place I must have been Sucked under in an
 instant, and with deficuelty and great risque I assended again, and
 decended the Clift lower down (but few places Can be descended to the
 river) and took the hight with as much accuricy as possible with a
 Spirit Leavels &c. dined at a fine Spring 200 yards below the pitch
 near which place 4 Cotton willow trees grew. on one of them I marked my
 name the date, and hight of the falls,--we then proceeded up on the
 river passing a Continued Cascade & rapid to a fall of 19 feet at 4
 Small Islands, this fall is diaguanally across the river from the Lard
 Side, forming an angle of 3/4 of the width from the Lard. from which
 Side it pitches for 2/3 of that distance. on the Stard Side is a rapid
 decline--below this Shoot a Deep revein falls in which we Camped for
 the night which was Cold (The mountains in every derection has Snow on
 Them) The plain to our left is leavel we Saw one Bear & inumerable
 numbers of Buffalow, I Saw 2 herds of those animals watering
 immediately above a considerable rapid, they decended by a narrow pass
 to the bottom Small, the rier forced those forwd into the water Some of
 which was taken down in an instant, and Seen no more others made Shore
 with difficuelty, I beheld 40 or 50 of those Swimming at the Same time
 those animals in this way are lost and accounts for the number of
 buffalow carcases below the rapids
 [Lewis, June 18, 1805]
 Tuesday June 18th 1805.
 This morning I employed all hands in drawing the perogue on shore in a
 thick bunch of willow bushes some little distance below our camp;
 fastened her securely, drove out the plugs of the gage holes of her
 bottom and covered her with bushes and driftwood to shelter her from
 the sun. I now scelected a place for a cash and set tree men at work to
 complete it, and employed all others except those about the waggons, in
 overhawling airing and repacking our indian goods ammunition, provision
 and stores of every discription which required inspection. examined the
 frame of my Iron boat and found all the parts complete except one
 screw, which the ingenuity of Sheilds can readily replace, a resource
 which we have very frequent occasion for. about 12 O'Clk. the hunters
 returned; they had killed 10 deer but no Elk. I begin to fear that we
 shall have some difficulty in procuring skins for the boat. I wold
 prefer those of the Elk because I beleive them more durable and strong
 than those of the Buffaloe, and that they will not shrink so much in
 drying. we saw a herd of buffaloe come down to water at the sulpher
 spring this evening, I dispatched some hunters to kill some of them,
 and a man also for a cask of mineral water. the hunters soon killed two
 of them in fine order and returned with a good quantity of the flesh,
 having left the remainder in a situation that it will not spoil
 provided the wolves do not visit it. The waggons are completed this
 evening, and appear as if they would answer the purpose very well if
 the axetrees prove sufficiently strong. the wind blew violently this
 evening, as they frequently do in this open country where there is not
 a tree to brake or oppose their force. The Indian woman is recovering
 fast she set up the greater part of the day and walked out for the fist
 time since she arrived here; she eats hartily and is free from fever or
 pain. I continue same course of medecine and regimen except that I
 added one doze of 15 drops of the oil of vitriol today about noon.
 There is a species of goosberry which grows very common about here in
 open situations among the rocks on the sides of the clifts. they are
 now ripe of a pale red colour, about the size of a common goosberry.
 and like it is an ovate pericarp of soft pulp invelloping a number of
 smal whitish coloured seeds; the pulp is a yelloish slimy muselaginous
 substance of a sweetish and pinelike tast, not agreeable to me. the
 surface of the berry is covered with a glutinous adhesive matter, and
 the frut altho ripe retains it's withered corollar. this shrub seldom
 rises more than two feet high and is much branched, the leaves resemble
 those of the common goosberry only not so large; it has no thorns. the
 berry is supported by seperate peduncles or footstalks of half an inch
 in length. immence quantities of small grasshoppers of a brown colour
 in the plains, they no doubt contribute much to keep the grass as low
 as we find it which is not generally more than three inches, the grass
 is a narrow leaf, soft, and affords a fine pasture for the Buffaloe.-
 [Clark, June 18, 1805]
 June 18th Tuesday 1805
 we Set out early and arrived at the second great Cataract at about 200
 yds above the last of 19 feet pitch--this is one of the grandest views
 in nature and by far exceeds any thing I ever Saw, the Missouri falling
 over a Shelveing rock for 47 feet 8 Inches with a Cascade &c of 14 feet
 7 Inches above the Shoot for a 1/4 mile I decended the Clift below this
 Cateract with ease measured the hight of the purpendicular fall of 47
 feet 8 Inches at which place the river is 473 yards wide as also the
 hight of the Cascade &c. a continuel mist quite across this fall* after
 which we proceeded on up the river a little more than a mile to the
 largest fountain or Spring I ever Saw, and doubt if it is not the
 largest in America Known, this water boils up from under th rocks near
 the edge of the river and falls imediately into the river 8 feet and
 keeps its Colour for 1/2 a mile which is emencely Clear and of a bluish
 Cast, proceeded on up the river passed a Succession of rapids to the
 next great fall of 26 Ft. 5 I. river 580 yards wide this fall is not
 intirely perpdincular a Short bench gives a Curve to the water as it
 falls a butifull Small Island at the foot of this fall near the Center
 of the Channel Covered with trees, the Missouri at this fall is 36
 yards wide, a Considerable mist rises at this fall ocasionally, from
 this pitch to the head of the rapids is one mile & has a fall of 20
 feet, this is also a handsome Scenery a fall in an open leavel plain,
 after takeing the hight & measureing the river proceeded on, Saw a
 gange of Buffalow Swiming the river above the falls, Several of which
 was drawn in to the rapids and with dificuelty mad Shore half drowned,
 we killed one of those Cows & took as much meat as we wished. emence
 herds of those animals in every direction, passed 2 groves in the Point
 just above the rapids & dined in one opposit the mouth of Medison
 River, which fails in on the Stard. Side and is 137 yards wide at its
 mouth the Missouri above is 800 yards wide, as the river Missouri
 appears to bear S Easterley I assended about 4 miles high to a Creek
 which appeared to head in South mountains passed a Island of ____ and a
 little timber in an Easterly bend at 1 mile, passed Some timber in a
 point at 2 mile at or near the lower point of a large Island on which
 we Shot at a large white bear. passed a Small Island in the middle and
 one close on the Lard Shore at 3 miles behind the head of which we
 Camped. those 3 Islands are all opposit, Soon after we Camped two
 ganges of Buffalow crossed one above & the other below we killed 7 of
 them & a calf and Saved as much of the best of the meat as we could
 this evening, one man A Willard going for a load of meat at 170 yards
 distance on an Island was attact by a white bear and verry near being
 Caught, prosued within 40 yards of Camp where I was with one man I
 collected 3 others of the party and prosued the bear (who had prosued
 my track from a buffalow I had killed on the Island at about 300 yards
 distance and chance to meet Willard) for fear of his attacking one man
 Colter at the lower point of the Island, before we had got down the
 bear had allarmed the man and prosued him into the water, at our
 approach he retreated, and we relieved the man in the water, I Saw the
 bear but the bushes was So thick that I could not Shoot him and it was
 nearly dark, the wind from the S W & Cool killed a beaver & an elk for
 their Skins this evening
 [Lewis, June 19, 1805]
 Wednesday June 19th 1805.
 This morning I sent over several men for the meat which was killed
 yesterday, a few hours after they returned with it, the wolves had not
 discovered it. I also dispatched George Drewyer Reubin Fields and
 George Shannon on the North side of the Missouri with orders to proceed
 to the entrance of Medecine river and indeavour to kill some Elk in
 that neigh-bourhood. as there is more timber on that river than the
 Missouri I expect that the Elk are more plenty. The cash completed
 today. The wind blew violently the greater part of the day. the Indian
 woman was much better this morning she walked out and gathered a
 considerable quantity of the white apples of which she eat so heartily
 in their raw state, together with a considerable quantity of dryed fish
 without my knowledge that she complained very much and her fever again
 returned. I rebuked Sharbono severely for suffering her to indulge
 herself with such food he being privy to it and having been previously
 told what she must only eat. I now gave her broken dozes of diluted
 nitre untill it produced perspiration and at 10 P.M. 30 drops of
 laudnum which gave her a tolerable nights rest. I amused myself in
 fishing several hours today and caught a number of both species of the
 white fish, but no trout nor Cat. I employed the men in making up our
 baggage in proper packages for transportation; and waxed the stoppers
 of my powder canesters anew. had the frame of my Iron boat clensed of
 rust and well greased. in the evening the men mended their mockersons
 and preparedthemselves for the portage. After dark my dog barked very
 much and seemed extreemly uneasy which was unusual with him; I ordered
 the sergt. of the guard to reconniter with two men, thinking it
 possible that some Indians might be about to pay us a visit, or perhaps
 a white bear; he returned soon after & reported that he believed the
 dog had been baying a buffaloe bull which had attempted to swim the
 river just above our camp but had been beten down by the stream landed
 a little below our camp on the same side & run off.
 [Clark, June 19, 1805]
 June 19th Wednesday 1805
 We went on the Island to hunt the White bear this morning but Could not
 find him, after plotting my Courses &c. I deturmined to dry the meat we
 killed and leave here, and proceed up the river as far as it bent to
 the S. E. and examine a Small Creek above our Camp, I Set out and found
 the Creek only Contained back water for 1 mile up, ascend near the
 Missouri 3 miles to the bend, from which place it turnd. Westerly, from
 this bend I with 2 men went forward towards the Camp of the party to
 examine the best ground for the portage, the little Creek has verry
 extencive bottoms which Spread out into a varriety of leavl rich
 bottoms quite to the mountains to the East, between those bottoms is
 hills low and Stoney on this declivity where it is Steep. I returned to
 Camp late and deturmined that the best nearest and most eassy rout
 would be from the lower part of the 3rd or white bear Island, the wind
 all this day blew violently hard from the S W. off the Snowey
 mountains, Cool, in my last rout I lost a part of my notes which could
 not be found as the wind must have blown them to a great distance.
 Summer duck Setting great numbers of buffalow all about our Camp
 [Lewis, June 20, 1805]
 Thursday June 20th 1805.
 This morning we had but little to do; waiting the return of Capt.
 Clark; I am apprehensive from his stay that the portage is longer than
 we had calculated on. I sent out 4 hunters this morning on the opposite
 side of the river to kill buffaloe; the country being more broken on
 that side and cut with ravenes they can get within shoot of the
 buffaloe with more ease and certainty than on this side of the river.
 my object is if possible while we have now but little to do, to lay in
 a large stock of dryed meat at this end of the portage to subsist the
 party while engaged in the transportation of our baggage &c, to the
 end, that they may not be taken from this duty when once commenced in
 order to surch for the necessary subsistence. The Indian woman is qute
 free from pain and fever this morning and appears to be in a fair way
 for recovery, she has been walking about and fishing. In the evening 2
 of the hunters returned and informed me that they had killed eleven
 buffaloe eight of which were in very fine order, I sent off all hands
 immediately to bring in the meat they soon returned with about half of
 the best meat leaving three men to remain all night in order to secure
 the ballance. the bufhaloe are in inimence numbers, they have been
 constantly coming down in large herds to water opposite to us for some
 hours sometimes two or three herds wartering at the same instant and
 scarcely disappear before others supply their places. they appear to
 make great use of the mineral water, whether this be owing to it's
 being more convenient to them than the river or that they actually
 prefer it I am at a loss to determine for they do not use it
 invaryably, but sometimes pass at no great distance from it and water
 at the river. brackish water or that of a dark colour impregnated with
 mineral salts such as I have frequenly mentioned on the Missouri is
 found in small quantities in some of the steep ravenes on the N. side
 of the river opposite to us and the falls. Capt. Clark and party
 returned late this evening when he gave me the following relation of
 his rout and the occurrences which had taken place with them since
 their departure.
 Capt. Clark now furnished me with the field notes of the survey which
 he had made of the Missouri and it's Cataracts cascades &c. from the
 entrance of portage Creek to the South Eastwardly bend of the Missouri
 above the White bear Islands, which are as follow.
 [Clark, June 20, 1805]
 June 20th Thursday 1805
 a Cloudy morning, a hard wind all night and this morning, I direct
 Stakes to be Cut to Stick up in the prarie to Show the way for the
 party to transport the baggage &c. &c. we Set out early on the portage,
 Soon after we Set out it began to rain and continued a Short time we
 proceeded on thro a tolerable leavel plain, and found the hollow of a
 Deep rivein to obstruct our rout as it Could not be passed with Canos &
 baggage for Some distance above the place we Struck it I examined it
 for Some time and finding it late deturmined to Strike the river & take
 its Course & distance to Camp which I accordingly did the wind hard
 from the S. W. a fair after noon, the river on both Sides Cut with
 raveins Some of which is passes thro Steep Clifts into the river, the
 Countrey above the falls & up the Medison river is leavel, with low
 banks, a chain of mountains to the west Some part of which particuler
 those to the N W. & S W are Covered with Snow and appear verry high--I
 Saw a rattle Snake in an open plain 2 miles from any Creek or wood.
 When I arrived at Camp found all well with great quantites of meet, the
 Canoes Capt. Lewis had Carried up the Creek 1 mile to a good place to
 assend the band & taken up. Not haveing Seen the Snake Indians or
 knowing in fact whither to Calculate on their friendship or hostillity,
 we have Conceived our party Sufficiently Small, and therefore have
 Concluded not to dispatch a Canoe with a part of our men to St. Louis
 as we have intended early in the Spring. we fear also that Such a
 measure might also discourage those who would in Such Case remain, and
 migh possibly hazard the fate of the expedition. we have never hinted
 to any one of the party that we had Such a Scheem in contemplation, and
 all appear perfectly to have made up their minds, to Succeed in the
 expedition or perish in the attempt. we all believe that we are about
 to enter on the most perilous and dificuelt part of our Voyage, yet I
 See no one repineing; all appear ready to meet those dificuelties which
 await us with resolution and becomeing fortitude.
 We had a heavy dew this morning. the Clouds near those mountains rise
 Suddonly and discharge their Contents partially on the neighbouring
 Plains; the Same Cloud discharge hail alone in one part, hail and rain
 in another and rain only in a third all within the Space of a fiew
 Miles; and on the Mountains to the South & S. E. of us Sometimes Snow.
 at present there is no Snow on those mountains; that which covered them
 a fiew days ago has all disappeared. the Mountains to the N. W. and
 West of us are Still entirely Covered are white and glitter with the
 reflection of the Sun.
 I do not believe that the Clouds that pervale at this Season of the
 year reach the Summits of those lofty mountains; and if they do the
 probability is that they deposit Snow only for there has been no
 proceptable diminution of the Snow which they Contain Since we first
 Saw them. I have thought it probable that these mountains might have
 derived their appellation of Shineing Mountains, from their glittering
 appearance when the Sun Shines in certain directions on the Snow which
 Cover them.
 Dureing the time of my being on the Plains and above the falls I as
 also all my party repeatedly heard a nois which proceeded from a
 Direction a little to the N. of West, as loud and resembling precisely
 the discharge of a piece of ordinance of 6 pounds at the distance of 5
 or six miles. I was informed of it Several times by the men J. Fields
 particularly before I paid any attention to it, thinking it was thunder
 most probably which they had mistaken. at length walking in the plains
 yesterday near the most extreem S. E. bend of the River above the falls
 I heard this nois very distinctly, it was perfectly calm clear and not
 a Cloud to be Seen, I halted and listened attentively about two hour
 dureing which time I heard two other discharges, and took the direction
 of the Sound with my pocket Compass which was as nearly West from me as
 I could estimate from the Sound. I have no doubt but if I had leasure I
 could find from whence it issued. I have thought it probable that it
 might be caused by running water in Some of the caverns of those emence
 mountains, on the principal of the blowing caverns; but in Such case
 the Sounds would be periodical and regular, which is not the Case with
 this, being Sometimes heard once only and at other times Several
 discharges in quick Succession. it is heard also at different times of
 the day and night. I am at a great loss to account for this Phenomenon.
 I well recollect hereing the Minitarees Say that those Rocky Mountains
 make a great noise, but they could not tell me the Cause, neither Could
 they inform me of any remarkable substance or situation in these
 mountains which would autherise a conjecture of a probable cause of
 this noise-. it is probable that the large river just above those Great
 falls which heads in the detection of the noise has taken it's name
 Medicine River from this unaccountable rumbling Sound, which like all
 unacountable thing with the Indians of the Missouri is Called Medicine.
 The Ricaras inform us of the black mountains making a Simalar noise &c.
 &c. and maney other wonderfull tales of those Rocky mountains and those
 great falls.
 [Lewis, June 21, 1805]
 Friday June 21st 1805.
 This morning I employed the greater part of the men in transporting a
 part of the bagage over portage creek to the top of the high plain
 about three miles in advance on the portage. I also had one canoe
 carryed on truck wheles to the same place and put the baggage in it, in
 order to make an early start in the morning, as the rout of our portage
 is not yet entirely settled, and it would be inconvenient to remain in
 the open plain all night at a distance from water, which would probably
 be the case if we did not set out early as the latter part of the rout
 is destitute of water for about 8 miles--having determined to go to the
 upper part of the portage tomorrow; in order to prepare my boat and
 receive and take care of the stores as they were transported, I caused
 the Iron frame of the boat and the necessary tools my private baggage
 and Instruments to be taken as a part of this load, also the baggage of
 Joseph Fields, Sergt. Gass and John sheilds, whom I had scelected to
 assist me in constructing the leather boat. Three men were employed
 today in shaving the Elk skins which had ben collected for the boat.
 the ballance of the party were employed in cuting the meat we had
 killed yesterday into thin Retches and drying it, and in bring in the
 ballance of what had been left over the river with three men last
 evening. I readily preceive several difficulties in preparing the
 leather boat which are the want of convenient and proper timber; bark,
 skins, and above all that of pitch to pay her seams, a deficiency that
 I really know not how to surmount unless it be by means of tallow and
 pounded charcoal which mixture has answered a very good purpose on our
 wooden canoes heretofore. I have seen for the first time on the
 Missouri at these falls, a species of fishing ducks with white wings,
 brown and white body and the head and part of the neck adjoining of a
 brick red, and the beak narrow; which I take to be the same common to
 James river, the Potomac and Susquehanna. immence numbers of buffaloe
 comeing to water at the river as usual. the men who remained over the
 river last night killed several mule deer, and Willard who was with me
 killed a young Elk. The wind blew violently all day. The growth of the
 neighbourhood what little there is consists of the broad and narrow
 leafed cottonwood, box alder, the large or sweet willow, the narrow and
 broad leafed willow. the sweet willow has not been common to the
 Missouri below this or the entrance of Maria's river; here attains to
 the same size and in appearance much the same as in the Atlantic
 States. the undergrowth consists of rosebushes, goosberry and current
 bushes, honeysuckle small, and the red wood, the inner bark of which
 the engages are fond of smoking mixed with tobacco.
 [Clark, June 21, 1805]
 June 21st Friday 1805
 a fine morning wind from the S W. off the mountains and hard, Capt
 Lewis with the men except a few take a part of the baggage & a Canoe up
 the Hill 3 mile in advance, Several men employed in Shaveing & Graneing
 Elk hides for the Iron boat as it is called--3 men were Sent up the
 Medison river yesterday to kill Elk for the Skins for the boat, I fear
 that we Shall be put to Some dificuelty in precureing Elk Skins
 Sufficent-, Cloudy afternoon, we dry meat for the men to eat on their
 return from the upper part of the portage Capt Lewis determine to
 proceed to the upper part of the Portage tomorrow & with 3 men proced
 to fix the Iron boat with Skins &c. &c.
 [Lewis, June 22, 1805]
 Saturday June 22cd 1805.
 This morning early Capt Clark and myself with all the party except
 Sergt. Ordway Sharbono, Goodrich, york and the Indian woman, set out to
 pass the portage with the canoe and baggage to the Whitebear Islands,
 where we intend that this portage shall end. Capt. Clarke piloted us
 through the plains. about noon we reached a little stream about 8 miles
 on the portage where we halted and dined; we were obliged here to renew
 both axeltrees and the tongues and howns of one set of wheels which
 took us no more than 2 hours. these parts of our carriage had been made
 of cottonwood and one axetree of an old mast, all of which proved
 deficient and had broken down several times before we reached this
 place we have now renewed them with the sweet willow and hope that they
 will answer better. after dark we had reached within half a mile of our
 intended camp when the tongues gave way and we were obliged to leave
 the canoe, each man took as much of the baggage as he could carry on
 his back and proceeded to the river where we formed our encampment much
 fortiegued. the prickly pears were extreemly troublesome to us sticking
 our feet through our mockersons. Saw a great number of buffaloe in the
 plains, also immence quantities of little birds and the large brown
 curloo; the latter is now seting; it lays it's eggs, which are of a
 pale blue with black specks, on the ground without any preperation of a
 nest. there is a kind of larke here that much resembles the bird called
 the oldfield lark with a yellow brest and a black spot on the croop;
 tho this differs from ours in the form of the tail which is pointed
 being formed of feathers of unequal length; the beak is somewhat longer
 and more curved and the note differs considerably; however in size,
 action, and colours there is no perceptable difference; or at least
 none that strikes my eye. after reaching our camp we kindled our fires
 and examined the meat which Capt. Clark had left, but found only a
 small proportion of it, the wolves had taken the greater part. we eat
 our suppers and soon retired to rest.
 [Clark, June 22, 1805]
 June 22nd Satturday 1805
 a fine morning, Capt Lewis my Self and all the party except a Sergeant
 Ordway Guterich and the Interpreter and his wife Sar car gah we a (who
 are left at Camp to take Care of the baggage left) across the portage
 with one Canoe on truck wheels and loaded with a part of our Baggage I
 piloted thro the plains to the Camp I made at which place I intended
 the portage to end which is 3 miles above the Medesin River we had
 great dificuelty in getting on as the axeltree broke Several times, and
 the Cuppling tongus of the wheels which was of Cotton & willow, the
 only wood except Boxelder & ____ that grow in this quarter, we got
 within half a mile of our intended Camp much fatigued at dark, our
 tongus broke & we took a load to the river on the mens back, where we
 found a number of wolves which had distroyed a great part of our meat
 which I had left at that place when I was up day before yesterday we
 Soon went to Sleep & Slept Sound wind from the ____ we deturmine to
 employ every man Cooks & all on the portage after to day
 Canoe and baggage brought up, after which we breakfasted and nearly
 consumed the meat which he had left here. he now set out on his return
 with the party. I employed the three men with me in the forenoon
 clearing away the brush and forming our camp, and puting the frame of
 the boat together. this being done I sent Shields and Gass to look out
 for the necessary timber, and with J. Fields decended the river in the
 canoe to the mouth of Medicine river in surch of the hunters whom I had
 dispatched thither on the 19th inst. and from whom we had not heard a
 sentence. I entered the mouth of medicine river and ascended it about
 half a mile when we landed and walked up the Stard. side. frequently
 hooping as we went on in order to find the hunters; at length after
 ascending the river about five miles we found Shannon who had passed
 the Medecine river & fixed his camp on the Lard. side, where he had
 killed seven deer and several buffaloe and dryed about 600 lbs. of
 buffaloe meat; but had killed no Elk. Shannon could give me no further
 account of R. Fields and Drewyer than that he had left them about noon
 on the 19th at the great falls and had come on the mouth of Medicine
 river to hunt Elk as he had been directed, and never had seen them
 since. the evening being now far spent I thought it better to pass the
 Medicine river and remain all night at Shannon's camp; I passed the
 river on a raft which we soon constructed for the purpose. the river is
 here about 80 yds. wide, is deep and but a moderate current. the banks
 low as those of the Missouri above the falls yet never appear to
 overflow. as it will give a better view of the transactions of the
 party, I shall on each day give the occurrences of both camps during
 our seperation as I afterwards learnt those of the lower camp from
 Capt. Clark. on his return today he cut of several angles of the rout
 by which we came yesterday, shortened the portage considerably,
 measured it and set up stakes throughout as guides to marke the rout.
 he returned this evening to the lower camp in sufficient time to take
 up two of the canoes from portage creek to the top of the plain about a
 mile in advance. this evening the men repaired their mockersons, and
 put on double souls to protect their feet from the prickley pears.
 during the late rains the buffaloe have troden up the praire very much,
 which having now become dry the sharp points of earth as hard as frozen
 ground stand up in such abundance that there is no avoiding them. this
 is particulary severe on the feet of the men who have not only their
 own wight to bear in treading on those hacklelike points but have also
 the addition of the burthen which they draw and which in fact is as
 much as they can possibly move with. they are obliged to halt and rest
 frequently for a few minutes, at every halt these poor fellows tumble
 down and are so much fortiegued that many of them are asleep in an
 instant; in short their fatiegues are incredible; some are limping from
 the soreness of their feet, others faint and unable to stand for a few
 minutes, with heat and fatiegue, yet no one complains, all go with
 cheerfullness. in evening Reubin Fields returned to the lower camp and
 informed Capt. Clark of the absence of Shannon, with rispect to whome
 they were extreemly uneasy. Fields and Drewyer had killed several
 buffaloe at the bend of the missouri above the falls and had dryed a
 considerable quantity of meat; they had also killed several deer but no
 [Clark, June 23, 1805]
 June 23rd Sunday 1805
 a Cloudy morning wind from the S. E, after getting the Canoe to Camp &
 the articles left in the plains we eate brackfast of the remaining meat
 found in Camp & I with the party the truck wheels & poles to Stick up
 in the prarie as a guide, Set out on our return, we proceeded on, &
 measured the Way which I Streightened considerably from that I went on
 yesterday, and arrived at our lower camp in Suffcent time to take up 2
 Canoes on the top of the hill from the Creek, found all Safe at Camp
 the men mended their mockersons with double Soles to Save their feet
 from the prickley pear, (which abounds in the Praries,) and the hard
 ground which in Some & maney places So hard as to hurt the feet verry
 much, the emence number of Buffalow after the last rain has trod the
 flat places in Such a manner as to leave it uneaven, and that has tried
 and is wors than frozen ground, added to those obstructions, the men
 has to haul with all their Strength wate & art, maney times every man
 all catching the grass & knobes & Stones with their hands to give them
 more force in drawing on the Canoes & Loads, and notwithstanding the
 Coolness of the air in high presperation and every halt, those not
 employed in reparing the Couse; are asleep in a moment, maney limping
 from the Soreness of their feet Some become fant for a fiew moments,
 but no man Complains all go Chearfully on--to State the fatigues of
 this party would take up more of the journal than other notes which I
 find Scercely time to Set down. I had the best rout Staked out and
 measured which is 17 miles 3/4 to the river & 1/2 a mile up i.e 181/4
 miles portage--from the lower rapid to the 1st Creek is 286 poles, to a
 Deep run of water, Called Willow Run is 6 miles thence to the river 3
 miles above Medison Riv at 3 Island Called White Bear Islands is 11
 miles all prarie without wood or water except at the Creek & run which
 afford a plenty of fine water and a little wood the plain is tolerably
 leavel except at the river a Small assent & passing a low hill from the
 Creek a rough & Steep assent for about 1/4 of a mile and Several
 Gullies & a gradual hill for 11/2 miles the heads of Several gullies
 which have Short assents & the willow run of a Steep hill on this run
 grows Purple & red Currents. the red is now ripe the Purple full grown,
 an emence number of Prarie birds now Setting of two kinds one larger
 than a Sparrow dark yellow the Center feathers of its tail yellow & the
 out Sides black Some Streeks about its neck, the other about the Same
 Size White tail
 [Lewis, June 24, 1805]
 Monday June 24th 1805.
 Supposing that Drewyer and R. Fields might possibly be still higher up
 medicine river, I dispatched J. Fields up the river with orders to
 proceede about four miles and then return whether he found them or not
 and join Shannon at this camp. I set out early and walked down the
 South West side of the river and sent Shannon down the opposite side to
 bring the canoe over to me and put me across the Missouri; having
 landed on the Lard. side of the Missouri I sent Shannon back with the
 canoe to ascend the Medicine river as far as his camp to meet J. Fields
 and bring the dryed meat at that place to the camp at the white bear
 Islands which accomplished and arrived with Fields this evening. the
 party also arrived this evening with two canoes from the lower camp.
 they were wet and fatiegued, gave them a dram. R. Fields came with them
 and gave me an account of his & Drewyer's hunt, and informed me that
 Drewyer was still at their camp with the meat they had dryed. the iron
 frame of my boat is 36 feet long 41/2 F. in the beam and 26 Inches in
 the hole.
 This morning early Capt. Clark had the remaining canoe drawn out of the
 water; and divided the remainder of our baggage into three parcels, one
 of which he sent today by the party with two canoes. The Indian woman
 is now perfectly recovered. Capt. C. came a few miles this morning to
 see the party under way and returned. on my arrival at the upper camp
 this morning, I found that Sergt. Gass and Shields had made but slow
 progress in collecting timber for the boat; they complained of great
 difficulty in geting streight or even tolerably streight sticks of 4/2
 feet long. we were obliged to make use of the willow and box alder, the
 cottonwood being too soft and brittle. I kept one of them collecting
 timber while the other shaved and fitted them. I have found some pine
 logs among the drift wood near this place, from which, I hope to obtain
 as much pitch as will answer to pay the seams of the boat. I directed
 Fraizer to remain in order to sew the hides together, and form the
 covering for the boat.
 [Clark, June 24, 1805]
 June 24th Monday 1805
 a Cloudy morning I rose early had, the remaining Canoe hauled out of
 the water to dry and divided the baggage into 3 parcels, one of which
 the party took on their backs & one waggon with truk wheels to the
 Canoes 3 miles in advance (Those Canoes or 5 of our Canoes were Carried
 up the Creek 13/4 of a mile taken out on the bank and left to dry from
 which place they are taken up a point and intersects this rout from the
 mouth of the Creek at 3 miles from the foot of the rapids) after
 getting up their loads they divided men & load & proceeded on with 2
 canoes on truck wheels as before, I accompaned them 4 miles and
 returned, my feet being verry Sore from the walk over ruts Stones &
 hills & thro the leavel plain for 6 days proceeding Carrying my pack
 and gun. Some few drops of rain in the fore part of the day, at 6
 oClock a black Cloud arose to the N West, the wind shifted from the S
 to that point and in a short time the earth was entirely Covered with
 hail, Some rain Succeeded, which Continud for about an hour very
 moderately on this Side of the river, without the earths being wet 1/2
 an inch, the riveins on the opposit or N W Side discharged emence
 torrents of water into the river, & Showed evidently that the rain was
 much heavyer on that Side, Some rain at different times in the night
 which was worm--Thunder without lightning accompanied the hail Cloud
 [Lewis, June 25, 1805]
 Tuesday June 25th 1805.
 This morning early I sent the party back to the lower camp; dispatched
 Frazier down with the canoe for Drewyer and the meat he had collected,
 and Joseph Fields up the Missouri to hunt Elk. at eight OCIk. sent Gass
 and Sheilds over to the large Island for bark and timber. about noon
 Fields returned and informed me that he had seen two white bear near
 the river a few miles above and in attempting to get a shoot them had
 stumbled uppon a third which immediately made at him being only a few
 steps distant; that in runing in order to escape from the bear he had
 leaped down a steep bank of the river on a stony bar where he fell cut
 his hand bruised his knees and bent his gun. that fortunately for him
 the bank hid him from the bear when he fell and that by that means he
 had escaped. this man has been truly unfortunate with these bear, this
 is the second time that he has narrowly escaped from them. about 2 P. M
 Shields and Gass returned with but a small quantity of both bark and
 timber and informed me that it was all they could find on the Island;
 they had killed two Elk the skins of which and a part of the flesh they
 brought with them. in the evening Drewyer and Frazier arrivd with about
 800 lbs. of excellent dryed meat and about 100 lbs of tallow. The river
 is about 800 yds. wide opposite to us above these islands, and has a
 very gentle current the bottoms are hadsome level and extensive on both
 sides; the bank on this side is not more than 2 feet above the level of
 the water; it is a pretty little grove in which our camp is situated.
 there is a species of wild rye which is now heading it rises to the
 hight of 18 or 20 inches, the beard is remarkably fine and soft it is a
 very handsome grass the culm is jointed and is in every rispect the
 wild rye in minuture. great quantities of mint also are here it
 resemble the pepper mint very much in taste and appearance. the young
 blackbirds which are almost innumerable in these islands just begin to
 fly. see a number of water tarripens. I have made an unsuccessfull
 attempt to catch fish, and do not think there are any in this part of
 the river. The party that returned this evening to the lower camp
 reached it in time to take one canoe on the plain and prepare their
 baggage for an early start in the morning after which such as were able
 to shake a foot amused themselves in dancing on the green to the music
 of the violin which Cruzatte plays extreemly well.
 Capt. C. somewhat unwell today. he made Charbono kook for the party
 against their return. it is worthy of remark that the winds are
 sometimes so strong in these plains that the men informed me that they
 hoisted a sail in the canoe and it had driven her along on the truck
 wheels. this is really sailing on dry land.
 [Clark, June 25, 1805]
 June 25th Tuesday 1805
 a fair worm morning, Clouded & a few drops of rain at 5 oClock A.M.
 fair I feel my Self a little unwell with a looseness &c. &c. put out
 the Stores to dry & Set Chabonah &c to Cook for the party against their
 return-he being the only man left on this Side with me I had a little
 Coffee for brackfast which was to me a riarity as I had not tasted any
 Since last winter. The wind from the N. W. & worm. This Countrey has a
 romantick appearance river inclosed between high and Steep hills Cut to
 pieces by revines but little timber and that Confined to the Rivers &
 Creek, the Missourie has but a fiew Scattering trees on its borders,
 and only one Solitary Cotton tree in sight of my Camp the wood which we
 burn is drift wood which is broken to pieces in passing the falls, not
 one large tree longer than about 8 or 10 feet to be found drifted below
 the falls the plains are inferior in point of Soil to those below, more
 Stone on the sides of the hill, grass but a few inches high and but few
 flowers in the Plains, great quantites of Choke Cheries, Goose burres,
 red & yellow berries, & red & Purple Currents on the edges of water
 Courses in bottoms & damp places, about my Camp the Cliffs or bluffs
 are a hard red or redish brown earth Containing Iron. we Catch great
 quantities of Trout, and a kind of mustel, flat backs & a Soft fish
 resembling a Shad and a few Cat. at 5 oClock the party returned,
 fatigued as usial, and proceeded to mend their mockersons &c. and G
 Shannon & R, Fds. to of the men who ware Sent up the medison river to
 hunt Elk, they killed no Elk, Several Buffalow & Deer, and reports that
 the river is 120 yds wide and about 8 feet deep Some timber on its
 borders--a powerfull rain fell on the party on their rout yesterday Wet
 Some fiew articles, and Caused the rout to be So bad wet & Deep thay
 Could with dificuelty proceed, Capt. Lewis & the men with him much
 employd with the Iron Boat in fitting it for the water, dispatched one
 man to George Drewyers Camp below medison river for meat &c. a fair
 after noon--great numbers of buffalow water opposit to my Camp everry
 day--it may be here worthy of remark that the Sales were hoised in the
 Canoes as the men were drawing them and the wind was great relief to
 them being Sufficeritly Strong to move the Canoes on the Trucks, this
 is Saleing on Dry land in every Sence of the word, Serjeant N Pryor
 Sick, the party amused themselves with danceing untill 10 oClock all
 Chearfullness and good humer, they all tied up their loads to make an
 early Start in the morning.
 [Lewis, June 26, 1805]
 Wednesday June 26th 1805.
 The Musquetoes are extreemly troublesome to us. This morning early I
 dispatched J. Fields and Drewyer in one of the canoes up the river to
 hunt Elk. set Frazier at work to sew the skins together for the
 covering of the boat. Sheilds and Gas I sent over the river to lurch a
 small timbered bottom on that side opposite to the Islands for timber
 and bark; and to myself I assign the duty of cook as well for those
 present as for the party which I expect again to arrive this evening
 from the lower camp. I collected my wood and water, boiled a large
 quantity of excellent dryed buffaloe meat and made each man a large
 suet dumpling by way of a treat. about 4 P.M. Shields and Gass returned
 with a better supply of timber than they had yet collected tho not by
 any means enough. they brought some bark principally of the Cottonwood
 which I found was too brittle and soft for the purpose; for this
 article I find my only dependence is the sweet willow which has a tough
 & strong bark. Shields and Gass had killed seven buffaloe in their
 absence the skins of which and a part of the best of the meat they
 brought with them. if I cannot procure a sufficient quantity of Elk's
 skins I shall substitute those of the buffaloe. late in the evening the
 party arrived with two more canoes and another portion of the baggage.
 Whitehouse one of them much heated and fortiegued on his arrivall dank
 a very hearty draught of water and was taken almost instanly extreemly
 ill. his pulse were very full and I therefore bled him plentifully from
 which he felt great relief. I had no other instrument with which to
 perform this opperation but my pen knife, however it answered very
 well. the wind being from S. E today and favourable the men made
 considerable progress by means of their sails.
 At the lower Camp. The party set out very early from this place, and
 took with them two canoes and a second alotment of baggage consisting
 of Parched meal, Pork, powder lead axes, tools, bisquit, portable
 soupe, some merchandize and cloathing. Capt. C. gave Sergt. Pryor a
 doze of salts this morning and employed Sharbono in rendering the
 buffaloe tallow which had been collected there, he obtained a
 sufficient quantity to fill three empty kegs. Capt. C. also scelected
 the articles to be deposited in the cash consisting of my desk which I
 had left for that purpose and in which I had left some books, my
 specimens of plants minerals &c. collected from fort Mandan to that
 place. also 2 Kegs of Pork, 1/2 a Keg of flour 2 blunderbushes, 1/2 a
 keg of fixed ammunition and some other small articles belonging to the
 party which could be dispenced with. deposited the swivel and carriage
 under the rocks a little above the camp near the river. great numbers
 of buffaloe still continue to water daily opposite the camp. The
 antelopes still continue scattered and seperate in the plains. the
 females with their young only of which they generally have two, and the
 males alone. Capt. Clarke measured the rout from the Camp at the
 Whitebear Islands to the lower camp which is as follows.-
 [Clark, June 26, 1805]
 June 26th Wednesday 1805
 Some rain last night this morning verry Cloudy the party Set out this
 morning verry early with their loads to the Canoe Consisting of Parched
 meal Pork Powder Lead axes, Tools Bisquit, P. Soup & Some Merchendize &
 Clothes &c. &c. I gave Serjt. Pryor a dolt of Salts, & Set Chabonah to
 trying up the Buffalow tallow & put into the empty Kegs &c. I assort
 our articles for to be left at this place buried, ____ Kegs of Pork,
 1/2 a Keg of flour, 2 blunderbuts, ____ Caterrages a few Small
 lumbersom articles Capt Lewiss Desk and Some books & Small articles in
 The wind from the N. W. verry worm flying Clouds in the evening the
 wind Shifted round to the East & blew hard, which is a fair wind for
 the two Canoes to Sail on the Plains across the portage, I had three
 Kegs of Buffalow Grease tried up. Great numbers of Buffalow opposite to
 our Camp watering to day.
 [Lewis, June 27, 1805]
 Thursday June 27th 1805.
 The party returned early this morning for the remaining canoe and
 baggage; Whitehouse was not quite well this morning I therefore
 detained him and about 10 A.M. set him at work with Frazier sewing the
 skins together for the boat; Shields and Gass continued the operation
 of shaving and fiting the horizontall bars of wood in the sections of
 the boat; the timber is so crooked and indifferent that they make but
 little progress, for myself I continued to act the part of cook in
 order to keep all hands employed. some Elk came near our camp and we
 killed 2 of them at 1 P.M. a cloud arrose to the S. W. and shortly
 after came on attended with violent Thunder Lightning and hail &c. (see
 notes on diary of the weather for June). soon after this storm was over
 Drewyer and J. Fields returned. they were about 4 miles above us during
 the storm, the hail was of no uncommon size where they were. They had
 killed 9 Elk and three bear during their absence; one of the bear was
 the largest by far that we have yet seen; the skin appear to me to be
 as large as a common ox. while hunting they saw a thick brushey bottom
 on the bank of the river where from the tracks along shore they
 suspected that there were bare concealed; they therefore landed without
 making any nois and climbed a leaning tree and placed themselves on
 it's branches about 20 feet above the ground, when thus securely fixed
 they gave a hoop and this large bear instantly rushed forward to the
 place from whence he had heard the human voice issue, when he arrived
 at the tree he made a short paus and Drewyer shot him in the head. it
 is worthy of remark that these bear never climb. the fore feet of this
 bear measured nine inches across and the hind feet eleven and--3/4 in
 length & exclusive of the tallons and seven inches in width. a bear
 came within thirty yards of our camp last night and eat up about thirty
 weight of buffaloe suit which was hanging on a pole. my dog seems to be
 in a constant state of alarm with these bear and keeps barking all
 night. soon after the storm this evening the water on this side of the
 river became of a deep crimson colour which I pesume proceeded from
 some stream above and on this side. there is a kind of soft red stone
 in the bluffs and bottoms. of the gullies in this neighbourhood which
 forms this colouring matter.--At the lower camp. Capt. Clark completed
 a draught of the river with the couses and distances from the entrance
 of the Missouri to Ft. Mandan, which we intend depositing here in order
 to guard against accedents. Sergt. Pryor is somewhat better this
 morning. at 4 P.M. the party returned from the upper camp; Capt. C.
 gave them a drink of grog; they prepared for the labour of the next
 day. soon after the party returned it began to rain accompanyed by some
 hail and continued a short time; a second shower fell late in the
 evening accompanyed by a high wind from N. W.--the mangled carcases of
 several buffaloe pass down the river today which had no doubt perished
 in the falls.
 [Clark, June 27, 1805]
 June 27th Thursday 1805
 a fair warm morning wind from the S, E, and moderate. Serjt. Pryor
 Something better this morning, I proceed to finish a rough draugh of
 the river & Distances to leave at this place, the wormest day we have
 had this year, at 4 oClock the Party returned from the head of the
 portage Soon after it began to hail and rain hard and continued for a
 fiew minits & Ceased for an hour and began to rain again with a heavy
 wind from the N W. I refresh the men with a drink of grog The river
 beginning to rise a little the water is Coloured a redish brown, the
 Small Streams, discharges in great torrents, and partake of the Choler
 of the earth over which it passes-a great part of which is light & of a
 redish brown. Several Buffalow pass drowned & in passing over the falls
 Cloudy all night, Cold
 [Lewis, June 28, 1805]
 Friday June 28th 1805.
 Set Drewyer to shaving the Elk skins, Fields to make the cross stays
 for the boat, Frazier and Whitehouse continue their operation with the
 skins, Shields and Gass finish the horizontal bars of the sections;
 after which I sent them in surch of willow bark, a sufficient supply of
 which they now obtained to bind the boat. expecting the party this
 evening I prepared a supper for them but they did not arrive. not
 having quite Elk skins enough I employed three buffaloe hides to cover
 one section. not being able to shave these skins I had them singed
 pretty closely with a blazeing torch; I think they will answer
 tolerable well. The White bear have become so troublesome to us that I
 do not think it prudent to send one man alone on an errand of any kind,
 particularly where he has to pass through the brush. we have seen two
 of them on the large Island opposite to us today but are so much
 engaged that we could not spare the time to hunt them but will make a
 frolick of it when the party return and drive them from these islands.
 they come close arround our camp every night but have never yet
 ventured to attack us and our dog gives us timely notice of their
 visits, he keeps constantly padroling all night. I have made the men
 sleep with their arms by them as usual for fear of accedents. the river
 is now about nine inches higher than it was on my arrival. lower Camp.
 early this morning Capt. C. dispatched the remaining canoe with some
 baggage to the top of the plain above Portage creek three miles in
 advance; some others he employed in carrying the articles to the cash
 and depositing them and others to mend the carriages which wer somewhat
 out of repair. this being accomplished he loaded the two carriages with
 the remaining baggage and set out with all the party and proceeded on
 with much difficulty to the canoe in the plain. portage creek had
 arisen considerably and the water was of crimson colour and illy
 tasted. on his arrival at the canoe he found there was more baggage
 than he could possibly take at one load on the two sets of trucks and
 therefore left some barrels of pork & flour and a few heavy boxes of
 amunition which could not well be injured, and proceeded with the canoe
 & one set of trucks loaded with baggage to willow run where he encamped
 for the night, and killed two buffaloe to subsist the party. soon after
 his arrival at willow run he experienced a hard shower of rain which
 was succeeded by a violent wind from the S. W. off the snowy mountains,
 accompanyed with rain; the party being cold and wet, he administered
 the consolation of a dram to each.
 [Clark, June 28, 1805]
 June 28th Friday 1805
 a fair morning wind from the South I dispatch the remaining Canoe with
 baggage in her to the top of the Hill three miles, imploy Some hands in
 Carrying those things we intend to deposit to the Carsh or hole, Some
 to repareing one of the trucks &c. &c. the water is riseing and of a
 redish brown Cholour after Covering the Carshe & loading the two
 Carrges with the remaining part of our Baggage we all Set out passed
 the Creek which had rose a little and the water nearly red, and bad
 tasted, we assended the hill to the place the Canoe lay with great
 labour, at the Canoe at which place we left Some boxes & Kegs of Pork &
 flour for another Load, and proceeded on with the Canoe & what baggage
 we could draw on the wheels to willow run 6 miles where we Camped, this
 run mearly Some water remaining in holes &c. Soon after we halted we
 had a Shower, and at dark we expereinced a most dredfull wind from off
 the Snow Mountains to the S. W. accompd. with rain which continued at
 intervales all night men wet. I refreshed them with a dram. Killed 2
 Buffalow. Great nos. about
 [Lewis, June 29, 1805]
 Saturday June 29th 1805.
 This morning we experienced a heavy shower of rain for about an hour
 after which it became fair. not having seen the large fountain of which
 Capt. Clark spoke I determined to visit it today as I could better
 spare this day from my attention to the boat than probably any other
 when the work would be further advanced; accordingly after seting the
 hands at their several employments I took Drewyer and seet out for the
 fountain and passed through a level beautiful plain for about Six miles
 when I reached the brake of the river hills here we were overtaken by a
 violent gust of wind and rain from the S. W. attended with thunder and
 Litning. I expected a hail storm probably from this cloud and therefore
 took refuge in a little gully wher there were some broad stones with
 which I purposed protecting my head if we should have a repetition of
 the seene of the 27th but fortunately we had but little hail and that
 not large; I sat very composedly for about an hour without sheter and
 took a copious drenching of rain; after the shower was over I continued
 my rout to the fountain which I found much as Capt. C; had discribed &
 think it may well be retained on the list of prodegies of this
 neighbourhood towards which, nature seems to have dealt with a liberal
 hand, for I have scarcely experienced a day since my first arrival in
 this quarter without experiencing some novel occurrence among the party
 or witnessing the appearance of some uncommon object. I think this
 fountain the largest I ever beheld, and the hadsome cascade which it
 affords over some steep and irregular rocks in it's passage to the
 river adds not a little to it's beauty. it is about 25 yds. from the
 river, situated in a pretty little level plain, and has a suddon decent
 of about 6 feet in one part of it's course. the water of this fountain
 is extreemly tranparent and cold; nor is it impregnated with lime or
 any other extranious matter which I can discover, but is very pure and
 pleasent. it's waters marke their passage as Capt. Clark observes for a
 considerable distance down the Missouri notwithstanding it's rapidity
 and force. the water of the fountain boil up with such force near it's
 center that it's surface in that part seems even higher than the
 surrounding earth which is a firm handsom terf of fine green grass.
 after amusing myself about 20 minutes in examining the fountain I found
 myself so chilled with my wet cloaths that I determined to return and
 accordingly set out; on our way to camp we found a buffaloe dead which
 we had shot as we came out and took a parsel of the meat to camp it was
 in very good order; the hump and tongue of a fat buffaloe I esteem
 great delicasies. on my arrival at camp I was astonished not to find
 the party yet arrived, but then concluded that probably the state of
 the praries had detained them, as in the wet state in which they are at
 present the mud sticks to the wheels is such manner that they are
 obliged to halt frequently and clense them. Transaction and
 occurrencies which took place with Capt. Clark and party today.
 Shortly after the rain which fell early this morning he found it
 imposseble from the state of the plains for the party to reach the
 upper extremity of the portage with their present load, and therefore
 sent back almost all of the party to bring the baggage which had been
 left behind yesterday. he determined himself to pass by the way of the
 river to camp in order to supply the deficiency of some notes and
 remarks which he had made as he first ascended the river but which he
 had unfortunately lost. accordingly he left one man at Willow run to
 guard the baggage and took with him his black man York, Sharbono and
 his indian woman also accompanyed Capt. C. on his arrival at the falls
 he perceived a very black cloud rising in the West which threatened
 immediate rain; he looked about for a shelter but could find none
 without being in great danger of being blown into the river should the
 wind prove as violent as it sometimes is on those occasions in these
 plains; at length about a 1/4 of a mile above the falls he discovered a
 deep rivene where there were some shelving rocks under which he took
 shelter near the river with Sharbono and the Indian woman; laying their
 guns compass &c. under a shelving rock on the upper side of the rivene
 where they were perfectly secure from the rain. the first shower was
 moderate accompanyed by a violent rain the effects of which they did
 but little feel; soon after a most violent torrent of rain decended
 accompanyed with hail; the rain appeared to decend in a body and
 instantly collected in the rivene and came down in a roling torrent
 with irrisistable force driving rocks mud and everything before it
 which opposed it's passage, Capt. C. fortunately discovered it a moment
 before it reached them and seizing his gun and shot pouch with his left
 hand with the right he assisted himself up the steep bluff shoving
 occasionaly the Indian woman before him who had her child in her arms;
 Sharbono had the woman by the hand indeavouring to pull her up the hill
 but was so much frightened that he remained frequently motionless and
 but for Capt. C. both himself and his woman and child must have
 perished. so suddon was the rise of the water that before Capt C could
 reach his gun and begin to ascend the bank it was up to his waist and
 wet his watch; and he could scarcely ascend faster than it arrose till
 it had obtained the debth of 15 feet with a current tremendious to
 behold. one moment longer & it would have swept them into the river
 just above the great cataract of 87 feet where they must have
 inevitably perished. Sarbono lost his gun shot pouch, horn, tomahawk,
 and my wiping rod; Capt. Clark his Umbrella and compas or
 circumferenter. they fortunately arrived on the plain safe, where they
 found the black man, York, in surch of them; york had seperated from
 them a little while before the storm, in pursuit of some buffaloe and
 had not seen them enter the rivene; when this gust came on he returned
 in surch of them & not being able to find them for some time was much
 allarmed. the bier in which the woman carrys her child and all it's
 cloaths wer swept away as they lay at her feet she having time only to
 grasp her child; the infant was therefore very cold and the woman also
 who had just recovered from a severe indisposition was also wet and
 cold, Capt C. therefore relinquished his intended rout and returned to
 the camp at willow run in order also to obtain dry cloathes for himself
 and directed them to follow him. on Capt. Clark's arrival at camp he
 found that the party dispatched for the baggage had returned in great
 confusion and consternation leaving their loads in the plains; the men
 who were all nearly naked and no covering on the head were sorely
 mawled with the hail which was so large and driven with such force by
 the wind that it nocked many of them (town and one particulary as many
 as three times most of them were bleeding freely and complained of
 being much bruised. willow run raised about 6 feet with this rain and
 the plains were so wet they could do nothing more this evening. Capt.
 C. gave the party a dram to console them in some measure for their
 general defeat.
 [Clark, June 29, 1805]
 Junne 29th Saltarday 1805
 a little rain verry early this morning after Clear, finding that the
 Prarie was So wet as to render it impossible to pass on to the end of
 the portage, deturmined to Send hack to the top of the hill at the
 Creek for the remaining part of the baggage left at that place
 yesterday, leaveing one man to take care of the baggage at this place.
 I deturmined any Self to proceed on to the falls and take the river,
 according we all Set out., I took my Servent & one man Chabono our
 Interpreter & his Squar accompanied, Soon after I arrived at the falls,
 I perceived a Cloud which appeared black and threaten imediate rain, I
 looked out for a Shelter but Could See no place without being in great
 danger of being blown into the river if the wind Should prove as
 turbelant as it is at Some times about 1/4 of a mile above the falls I
 obsd a Deep rivein in which was Shelveing rocks under which we took
 Shelter near the river and placed our guns the Compass &c. &c. Under a
 Shelveing rock on the upper Side of the Creek, in a place which was
 verry Secure from rain, the first Shower was moderate accompanied with
 a violent wind, the effects of which we did not feel, Soon after a
 torrent of rain and hail fell more violent than ever I Saw before, the
 rain fell like one voley of water falling from the heavens and gave us
 time only to get out of the way of a torrent of water which was Poreing
 down the hill in the rivin with emence force tareing every thing before
 it takeing with it large rocks & mud, I took my gun & Shot pouch in my
 left hand, and with the right Scrambled up the hill pushing the
 Interpreters wife (who had her Child in her arms) before me, the
 Interpreter himself makeing attempts to pull up his wife by the hand
 much Scared and nearly without motion--we at length retched the top of
 the hill Safe where I found my Servent in Serch of us greatly agitated,
 for our wellfar-. before I got out of the bottom of the revein which
 was a flat dry rock when I entered it, the water was up to my waste &
 wet my watch, I Scrcely got out before it raised 10 feet deep with a
 torrent which turrouble to behold, and by the time I reached the top of
 the hill, at least 15 feet water, I directed the party to return to the
 Camp at the run as fast as possible to get to our lode where Clothes
 Could be got to Cover the Child whose Clothes were all lost, and the
 woman who was but just recovering from a Severe indispostion, and was
 wet and Cold, I was fearfull of a relaps I caused her as also the
 others of the party to take a little Spirits, which my Servent had in a
 Canteen, which revived verry much. on arrival at the Camp on the willow
 run-met the party who had returned in great Confusion to the run
 leaveing their loads in the Plain, the hail & wind being So large and
 violent in the plains, and them naked, they were much brused, and Some
 nearly killed one knocked down three times, and others without hats or
 any thing on their heads bloodey & Complained verry much; I refreshed
 them with a little grog--Soon after the run began to rise and rose 6
 feet in a few minits-. I lost at the river in the torrent the large
 Compas, an eligant fusee, Tomahawk Humbrallo, Shot pouh, & horn wih
 powder & Ball, mockersons, & the woman lost her Childs Bear & Clothes
 bedding &c.--The Compass is a Serious loss; as we have no other large
 one. The plains are So wet that we Can do nothing this evining
 particilarly as two deep reveins are between ourselves & Load
 [Lewis, June 30, 1805]
 Sunday June 30th 1805.
 We had a heavy dew this morning which is a remarkable event. Fraizer
 and Whitehouse still continue their opperation of sewing the skins
 together. I set Shields and gass to shaving bark and Fields continued
 to make the cross brases. Drewyer and myself rendered a considerable
 quantity of tallow and cooked. I begin to be extremely impatient to be
 off as the season is now waisting a pace nearly three months have now
 elapsed since we left Fort Mandan and not yet reached the Rocky
 Mountains I am therefore fully preswaded that we shall not reach Fort
 Mandan again this season if we even return from the ocean to the Snake
 Indians. wherever we find timber there is also beaver; Drewyer killed
 two today. There are a number of large bat or goatsucker here I killed
 one of them and found that there was no difference between them and
 those common to the U States; I have not seen the leather winged bat
 for some time nor is there any of the small goatsuckers in this quarter
 of the country. we have not the whip-poor-will either. this last is by
 many persons in the U States confounded with the large goat-sucker or
 night-hawk as it is called in the Eastern States, and are taken for the
 same bird. it is true that there is a great resemblance but they are
 distinct species of the goatsucker. here the one exists without the
 other. the large goat sucker lays it's eggs in these open plains
 without the preperation of a nest we have found their eggs in several
 instances they lay only two before they set nor do I beleive that they
 raise more than one brood in a season; they have now just hatched their
 young.--This evening the bark was shaved and the leather covering for
 the sections were also completed and I had them put into the water, in
 order to toughen the bark, and prepare the leather for sewing on the
 sections in the morning. it has taken 28 Elk skins and 4 Buffaloe skins
 to complete her. the crossbars are also finished this evening; we have
 therefore only the way strips now to obtain in order to complete the
 wood work, and this I fear will be a difficult task. The party have not
 returned from the lower camp I am therefore fearfull that some uncommon
 accedent has happened.
 Occurrences with Capt. Clark and Party
 This morning Capt. Clark dispatched two men to kill some buffaloe, two
 others to the falls to surch for the articles lost yesterday, one he
 retained to cook and sent the others for the baggage left in the plains
 yesterday. the hunters soon returned loaded with meat those sent for
 the baggage brought it up in a few hours, he then set four men at work
 to make axeltrees and repare the carrages; the others he employed in
 conveying the baggage over the run on their sholders it having now
 fallent to about 3 feet water. the men complained much today of the
 bruises and wounds which they had received yesterday from the hail. the
 two men sent to the falls returned with the compas which they found
 covered in the mud and sand near the mouth of the rivene the other
 articles were irrecoverably lost. they found that part of rivene in;
 which Capt. C. had been seting yesterday, filled with huge rocks. at 11
 A.M. Capt. Clark dispatched the party with a load of the baggage as far
 as the 6 miles stake, with orders to deposit it there and return with
 the carriages which they did accordingly. they experienced a heavy gust
 of wind this evening from the S. W. after which it was a fair
 afternoon. more buffaloe than usual were seen about their camp; Capt. C
 assured me that he beleives he saw at least ten thousand at one view.
 [Clark, June 30, 1805]
 June 30th Sunday 1805.
 a fair morning, I dispatch the party except 5 for the remaining baggage
 Scattered in the plains, two to hunt for meat, two to the falls, and
 one to Cook at 10 oClock the hunters Came in loaded with fat meat, &
 those were dispatched for the baggage returned with it. I Set 4 men to
 make new axeltrees & repare the Carrages, others to take the load
 across the run which had fallen & is about 3 feet water, men Complain
 of being Swore this day dull and lolling about, The two men dispatched
 in Serch of the articls lost yesterday returned and brought the Compass
 which they found in the mud & Stones near the mouth of the revein, no
 other articles found, the place I Sheltered under filled up with hugh
 Rocks, I Set the party out at 11 oClock to take a load to the 6 mile
 Stake & return this evening, and I intend to take on the ballance to
 the river tomorrow if the prarie will permit. at 3 oClock a Storm of
 wind from the S. W. after which we had a clear evening. Great numbers
 of Buffalow in every direction, I think 10,000 may be Seen in a view.