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[Lewis, May 1, 1805]
 Wednesday May 1st 1805.
 Set out this morning at an early, the wind being favourable we used our
 sales which carried us on at a good pace untill about 12 OCk. when the
 wind became so high that the small canoes were unable to proceed one of
 them which seperated from us just befor the wind became so violent, is
 now lying on the opposite side of the river, being unable to rejoin us
 in consequence of the waves, which during those gusts run several feet
 high. we came too on the Lard. shore in a handsome bottom well stocked
 with cottonwood timber; here the wind compelled us to spend the
 ballance of the day. we sent out some hunters who killed a buffaloe, an
 Elk, a goat and two beaver. game is now abundant. the country appears
 much more pleasant and fertile than that we have passed for several
 days; the hills are lower, the bottoms wider, and better stocked with
 timber, which consists principally of cottonwood, not however of large
 size; the under-growth willow on the verge of the river and sandbars,
 rose bushes, red willow and the broad leafed willow in the bottom
 lands; the high country on either side of the river is one vast plain,
 intirely destitute of timber, but is apparently fertile, consisting of
 a dark rich mellow looking lome. John Shields sick today with the
 rheumatism. Shannon killed a bird of the plover kind. weight one pound.
 it measured from the tip of the toe, to the extremity of the beak, 1
 foot 10 Inches; from tip to tip of wings when extended 2 F. 5 I.; Beak
 3 5/8 inches; tale 3 1/8 inches; leg and toe 10 Ins.--the eye black,
 piercing, prominent and moderately large. the legs are Hat thin,
 slightly imbricated and of a pale sky blue colour, being covered with
 feathers as far as the mustle extends down it, which is about half it's
 length. it has four toes on each foot, three of which, are connected by
 a web, the fourth is small and placed at the heel about the 1/8 of an
 inch up the leg. the nails are black and short, that of the middle toe
 is extreemly singular, consisting of two nails the one laping on or
 overlaying the other, the upper one somewhat the longest and sharpest.
 the tale contains eleven feathers of equal length, & of a bluish white
 colour. the boddy and underside of the wings, except the large feathers
 of the 1st & 2cd joints of the same, are white; as are also the
 feathers of the upper part of the 4th joint of the wing and part of
 those of the 3rd adjacent thereto, the large feathers of the 1st or
 pinion and the 2cd joint are black; a part of the larger feathers of
 the 3rd joint on the upper side and all the small feathers which cover
 the upper part of the wings are black, as are also the tuft of long
 feathers on each side of the body above the joining of the wing,
 leaving however a stripe of white betwen them on the back. the head and
 neck are shaped much like the grey plover, and are of a light brickdust
 brown; the beak is black and flat, largest where it joins the head, and
 from thence becoming thiner and tapering to a very sharp point, the
 upper chap being 1/8 of an inch the longest turns down at the point and
 forms a little hook. the nostrils, which commence near the head are
 long, narrow, connected, and parallel with the beak; the beak is much
 curved, the curvature being upwards in stead of downwards as is common
 with most birds; the substance of the beak precisely resembles
 whalebone at a little distance, and is quite as flexable as that
 substance their note resembles that of the grey plover, tho is reather
 louder and more varied, their habits appear also to be the same, with
 this difference; that it sometimes rests on the water and swims which I
 do not recollect having seen the plover do. this bird which I shall
 henceforth stile the Missouri plover, generally feeds about the shallow
 bars of the river; to collect it's food which consists of ____, it
 immerces it's beak in the water and throws it's head and beak from side
 to side at every step it takes.
 [Clark, May 1, 1805]
 May the 1st Wednesday 1805
 We Set out at Sun rise under a Stiff Breeze from the East, the morning
 Cool & Cloudy. one man J. Shields Sick with rhumetism--one of the men
 (Shannon) Shot a Gull or pleaver, which is about the Size of an Indian
 hen, with a Sharp pointed bill turning up & 4 Inches long, the head and
 neck of a light brown, the breast, the underfeathers of the 2nd and 3d
 joint of the wings, the Short feathers on the upper part of the 3rd
 joint of the wings, down the back the rump & tail white. The large
 feathers of the 1st joints of the wing the upper feathers of the 2d
 joints of the wings, on the body on the joints of the wing and the bill
 is black.--the legs long and of a Skie blue. The feet webed &c. This
 fowl may be properly Stiled the Missouri Pleaver--the wind became verry
 Hard and we put too on the L. Side, as the wind Continued with Some
 degree of violence and the waves too high for the Canoes we were
 obliged to Stay all day
 [Lewis, May 1, 1805]
 May 1st 1805.
 Shannon killed a bird of the plover kind the weight one pound.--eye
 black percing and prominent
 Measure F.
 from the tip of the toe to the extremity of the beak 1
 from tip to tip of wing when extended 2 5
 length of beak 3
 length of tale 3
 length of leg and toe
 the legs are flat, of pale skye blue colour and but slightly
 imbricated. the second joint, as low as the mustle extends is covered
 with feathers which is about half it's length. it has three toes on a
 foot connected by a web. there is also a small toe on each foot placed
 about the eighth of an inch up the leg behind. the nails are black and
 short and those of the middle toes ar singular-there being two nails on
 each the one above the other the upper one the longest and sharpest.-
 the tale contains eleven feathers of the same length of a bluish white
 colour. the body and under side of the wings except the large feathers
 of the 1 & 2cd joints of the wings are white, as are also the feathers
 of the upper part of the 4th joint of the wing. and some of those of
 the 3rd adjoining.--the large feathers of the pinion or first (joint) &
 the second joint are black; a part of the larger feathers of the third
 joint on the upper side and all the smaller feathers which cover the
 upper part of these joints ar black; as are also the tuft of long
 feathers on each side of the body above the joining of the wing,
 leaving however a stripe of white between them on the back. the head
 and neck are shaped much like the grey plover, and is a light brickdust
 brown. the beak is black and flat, largest where it joins the head and
 from thence tapering every way gradually to a very sharp point the
 upper beak being 1/8 of an inch the longest turning down at the point.
 the nostrils are parrallal with the beak and are long narrow and
 connected. the beak is curvated and invirted; the Curvature being
 upwards in stead of downwards as those of most birds are--the substance
 of the beak is as flexable as whalebone and at a little distance
 precisely resembles that substance. their note is like that of the
 common whistling or grey plover tho reather louder, and more varied,
 and their habits are the same with that bird so far as I have been
 enabled to learn, with this difference however that this bird sometimes
 lights in the water and swims.--it generally feads about the shallow
 bars of the river; to collect it's food, it immerces it's beak in the
 water, and thows it's head and beak from side to side at every step it
 [Lewis, May 2, 1805]
 Thursday May 2ed 1805
 The wind continued violent all night nor did it abate much of it's
 violence this morning, when at daylight it was attended with snow which
 continued to fall untill about 10 A.M. being about one inch deep, it
 formed a singular contrast with the vegitation which was considerably
 advanced. some flowers had put forth in the plains, and the leaves of
 the cottonwood were as large as a dollar. sent out some hunters who
 killed 2 deer 3 Elk and several buffaloe; on our way this evening we
 also shot three beaver along the shore; these anamals in consequence of
 not being hunted are extreemly gentle, where they are hunted they never
 leave their lodges in the day, the flesh of the beaver is esteemed a
 delecacy among us; I think the tale a most delicious morsal, when
 boiled it resembles in flavor the fresh tongues and sounds of the
 codfish, and is usually sufficiently large to afford a plentifull meal
 for two men. Joseph Fields one of the hunters who was out today found
 several yards of scarlet cloth which had been suspended on the bough of
 a tree near an old indian hunting camp, where it had been left as a
 sacrefice to the deity by the indians, probably of the Assinniboin
 nation, it being a custom with them as well as all the nations
 inhabiting the waters of the Missouri so far as they are known to us,
 to offer or sacrefice in this manner to the deity watever they may be
 possessed off which they think most acceptable to him, and very
 honestly making their own feelings the test of those of the deity offer
 him the article which they most prize themselves. this being the most
 usual method of weshiping the great sperit as they term the deity, is
 practiced on interesting occasions, or to produce the happy eventuation
 of the important occurrances incident to human nature, such as relief
 from hungar or mallady, protection from their enemies or the delivering
 them into their hands, and with such as cultivate, to prevent the
 river's overflowing and distroying their crops &c. screfices of a
 similar kind are also made to the deceased by their friends and
 relatives. the are was very piercing this evening the water friezed on
 the oars as they rowed. the wind dying at 5 P.M. we set out.
 every thing which is incomprehensible to the indians they call big
 medicine, and is the opperation of the presnts and power of the great
 sperit. this morning one of the men shot the indian dog that had
 followed us for several days, he would steal their cooked provision.
 [Clark, May 2, 1805]
 May 2nd Thursday 1805
 The wind blew verry hard all the last night, this morning about Sunrise
 began to Snow, (The Thermomtr. at 28 abov o) and Continued untill about
 10 oClock, at which time it Seased, the wind Continued hard untill
 about 2 P.M. the Snow which fell to day was about 1 In deep, a verry
 extroadernaley Climate, to behold the trees Green & flowers Spred on
 the plain, & Snow an inch deep. we Set out about 3 oClock and proceeded
 on about five 1/2 miles and encamped on the Std Side, the evening verry
 cold, Ice freesing to the Ores, I Shot a large beaver & Drewyer three
 in walking on the bank, the flesh of those animals the party is fond of
 eating &c.
 [Lewis, May 3, 1805]
 Friday May 3rd 1805.
 The morning being very could we did not set out as early as usual; ice
 formed on a kettle of water 1/4 of an inch thick. the snow has melted
 generally in the bottoms, but the hills still remain covered. on the
 lard side at the distance of 2 miles we passed a curious collection of
 bushes which had been tyed up in the form of a faciene and standing on
 end in the open bottom it appeared to be about 30 feet high and ten or
 twelve feet in diameter, this we supposed to have been placed there by
 the Indians, as a sacrefice for some purpose. The wind continued to
 blow hard from the West but not so strong as to compel us to ly by.
 Capt. Clark walked on shore and killed an Elk which he caused to be
 butched by the time I arrived with the party, here we halted and dined
 being about 12 OCk. our usual time of halting for that purpose. after
 dinner Capt. Clark pursued his walk, while I continued with the party,
 it being a rule which we had established, never to be absent at the
 same time from the party. the plains or high lands are much less
 elivated than they were, not being more than from 50 to 60 feet above
 the river bottom, which is also wider than usual being from 5 to 9 ms.
 in width; traces of the ancient beds of the river are visible in many
 places through the whole extent of this valley. since the hills have
 become lower the appearance of the stratas of coal burnt hills and
 pumice stone have in a great measure ceased; I saw none today. we saw
 vast quantities of Buffaloe, Elk, deer principally of the long tale
 kind, Antelope or goats, beaver, geese, ducks, brant and some swan.
 near the entrance of the river mentioned in the 10th course of this
 day, we saw an unusual number of Porcupines from which we determined to
 call the river after that anamal, and accordingly denominated it
 Porcupine river. this stream discharges itself into the Missouri on the
 Stard. side 2000 miles above the mouth of the latter, it is a beatifull
 bold runing stream, 40 yards wide at it's entrance; the water is
 transparent, it being the first of this discription that I have yet
 seen discharge itself into the Missouri; before it enters a large sand
 bar through which it discharges itself into the missouri it's banks and
 bottom are formed of a stiff blue and black clay; it appears to be
 navigable for canoes and perogues at this time and I have no doubt but
 it might be navigated with boats of a considerable size in high water.
 it's banks appear to be from 8 to ten feet high and seldom overflow;
 from the quantity of water furnished by this river, the appearance of
 the country, the direction it pursues, and the situation of it's
 entrance, I have but little doubt but it takes it's source not far from
 the main body of the Suskashawan river, and that it is probably
 navigable 150 miles; perhaps not very distant from that river. should
 this be the case, it would afford a very favorable communication to the
 Athebaskay country, from whence the British N. W. Company derive so
 large a portion of their valuable furs.--Capt. Clark who ascended this
 river several miles and passed it above where it entered the hills
 informed me on his return that he found the general width of the bed of
 the river about one hundred yards, where he passed the river the bed
 was 112 yards wide, the water was knee deep and 38 yard in width; the
 river which he could observe from the rising grounds for about 20
 miles, bore a little to the East of North. there was a considerable
 portion of timber in the bottom lands of this river. Capt Clark also
 met with limestone on the surface of the earth in the course of his
 walk. he also saw a range of low mountains at a distance to the W of N
 , their direction being N. W. the country in the neighborhood of this
 river, and as far as the eye can reach, is level, fertile, open and
 beatifull beyond discription. 1/4 of a mile above the entrance of this
 river a large creek falls in which we called 2000 mile creek. I sent
 Rubin Fields to examine it, he reported it to be a bold runing stream,
 it's bed 30 yards wide. we proceeded about 3 miles abov this creek and
 encamped on the Stard. shore. I walked out a little distance and met
 with 2 porcupines which were feeding on the young willow which grow in
 great abundance on all the sandbars; this anamal is exceedingly clumsy
 and not very watchfull I approached so near one of them before it
 percieved me that I touched it with my espontoon.--found the nest of a
 wild goose among some driftwood in the river from which we took three
 eggs. this is the only nest we have met with on driftwood, the usual
 position is the top of a broken tree, sometimes in the forks of a large
 tree but almost invariably, from 15 to 20 feet or upwards high.-
 [Clark, May 3, 1805]
 May 3rd Friday 1805
 we Set out reather later this morning than usial owing to weather being
 verry cold, a frost last night and the Thermt. Stood this morning at 26
 above 0 which is 6 Degrees blow freeseing--the ice that was on the
 Kittle left near the fire last night was 1/4 of an inch thick. The Snow
 is all or nearly all off the low bottoms, the Hills are entireley
 Covered. three of our party found in the back of a bottom 3 pieces of
 Scarlet one brace in each, which had been left as a Sacrifice near one
 of their Swet houses, on the L. S. we passed to day a curious
 collection of bushes tied up in the shape of fascene about 10 feet
 diamuter, which must have been left also by the natives as an offering
 to their medison which they Convinced protected or gave them relief
 near the place, the wind Continued to blow hard from the West, altho
 not Sufficently So to detain us, I walked on Shore and killed an Elk &
 had him bucchured by the time the Perogus Came up which was the usial
 time of dineing. The high lands are low and from 8 to 9 miles apart and
 there is evident marks of the bead of the river having been changed
 frequently but little appearance of the Coal & burnt hills to day-
 Great numbers of Buffalow, Elk, Deer, antilope, beaver, Porcupins, &
 water fowls Seen to day, Such as, Geese, ducks of dift. kinds, & a fiew
 Swan--I continued my walk on Shore after dinner, and arrived at the
 mouth of a river on the St. Side, which appeared to be large, and I
 concluded to go up this river a few miles to examine it accordingly I
 Set out North 1 mile thro wood or timbered bottom, 2 miles through a
 butifull leavel plain, and 1 mile over a high plain about 50 feet
 higher than the bottom & Came to the little river, which I found to be
 a butifull clear Stream of about 100 yds. from bank to bank, (I waded
 this river at the narrowest part and made it 112 Steps from bank to
 bank and at this place which was a kind of fording place the water was
 near Knee deep, and 38 steps wide, the bottom of a hard stiff Black
 Clay,) I observed a Great perportion of timber in the bottoms of this
 river as far as I could See which was to the East of N. 18 or 20 miles,
 it appears to be navigable at this time for Canoes, and from
 appearances must be navagable a long distance for Perogus & boats in
 high water. This river we call Porcupine from the great number of those
 anamals found about it's mouth.--a Short distance above about 1/4 mile
 and on the Lard Side a large Creek falls in, which R. Fields went to
 examine & reports that it is a bold running Stream, 30 yds wide as this
 Creek is 2000 miles up the Missouri we Call it the 2000 mile Creek, we
 proceeded on 3 miles & Camped on the S. S. here I joined Capt Lewis who
 had in my absens walkd. on the upper Side of Porcupine River for Some
 distance--This river from its Size & quantity of water must head at no
 great distance from the Saskashawan on this river I Saw emence herds
 Elk & Buffalow & many deer & Porcupine. I also Saw the top of a
 mountain which did not appear verry high to the West of N. & bore N W.
 I Saw on the high land limestone & pebble--The Countrey about the mouth
 of this river and as far as the eye Can reach is butifull open
 Countrey. The greater part of the Snow is melted.
 [Lewis, May 4, 1805]
 Saturday May 4th 1805.
 We were detained this morning untill about 9 OCk. in order to repare
 the rudder irons of the red perogue which were broken last evening in
 landing; we then set out, the wind hard against us. I walked on shore
 this morning, the weather was more plesant, the snow has disappeared;
 the frost seems to have effected the vegetation much less than could
 have been expected the leaves of the cottonwood the grass the box alder
 willow and the yellow flowering pea seem to be scarcely touched; the
 rosebushes and honeysuckle seem to have sustaned the most considerable
 injury. The country on both sides of the Missouri continues to be open
 level fertile and beautifull as far as the eye can reach which from
 some of the eminences is not short of 30 miles. the river bottoms are
 very extensive and contain a much greater proportion of timber than
 usual; the fore part of this day the river was bordered with timber on
 both sides, a circumstance which is extreemly rare and the first which
 has occurred of any thing like the same extent since we left the
 Mandans, in the after part of the day we passed an extensive beautifull
 plain on the Stard. side which gradually ascended from the river. I saw
 immence quantities of buffaloe in every direction, also some Elk deer
 and goats; having an abundance of meat on hand I passed them without
 firing on them; they are extreemly gentle the bull buffaloe
 particularly will scarcely give way to you. I passed several in the
 open plain within fifty paces, they viewed me for a moment as something
 novel and then very unconcernedly continued to feed. Capt. Clark walked
 on shore this evening and did not rejoin us untill after dark, he
 struck the river several miles above our camp and came down to us. we
 saw many beaver some which the party shot, we also killed two deer
 today. much sign of the brown bear. passed several old Indian hunting
 camps in the course of the day one of them contained two large lodges
 which were fortifyed with old driftwood and fallen timber; this
 fortification consisted of a circular fence of timber lade horizontally
 laping on and over laying each other to the hight of 5 feet. these
 pounds are sometimes built from 20 to 30 feet in diameter and covered
 over with the trunks and limbs of old timber. the usual construction of
 the lodges we have lately passed is as follows. three or more strong
 sticks the thickness of a man's leg or arm and about 12 feet long are
 attatched together at one end by a with of small willows, these are
 then set on end and spread at the base, forming a circle of ten twelve
 or 14 feet in diameter; sticks of driftwood and fallen timber of
 convenient size are now placed with one end on the ground and the other
 resting against those which are secured together at top by the with and
 which support and give the form to the whole, thus the sticks are laid
 on untill they make it as thick as they design, usually about three
 ranges, each piece breaking or filling up the interstice of the two
 beneath it, the whole forming a connic figure about 10 feet high with a
 small apperture in one side which answers as a door. leaves bark and
 straw are sometimes thrown over the work to make it more complete, but
 at best it affords a very imperfect shelter particularly without straw
 which is the state in which we have most usually found them.
 At noon the sun was so much obscured that I could not obtain his
 maridian Altitude which I much wished in order to fix the latitude of
 the entrance of Porcupine river. Joseph Fields was very sick today with
 the disentary had a high fever I gave him a doze of Glauber salts,
 which operated very well, in the evening his fever abated and I gave
 him 30 drops of laudnum.-
 [Clark, May 4, 1805]
 May 4th Satturday 1805
 The rudder Irons of our large Perogue broke off last night, the
 replaceing of which detained us this morning untill 9 oClock at which
 time we Set out the wind a head from the west, The Countrey on each
 Side of the Missouri is a rich high and butifull the bottoms are
 extencive with a great deal of timber on them all the fore part of this
 day the wood land bordered the river on both Sides, in the after part a
 butifull assending plain on the Std Side we Camped on the Std. Side a
 little above we passed a Small Creek on the L. Side near which I Saw
 where an Indian lodge had been fortified many year past. Saw great
 numbers of anamals of different kinds on the banks, I Saw the black
 martin to day-in the evening I walkd. on Shore on the Std Side & Struck
 the river Several miles above our Camp & did not get to Camp untill
 Some time after night--we have one man Sick, The river has been falling
 for Several days passed; it now begins to rise a little; the rate of
 rise & fall is from one to 3 inches in 24 hours.
 [Lewis, May 5, 1805]
 Sunday May 5th 1805
 A fine morning I walked on shore untill 8 A M when we halted for
 breakfast and in the course of my walk killed a deer which I carried
 about a mile and a half to the river, it was in good order. soon after
 seting out the rudder irons of the white perogue were broken by her
 runing fowl on a sawyer, she was however refitted in a few minutes with
 some tugs of raw hide and nales. as usual saw a great quantity of game
 today; Buffaloe Elk and goats or Antelopes feeding in every direction;
 we kill whatever we wish, the buffaloe furnish us with fine veal and
 fat beef, we also have venison and beaver tales when we wish them; the
 flesh of the Elk and goat are less esteemed, and certainly are
 inferior. we have not been able to take any fish for some time past.
 The country is as yesterday beatifull in the extreme.
 saw the carcases of many Buffaloe lying dead along the shore partially
 devoured by the wolves and bear. saw a great number of white brant also
 the common brown brant, geese of the common kind and a small species of
 geese which differ considerably from the common canadian goose; their
 neck head and beak are considerably thicker shorter and larger than the
 other in proportion to it's size, they are also more than a third
 smaller, and their note more like that of the brant or a young goose
 which has not perfectly acquired his notes, in all other rispects they
 are the same in colour habits and the number of feathers in the tale,
 they frequently also ascociate with the large geese when in flocks, but
 never saw them pared off with the large or common goose. The white
 brant ascociate in very large flocks, they do not appear to be mated or
 pared off as if they intended to raise their young in this quarter, I
 therefore doubt whether they reside here during the summer for that
 this bird is about the size of the common brown brant or two thirds of
 the common goose, it is not so long by six inches from point to point
 of the wings when extended as the other; the beak head and neck are
 also larger and stronger; their beak legs and feet are of a redish or
 fleshcoloured white. the eye is of moderate size, the puple of a deep
 sea green incircled with a ring of yellowish brown. it has sixteen
 feathers of equal length in the tale; their note differs but little
 from the common brant, their flesh much the same, and in my opinion
 preferable to the goose, the flesh is dark. they are entirely of a
 beatifull pure white except the large feathers of the 1st and second
 joints of the wings which are jut black. form and habits are the same
 with the other brant; they sometimes ascociate and form one common
 flock. Capt Clark found a den of young wolves in the course of his walk
 today and also saw a great number of those anamals; they are very
 abundant in this quarter, and are of two species the small woolf or
 burrowing dog of the praries are the inhabitants almost invariably of
 the open plains; they usually ascociate in bands of ten or twelve
 sometimes more and burrow near some pass or place much frequented by
 game; not being able alone to take a deer or goat they are rarely ever
 found alone but hunt in bands; they frequently watch and seize their
 prey near their burrows; in these burrows they raise their young and to
 them they also resort when pursued; when a person approaches them they
 frequently bark, their note being precisely that of the small dog. they
 are of an intermediate size between that of the fox and dog, very
 active fleet and delicately formed; the ears large erect and pointed
 the head long and pointed more like that of the fox; tale long; the
 hair and fur also resembles the fox tho is much coarser and inferior.
 they are of a pale redish brown colour. the eye of a deep sea green
 colour small and piercing. their tallons are reather longer than those
 of the ordinary wolf or that common to the atlantic states, none of
 which are to be found in this quarter, nor I believe above the river
 Plat.--The large woolf found here is not as large as those of the
 atlantic states. they are lower and thicker made shorter leged. their
 colour which is not effected by the seasons, is a grey or blackish
 brown and every intermediate shade from that to a creen coloured white;
 these wolves resort the woodlands and are also found in the plains, but
 never take refuge in the ground or burrow so far as I have been able to
 inform myself. we scarcely see a gang of buffaloe without observing a
 parsel of those faithfull shepherds on their skirts in readiness to
 take care of the mamed & wounded. the large wolf never barks, but howls
 as those of the atlantic states do. Capt. Clark and Drewyer killed the
 largest brown bear this evening which we have yet seen. it was a most
 tremendious looking anamal, and extreemly hard to kill notwithstanding
 he had five balls through his lungs and five others in various parts he
 swam more than half the distance acoss the river to a sandbar & it was
 at least twenty minutes before he died; he did not attempt to attact,
 but fled and made the most tremendous roaring from the moment he was
 shot. We had no means of weighing this monster; Capt. Clark thought he
 would weigh 500 lbs. for my own part I think the estimate too small by
 100 lbs. he measured 8 Feet 71/2 Inches from the nose to the extremety
 of the hind feet, 5 F. to 1/2 Inch arround the breast, 1 F. 11 I.
 arround the middle of the arm, & 3 F. 11 I. arround the neck; his
 tallons which were five in number on each foot were 4 1/8 Inches in
 length. he was in good order, we therefore divided him among the party
 and made them boil the oil and put it in a cask for future uce; the oil
 is as hard as hogs lard when cool, much more so than that of the black
 bear. this bear differs from the common black bear in several respects;
 it's tallons are much longer and more blont, it's tale shorter, it's
 hair which is of a redish or bey brown, is longer thicker and finer
 than that of the black bear; his liver lungs and heart are much larger
 even in proportion with his size; the heart particularly was as large
 as that of a large Ox. his maw was also ten times the size of black
 bear, and was filled with flesh and fish. his testicles were pendant
 from the belly and placed four inches assunder in seperate bags or
 pouches.--this animal also feeds on roots and almost every species of
 wild fruit.
 The party killed two Elk and a Buffaloe today, and my dog caught a
 goat, which he overtook by superior fleetness, the goat it must be
 understood was with young and extreemly poor. a great number of these
 goats are devowered by the wolves and bear at this season when they are
 poor and passing the river from S. W. to N. E. they are very inactive
 and easily taken in the water, a man can out swim them with great ease;
 the Indians take them in great numbers in the river at this season and
 in autumn when they repass to the S. W.
 [Clark, May 5, 1805]
 5th of May Sunday 1805
 We Set out verry early and had not proceeded far before the rudder
 Irons of one of the Perogus broke which detained us a Short time Capt
 Lewis walked on Shore this morning and killed a Deer, after brackfast I
 walked on Shore Saw great numbers of Buffalow & Elk Saw also a Den of
 young wolves, and a number of (frown wolves in every direction, the
 white & Grey Brant is in this part of the Missouri I shot at the white
 brant but at So great a distance I did not kill, The Countrey on both
 sides is as yesterday, handsom & fertile--The river rising & Current
 Strong & in the evening we Saw a Brown or Grisley beare on a Sand
 beech, I went out with one man Geo. Drewyer & Killed the bear, which
 was verry large and a turrible looking animal, which we found verry
 hard to kill we Shot ten Balls into him before we killed him, & 5 of
 those Balls through his lights This animal is the largest of the
 Carnivorous kind I ever Saw we had nothing that could way him, I think
 his weight may be Stated at 500 pounds, he measured 8 feet 71/2 In.
 from his nose to the extremity of the Toe, 5 feet 101/2 in. arround the
 breast, 1 feet 11 Ins. around the middle of the arm, 3 feet 11 Ins.
 arround the neck his tallents was 4 Inches &3/8 long, he was good
 order, and appeared verry different from the Common black bear in as
 much as his tallents were blunt, his tail Short, his liver & lights
 much larger, his maw ten times as large and Contained meat or flesh &
 fish only--we had him Skined and divided, the oile tried up & put in
 Kegs for use. we Camped on the Stard Side, our men killed three Elk and
 a Buffalow to day, and our Dog Cought an antilope a fair race, this
 animal appeared verry pore & with young.
 [Lewis, May 6, 1805]
 Monday May 6th 1805.
 The morning being fair and pleasant and wind favourable we set sale at
 an early hour, and proceeded on very well the greater part of the day;
 the country still continues level fertile and beautifull, the bottoms
 wide and well timbered comparitively speaking with other parts of the
 river; no appearance of birnt hills pumice stone or coal, the salts of
 tartar or vegitable salts continues to appear on the river banks, sand
 bars and in many parts of the plains most generally in the little
 revines at the base of the low hills. passed three streames today which
 discharged themselves on the Lard. side; the first of these we call
 little dry creek it contained some water in standing pools but
 discharged none, the 2ed 50 yards wide no Water, we called it Big dry
 Creek, the 3rd is bed of a conspicuous river 200 yards wide which we
 called little dry river; the banks of these streams are low and bottoms
 wide with but little timber, their beds are almost entirely formed of a
 fine brown sand intermixed with a small proportion of little pebbles,
 which were either transparent, white, green, red, yellow or brown.
 these streams appeared to continue their width without diminution as
 far as we could perceive them, which with rispect to the river was many
 miles, they had recenly discharged their waters. from the appearance of
 these streams, and the country through which they passed, we concluded
 that they had their souces in level low dry plains, which probably is
 the character of the country for a great distance west of this, or to
 the vicinity of the black hills, that the country being low on the same
 level nearly and in the same parallel of latitude, that the rains in
 the spring of the year suddonly melts the snow at the same time and
 causes for a few days a vast quantity of water which finds it's way to
 the Missouri through those channels; by reference to the diary of the
 weather &c it will be percieved that there is scarcely any rain during
 the summer Autumn and winter in this open country distant from the
 mountains. Fields still continues unwell. saw a brown bear swim the
 river above us, he disappeared before we can get in reach of him; I
 find that the curiossity of our party is pretty well satisfyed with
 rispect to this anamal, the formidable appearance of the male bear
 killed on the 5th added to the difficulty with which they die when even
 shot through the vital parts, has staggered the resolution several of
 them, others however seem keen for action with the bear; I expect these
 gentlemen will give us some amusement shotly as they soon begin now to
 coppolate. saw a great quantity of game of every species common here.
 Capt Clark walked on shore and killed two Elk, they were not in very
 good order, we therefore took a part of the meat only; it is now only
 amusement for Capt. C. and myself to kill as much meat as the party can
 consum; I hope it may continue thus through our whole rout, but this I
 do not much expect. two beaver were taken in traps this morning and one
 since shot by one of the party. saw numbers of these anamals peeping at
 us as we passed out of their wholes which they form of a cilindric
 shape, by burrowing in the face of the abbrupt banks of the river.
 [Clark, May 6, 1805]
 May 6th Monday 1805
 a fine morning wind from the N. E. we Set out early and proceeded on
 verry well under Sail the greater part of the day, passed two Creeks &
 a River to day on the Lard. Side, neither of them discharged any water
 into the Missouri, they were wide and Continued their width for Some
 distance, the little water of those Creeks & the little river must wash
 the low Country, I believe those Streams to be the Conveyance of the
 water of the heavy rains & melting Snows in the Countrey back &c. &c. I
 walked on Shore and Killed two Elk neither of which was fat, we saved
 the best of the meat, one beaver Shot to day. the countrey on both
 Sides butifull no appearances of either Coal or pumice Stone & burnt
 hills, The Salts of Tarter or white aprs. of Salts are yet to be Seen.
 [Lewis, May 7, 1805]
 Tuesday May 7th 1805.
 A fine morning, set out at an early hour; the drift wood begins to come
 down in consequence of the river's rising; the water is somewhat
 clearer than usual, a circumstance I did not expect on it's rise. at 11
 A.M. the wind became so hard that we were compelled to ly by for
 several hours, one of the small canoes by the bad management of the
 steersman filled with water and had very nearly sunk; we unloaded her
 and dryed the baggage; at one we proceed on the wind having in some
 measure abated. the country we passed today on the North side of the
 river is one of the most beautifull plains we have yet seen, it rises
 gradually from the river bottom to the hight of 50 or 60 feet, then
 becoming level as a bowling green. extends back as far as the eye can
 reach; on the S. side the river hills are more broken and much higher
 tho some little destance back the country becomes level and fertile. no
 appearance of birnt hills coal or pumicestone, that of salts still
 continue. vegitation appears to have advanced very little since the
 28th Ulto.--we continue to see a great number of bald Eagles, I presume
 they must feed on the carcases of dead anamals, for I see no fishing
 hawks to supply them with their favorite food. the water of the river
 is so terbid that no bird wich feeds exclusively on fish can subsist on
 it; from it's mouth to this place I have neither seen the blue crested
 fisher nor a fishing hawk. this day we killed 3 Buffaloe 1 Elk & 8
 beaver; two of the Buffaloe killed by Capt Clark near our encampment of
 this evening wer in good order dressed them and saved the meat, the Elk
 I killed this morning, thought it fat, but on examineation found it so
 lean that we took the tongue marrowbones and Skin only.
 [Clark, May 7, 1805]
 May 7th Tuesday, 1805
 A fine morning river rose 11/2 Inches last night, the drift wood
 beginning to run the water Something Clearer than usial, the wind
 became verry hard, and at 11 oClock one Canoe by bad Stearing filled
 with water, which detained us about 3 hours, had a Meridian altitude,
 the Laid. from which is 47°36' 11" 6/10 The Countrey on the North Side of
 the Missouri is one of the handsomest plains we have yet Seen on the
 river the plain rises from the river bottom gradually. The Hills on the
 South Side is high & uneavin. no appearance of Coal or burnt hills,
 that of Salts Still appear; vegitation appears to be Slow, I walked on
 the bank to day and Shot 2 beaver, in the evening Killed two Buffalow
 in tolerable order which we Saved and Camped on the Lard Side. 8
 beaver, 3 buffalow & an Elk killed to day
 [Lewis, May 8, 1805]
 Wednesday May 8th 1805.
 Set out at an early hour under a gentle brieze from the East. a black
 cloud which suddonly sprung up at S. E. soon over shaddowed the
 horizon; at 8 A.M. it gave us a slight sprinke of rain, the wind became
 much stronger but not so much so as to detain us. we nooned it just
 above the entrance of a large river which disimbogues on the Lard.
 side; I took the advantage of this leasure moment and examined the
 river about 3 miles; I found it generally 150 yards wide, and in some
 places 200. it is deep, gentle in it's courant and affords a large
 boddy of water; it's banks which are formed of a dark rich loam and
 blue clay are abbrupt and about 12 feet high. it's bed is principally
 mud. I have no doubt but it is navigable for boats perogues and canoes,
 for the latter probably a great distance. the bottoms of this stream ar
 wide, level, fertile and possess a considerable proportion of timber,
 principally Cottonwood. from the quantity of water furnised by this
 river it must water a large extent of country; perhaps this river also
 might furnish a practicable and advantageous communication with the
 Saskashiwan river; it is sufficiently large to justify a belief that it
 might reach to that river if it's direction be such. the water of this
 river possesses a peculiar whiteness, being about the colour of a cup
 of tea with the admixture of a tablespoonful) of milk. from the colour
 of it's water we called it Milk river. (we think it possible that this
 may be the river called by the Minitares the river which scoalds at all
 others or ____) Capt Clark who walked this morning on the Lard. shore
 ascended a very high point opposite to the mouth of this river; he
 informed me that he had a perfect view of this river and the country
 through which it passed for a great distance (probably 50 or 60 Miles,)
 that the country was level and beautifull on both sides of the river,
 with large herds of Buffaloe distributed throughout that the river from
 it's mouth boar N. W. for 12 or 15 Miles when it forked, the one taking
 a direction nearly North, and the other to the West of N. West. from
 the appearance of the vallies and the timber on each of these streams
 Capt. C. supposed that they were about the same size. great appearance
 of beaver on this river, and I have no doubt but what they continue
 abundant, there being plenty of cottonwood and willow, the timber on
 which they subsist. The country on the Lard. side of the river is
 generally high broken hills, with much broken, grey black and brown
 grannite scattered on the surface of the earth in a confused manner.
 The wild Licquorice is found on the sides of these hills, in great
 abundance. at a little distance from the river there is no timber to be
 seen on either side; the bottom lands are not more than one fifth
 covered with timber; the timber as below is confined to the borders of
 the river. in future it will be understood that there is no timber of
 any discription on the upland unless particularly mentioned; and also
 that one fifth of the bottom lands being covered with timber is
 considered a large proportion. The white apple is found in great
 abundance in this neighbourhood; it is confined to the highlands
 principally. The whiteapple, so called by the French Engages, is a
 plant which rises to the hight of 6 or 9 Inchs. rarely exceeding a
 foot; it puts forth from one to four and sometimes more stalks from the
 same root, but is most generally found with one only, which is branched
 but not defusely, is cylindric and villose; the leafstalks, cylindric,
 villose and very long compared with the hight of the plant, tho
 gradually diminish in length as they ascend, and are irregular in point
 of position; the leaf, digitate, from three to five in number, oval 1
 Inch long, absolutely entire and cottony; the whole plant of a pale
 green, except the under disk of the leaf which is of a white colour
 from the cottony substance with which it is covered. the radix a
 tuberous bulb; generally ova formed, sometimes longer and more rarely
 partially divided or brancing; always attended with one or more
 radicles at it's lower extremity which sink from 4 to 6 inches deep.
 the bulb covered with a rough black, tough, thin rind which easily
 seperates from the bulb which is a fine white substance, somewhat
 porus, spungy and moist, and reather tough before it is dressed; the
 center of the bulb is penitrated with a small tough string or ligament,
 which passing from the bottom of the stem terminates in the extremity
 of the radicle, which last is also covered by a prolongation of the
 rind which invellopes the bulb. The bulb is usually found at the debth
 of 4 inches and frequently much deeper. This root forms a considerable
 article of food with the Indians of the Missouri, who for this purpose
 prepare them in several ways. they are esteemed good at all seasons of
 the year, but are best from the middle of July to the latter end of
 Autumn when they are sought and gathered by the provident part of the
 natives for their winter store. when collected they are striped of
 their rhind and strung on small throngs or chords and exposed to the
 sun or placed in the smoke of their fires to dry; when well dryed they
 will keep for several years, provided they are not permitted to become
 moist or damp; in this situation they usually pound them between two
 stones placed on a piece of parchment, untill they reduce it to a fine
 powder thus prepared they thicken their soope with it; sometimes they
 also boil these dryed roots with their meat without breaking them; when
 green they are generally boiled with their meat, sometimes mashing them
 or otherwise as they think proper. they also prepare an agreeable dish
 with them by boiling and mashing them and adding the marrow grease of
 the buffaloe and some buries, until the whole be of the consistency of
 a haisty pudding. they also eat this root roasted and frequently make
 hearty meals of it raw without sustaining any inconvenience or injury
 therefrom. The White or brown bear feed very much on this root, which
 their tallons assist them to procure very readily. the white apple
 appears to me to be a tastless insippid food of itself tho I have no
 doubt but it is a very healthy and moderately nutricious food. I have
 no doubt but our epicures would admire this root very much, it would
 serve them in their ragouts and gravies in stead of the truffles
 We saw a great number buffaloe, Elk, common and Black taled deer, goats
 beaver and wolves. Capt C. killed a beaver and a wolf, the party killed
 3 beaver and a deer. We can send out at any time and obtain whatever
 species of meat the country affords in as large quantity as we wish. we
 saw where an Indian had recently grained, or taken the hair off of a
 goatskin; we do not wish to see those gentlemen just now as we presume
 they would most probably be the Assinniboins and might be troublesome
 to us. Capt C. could not be certain but thought he saw the smoke and
 some Indian lodges at a considrable distance up Milk river.
 [Clark, May 8, 1805]
 May the 8th Wednesday 1805
 a verry black Cloud to the S W. we Set out under a gentle breeze from
 the N. E. about 8 oClock began to rain, but not Sufficient to wet, we
 passed the mouth of a large river on the Starboard Side 150 yards wide
 and appears to be navagable. the Countrey thro which it passes as far
 as Could be seen from the top of a verry high hill on which I was, a
 butifull leavil plain this river forks about N W from its mouth 12 or
 15 miles one fork runs from the North & the other to the West of N W.
 the water of this river will justify a belief that it has its Sourse at
 a considerable distance, and waters a great extent of Countrey--we are
 willing to believe that this is the River the Minitarres Call the river
 which Scolds at all others
 the Countrey on the Lard. Side is high & broken with much Stone
 Scattered on the hills, In walking on Shore with the Interpreter & his
 wife, the Squar Geathered on the Sides of the hills wild Lickerish, &
 the white apple as called by the angegies and gave me to eat, the
 Indians of the Missouri make great use of the white apple dressed in
 different ways--Saw great numbers of Buffalow, Elk, antelope & Deer,
 also black tale deer beaver & wolves, I killed a beaver which I found
 on the bank, & a wolf. The party killed 3 Beaver 1 Deer I saw where an
 Indian had taken the hair off a goat Skin a fiew days past--Camped
 early on the Lard. Side. The river we passed today we call Milk river
 from the peculiar whiteness of it's water, which precisely resembles
 tea with a considerable mixture of milk.
 [Lewis, May 9, 1805]
 Thursday May 9th 1805.
 Set out at an early hour; the wind being favourable we used our sails
 and proceeded very well; the country in appearance is much as yester,
 with this difference that the land appears more fertile particularly of
 the Lard. hills which are not so stoney and less broken; the timber has
 also in some measure declined in quantity. today we passed the bed of
 the most extraordinary river that I ever beheld. it is as wide as the
 Missouri is at this place or 1/2 a mile wide and not containing a
 single drop of runing water; some small standing pools being all the
 water that could be per-ceived. it falls in on the Lard. side. I walked
 up this river about three miles and ascended an eminence from which I
 could perceive it many miles; it's course about South for 10 or 12
 miles, when it viered around to the E of S. E. as far as I could see.
 the valley of this river is wide and possesses but a scanty proportion
 of timber; the hills which border it are not very high nor is the
 country very broken; it is what may properly be designated a wavy or
 roling country intersperced with some handsom level plains. the bank
 are low and abbrupt, seldom more than 6 or eight feet above the level
 of the bed, yet show but little appearance of being overflown; they are
 of black or yellow clay or a rich sandy loam. the bed is entirely
 composed of a light brown sand the particles of which as well as that
 of the Missoury are remarkably fine. this river I presume must extend
 back as far as the black hills and probably is the channel through
 which a great extent of plain country discharge their superfluous
 waters in the spring season. it had the appearance of having recently
 discharged it's waters; and from the watermark, it did not appear that
 it had been more than 2 feet deep at it's greatest hight. This stream
 (if such it can properly be termed) we called Big dry river. about a
 mile below this river on the same side a large creek falls in also dry
 at present. The mineral salts and quarts appear in large quantities in
 this neighbourhood. the sand of the Missouri from it's mouth to this
 place has always possessed a mixture of granulated talk or I now think
 most probably that it is this quarts. Capt C. killed 2 bucks and 2
 buffaloe, I also killed one buffaloe which proved to be the best meat,
 it was in tolerable order; we saved the best of the meat, and from the
 cow I killed we saved the necessary materials for making what our
 wrighthand cook Charbono calls the boudin blanc, and immediately set
 him about preparing them for supper; this white pudding we all esteem
 one of the greatest delacies of the forrest, it may not be amiss
 therefore to give it a place. About 6 feet of the lower extremity of
 the large gut of the Buffaloe is the first mosel that the cook makes
 love to, this he holds fast at one end with the right hand, while with
 the forefinger and thumb of the left he gently compresses it, and
 discharges what he says is not good to eat, but of which in the squel
 we get a moderate portion; the mustle lying underneath the shoulder
 blade next to the back, and fillets are next saught, these are needed
 up very fine with a good portion of kidney suit; to this composition is
 then added a just proportion of pepper and salt and a small quantity of
 flour; thus far advanced, our skilfull opporater C-o seizes his
 recepticle, which has never once touched the water, for that would
 intirely distroy the regular order of the whole procedure; you will not
 forget that the side you now see is that covered with a good coat of
 fat provided the anamal be in good order; the operator sceizes the
 recepticle I say, and tying it fast at one end turns it inwards and
 begins now with repeated evolutions of the hand and arm, and a brisk
 motion of the finger and thumb to put in what he says is bon pour
 manger; thus by stuffing and compressing he soon distends the
 recepticle to the utmost limmits of it's power of expansion, and in the
 course of it's longtudinal progress it drives from the other end of the
 recepticle a much larger portion of the ____ than was prevously
 discharged by the finger and thumb of the left hand in a former part of
 the operation; thus when the sides of the recepticle are skilfully
 exchanged the outer for the iner, and all is compleatly filled with
 something good to eat, it is tyed at the other end, but not any cut
 off, for that would make the pattern too scant; it is then baptised in
 the missouri with two dips and a flirt, and bobbed into the kettle;
 from whence after it be well boiled it is taken and fryed with bears
 oil untill it becomes brown, when it is ready to esswage the pangs of a
 keen appetite or such as travelers in the wilderness are seldom at a
 loss for.
 we saw a great quantity of game today particularly of Elk and Buffaloe,
 the latter are now so gentle that the men frequently throw sticks and
 stones at them in order to drive them out of the way. we also saw this
 evening emence quantities of timber cut by the beaver which appeared to
 have been done the preceeding year, in place particularly they had cut
 all the timber down for three acres in front and on nearly one back
 from the river and had removed a considerable proportion of it, the
 timber grew very thick and some of it was as large as a man's body. the
 river for several days has been as wide as it is generally near it's
 mouth, tho it is much shallower or I should begin to dispair of ever
 reaching it's source; it has been crouded today with many sandbars; the
 water also appears to become clearer, it has changed it's complexin
 very considerably. I begin to feel extreemly anxious to get in view of
 the rocky mountains.
 I killed four plover this evening of a different species from any I
 have yet seen; it resembles the grey or whistling plover more than any
 other of this family of birds; it is about the size of the yellow
 legged or large grey plover common to the lower part of this river as
 well as most parts of the Atlantic States where they are sometimes
 called the Jack curloo; the eye is moderately large, are black with a
 narrow ring of dark yellowish brown; the head, neck, upper part of the
 body and coverts of the wings are of a dove coloured brown, which when
 the bird is at rest is the predominant colour; the brest and belley are
 of a brownish white; the tail is composed of 12 feathers of 3 Ins.
 being of equal length, of these the two in the center are black, with
 traverse bars of yellowish brown; the others are a brownish white. the
 large feathers of the wings are white tiped with blacked. the beak is
 black, 21/2 inches in length, slightly tapering, streight of a
 cilindric form and blontly or roundly pointed; the chaps are of equal
 length, and nostrils narrow. longitudional and connected; the feet and
 legs are smoth and of a greenish brown; has three long toes and a short
 one on each foot, the long toes are unconnected with a web, and the
 short one is placed very high up the leg behind, insomuch that it dose
 not touch the ground when the bird stands erect. the notes of this bird
 are louder and more various than any other of this family that I have
 [Clark, May 9, 1805]
 May 9th Thursday 1805
 a fine Day wind from the East we proceeded on verry well the Countrey
 much the appearance which it had yesterday the bottom & high land rich
 black earth, Timber not so abondant as below, we passed the mouth of a
 river (or the appearance of a river) on the Lard. Side the bend of
 which as far as we went up it or could See from a high hill is as large
 as that of the Missouri at this place which is near half a mile this
 river did not Contain one drop of running water, about a mile below
 this river a large Creeke joins the river L. S. which is also Dry-
 Those dry Streams which are also verry wide, I think is the Conveyance
 of the melted Snow, & heavy rains which is Probable fall in from the
 high mountanious Countrey which is Said to be between this river & the
 Yellow Stone river--I walked on Shore the fore part of this day, &
 observed Great quantities of the Shining Stone which we view as quarts,
 I killed 2 Bucks & a Buffalow, Capt Lewis also killed one which verry
 good meat, I saw emunerable herds of buffalow, & goats to day in every
 derection--The Missouri keeps its width which is nearly as wide as near
 its mouth, great number of Sand bars, the water not So muddy & Sand
 finer & in Smaller perpotion. Capt. Lewis killed 4 pleaver different
 from any I have ever before Seen, larger & have white breast & the
 underfeathers of the wings are white &c.
 [Lewis, May 9, 1805]
 May 9th 1805.
 I killed four plover this evening of a different kind from any I have
 yet seen. it resembles the grey or whistling plover more than any other
 of this family of birds, tho it is much larger. it is about the size of
 the yellow leged plover common to the U States, and called the jack
 curlooe by some. the legs are of a greenish brown; the toes, three and
 one high at the heel unconnected with a webb, the breast and belly of a
 brownish white; the head neck upper part of the body and coverts of the
 wings are of a dove colured brown which when the bird is at rest is the
 predomanent colour. the tale has 12 feathers of the same length of
 which the two in the center are black with transverse bars of yellowish
 bron, the others are a brownish white. the large feathers of the wings
 are white tiped with black. the eyes are black with a small ring of
 dark yellowish brown--the beak is black, 21/2 inches long, cilindrical,
 streight, and roundly or blountly pointed. the notes of this bird are
 louder and more various than of any other species which I have seen.-
 [Lewis, May 10, 1805]
 Friday May 10th 1805.
 Set out at sunrise and proceeded but a short distance ere the wind
 became so violent that we were obliged to come too, which we did on the
 Lard. side in a suddon or short bend of the river where we were in a
 great measure sheltered from the effects of the wind. the wind
 continued violent all day, the clouds were thick and black, had a
 slight sprinkle of rain several times in the course of the day. we sent
 out several hunters to scower the country, to this we were induced not
 so much from the want of provision as to discover the Indians whome we
 had reasons to believe were in the neighbourhood, from the circumstance
 of one of their dogs comeing to us this morning shortly after we
 landed; we still beleive ourselves in the country usually hunted by the
 Assinniboins, and as they are a vicious illy disposed nation we think
 it best to be on our guard, accordingly we inspected the arms and
 accoutrements the party and found them all in good order. The hunters
 returned this evening having seen no tents or Indians nor any fresh
 sign of them; they killed two Mule deer, one common fallow or
 longtailed deer, 2 Buffaloe and 5 beaver, and saw several deer of the
 Mule kind of immence size, and also three of the Bighorned anamals.
 from the appearance of the Mule deer and the bighorned anamals we
 beleive ourselves fast approaching a hilly or mountainous country; we
 have rarely found the mule deer in any except a rough country; they
 prefer the open grounds and are seldom found in the woodlands near the
 river; when they are met with in the woodlands or river bottoms and are
 pursued, they invariably run to the hills or open country as the Elk
 do. the contrary happens with the common deer ther are several
 esscential differences between the Mule and common deer as well in form
 as in habits. they are fully a third larger in general, and the male is
 particularly large; I think there is somewhat greater disparity of size
 between the male and female of this speceis than there is between the
 male and female fallow deer; I am convinced I have seen a buck of this
 species twice the volume of a buck of any other species. the ears are
 peculiarly large; I measured those of a large buck which I found to be
 eleven inches long and 31/2 in width at the widest part; they are not
 so delicately formed, their hair in winter is thicker longer and of a
 much darker grey, in summer the hair is still coarser longer and of a
 paleer red, more like that of the Elk; in winter they also have a
 considerable quantity of a very fine wool intermixed with the hair and
 lying next to the skin as the Antelope has. the long hair which grows
 on the outer sides of the 1st joint of the hinder legs, and which in
 the common deer do not usually occupy more than 2 inches in them
 occupys from 6 to eight; their horns also differ, these in the common
 deer consist of two main beams from which one or more points project
 the beam graduly deminishing as the points procede from it, with the
 mule deer the horns consist of two beams which at the distance of 4 or
 6 inches from the head divide themselves each into two equal branches
 which again either divide into two other equal branches or terminate in
 a smaller, and two equal ones; having either 2 4 or 6 points on a beam;
 the horn is not so rough about the base as the common deer and are
 invariably of a much darker colour. the most striking difference of
 all, is the white rump and tale. from the root of the tail as a center
 there is a circular spot perfectly white, of abot 3 inches radius,
 which occupys a part of the rump and extremitys of the buttocks and
 joins the white of the belley underneath; the tail which is usually
 from 8 to 9 inches long, for the first 4 or 5 inches from it's upper
 extremity is covered with short white hairs, much shorter indeed than
 the hairs of the body; from hence for about one inch further the hair
 is still white but gradually becomes longer, the tail then terminates
 in a tissue of black hair of about 3 Inches long. from this black hair
 of the tail they have obtained among the French engages the appelation
 of the black taled deer, but this I conceive by no means characteristic
 of the anamal as much the larger portion of the tail is white. the year
 and the tail of this anamal when compared with those of the common
 (leer, so well comported with those of the mule when compared with the
 horse, that we have by way of distinction adapted the appellation of
 the mule deer which I think much more appropriate. on the inner corner
 of each eye there is a drane or large recepicle which seems to answer
 as a drane to the eye which gives it the appearance of weeping, this in
 the common deer of the atlantic states is scarcely perceptable but
 becomes more conspicuous in the fallow deer, and still more so in the
 Elk; this recepticle in the Elk is larger than in any of the pecora
 order with which I am acquainted.
 Boils and imposthumes have been very common with the party Bratton is
 now unable to work with one on his hand; soar eyes continue also to be
 common to all of us in a greater or less degree. for the imposthume I
 use emmolient poltices, and for soar eyes a solution of white vitriol
 and the sugar of lead in the proportion of 2 grs. of the former and one
 of the latter to each ounce of water.
 [Clark, May 10, 1805]
 May the 10th Friday 1805
 river fell 3/4 of an inch last night, wind from the N. W, we proceeded
 on but a short distance e'r'e the wind became So violent we could not
 proceed came to on the Lard. Side in a Short bend, the wind Continued
 all day Several times in the course of the day We had some fiew drops
 of rain from verry black Clouds, no thunder or lightning latterly, Soon
 after we landed a Dog came to us from the opposit Side, which induced a
 belief that we had not passd. the Assinniboin Indians, parties wer Sent
 on the hills in different derections to examine but Saw no tents or
 fresh Sign. examined the arms &c. of the party found all in good order.
 Three mule deer, two Buffalow & 5 beaver killed, 3 of the mountain ram
 [Lewis, May 11, 1805]
 Saturday May 11th 1805. Set out this morning at an early hour, the
 courant strong; and river very crooked; the banks are falling in very
 fast; I sometimes wonder that some of our canoes or perogues are not
 swallowed up by means of these immence masses of earth which are
 eternally precipitating themselves into the river; we have had many
 hair breadth escapes from them but providence seems so to have ordered
 it that we have as yet sustained no loss in consequence of them. The
 wind blue very hard the forepart of last night but abated toward
 morning; it again arose in the after part of this day and retarded our
 progress very much. the high lands are broken, the hills higher and
 approach nearer the river, tho the soil of both hills and bottoms
 appear equally as furtile as below; it consists of a black looking tome
 with a moderate portion of sand; the hills and bluffs to the debth of
 20 or thirty feet, seemed to be composed entirely of this loam; when
 thrown in the water it desolves as readily as loaf sugar and
 effervesses like marle. great appearance of quarts and mineral salts,
 the latter appears both on the hills and bottoms, in the bottoms of the
 gullies which make down from the hills it lies incrusting the earth to
 the debth of 2 or 3 inches, and may with a fether be swept up and
 collected in large quantities, I preserved several specimines of this
 salts. the quarts appears most commonly in the faces of the bluffs. no
 coal, burnt hills, or pumice stone. saw today some high hills on the
 Stard. whose summits were covered with pine. Capt Clark went on shore
 and visited them; he brought with him on his return som of the boughs
 of this pine it is of the pitch kind but I think the leaves somewhat
 longer than ours in Virginia. Capt C. also in his walk killed 2 Mule
 deer a beaver and two buffaloe; these last he killed about 3 miles
 above where we encamped this evening in the expectation that we would
 reach that place, but we were unable to do so from the adverse winds
 and other occurrences, and he came down and joined us about dark. there
 is a dwarf cedar growing among the pine on the hills; it rises to the
 hight thre sometimes 4 feet, but most generally spreads itself like a
 vine along the surface of the earth, which it covers very closely,
 puting out roots from the underside of the limbs; the leaf is finer and
 more delicate than the common red ceader, it's fruit and smell are the
 same with the red ceader. the tops of these hills which produce the
 pine and cedar is of a different soil from that just described; it is a
 light coloured poor sterile sandy soil, the base usually a yellow or
 white clay; it produces scarcely any grass, some scattering tuffts of
 sedge constitutes the greater part of it's grass. About 5 P.M. my
 attention was struck by one of the Party runing at a distance towards
 us and making signs and hollowing as if in distress, I ordered the
 perogues to put too, and waited untill he arrived; I now found that it
 was Bratton the man with the soar hand whom I had permitted to walk on
 shore, he arrived so much out of breath that it was several minutes
 before he could tell what had happened; at length he informed me that
 in the woody bottom on the Lard. side about 11/2 below us he had shot a
 brown bear which immediately turned on him and pursued him a
 considerable distance but he had wounded it so badly that it could not
 overtake him; I immediately turned out with seven of the party in quest
 of this monster, we at length found his trale and persued him about a
 mile by the blood through very thick brush of rosbushes and the large
 leafed willow; we finally found him concealed in some very thick brush
 and shot him through the skull with two balls; we proceeded dress him
 as soon as possible, we found him in good order; it was a monstrous
 beast, not quite so large as that we killed a few days past but in all
 other rispects much the same the hair is remarkably long fine and rich
 tho he appears parshally to have discharged his winter coat; we now
 found that Bratton had shot him through the center of the lungs,
 notwithstanding which he had pursued him near half a mile and had
 returned more than double that distance and with his tallons had
 prepared himself a bed in the earth of about 2 feet deep and five long
 and was perfectly alive when we found him which could not have been
 less than 2 hours after he received the wound; these bear being so hard
 to die reather intimedates us all; I must confess that I do not like
 the gentlemen and had reather fight two Indians than one bear; there is
 no other chance to conquer them by a single shot but by shooting them
 through the brains, and this becomes difficult in consequence of two
 large muscles which cover the sides of the forehead and the sharp
 projection of the center of the frontal bone, which is also of a pretty
 good thickness. the flece and skin were as much as two men could
 possibly carry. by the time we returned the sun had set and I
 determined to remain here all night, and directed the cooks to render
 the bear's oil and put it in the kegs which was done. there was about
 eight gallons of it.
 the wild Hysop grows here and in all the country through which we have
 passed for many days past; tho from big Dry river to this place it has
 been more abundant than below, and a smaller variety of it grows on the
 hills, the leaves of which differ considerably being more deeply
 indented near it's extremity. the buffaloe deer and Elk feed on this
 herb in the winter season as they do also on the small willow of the
 sandbars. there is another growth that begins now to make it's
 appearance in the bottom lands and is becoming extreemly troublesome;
 it is a shrub which rises to the hight of from two to four feet, much
 branched, the bark of the trunk somewhat rough hard and of light grey
 colour; the wood is firm and stif, the branches beset with a great
 number of long, shap, strong, wooddy looking thorns; the leaf is about
 3/4 or an inch long, and one 1/8 of an inch wide, it is obtuse,
 absolutely entire, veinless fleshy and gibbose; has no perceptable
 taste or smell, and no anamal appears to eat it. by way of designating
 when I mention it hereafter I shall call it the fleshey leafed thorn
 [Clark, May 11, 1805]
 May the 11th Satturday 1805.
 Wind hard fore part of last night the latter part verry Cold a white
 frost this morning, the river riseing a little and verry Crooked the
 high land is rugged and approaches nearer than below, the hills and
 bluff exhibit more mineral quats & Salts than below, the gullies in
 maney places are white, and their bottoms one, two & 3 Inches deep of
 this mineral, no appearance of either burnt pumice Stone or Coal, the
 Countrey hilley on both Sides of a rich black earth, which disolves
 This kind of Countrey Continues of the Same quallity for maney miles on
 either Side, we observed Some hills which appeared to be timbered, I
 walked to this timber and found it to pitch pine & Dwarf Cedar, we
 observe in every derection Buffalow, Elk, Antelopes & Mule deer
 inumerable and So jintle that we Could approach near them with great
 ease, I killed 2 Mule Deer for the benifit of their Skins for the
 party, and about the place I expected the party would get to Camp I
 killed 2 fat Bulls for theire use, in my absence they had killed a fine
 fat Yellow bear below which detained them and they did not reach the
 place I expected, but had Camped on the Lard. Side about 2 miles below
 on my return to the party I killed a fat Beaver the wind blew verry
 hard from the S. W. all the after part of this day which retarded our
 progress verry much. river rose 2 In
 [Lewis, May 12, 1805]
 Sunday May 12th 1805.
 Set out at an early hour, the weather clear and Calm; I walked on shore
 this morning for the benifit of exersize which I much wanted, and also
 to examine the country and it's productions, in these excurtions I most
 generally went alone armed with my rifle and espontoon; thus equiped I
 feel myself more than an equal match for a brown bear provided I get
 him in open woods or near the water, but feel myself a little diffident
 with respect to an attack in the open plains, I have therefore come to
 a resolution to act on the defencive only, should I meet these
 gentlemen in the open country. I ascended the hills and had a view of a
 rough and broken country on both sides of the river; on the North side
 the summits of the hills exhibit some scattering pine and cedar, on the
 South side the pine has not yet commenced tho there is some cedar on
 the face of the hills and in the little ravines. the choke cherry also
 grows here in the hollows and at the heads of the gullies; the choke
 Cherry has been in blume since the ninth inst. this growth has
 freequently made it's appearance on the Missouri from the neighbourhood
 of the Baldpated Prarie, to this place in the form of it's leaf colour
 and appearance of it's bark, and general figure of it's growth it
 resembles much the Morillar cherry,1 tho much smaller not generally
 rising to a greater hight than from 6 to 10 feet and ascociating in
 thick clusters or clumps in their favorit situations which is usually
 the heads of small ravines or along the sides of small brooks which
 flow from the hills. the flowers which are small and white are
 supported by a common footstalk as those of the common wild cherry are,
 the corolla consists of five oval petals, five stamen and one
 pistillum, and of course of the Class and order Pentandria Monogynia.
 it bears a fruit which much resembles the wild cherry in form and
 colour tho larger and better flavoured; it's fruit ripens about the
 begining of July and continues on the trees untill the latter end of
 September--The Indians of the Missouri make great uce of this cherry
 which they prepare for food in various ways, sometimes eating when
 first plucked from the trees or in that state pounding them mashing the
 seed boiling them with roots or meat, or with the prarie beans and
 white-apple; again for their winter store they geather them and lay
 them on skins to dry in the sun, and frequently pound them and make
 them up in small roles or cakes and dry them in the sun; when thus
 dryed they fold them in skins or put them in bags of parchment and keep
 them through the winter either eating them in this state or boiling
 them as before mentioned. the bear and many birds also feed on these
 burries. the wild hysop sage, fleshey leaf thorn, and some other herbs
 also grow in the plains and hills, particularly the arromatic herb on
 which the Antelope and large hare feed. The soil has now changed it's
 texture considerably; the base of the hills and river bottoms continue
 the same and are composed of a rich black loam while the summits of the
 hills and about half their hight downwards are of a light brown colour,
 poor sterile and intermixed with a coarse white sand. about 12 OClock
 the wind veered about to the N. W. and blew so hard that we were
 obliged to Ly by the ballance of the day. we saw great quantities of
 game as usual. the bottom lands still becomeing narrower.
 About sunset it began to rain, and continued to fall a few drops at a
 time untill midnight; the wind blew violently all night.
 [Clark, May 12, 1805]
 May 12th Sunday 1805.
 Set out at an early hour, the morning Clear and Calm, Capt. Lewis
 walked on Shore this morning about 12 oClock the wind becam Strong from
 the E. about half past one oClock the wind Shifted round to the N. W.
 and blew verry hard all the latter part of the day, which obliged us to
 Lay by--The Countrey is hilley & rugged and the earth of a lightish
 brown and but indifferent, Some Small Cedar is Scattered on the Sides
 of the hils & in the hollars, Some pine ridges is also to be Seen on
 the North Side, we observe great quantites of game as usual. I killed a
 beaver in the water, Saw Several Sitting on the bank near the waters
 edge about Sunset it began to rain, and rained very moderately only a
 fiew drops at a time for about half the night, wind Continued violent
 all night
 [Lewis, May 13, 1805]
 Monday May 13th 1805.
 The wind continued to blow so violently this morning that we did not
 think it prudent to set out. sent out some hunters. At 1 P.M. the wind
 abated, and altho the hunters had not all returned we set out; the
 courant reather stronger than usual and the water continues to become
 reather clearer, from both which I anticipate a change of Country
 shortly. the country much the same as yesterday; but little timber in
 the bottoms and a scant proportion of pine an cedar crown the Stard.
 hills. Capt C. who was on shore the greater part of the day killed a
 mule and a Common deer, the party killed several deer and some Elk
 principally for the benefit of their skins which are necessary to them
 for cloathing, the Elk skins I now begin to reserve for making the
 leather boat at the falls. the hunters joined us this evening; Gibson
 had wounded a very large brown bear but it was too late in the evening
 to pursue him.
 [Clark, May 13, 1805]
 13th of May Monday 1805
 The wind Continued to blow hard untill one oClock P M. to day at which
 time it fell a little and we Set out and proceeded on verry well about
 9 miles and Camped on the Lard Side. the countrey much the Same
 appearance as yesterday but little timber in the bottoms; Some Pine in
 places on the Stard. Hills. I killed two deer this evening one a mule
 deer & the other a common Deer, the party killed Several this morning
 all for the use of their Skins which are now good, one man Gibson
 wounded a verry large brown bear, too late this evening to prosue him-
 We passed two Creeks in a bend to the Lard Side neither them had any
 water, are somewhat wider; passed some high black bluffs. saw immence
 herds of buffaloe today also Elk deer wolves and Antelopes. passed
 three large creeks one on the Stard. and two others on the Lard. side,
 neither of which had any runing water. Capt Clark walked on shore and
 killed a very fine buffaloe cow. I felt an inclination to eat some veal
 and walked on shore and killed a very fine buffaloe calf and a large
 woolf, much the whitest I had seen, it was quite as white as the wool
 of the common sheep. one of the party wounded a brown bear very badly,
 but being alone did not think proper to pursue him. In the evening the
 men in two of the rear canoes discovered a large brown bear lying in
 the open grounds about 300 paces from the river, and six of them went
 out to attack him, all good hunters; they took the advantage of a small
 eminence which concealed them and got within 40 paces of him
 unperceived, two of them reserved their fires as had been previously
 conscerted, the four others fired nearly at the same time and put each
 his bullet through him, two of the balls passed through the bulk of
 both lobes of his lungs, in an instant this monster ran at them with
 open mouth, the two who had reserved their fires discharged their
 pieces at him as he came towards them, boath of them struck him, one
 only slightly and the other fortunately broke his shoulder, this
 however only retarded his motion for a moment only, the men unable to
 reload their guns took to flight, the bear pursued and had very nearly
 overtaken them before they reached the river; two of the party betook
 themselves to a canoe and the others seperated an concealed themselves
 among the willows, reloaded their pieces, each discharged his piece at
 him as they had an opportunity they struck him several times again but
 the guns served only to direct the bear to them, in this manner he
 pursued two of them seperately so close that they were obliged to throw
 aside their guns and pouches and throw themselves into the river altho
 the bank was nearly twenty feet perpendicular; so enraged was this
 anamal that he plunged into the river only a few feet behind the second
 man he had compelled take refuge in the water, when one of those who
 still remained on shore shot him through the head and finally killed
 him; they then took him on shore and butched him when they found eight
 balls had passed through him in different directions; the bear being
 old the flesh was indifferent, they therefore only took the skin and
 fleece, the latter made us several gallons of oil; it was after the sun
 had set before these men come up with us, where we had been halted by
 an occurrence, which I have now to recappitulate, and which altho
 happily passed without ruinous injury, I cannot recollect but with the
 utmost trepidation and horror; this is the upseting and narrow escape
 of the white perogue It happened unfortunately for us this evening that
 Charbono was at the helm of this Perogue, in stead of Drewyer, who had
 previously steered her; Charbono cannot swim and is perhaps the most
 timid waterman in the world; perhaps it was equally unluckey that Capt.
 C. and myself were both on shore at that moment, a circumstance which
 rarely happened; and tho we were on the shore opposite to the perogue,
 were too far distant to be heard or to do more than remain spectators
 of her fate; in this perogue ____ were embarked, our papers,
 Instruments, books medicine, a great part of our merchandize and in
 short almost every article indispensibly necessary to further the
 views, or insure the success of the enterprize in which we are now
 launched to the distance of 2200 miles. surfice it to say, that the
 Perogue was under sail when a sudon squawl of wind struck her
 obliquely, and turned her considerably, the steersman allarmed, in
 stead of puting her before the wind, lufted her up into it, the wind
 was so violent that it drew the brace of the squarsail out of the hand
 of the man who was attending it, and instantly upset the perogue and
 would have turned her completely topsaturva, had it not have been from
 the resistance mad by the oarning against the water; in this situation
 Capt. C and myself both fired our guns to attract the attention if
 possible of the crew and ordered the halyards to be cut and the sail
 hawled in, but they did not hear us; such was their confusion and
 consternation at this moment, that they suffered the perogue to lye on
 her side for half a minute before they took the sail in, the perogue
 then wrighted but had filled within an inch of the gunwals; Charbono
 still crying to his god for mercy, had not yet recollected the rudder,
 nor could the repeated orders of the Bowsman, Cruzat, bring him to his
 recollection untill he threatend to shoot him instantly if he did not
 take hold of the rudder and do his duty, the waves by this time were
 runing very high, but the fortitude resolution and good conduct of
 Cruzat saved her; he ordered 2 of the men to throw out the water with
 some kettles that fortunately were convenient, while himself and two
 others rowed her ashore, where she arrived scarcely above the water; we
 now took every article out of her and lay them to drane as well as we
 could for the evening, baled out the canoe and secured her; there were
 two other men beside Charbono on board who could not swim, and who of
 course must also have perished had the perogue gone to the bottom.
 while the perogue lay on her side, finding I could not be heard, I for
 a moment forgot my own situation, and involluntarily droped my gun,
 threw aside my shot pouch and was in the act of unbuttoning my coat,
 before I recollected the folly of the attempt I was about to make,
 which was to throw myself into the river and indevour to swim to the
 perogue; the perogue was three hundred yards distant the waves so high
 that a perogue could scarcely live in any situation, the water
 excessively could, and the stream rappid; had I undertaken this project
 therefore, there was a hundred to one but what I should have paid the
 forfit of my life for the madness of my project, but this had the
 perogue been lost, I should have valued but little.--After having all
 matters arranged for the evening as well as the nature of circumstances
 would permit, we thought it a proper occasion to console ourselves and
 cheer the sperits of our men and accordingly took a drink of grog and
 gave each man a gill of sperits.
 [Clark, May 14, 1805]
 14th of May Tuesday 1805
 A verry Clear Cold morning a white frost & some fog on the river the
 Thermomtr Stood at 32 above 0, wind from the S. W. we proceeded on
 verry well untill about 6 oClock a Squawl of wind Struck our Sale broad
 Side and turned the perogue nearly over, and in this Situation the
 Perogue remained untill the Sale was Cut down in which time She nearly
 filed with water--the articles which floated out was nearly all caught
 by the Squar who was in the rear. This accident had like to have cost
 us deerly; for in this perogue were embarked our papers, Instruments,
 books, medicine, a great proportion of our merchandize, and in short
 almost every article indispensibly necessary to further the views, or
 insure the success of the enterprize in which, we are now launched to
 the distance of 2,200 miles. it happened unfortunately that Capt. Lewis
 and myself were both on shore at the time of this occurrence, a
 circumstance which seldom took place; and tho we were on the shore
 opposit to the perogue were too far distant to be heard or do more than
 remain spectators of her fate; we discharged our guns with the hope of
 attracting the attention of the crew and ordered the sail to be taken
 in but such was their consternation and confusion at the instant that
 they did not hear us. when however they at length took in the sail and
 the perogue wrighted; the bowsman Cruzatte by repeated threats so far
 brought Charbono the Sternman to his recollection that he did his duty
 while two hands bailed the perogue and Cruzatte and two others rowed
 her on shore were she arrived scarcely above the water. we owe the
 preservation of the perogue to the resolution and fortitude of Cruzatte
 The Countrey like that of yesterday, passed a Small Island and the
 enterence of 3 large Creeks, one on the Stard. & the other 2 on the
 Lard Side, neither of them had any running water at this time--Six good
 hunters of the party fired at a Brown or Yellow Bear Several times
 before they killed him, & indeed he had like to have defeated the whole
 party, he pursued them Seperately as they fired on him, and was near
 Catching Several of them one he pursued into the river, this bear was
 large & fat would way about 500 wt; I killed a Buffalow, & Capt. Lewis
 a Calf & a wolf this evening.
 [Lewis, May 15, 1805]
 Wednesday May 15th
 as soon as a slight shower of rain passed over this morning, we spread
 the articles to dry which had got wet yesterday in the white perogue;
 tho the day proved so cloudy and damp that they received but little
 benifit from the sun or air; we were enabled to put them in such a
 state as to prevent their sustaining further injury. our hunters killed
 several deer, and saw three bear one of which they wounded.
 [Clark, May 15, 1805]
 May 15th Wednesday 1805
 Our medisons, Instruments, merchandize, Clothes, provisions &c. &c.
 which was nearly all wet we had put out to air and dry. the day being
 Cloudy & rainey those articles dried but little to day--our hunters
 killed Several deer &c. and Saw three Bear one of which they wounded &c.
 We see Buffalow on the banks dead, others floating down dead, and
 others mired every day, those buffalow either drown in Swiming the
 river or brake thro the ice
 [Lewis, May 16, 1805]
 Thursday May 16th
 The morning was fair and the day proved favorable to our operations; by
 4 oClock in the evening our Instruments, Medicine, merchandize
 provision &c, were perfectly dryed, repacked and put on board the
 perogue. the loss we sustained was not so great as we had at first
 apprehended; our medicine sustained the greatest injury, several
 articles of which were intirely spoiled, and many others considerably
 injured; the ballance of our losses consisted of some gardin seeds, a
 small quantity of gunpowder, and a few culinary articles which fell
 overboard and sunk, the Indian woman to whom I ascribe equal fortitude
 and resolution, with any person onboard at the time of the accedent,
 caught and preserved most of the light articles which were washed
 overboard all matters being now arranged for our departure we lost no
 time in seting out; proceeced on tolerably well about seven miles and
 encamped on the Stard. side. in the early part of the day two of our
 men fired on a panther, a little below our encampment, and wounded it;
 they informed us that it was very large, had just killed a deer partly
 devoured it, and in the act of concealing the ballance as they
 discovered him. we caught two Antelopes at our encampment in attempting
 to swim the river; these anamals are but lean as yet, and of course not
 very pleasant food. I walked on shore this evening and killed a
 buffaloe cow and calf, we found the calf most excellent veal. the
 country on either side of the river is broken and hills much higher
 than usual, the bottoms now become narrow and the timber more scant;
 some scattering pine and cedar on the steep declivities of the hills.-
 this morning a white bear toar Labuiche's coat which he had left in the
 [Clark, May 16, 1805]
 May 16th Thursday 1805 a fair morning our articles all out to Dry at 4
 oClock we had every thing that was Saved dry and on bord, our loss is
 Some medison, Powder, Seeds, & Several articles which Sunk, and maney
 Spoiled had a medn. altitude which gave for Latd. _° _' _" N.--two of our
 men fired at a pant hr a little below our Camp, this animale they say
 was large, had Caught a Deer & eate it half & buried the ballance. a
 fiew antilope Swam the river near our Camp two of them were Cought by
 the party in the river. at half past 4 oClock we Set out and proceeded
 on verry well ____ miles and incamped on the Std. Side the Countrey as
 before hilley & broken verry Small proprotion of timber in the points,
 Some little pine & Ceader in the hills
 Buffalow & Deer is yet plenty on the river in the small timbered
 bottoms Capt Lewis walked out on the Std. Side and killed a Cow & Calf
 the calf was verry fine their bases. it is somewhat singular that the
 lower part of these hills appear to be formed of a dark rich loam while
 the upper region about 150 feet is formed of a whiteish brown sand, so
 hard in many parts as to resemble stone; but little rock or stone of
 any kind to be seen in these hills. the river is much narrower than
 usual, the bed from 200 to 300 yards only and possessing a much larger
 proportion of gravel than usual. a few scattering cottonwood trees are
 the only timber near the river; the sandbars, and with them the willow
 points have almost entirely disappeared. greater appearance than usual
 of the saline incrustations of the banks and river hills. we passed two
 creeks the one on Stard. side, and the other just below our camp on the
 Lard. side; each of these creeks afford a small quantity of runing
 water, of a brackish tast. the great number of large beds of streams
 perfectly dry which we daily pass indicate a country but badly watered,
 which I fear is the case with the country through which we have been
 passing for the last fifteen or twenty days. Capt Clark walked on shore
 this evening and killed an Elk; buffaloe are not so abundant as they
 were some days past. the party with me killed a female brown bear, she
 was but meagre, and appeared to have suckled young very recently. Capt.
 Clark narrowly escaped being bitten by a rattlesnake in the course of
 his walk, the party killed one this evening at our encampment, which he
 informed me was similar to that he had seen; this snake is smaller than
 those common to the middle Atlantic States, being about 2 feet 6 inches
 long; it is of a yellowish brown colour on the back and sides,
 variagated with one row of oval spots of a dark brown colour lying
 transversely over the back from the neck to the tail, and two other
 rows of small circular spots of the same colour which garnis the sides
 along the edge of the scuta. it's bely contains 176 scuta on the belly
 and 17 on the tale. Capt Clark informed me that he saw some coal which
 had been brought down by the water of the last creek we passed; this
 creek also throws out considerable quantities of Driftwood, though
 there is no timber on it which can be perceived from the Missouri; we
 called this stream rattlesnake creek. Capt Clark saw an Indian
 fortifyed camp this evening, which appeared to have been recently
 occupyed, from which we concluded it was probable that it had been
 formed by a war party of the Menetares who left their vilage in March
 last with a view to attack the blackfoot Indians in consequence of
 their having killed some of their principal warriors the previous
 autumn. we were roused late at night by the Sergt. of the guard, and
 warned of the danger we were in from a large tree that had taken fire
 and which leant immediately over our lodge. we had the loge removed,
 and a few minutes after a large proportion of the top of the tree fell
 on the place the lodge had stood; had we been a few minutes later we
 should have been crushed to attoms. the wind blew so hard, that
 notwithstanding the lodge was fifty paces distant from the fire it
 sustained considerable injury from the burning coals which were thrown
 on it; the party were much harrassed also by this fire which
 communicated to a collection of fallen timber, and could not be
 [Clark, May 17, 1805]
 May 17th Friday 1805
 a fine morning wind from the N W. mercury at 60° a 0. river falling a
 little. we Set out at an early hour and proceeded on verry well by the
 assistance of the Toe rope principally, the Countrey verry rugged &
 hills high and the river washing the base on each Side, Great
 appearance of the Salt Substance. a fiew Cotton trees is the only
 timber which is Scattered in the bottoms & the hills contain a fiew
 Pine & Cedar, which is Scattered. river much narrower than below from 2
 to 300 yards wide, the bottoms muddey & hills rich earth except near
 their topes--We passed 2 large Creeks to day one on the Starbd Side and
 the other just below our camp on the Lard. Side each of those creeks
 has a little running water near their mouthes which has a brackish
 taste, I was nearly treading on a Small fierce rattle Snake different
 from any I had ever Seen &c. one man the party killed another of the
 Same kind. I walked on Shore after dinner & killed an Elk--the party in
 my absence Killed a female Brown or yellow Bear which was meagre the
 appearances of the Hills & Countrey is as before mentioned except a
 greater appearance of the white appearance of Salts or tarter and Some
 Coal which has been thrown out by the floods in the last Creek-
 Buffalow & Deer is not plenty to day, Elk is yet to be Seen in
 abundance we Camped in the upper part of a Small timbered bottom on the
 Lard. Side in which I Saw a fortified Indian Camp, which I Suppose is
 one of the Camps of a Mi ne tar re war party of about 15 men, that Set
 out from their village in March last to war against the Blackfoot
 we were roused late at night and warned of the danger of fire from a
 tree which had Cought and leaned over our Lodge, we had the lodge moved
 Soon after the Dry limbs & top of the tree fell in the place the Lodge
 Stood, the wind blew hard and the dry wood Cought & fire flew in every
 direction, burnt our Lodge verry much from the Coals which fell on it
 altho at Some distance in the plain, the whole party was much disturbed
 by this fire which could not be extinguished &c
 [Lewis, May 18, 1805]
 Saturday May 18th 1805.
 The wind blew hard this morning from the West. we were enabled to
 employ our toe line the greater part of the day and therefore proceeded
 on tolerably well. there are now but few sandbars, the river is narrow
 and current gentle. the timber consists of a few cottonwood trees along
 the verge of the river; the willow has in a great measure disappeared.
 in the latter part of the day the hills widened, the bottoms became
 larger, and contained more timber. we passed a creek on the Stard. side
 about three oclock, which afforded no water; came too and encamped on
 the Lard. side opposite to the lower point of a small Island, two miles
 short of the extremity of the last course of this day. Capt Clark in
 the course of his walk this evening killed four deer, two of which were
 the black tailed or mule deer; the skins are now good, they have not
 yet produced their young.--we saw a number of buffaloe, Elk, deer and
 Antelopes.--the saline substance frequently mentioned continues to
 appear as usual.-
 [Clark, May 18, 1805]
 May 18th Satturday 1805
 A windey morning wind from the West we proceeded on verry well with the
 assistance of the Toe Coard, river narrow but flew Sand bars, & current
 jentle, but a few Cotton Trees Contained in the bottoms willow is not
 common on the bears as usial Some little on the Sides of the river is
 yet to be Seen, the after part of the day was Cloudy & at about 12
 oClock it began to rain and continued moderately for about 11/2 hours,
 not Sufficient to wet a man thro his clothes; this is the first rain
 Since we Set out this Spring The hills widen and the bottoms Contain
 more timber than for Several days past, we passed a Wisers Creek on the
 Std. Side about 3 oClock and Camped on the Lard Side opposit the lower
 point of a handsom little Island near the middle of the river. I walked
 on Shore and killed four Deer, 2 common & 2 mule deer, one of which had
 3 fauns, 2 others had 2 each, those deer are fat, & their Skins
 tolerable good, which are now in demand with us for clothes Such as
 Legins & Mockersons, I Saw great numbers of Buffalows & Elk; Some of
 the party Shoot & Catch beaver every day & night
 [Lewis, May 19, 1805]
 Sunday May 19th 1805.
 The last night was disagreeably could; we were unable to set out untill
 8 oclock A.M. in consequence of a heavy fogg, which obscured the river
 in such a manner that we could not see our way; this is the first we
 have experienced in any thing like so great a degree; there was also a
 fall of due last evening, which is the second we have experienced since
 we have entered this extensive open country. at eight we set out and
 proceeded as yesterday by means of the cord principally, the hills are
 high and the country similar to that of yesterday. Capt Clark walked on
 shore with two of the hunters and killed a brown bear; notwithstanding
 that it was shot through the heart it ran at it's usual pace near a
 quarter of a mile before it fell. one of the party wounded a beaver,
 and my dog as usual swam in to catch it; the beaver bit him through the
 hind leg and cut the artery; it was with great difficulty that I could
 stop the blood; I fear it will yet prove fatal to him. on Capt. Clark's
 return he informed me that he had from the top of one of the adjacent
 hights discovered the entrance of a large stream which discharged
 itself into the Missouri on the Lard. side distant 6 or seven miles;
 from the same place he also saw a range of Mountains, bearing W.
 distant 40 or 50 miles; they appeared to proceed in a S. S. W.
 direction; the N. N. E. extremity of these mountains appeared abrupt.
 This afternoon the river was croked, rappid and containing more sawyers
 than we have seen in the same space since we left the entrance of the
 river Platte. Capt. C. in the course of his walk killed three deer and
 a beaver, I also walked on shore this evening a few miles and killed an
 Elk, a buck, and a beaver. the party killed and caught 4 other beaver &
 3 deer.
 The men complain much of sore eyes and imposthumes.
 [Clark, May 19, 1805]
 May 19th Sunday 1805
 a verry cold night, the murckery Stood at 38 at 8 oClock this morning,
 a heavy dew which is the 2d I have Seen this Spring. The fog (which was
 the first) was So thick this morning that we could not Set out untill
 the Sun was about 2 hours up, at which time a Small breeze Sprung up
 from the E. which Cleared off the fog & we proceeded on by means of the
 Cord The hills are high & rugged the Countrey as yesterday--I walked on
 Shore with two men we killed a white or grey bear; not withstanding
 that it was Shot through the heart it ran at it's usial pace near a
 quarter of a mile before it fell. Capt Lewis's dog was badly bitten by
 a wounded beaver and was near bleading to death-. after killing the
 Bear I continued my walk alone, & killed 3 Deer & a Beaver; finding
 that the Perogues were below I assended the highest hill I could See,
 from the top of which I Saw the mouth of M. Shell R & the meanderings
 of the Missouri for a long distance. I also Saw a high mountain in a
 westerley direction, bearing S. S W. about 40 or 50 miles distant, in
 the evening the river was verry Crooked and much more rapid &
 Containing more Sawyers than any which we have passed above the River
 Platte Capt Lewis walked on Shore this after noon & killed an Elk, Buck
 & a Beaver, I kiled three Deer at dinner, the hunters killed three
 other Deer to day Several beaver also killed. We Camped on the Stard
 Side in a bottom of Small Cotton wood
 [Lewis, May 20, 1805]
 Monday May 20th 1805
 Set out at an early hour as usual, the banks being favourable and water
 strong we employed the toe rope principally; river narrow and croked;
 country much as that of yesterday; immence number of the prickley pears
 in the plains and on the hills. At the distance of 21/4 miles passed
 the entrance of a large Creek, affording but little water; this stream
 we named Blowing Fly Creek, from the immence quantities of those
 insects found in this neighbourhood, they infest our meat while
 roasting or boiling, and we are obliged to brush them off our provision
 as we eat. At 11 A.M. we arrived at the entrance of a handsome bold
 river which discharges itself into the Missouri on the Lard. side; this
 stream we take to be that called by the Minnetares the ____ or
 Muscleshell River; if it be the same, of which I entertain but little
 doubt, it takes it's rise, by their information in the 1st Chain of the
 Rocky Mountains at no great distance from the Yellow stone river, from
 whence in it's course to this place it passes through a high and broken
 country pretty well timbered, particularly on it's borders, and
 intersperced with handsome fertile plains and medows. but from the
 circumstance of the same Indians informing us that we should find a
 well timbered country in the neighbourhood of it's mouth, I am induced
 to beleive that the timbered country of which they speak is similar to
 that we have passed for a day or two, or that in our view above, which
 consists of nothing more than a few scattering small scrubby pine and
 dwarf cedar on the summits of some of the highest hills nine tenths of
 the country being wholy destitute of timber of any kind, covered with a
 short grass, arromatic herbs and the prickley pear; the river bottom
 however, so far as we have explored it or 8 m. are well stocked with
 Cottonwood timber of tollerable size, & lands of excellent quality. We
 halted at thentrance of the river on the point formed by it's junction
 with the Missouri determining to spend the day, make the necessary
 observations and send out some hunters to explore the country. The
 Muscle Shell river falls into the Missouri 2270 miles above it's mouth,
 and is 110 yards in width, it affords much more water than streams of
 it's width generally do below, it's courant is by no means rappid, and
 from appearances it might be navigated with canoes a considerable
 distance; it's bed is coarse sand and gravel principally with an
 occasion mixture of black mud; it's banks abbrupt and about 12 feet
 high yet never appear to overflow; the waters of this river is of a
 greenish yellow cast, much more transparent than the Missouri, which
 last is also much more transparent than below but still retains it's
 whiteish hue and a proportion of it's sedement. the Missouri opposite
 to this point is deep, gentle in it's courant, and 222 yards in width.
 The hunters returned this evening and informed us that the country
 continued much the same in appearance as that we saw where we were or
 broken, and that about five miles abe the mouth of shell river a
 handsome river of about fifty yards in width discharged itself into the
 shell river on the Stard. or upper side; this stream we called
 Sah-ca-gar me-ah or bird woman's River, after our interpreter the Snake
 woman. Shields also found a bould spring or fountain issuing from the
 foot of the Lard. hills about 4 miles up the Missouri; a fountain in
 this plain country is a great novelty; I have not seen a bould fountain
 of pure water except one since I left the Mandans; there a number of
 small ones but all without exception are impregnated with the salts
 which abound in this country, and with which I believe the Missoury
 itself considerably impregnated but to us in the habit of useing it not
 perceptible; the exception I make is a very fine fountain under the
 bluffs on the Lard. side of the Missouri and at a distance from the
 river about five miles below the entrance of the yellowstone River. The
 sands of the Missouri are not so abundant as they have been for some
 time past, being confined to the points only; the bed of the river
 principally mud and still too deep to use the seting pole. Capt. Clark
 walked out today and killed two deer and an Elk, the hunters killed 4
 deer and elk and a buffaloe. I saw two large Owls with remarkable long
 feathers on the sides of the head which resembled ears; I take them to
 be the large hooting owl tho they are somewhat larger and their colours
 brighter than those common to the J States.-
 [Clark, May 20, 1805]
 May 20th Monday 1805
 a fine morning wind from the N E. river falling a little We Set out at
 7 oClock and proceeded on verry well as usial by the assistance of the
 Cord passed Some verry Swift water, river narrow and Crooked, at 11
 oClock arrived at the mouth of Shell river on the Lard Side and formed
 a Camp for the present. haveing passed a large Creek about 4 miles
 below on the Ld Side which we call Blowing fly Creek from the emence
 quantites of those insects which geather on our meat in Such numbers
 that we are oblige to brush them off what we eate.
 muscle Shell River falls in on Lard Side 2270 miles up Contains a
 greater perportion of water than Rivers of its Size below, I measured
 it and find it to be 110 yards wide, the water of a Greenish yellow
 Colour, and appers to be navagable for Small Craft, The Minetarras
 inform us that this river heads in the 1st of the rockey Mountains &
 passes through a broken Countrey. its head at no great distance from
 the Yellow Stone River The Countrey about this river as described
 yesterday we took the Meredian altitude 59° 50' 0" back observation and
 found the Latd. to be 47° 0' 24"
 The Missouri at the mouth of Shell River is 222 yards wide with a Smoth
 Current the Missouri water is not So muddey as below, but retains
 nearly its usial Cholour, and the Sands principally Confined to the
 points I killed two Deer & an Elk, the hunters killed an Elk & Several
 deer mearly for their Skins to make Leagins,--Sent men out in every
 derection, the Countrey generally verry broken Some leavel plains up
 the Shell river The bottoms of the Shell river is well timbered as also
 a Small river which falls into that river on the upper Side 5 miles
 above its mouth. The hills on the Lard. Contain Scattering Pine & Cedar.
 [Lewis, May 21, 1805]
 Tuesday May 21st 1805
 A delightfull morning set out at an early hour and proceeded on very
 well, imployed the chord principally; the shores are abbrupt and bould
 and composed of a black and yellow clay; see no extensive collection of
 pure sand, the bars are composed black mud and a small poportion of
 fine sand; the courant still pretty strong. the Missouri in it's course
 downward makes a suddon and extensive bend to receive the Muscle shell
 river, the point of country thus formed tho high is still much lower
 than that surrounding it, thus forming a valley of wavey country which
 extends itself for a great distance in a Northerly direction; the soil
 is fertile, produces a fine turf of low grass and some herbs, also
 immence quantities of the Prickley pear, without a stick of timber of
 any discription. the country on the South side is high broken and
 crowned with some scrubby pines and dwarf cedar; the leaf of this pine
 is much longer than the common pitch or red pine of Virginia, the cone
 is also longer and slimer, and the imbrications wider and thicker, and
 the whole frequently covered with rosin. Mineral appearances as usual.
 the growse or praire hen are now less abundant on the river than they
 were below; perhaps they betake themselves to the open plains at a
 distance from the river at this season.-
 The wind which was moderate all the fore part of the day continued to
 encrease in the evening, and about dark veered about to N. W. and blew
 a storm all night, in short we found ourselves so invelloped with
 clouds of dust and sand that we could neither cook, eat, nor sleep; and
 were finally compelled to remove our lodge about eight oClock at night
 to the foot of an adjacent hill where we were covered in some measure
 from the wind by the hills. several loose articles blown over board and
 lost. our first station was on a bar on Stard. opposite the lower point
 of a small Island, which we now called windy Island. the bends of the
 river are short and suddon, the points covered with some cottonwood,
 larger willow, or broadleafed willow with an abundance of the wild rose
 and some small honeysuckle bushes constitute the undergrowth, the
 redwood is also found in small quantities. Capt. C walked on shore
 today and killed 2 Elk; the party killed several deer and a buffaloe
 [Clark, May 21, 1805]
 May 21st Tuesday 1805.
 a butifull morning, wind from the West, river falling a little, we Set
 out at an early hour and proceed on in the usial way by the assistance
 of the Coard principally, but little use of the Oares & less with the
 poles as the bottoms are muddey, we Se no great bodies of pure Sand the
 bars & points are rich mud mixed with fine Sand. I walked on Shore
 Stard. Side the river makes a great bend to the South to receve Shell
 River, the boint for many miles out in a Northerley direction is a rich
 uneaven valley Contain Some Short grass, and Prickley pears without
 timber The Countrey on the South Side of the Missouri is high, Soil and
 mineral appearance as usial, more Scattering pine & Cedar on the hills,
 the wind which blew moderatly all the forepart of the day increassd and
 about Dark Shifted to the N W. and Stormed all night, Several loose
 articles were blown over board, our lodge & Camp which was on a Sand
 bar on the Std. Side & opposite to the lower point of an Island we were
 obliged to move under the hills, the dust & Sand blew in clouds. The
 bends of the river are Short and points Covered with Cotton wood under
 groth wild rose bushes I killed 2 Elk to day Several Deer Killd. & a
 Buffalow Cow.
 [Lewis, May 22, 1805]
 Wednesday May 22cd 1805.
 The wind blew so violently this morning that we did not think it
 prudent to set out untill it had in some measure abated; this did not
 happen untill 10 A.M. when we proceeded principally by the toe lines
 the bottoms somewhat wider than usual, the lands fertile or apparently
 so tho the short grass and the scantey proportion of it on the hills
 would indicate no great fertility. passed Windy Island on Lard. at 1 M.
 51/2 miles above passed a large Island in a bend on Stard. side, and
 three miles further on the same side passed the entrance of grows Creek
 20 yds wide, affords but little water. this creek we named from seeing
 a number of the pointed tail praire hen near it's mouth, these are the
 fist we have seen in such numbers for some days. I walked on shore this
 morning the country is not so broken as yesterday tho still high and
 roling or wavy; the hills on Lard. side possess more pine than usual;
 some also on the Stard. hills. Salts and other mineral appearances as
 usual. the river continues about the same width or from 200 to 250 yds.
 wide, fewer sandbars and the courant more gentle and regular; game not
 so abundant as below the Muscle Shell river. I killed a deer in the
 course of my walk today. Capt. C. also walked out this evening and took
 a view of the country from a conspicuous point and found it the same as
 has been discribed. we have caught but few fish since we left the
 Mandans, they do not bite freely, what we took were the white cat of 2
 to 5 lbs. I presume that fish are scarce in this part of the river. We
 encamped earlyer this evening than usual in order render the oil of a
 bear which we killed. I do not believe that the Black bear common to
 the lower part of this river and the Atlantic States, exists in this
 quarter; we have neither seen one of them nor their tracks which would
 be easily distinguished by it's shortness of tallons when compared with
 the brown grizly or white bear. I believe that it is the same species
 or family of bears which assumes all those colours at different ages
 and seasons of the year.
 [Clark, May 22, 1805]
 May 22nd Wednesday 1805
 The wind Continued to blow So violently hard we did not think it
 prudent to Set out untill it luled a little, about 10 oClock we Set out
 the morning Cold, passed a Small Island in the bend to the Lard Side, &
 proceeded on at 5 miles higher passed a Island in a bend to the Stard
 Side, and a Creek a Short distance above on the Stard Side 20 yds. w
 Capt Lewis walked out before dinner & Killed a Deer, I walked out after
 dinner and assended & but a few miles to view the Countrey, which I
 found roleing & of a verry rich Stickey Soil produceing but little
 vegitation of any kind except the prickley-piar, but little grass &
 that verry low. a great deal of Scattering Pine on the Lard Side & Some
 fur on the Stard. Sd. The mineral productions as described in the
 proceeding days, game not So abundant as below, the river Continue
 about the Same width, fewer Sand bars & current more regular, river
 falls about an inch a day We camped on the Stard. Side, earlier than we
 intend on account of Saveing the oil of a bear which the party killed
 late this afternoon.
 Maney of the Creeks which appear to have no water near ther mouths have
 Streams of running water higher up which rise & waste in the Sand or
 gravel. the water of those Creeks are So much impregnated with the Salt
 Substance that it cannot be Drank with pleasure.
 [Lewis, May 23, 1805]
 Thursday May 23rd 1805.
 Set out early this morning, the frost was severe last night, the ice
 appeared along the edge of the water, water also freized on the oars.
 at the distance of one mile passed the entrance of a creek 15 yds. wide
 on Stard. side, this we call Teapot Creek, it affords no water at it's
 mouth but has runing water at some small distance above, this I beleive
 to be the case with many of those creekes which we have passed since we
 entered this hilley country, the water is absorbed by the earth near
 the river and of course appear dry; they afford but little water at any
 rate, and that is so strongly impregnated with these salts that it is
 unfit for uce; all the wild anamals appear fond of this water; I have
 tryed it by way of experiment & find it moderately pergative, but
 painfull to the intestens in it's opperation. this creek runs directly
 towards some low mountains which lye N. W. of it and appear to be about
 30 mes. distant, perhaps it heads in them. This range of mountains
 appear to be about 70 miles long runing from E to W. having their
 Eastern extremity about 30 mes. distant in a northwardly direction from
 pot Island.--also passed two small creeks on Lard. and two others on
 Stard. all inconsiderable and dry at their entrances. just above the
 entrance of Teapot Creek on the stard. there is a large assemblage of
 the burrows of the Burrowing Squirrel they generally seelect a south or
 a south Easterly exposure for their residence, and never visit the
 brooks or river for water; I am astonished how this anamal exists as it
 dose without water, particularly in a country like this where there is
 scarcely any rain during Yi of the year and more rarely any due; yet we
 have sometimes found their villages at the distance of five or six
 miles from any water, and they are never found out of the limits of the
 ground which their burrows occupy; in the Autumn when the hard frosts
 commence they close their burrows and do not venture out again untill
 spring, indeed some of them appear to be yet in winter quarters. passed
 3 Islands the two first covered with tall cottonwood timber and the
 last with willows only. river more rappid, & the country much the same
 as yesterday. some spruce pine of small size appears among the pitch
 pine, and reather more rock than usual on the face of the hills. The
 musquetoes troublesome this evening, a circumstance I did not expect
 from the temperature of the morning. The Gees begin to lose the
 feathers of their wings and are unable to fly. Capt Clark walked on
 shore and killed 4 deer and an Elk. We killed a large fat brown bear
 which took the water after being wounded and was carried under some
 driftwood where he sunk and we were unable to get him. Saw but few
 buffaloe today, but a great number of Elk, deer, some antelopes and 5
 bear. The wild rose which is now in blume are very abundant, they
 appear to differ but little from those common to the Atlantic States,
 the leaves of the bushes and the bush itself appear to be of somewhat
 smaller size.
 [Clark, May 23, 1805]
 May 23rd Thursday 1805
 a Severe frost last night, the Thrmotr. Stood at the freesing point
 this morning i e 32 a 0. wind S W. the water freeses on the oars. Ice
 on the edge of the river we Set out at an early hour and passed the
 mouth a Creek at 1 mile on the Stard. Side which heads in a mountain N
 W of its mouth 30 or _____ miles, the Countrey on each Side is as
 passed yesterday passed 2 Small Creeks on the Stard & 2 on the Lard.
 Side to day. a mountain which appears to be 60 or 70 miles long bearing
 E. & W is about 25 miles distant from this river on the Stard Side
 Notherley of Pot Island I walked on Shore and killed 4 deer & an Elk, &
 a beaver in the evening we killed a large fat Bear, which we
 unfortunately lost in the river, after being Shot took the water & was
 Carried under a drift passed in course of this day three Islands, two
 of them Covered with tall timber & a 3rd with willows
 The after part of this day was worm & the Misquitors troublesome. Saw
 but five Buffalow a number of Elk & Deer & 5 bear & 2 Antilopes to day.
 the river beginning to rise, and Current more rapid than yesterday, in
 maney places I saw Spruces on the hills Sides Stard. this evening.
 [Lewis, May 24, 1805]
 Friday May 24th 1805.
 The water standing in the vessels freized during the night 1/8 of an
 inch thick, ice also appears along the verge of the river. the folage
 of some of the cottonwood trees have been entirely distroyed by the
 frost and are again puting forth other buds. the high country in which
 we are at present and have been passing for some days I take to be a
 continuation of what the Indians as well as the French Engages call the
 Black hills. This tract of country so called consists of a collection
 of high broken and irregular hills and short chain of mountains
 sometimes 120 miles in width and again becomeing much narrower, but
 always much higher than the country on either side; they commence about
 the head of the Kanzas river and to the West of that river near the
 Arkansas, from whence they take their course a little to the W. of N.
 W. approaching the rockey Mountains obliquely, passing the river platte
 above the forks and intercepting the Yellowstone river near the big
 bend and passing the Missouri at this place and probably continuing to
 swell the country as far North as the Saskashawan river tho they are
 lower here than they are discribed to the Sth. and may therefore
 probably terminate before they reach the Suskashawan. the black hills
 in their course nothwardly appear to approach more nearly to the Rocky
 We set out at an early hour this morning and proceed on principally by
 the chord untill about 9 A.M. when a fine breeze sprung up from the S.
 E. and enabled us though the ballance of the day to employ our sails to
 advantage; we proceed at a pretty good pace notwithstanding the courant
 of the river was very strong. we passed two large and four small
 Islands; also several streams on either side; the first of these is a
 large Creek or small river which disinboged on the Stard. side about
 11/2 miles above our encampment of last evening, it is 30 yards wide
 and contains some water. the bed is gravley and intermixed with some
 stone, it takes its rise in the mountains which are situated in a
 Northwardly direction from its entrance, distant about 30 miles. the
 air is so pure in this open country that mountains and other elivated
 objects appear much nearer than they really are; these mountains do not
 appear to be further than 15 m. we sent a man up this creek to explore
 the country he returned late in the evening and informed that he had
 proceeded ten miles directly towards these mountains and that he did
 not think himself by any mean half way these mountains are rockey and
 covered with some scattering pine. This stream we call North Mountain
 creek. the next stream in order is a creek which falls in on Lard. 21/2
 miles higher; this is 15 yds. wide no water; a large village of the
 burrowing or barking squirrels on the Stard. side opposite it's
 entrance, hence the name Little dog Ck. that being the name by which
 the French Engages call this anamal. at three miles and at 10 ms. from
 hence still ascending 2 Small creek fall in on the Stard. side, no
 water. 51/2 miles higher a small river falls in on Lard. side this we
 called South Mountain creek as from it's direction it appeared to take
 it's rise in a range of Mountains lying in a S. Westerly direction from
 it's entrance distant 50 or 60 m.; this creek is 40 yards wide and
 discharges a handsome stream of water. it's bed is rockey with gravel
 and sand, the banks high and country broken it's bottom narrow and no
 timber. The country high and broken, a considerable portion of black
 rock and brown sandy rock appear in the faces of the hills; the tops of
 the hills covered with scattering pine spruce and dwarf cedar; the soil
 poor and sterile, sandy near the tops of the hills, the whole producing
 but little grass; the narrow bottoms of the Missouri producing little
 else but Hysop or southern wood and the pulpy leafed thorn. Capt. Clark
 walked on shore this evening and killed a buffaloe cow, we left 2
 Canoes and six men to dress the Cow and bring on the meat, they did not
 overtake us this evening. game is becoming more scarce, particularly
 beaver, of which we have seen but few for several days the beaver
 appears to keep pace with the timber as it declines in quantity they
 also become more scarce.
 [Clark, May 24, 1805]
 May 24th Friday 1805
 a Cold night the water in the Small vestles frosed 1/8 of an inch
 thick, and the thermometer Stood this morning at the freesing point. we
 Set out at an early hour and proceeded on, at 9 oClock we had a Breeze
 from the S E which Continued all day. This Breeze afforded us good
 Sailing, the river rising fast Current verry rapid. passed Several
 Small Islands, two large & two Small Creeks, the 1st of those Creeks or
 Small rivers 11/2 m. above our Camp is 30 yards wide and Contains water
 and appears to take its rise in the North Mountns. which is Situated in
 a northerley detection about 20 miles distant. 21/2 m. higher a Creek
 falls in on the Lard. Side, opposit a large village of Barking
 Squirels. 3 miles Still higher a Small Creek falls in on the Stard. 13
 miles higher up a Small river falls in on the Lard Side which is 40
 yards wide and has running water. This Stream appears to take its rise
 in the South Mountains which is Situated in a Southerly direction 30 or
 40 miles distant. I walked on the high countrey on the Stard. Side
 found it broken & Dry Some pine, Spruce & Dwarf Cedar on the hill
 sides, I Sent one man 10 mile out he reports a Similarity of Countrey
 back I killed a fat buffalow a Short distance below the place we dined
 2 Canoes & 6 men we left to get the meat did not join us this evening.
 we Camped on the Lard point. the Cotton wood in this point is beginning
 to put out a Second bud, the first being killed by the frost
 [Lewis, May 25, 1805]
 Saturday May 25th 1805.
 The Two canoes which we left behind yesterday to bring on the meat did
 not arrive this morning untill 8 A M. at which time we set out; the
 wind being against us we did not proceed with so much ease or
 expedition as yesterday, we imployed the toe line principally which the
 banks favored the uce off; the courant strong particularly arround the
 points against which the courant happened to set, and at the entrances
 of the little gullies from the hills, those rivulets having brought
 down considerable quantities of stone and deposited it at their
 entrances forming partial barriers to the water of the river to the
 distance of 40 or 50 feet from the shore, arround these the water run
 with great violence, and compelled us in some instances to double our
 force in order to get a perorogue or canoe by them. as we ascended the
 river today I saw several gangs of the bighorned Anamals on the face of
 the steep bluffs and clifts on the Stard. side and sent drewyer to kill
 one which he accomplished; Capt. Clark and Bratton who were on shore
 each killed one of these anamals this evening. The head and horns of
 the male which Drewyer killed weighed 27 lbs. it was somewhat larger
 than the male of the common deer, the boddy reather thicker deeper and
 not so long in proportion to it's hight as the common deer; the head
 and horns are remakably large compared with the other part of the
 anamal; the whole form is much more delicate than that of the common
 goat, and there is a greater disparity in the size of the male and
 female than between those of either the deer or goat. the eye is large
 and prominant, the puple of a deep sea green and small, the iris of a
 silvery colour much like the common sheep; the bone above the eye is
 remarkably prominant; the head nostrils and division of the upper lip
 are precisely in form like the sheep. there legs resemble the sheep
 more than any other animal with which I am acquainted tho they are more
 delicately formed, like the sheep they stand forward in the knee and
 the lower joint of the foreleg is smallest where it joins the knee, the
 hoof is black & large in proportion, is divided, very open and roundly
 pointed at the toe, like the sheep; is much hollowed and sharp on the
 under edge like the Scotch goat, has two small hoofs behind each foot
 below the ankle as the goat sheep and deer have. the belley, inside of
 the legs, and the extremity of the rump and butocks for about two
 inches arround the but of the tale, are white, as is also the tale
 excet just at it's extremity on the upper side which is of a dark
 brown. the tail is about three inches in length covered with short
 hair, or at least not longer than that of the boddy; the outher parts
 of the anamal are of a duskey brown or reather a leadcoloured light
 brown; the anamal is now sheding it's winter coat which is thick not
 quite as long as that of the deer and appears to be intermixed with a
 considerable quantity of a fine fur which lyes next to the skin &
 conceald by the coarcer hear; the shape of the hair itself is celindric
 as that of the antelope is but is smaller shorter, and not compressed
 or flattened as that of the deer's winter coat is, I believe this
 anamal only sheds it's hair once a year. it has eight fore teeth in the
 under jaw and no canine teeth. The horns are lagest at their base, and
 occupy the crown of the head almost entirely. they are compressed, bent
 backwards and lunated; the surface swelling into wavy rings which
 incircleing the horn continue to succeed each other from the base to
 the extremity and becoming less elivated and more distant as they
 recede from the head. the horn for about two thirds of it's length is
 filled with a porus bone which is united with the frontal bone. I
 obtained the bones of the upper part of the head of this animal at the
 big bone lick. the horns of the female are small, but are also compress
 bent backwards and incircled with a succession of wavy rings. the horn
 is of a light brown colour; when dressed it is almost white extreemly
 transparent and very elastic. this horn is used by the natives in
 constructing their bows; I have no doubt but it would eligant and
 ucefull hair combs, and might probably answer as many valuable purposes
 to civilized man, as it dose to the savages, who form their watercups
 spoons and platters of it. the females have already brought forth their
 young indeed from the size of the young I suppose that they produce
 them early in March. they have from one to two at a birth. they feed on
 grass but principally on the arromatic herbs which grow on the clifts
 and inaccessable hights which they usually frequent. the places they
 gerally celect to lodg is the cranies or cevices of the rocks in the
 faces of inacessable precepices, where the wolf nor bear can reach them
 and where indeed man himself would in many instancies find a similar
 deficiency; yet these anamals bound from rock to rock and stand
 apparently in the most careless manner on the sides of precipices of
 many hundred feet. they are very shye and are quick of both sent and
 At the distance of two 3/4 miles above our encampment of last evening
 we passed a Creek 20 yard wide affording no runing water, we also
 passed 7 Islands in the course of the day. The Country on either hand
 is high broken and rockey; the rock is either soft brown sand stone
 covered with a thin strata of limestone, or a hard black rugged
 grannite, both usually in horizontal stratas and the Sandy rock
 overlaying the other.--Salts and quarts still appear, some coal and
 pumice stone also appear; the river bottoms are narrow and afford
 scarcely any timber. the bars of the river are composed principally of
 gravel, but little pine on the hills. We saw a Pole-cats this evening
 it is the first we have seen for many days. buffalow are now scarce and
 I begin to fear our harvest of white puddings are at an end.
 [Clark, May 25, 1805]
 May 25th Satturday 1805"
 The two Canoes left for meat yesterday did not joint us untill 8 oClock
 this morning at which time we Set out, the morning Cool & pleasent wind
 a head all day from the S. W. we pass a Creek on the Lard. Side about
 20 yards wide, which does not run, we also passd 7 Islands, I walked on
 Shore and killed a female Ibex or big horn animal in my absence Drewyer
 & Bratten killed two others, this animale is a species peculiar to this
 upper part of the Missouri, the head and horns of the male which
 Drewyer killed to day weighed 27 lbs it was Somewhat larger than the
 Mail of the Common Deer;) The body reather thicker deeper and not So
 long in proportion to its hight as the common Deer; the head and horns
 of the male are remarkably large Compared with the other parts of the
 animal; the whole form is much more delicate than that of the common
 goat, and there is a greater disparity in the Size of the mail and
 female than between those of either the deer or goat. the eye is large
 and prominant, the puple of a deep Sea green and Small, the iris of a
 Silvery Colour much like the common Sheep; the bone above the Eye is
 remarkably prominant; the head nostrils and division of the upper lip
 are precisely in form like the Sheep. their legs resemble the Sheep
 more than any other animal with which I am acquainted tho they are more
 delicately formed, like the Sheep they stand foward in the Knee and the
 lower joint of the fore leg is Smallest where it joins the Knee, the
 hoof is black and large in perpotion, is divided, very open and roundly
 pointed at the toe; like the Sheep; is much hollowed and Sharp on the
 under edge like the Scotch goat, has two Small Hoofs behind each foot
 below the ankle as the goat Sheep and Deer have. the belley, iner Side
 of the legs, and the extremity of the rump and buttocks for about two
 inches 1/2 around the but of the tail, are white, as is also the tail
 except just at its extremity on the upper Side which is of a dark
 brown. the tail is about 3 inches in length covered with Short hair, or
 at least not longer than that of the boddy; the outer part of the
 animal are of a duskey brown or reather a lead coloured light brown;
 the animal is now Sheding its winter coat which is thick not quite as
 long as that of the Deer and appears to be inter mixt with a
 considerable quantity of fine fur which lies next to the Skin and
 concealed by the Coarcer hair; the Shape of the hair itself is
 cylindric as that of the Antilope is, but is Smaller, Shorter and not
 Compressed or flattened as that of the deers winter Coat is. I believe
 this animal only Sheds it's hair once a year. it has Eight fore teeth
 in the underjaw and no canine teeth. The Horns are large at their base,
 and occupy the Crown of the head almost entirely, they are compressed,
 bent backwards and lunated; the Surface Swelling into wavey rings which
 incircleing the horn continue to Succeed each other from the base to
 the extremity and becomeing less elivated and more distant as they
 receed from the head. The horn for about two thirds of its length is
 filled with a porus bone which is united with the frontal bone (Capt.
 Lewis obtained the bones of the upper part of the head of this Animal
 at the big Bone Lick in the State of Kentucky which I Saw and find to
 be the Same in every respect with those of the Missouri and the Rockey
 Mountains) the horns of the female are Small, but are also compressed
 and bent backwards and incircled with a Succession of wavy rings. the
 horn is of a light brown Colour; when Dressed it is almost white
 extreamly transparent and very elastic. this horn is used by the nativs
 in constructing their bows; I have no doubt of it's elegance and
 usefullness in hair Combs, and might probably answer as maney valuable
 purpoces to civilized man, as it does to the native indians, who form
 their water Cups, Spoons and platters of it. the females have already
 brought forth their young indeed from the Size of the young, I Suppose
 that they produce them early in March. they have from one to two at a
 birth. they feed on grass, but principally on the arramatic herbs which
 grow on the Clifts and inaccessable hights which they frequent most
 commonly, and the places they generally collect to lodge is the Cranies
 or Cevices of the rocks in the face of inaccessable precepices, where
 the wolf nor Bear Can reach them, and where indeed man himself would in
 maney instances find a Similar deficiency; yet those animals bound from
 rock to rock and Stand apparently in the most Careless manner on the
 Side of precipices of maney hundred feet. they are very Shy and quick
 of both Sent and Sight. The flesh of this animal is dark and I think
 inferior to the flesh of the Common Deer, and Superior to the antilope
 of the Missouri and the Columbian Plains-. In my walk of this day I saw
 mountts. on either side of the river at no great distance, those
 mountains appeared to be detached, and not ranges as laid down by the
 Minetarrees, I also think I saw a range of high mounts. at a great
 distance to the S S W. but am not certain as the horozon was not clear
 enough to view it with Certainty. The country on either side is high
 broken and rockey a dark brown hard rugid Stone intermixed with a Soft
 white Sand Stone. the hills contain Coal or cabonated wood as below and
 Some Scattering pumistone. the Sides of the river is bordered with
 coars gravel, which in maney places have washed either together or down
 Small brooks and forms bars at Some distance in the water, around which
 the current passes with great valocity. the bottoms between hills and
 river are narrow and Contain Scercely any timber. The appearence of
 Salts, and bitumun Still Continue. we Saw a polecat to day being the
 first which we have Seen for Some time past. The Air of this quarter is
 pure and helthy. the water of the Missouri well tasted not quite So
 muddy as it is below, not withstanding the last rains has raised the
 river a little it is less muddy than it was before the rain.
 [Lewis, May 26, 1805]
 Sunday May 26th 1805.
 Set out at an early hour and proceeded principally by the toe line,
 using the oars mearly to pass the river in order to take advantage of
 the shores. scarcely any bottoms to the river; the hills high and
 juting in on both sides, to the river in many places. the stone
 tumbleing from these clifts and brought down by the rivulets as
 mentioned yesterday became more troublesome today. the black rock has
 given place to a very soft sandstone which appears to be washed away
 fast by the river, above this and towards the summits of the hills a
 hard freestone of a brownish yellow colour shews itself in several
 stratas of unequal thicknesses frequently overlain or incrusted by a
 very thin strata of limestone which appears to be formed of concreted
 shells. Capt. Clark walked on shore this morning and ascended to the
 summit of the river hills he informed me on his return that he had seen
 mountains on both sides of the river runing nearly parrallel with it
 and at no great distance; also an irregular range of mountains on lard.
 about 50 mes. distant, the extremities of which boar W and N. W. from
 his station. he also saw in the course of his walk, some Elk, several
 herds of the Big horn, and the large hare; the latter is common to
 every part of this open country. scarcely any timber to be seen except
 the few scattering pine and spruce which crown the high hills, or in
 some instances grow along their sides. In the after part of the day I
 also walked out and ascended the river hills which I found sufficiently
 fortiegueing. on arriving to the summit one of the highest points in
 the neighbourhood I thought myself well repaid for any labour; as from
 this point I beheld the Rocky Mountains for the first time, I could
 only discover a few of the most elivated points above the horizon, the
 most remarkable of which by my pocket compass I found bore N. 65° W.
 being a little to the N. of the N. W. extremity of the range of broken
 mountains seen this morning by Capt. C. these points of the Rocky
 Mountains were covered with snow and the sun shone on it in such manner
 as to give me the most plain and satisfactory view. while I viewed
 these mountains I felt a secret pleasure in finding myself so near the
 head of the heretofore conceived boundless Missouri; but when I
 reflected on the difficulties which this snowey barrier would most
 probably throw in my way to the Pacific, and the sufferings and
 hardships of myself and party in them, it in some measure
 counterballanced the joy I had felt in the first moments in which I
 gazed on them; but as I have always held it a crime to anticipate evils
 I will believe it a good comfortable road untill I am compelled to
 beleive differently. saw a few Elk & bighorns at a distance on my
 return to the river I passed a creek about 20 yds. wide near it's
 entrance it had a handsome little stream of runing water; in this creek
 I saw several softshelled Turtles which were the first that have been
 seen this season; this I believe proceeded reather from the season than
 from their non existence in the portion of the river from the Mandans
 hither. on the Stard. shore I killed a fat buffaloe which was very
 acceptable to us at this moment; the party came up to me late in the
 evening and encamped for the night on the Lard. side. it was after dark
 before we finished butchering the buffaloe, and on my return to camp I
 trod within five inches of a rattle snake but being in motion I passed
 before he could probably put himself in a striking attitude and
 fortunately escaped his bite, I struck about at random with my
 espontoon being directed in some measure by his nois untill I killed
 him. Our hunters had killed two of the Bighorned Anamals since I had
 left them. we also passed another creek a few miles below Turtle Creek
 on the Stard. 30 yds in width which also had runing water bed rockey.-
 late this evening we passed a very bad rappid which reached quite
 across the river, the party had considerable difficulty in ascending it
 altho they doubled their crews and used both the rope and the pole.
 while they were passing this rappid a female Elk and it's fawn swam
 down throught the waves which ran very high, hence the name of Elk
 rappids which they instantly gave this place, these are the most
 considerable rappids which we have yet seen on the missouri and in
 short the only place where there has appeared to be a suddon decent.
 opposite to these rappids there is a high bluff and a little above on
 Lard. a small cottonwood bottom in which we found sufficient timber for
 our fires and encampment. here I rejoined the party after dark. The
 appearances of coal in the face of the bluffs, also of birnt hills,
 pumice stone salt and quarts continue as yesterday. This is truly a
 desert barren country and I feel myself still more convinced of it's
 being a continuation of the black hills. we have continued every day to
 pass more or less old stick lodges of the Indians in the timbered
 points, there are two even in this little bottom where we lye.-
 [Clark, May 26, 1805]
 May 26th Sunday 1805
 We Set out early and proceeded as yesterday wind from the S. W. the
 river enclosed with very high hills on either Side. I took one man and
 walked out this morning, and ascended the high countrey to view the
 mountains which I thought I Saw yesterday, from the first Sumit of the
 hill I could plainly See the Mountains on either Side which I Saw
 yesterday and at no great distance from me, those on the Stard Side is
 an errigular range, the two extremities of which bore West and N. West
 from me. those Mountains on the Lard. Side appeared to be Several
 detached Knobs or mountains riseing from a leven open Countrey, at
 different distances from me, from South West to South East, on one the
 most S. Westerly of those Mountains there appeared to be Snow. I
 crossed a Deep holler and assended a part of the plain elevated much
 higher than where I first viewed the above mountains; from this point I
 beheld the Rocky Mountains for the first time with Certainty, I could
 only discover a fiew of the most elivated points above the horizon. the
 most remarkable of which by my pocket Compas I found bore S. 60 W.
 those points of the rocky Mountain were Covered with Snow and the Sun
 Shown on it in Such a manner as to give me a most plain and
 Satisfactory view. whilst I viewed those mountains I felt a Secret
 pleasure in finding myself So near the head of the heretofore Conceived
 boundless Missouri; but when I reflected on the difficulties which this
 Snowey barrier would most probably throw in my way to the Pacific
 Ocean, and the Sufferings and hardships of my Self and party in them,
 it in Some measure Counter ballanced the joy I had felt in the first
 moments in which I gazed on them; but as I have always held it little
 Short of Criminality to anticipate evils I will allow it to be a good
 Comfortable road untill I am Compelled to believe otherwise The high
 Country in which we are at present and have been passing for Some days
 I take to be a continuation of what the Indians as well as the French
 Engages call the Black hills. This tract of Country So Called Consists
 of a Collection of high broken and irregular hills and Short Chains of
 Mountains, sometimes 100 miles in width and again becoming much
 narrower, but always much higher than the Country on either Side; they
 commence about the head of the Kanzas river and to the west of that
 river near the Arkansaw river, from whence they take their Cource a
 little to the west of N. W. approaching the Rocky Mountains obliquely
 passing the river Platt near the forks, and intersepting the River
 Rochejhone near the big bend of that river, and passing the Missouri at
 this place-, and probably Continueing to Swell the Country as far North
 as the Saskashawan river. tho they are lower here than they are
 discribed to the South and may therefore termonate before they reach
 the Saskashawan. the Black hills in their Course northerly appear to
 approach more nearly the Rocky Mountains. I Saw a great number of white
 brant, also the common brown brant, Geese of the common Size & kind and
 a Small Species of geese, which differs considerably from the Common or
 Canadian Goose; their necks, head and backs are considerably thicker,
 Shorter and larger than the other in propotion to its Size they are
 also more than a third Smaller, and their note more like that of the
 brant or young goose which has not perfectly acquired his note, in all
 other respect they are the Same in Colour habits and the number of
 feathers in the tail, they frequently also ascocate with the large
 Geese when in flocks, but never Saw them pared off with the larger or
 common goose. The white Brant ascocates in very large flocks, they do
 not appear to be mated or pared off as if they intended to raise their
 young in this quarter, I therefore doubt whether they reside here
 dureing the Summer for that purpose. this bird is larger than the
 Common brown brant or 2/3 of the common goose. it is not So long by Six
 inches from point to point of the wings when extended as the other; the
 back head and neck are also larger and Stronger; their beak, legs and
 feet are of a redish flesh coloured white. the eye of a moderate Size,
 the puple of a deep Sea green encircled with a ring of yellowish brown.
 it has 16 feathers of equal length in the tail their note differs but
 little from the Common brant. they are of a pure white except the large
 feathers of the 1st and 2d joint of the wings which are jut black.
 The country which borders the river is high broken and rocky, generally
 imbeded with a Soft Sand Stone higher up the hill the Stone is of a
 brownish yellow hard and gritty those Stones wash down from the hills
 into the river and cause the Shore to be rocky &c. which we find
 troublesom to assend there is Scerce any bottom between the Hills &
 river and but a fiew trees to be Seen on either Side except Scattering
 pine on the Sides of the emence hills; we passed 2 Creeks on the Stard
 Side both of them had running water in one of those Creek Capt Lewis
 tells me he saw Soft Shell Turtle Capt Lewis in his walk killed a fat
 Buffalow which we were in want of our hunters killed 2 Mountain rams or
 bighorns in the evening late we passed a rapid which extended quite
 across the river we assended it by the assistance of a Cord & poles on
 the Lard. Side the Cliffs jut over, the opposit Side is a Small leavel
 bottom, we Camped a little above in a Small grove of Cotton trees on
 the Lard. Side in the rapid we saw a Dow Elk & her faun, which gave
 rise to the name of Elk & faun Riffle we had a few drops of rain at
 Dark.--the Salts Coal & Burnt hills & Pumicston Still Continue, game
 Scerce this Countrey may with propriety I think be termed the Deserts
 of America, as I do not Conceive any part can ever be Settled, as it is
 deficent in water, Timber & too Steep to be tilled. We pass old Indian
 lodges in the woody points everry day & 2 at our camp &c
 [Lewis, May 26, 1805]
 May 26, 1805.
 One of the party killed a bighorned, the head and horns of which
 weighed 27 lbs. a hare was also killed which weighed 81/2 lbs. the hare
 are now of a plale lead brown colour-
 [Lewis, May 27, 1805]
 Monday May 27th 1805.
 The wind blew so hard this morning that we did not sent out untill 10
 A.M. we employed the chord most of the day; the river becomes more
 rappid and is intercepted by shoals and a greater number of rocky
 points at the mouths of the little gulies than we experienced
 yesterday. the bluffs are very high steep rugged, containing
 considerable quantities of stone and border the river closely on both
 sides; once perhaps in the course of several miles there will be a few
 acres of tolerably level land in which two or thre impoverished
 cottonwood trees will be seen. great quantities of stone also lye in
 the river and garnish it's borders, which appears to have tumbled from
 the bluffs where the rains had washed away the sand and clay in which
 they were imbeded. the bluffs are composed of irregular tho horizontal
 stratas of yellow and brown or black clay, brown and yellowish white
 sand, of soft yellowish white sand stone and a hard dark brown free
 stone, also of large round kidneyformed and irregular seperate masses
 of a hard black Iron stone, which is imbeded in the Clay and sand. some
 little pine spruce and dwarf cedar on the hills. some coal or
 carbonated wood still makes it's appearance in these bluffs,
 pumicestone and birnt hills it's concommutants also are seen. the salts
 and quarts are seen but not in such abundance. the country more broken
 and barren than yesterday if possible. about midday it was very warm to
 this the high bluffs and narrow channel of the river no doubt
 contributed greatly. we passed a small untimbered Island this morning
 on the Lard. side of the river just above our encampment of last
 evening. saw a few small herds of the Bighorned anamals and two Elk
 only, of the last we killed one, the river is generally about 200 yds.
 wide, very rappid and has a perceptable fall or declination through
 it's whole course.
 This evening we encamped, for the benefit of wood, near two dead toped
 cottonwood trees on the Lard. side; the dead limbs which had fallen
 from these trees furnished us with a scanty supply only, and more was
 not to be obtained in the neighbourhood.-
 [Clark, May 27, 1805]
 May 27th Monday 1805.
 The wind blew hard from the S W. which detained us untill about 10
 oClock, at which time we Set out and proceeded on, passed a Small
 nacked Island on the Lard Side imediately above the timber in which we
 Camped The river is verry Shoaley and the bad places are verry
 numerous, i e at the mouth of every Drean the rocks which is a hard
 dark gritey Stone is thrown out Some distance in the river which Cause
 a Considerable riffle on that Side, the hills approach the river verry
 Close on either Side, river narrow & no timber except Some Scattering
 pine on the hills & hill Sides, the Salts, Coal, burn hills & Pumice
 Stone &c. Continue, the hills are Generally Bluffs of various Coloured
 earth most commonly black with different quallities stone intermixed
 Some Stratums of Soft Sand Stone, Some hard, Some a dark brown & yellow
 hard grit, those Stones are loosened by the earths washing from them
 into the river and ultimately role down into the river, which appears
 to be Crowded with them. This day is verry worm--we only Saw a fiew
 Small herds of the big horn animals on the hills, and two Elk one of
 which We killed, we Camped at 2 dead top trees on the Lard Side. The
 river is Genly about 200 yards wide and Current very Swift to day and
 has a verry perceptiable fall in all its Course--it rises a little.
 [Lewis, May 28, 1805]
 Tuesday May 28th 1805.
 This morning we set forward at an early hour; the weather dark and
 cloudy, the are smokey, had a few drops of rain; we employed the chord
 generally to which we also gave the assistance of the pole at the
 riffles and rocky points; these are as numerous and many of them much
 worse than those we passed yesterday; arround those points the water
 drives with great force, and we are obliged in many instaces to steer
 our vessels through the appertures formed by the points of large sharp
 rocks which reach a few inches above the surface of the water, here
 sould our chord give way the bough is instantly drivin outwards by the
 stream and the vessel thrown with her side on the rocks where she must
 inevitably overset or perhaps be dashed to peices; our ropes are but
 slender, all of them except one being made of Elk's skin and much
 woarn, frequently wet and exposed to the heat of the weather are weak
 and rotten; they have given way several times in the course of the day
 but happily at such places that the vessel had room to wheel free of
 the rocks and therefore escaped injury; with every precaution we can
 take it is with much labour and infinite risk that we are enabled to
 get around these points. found a new indian lodge pole today which had
 been brought down by the stream, it was woarn at one end as if draged
 by dogs or horses; a football also, and several other articles were
 found, which have been recently brought down by the courant; these are
 strong evedences of Indians being on the river above us, and probably
 at no great distance; the football is such as I have seen among the
 Minetaries and therefore think it most probable that they are a band of
 the Minetaries of Fort de Prarie. the river country &c continued much
 as yesterday untill late in the evening when we arrived at the entrance
 of a large Creek discharges itself on the Stard. side, is 35 Yd. wide
 and contains runing water; here the hills recede from the river on both
 sides, the bottoms extensive particularly on the Stard. side where the
 hills are comparitively low and open into three large vallies which
 extend for a considerable distance in a Northwardly direction; here
 also the river spreads to more than 3 times it's former width and is
 filled with a number of small and handsome Islands covered with
 cottonwood some timber also in the bottoms, the land again fertile.
 These appearances were quite reviving after the drairy country through
 which we had been passing. Capt. C. walked on shore in the early part
 of the day and killed a big horned anamal; he saw a great number of
 them as well as ourselves in the broken country. at 10 A.M. a few drops
 of rain again fell and were attended with distant thunder which is the
 first we have heated since we left the Mandans.--This evening we
 encamped on Stard. opposite to the entrance of a small Creek. I beleive
 the bighorn have their young at a very early season, say early in March
 for they appear now to be half grown. One of the party saw a very large
 bear today but being some distance from the river and no timber to
 conceal him he did not think proper to fire on him.
 [Clark, May 28, 1805]
 May 28th Tuesday 1805
 a Cloudy morning Some fiew drops of rain and verry Smokey wind from the
 S. W. we Set out at an early hour, the Shoaley places are verry
 numerous and Some bad to get around we have to make use of the Cord &
 Poles, and our tow. ropes are all except one of Elkskin, & Stretch and
 Sometimes brake which indanger the Perogues or Canoe, as it imedeately
 turns and if any rock Should chance to be below, the rapidity of the
 current would turn her over, She Should chance to Strike the rock we
 observe great Caution at those places.
 I walked on Shore found the Countrey ruged and as described yesterday,
 I Saw great numbers of the Big horned animals, one of which I killed
 their fauns are nearly half grown--one of the Party Saw a verry large
 bear, picked up on the Shore a pole which had been made use of by the
 Nativs for lodge poles, & haul'd by dogs it is new and is a Certain
 Sign of the Indians being on the river above a foot ball and Several
 other articles are also found to Substantiate this oppinion-. at 1
 oClock we had a few drops of rain and Some thunder whic is the first
 thunder we have had Sinc we Set out from Fort Mandan; at 10 miles the
 the hills begin to widen & the river Spreds & is crouded with Islands
 the bottoms Contain Some Scattering Cotton wood the Islands also
 Contain timber--passed a Creek of running water on the Stard Side about
 35 yards wide and camped imedeately opposit to a Small Creek on the
 Lard. Side we call Bull Creek from the Circumstance of a Buffalow Bull
 swiming from the opposit Side and comeing out of the river imedeately
 across one of the Perogues without Sinking or injureing any thing in
 the Perogue, and passing with great violence thro our Camp in the night
 makeing 3 angles without hurting a man, altho they lay in every
 direction, and it was very dark The Creek below 35 yards wide I call
 Thompsons Creek after a valuable member of our party--this Creek
 contains a Greater preportion of running water than Common.
 [Lewis, May 29, 1805]
 Wednesday May 29th 1905.
 Last night we were all allarmed by a large buffaloe Bull, which swam
 over from the opposite shore and coming along side of the white
 perogue, climbed over it to land, he then alarmed ran up the bank in
 full speed directly towards the fires, and was within 18 inches of the
 heads of some of the men who lay sleeping before the centinel could
 allarm him or make him change his course, still more alarmed, he now
 took his direction immediately towards our lodge, passing between 4
 fires and within a few inches of the heads of one range of the men as
 they yet lay sleeping, when he came near the tent, my dog saved us by
 causing him to change his course a second time, which he did by turning
 a little to the right, and was quickly out of sight, leaving us by this
 time all in an uproar with our guns in or hands, enquiring of each
 other the case of the alarm, which after a few moments was explained by
 the centinel; we were happy to find no one hirt. The next morning we
 found that the buffaloe in passing the perogue had trodden on a rifle,
 which belonged to Capt. Clark's black man, who had negligently left her
 in the perogue, the rifle was much bent, he had also broken the
 spindle, pivit, and shattered the stock of one of the bluntderbushes on
 board, with this damage I felt well content, happey indeed, that we had
 sustaned no further injury. it appears that the white perogue, which
 contains our most valuable stores, is attended by some evil gennii.
 This morning we set out at an early hour and proceded as usual by the
 Chord. at the distance of 21/2 miles passed a handsome river which
 discharged itself on the Lard. side, I walked on shore and acended this
 river about a mile and a half in order to examine it. I found this
 river about 100 yds. wide from bank to bank, the water occupying about
 75 yard. the bed was formed of gravel and mud with some sand; it
 appeared to contain much more water as the Muscle-Shell river, was more
 rappid but equally navigable; there were no large stone or rocks in
 it's bed to obstruct the navigation; the banks were low yet appeared
 seldom to overflow; the water of this River is Clear than any we have
 met with great abundance of the Argalia or Bighorned animals in the
 high country through which this river passes Cap. C who assended this
 R. much higher than I did has thought proper to call it Judieths River.
 The bottoms of this stream as far as I could see were wider and
 contained more timber than the Missouri; here I saw some box alder
 intermixed with the Cottonwood willow rose bushes and honeysuckle with
 some red willow constitute the undergrowth. on the Missouri just above
 the entrance of the Big Horn River I counted the remains of the fires
 of 126 Indian lodges which appeared to be of very recent date perhaps
 12 or 15 days. Capt. Clark also saw a large encampent just above the
 entrance of this river on the Stard. side of reather older date,
 probably they were the same Indians. The Indian woman with us exmined
 the mockersons which we found at these encampments and informed us that
 they were not of her nation the Snake Indians, but she beleived they
 were some of the Indians who inhabit the country on this side of Rocky
 Mountains and North of the Missoury and I think it most probable that
 they were the Minetaries of Fort de Prarie. At the distance of six 1/2
 ms. from our encampment of last night we passed a very bad rappid to
 which we gave the name of the Ash rappid from a few trees of that wood
 growing near them; this is the first ash I have seen for a great
 distance. at this place the hills again approach the river closely on
 both sides, and the same seen which we had on the 27th and 28th in the
 morning again presents itself, and the rocky points and riffles reather
 more numerous and worse; there was but little timber; salts coal &c
 still appear. today we passed on the Stard. side the remains of a vast
 many mangled carcases of Buffalow which had been driven over a
 precipice of 120 feet by the Indians and perished; the water appeared
 to have washed away a part of this immence pile of slaughter and still
 their remained the fragments of at least a hundred carcases they
 created a most horrid stench. in this manner the Indians of the
 Missouri distroy vast herds of buffaloe at a stroke; for this purpose
 one of the most active and fleet young men is scelected and disguised
 in a robe of buffaloe skin, having also the skin of the buffaloe's head
 with the years and horns fastened on his head in form of a cap, thus
 caparisoned he places himself at a convenient distance between a herd
 of buffaloe and a precipice proper for the purpose, which happens in
 many places on this river for miles together; the other indians now
 surround the herd on the back and flanks and at a signal agreed on all
 shew themselves at the same time moving forward towards the buffaloe;
 the disguised indian or decoy has taken care to place himself
 sufficiently nigh the buffaloe to be noticed by them when they take to
 flight and runing before them they follow him in full speede to the
 precepice, the cattle behind driving those in front over and seeing
 them go do not look or hesitate about following untill the whole are
 precipitated down the precepice forming one common mass of dead an
 mangled carcases; the decoy in the mean time has taken care to secure
 himself in some cranney or crivice of the clift which he had previously
 prepared for that purpose. the part of the decoy I am informed is
 extreamly dangerous, if they are not very fleet runers the buffaloe
 tread them under foot and crush them to death, and sometimes drive them
 over the precepice also, where they perish in common with the
 buffaloe.--we saw a great many wolves in the neighbourhood of these
 mangled carcases they were fat and extreemly gentle, Capt. C. who was
 on shore killed one of them with his espontoon. just above this place
 we came too for dinner opposite the entrance of a bold runing river 40
 yds. wide which falls in on Lard. side. this stream we called slaughter
 river. it's bottoms are but narrow and contain scarcely any timber. our
 situation was a narrow bottom on the Stard. possessing some cottonwood.
 soon after we landed it began to blow & rain, and as there was no
 appearance of even wood enough to make our fires for some distance
 above we determined to remain here untill the next morning, and
 accordingly fixed our camp and gave each man a small dram.
 notwithstanding the allowance of sperits we issued did not exceed 1/2
 pn. man several of them were considerably effected by it; such is the
 effects of abstaining for some time from the uce of sperituous liquors;
 they were all very merry.--The hunters killed an Elk this evening, and
 Capt. C. killed two beaver.
 [Clark, May 29, 1805]
 May 29th Wednesday 1805
 In the last night we were alarmed by a Buffalow which Swam from the
 opposit Shore landed opposit the Perogue in which Capt Lewis & my Self
 were in he Crossed the perogue, and went with great force up to the
 fire where Several men were Sleeping and was 18 inches of their heads,
 when one man Sitting up allarmed him and he turned his course along the
 range of men as they lay, passing between 4 fires and within a fiew
 Inches of Some of the mens heads as they lay imediately in a direction
 to our lodge about which Several men were lying. our Dog flew out & he
 changed his course & passed without doeing more damage than bend a
 rifle & brakeing hir Stock and injureying one of the blunder busts in
 the perogue as he passed through--We Set out this morning at the usial
 hour & proceeded on at 21/2 miles passed the mouth of a river ____
 yards wide, discharging a great quantity of water, and Containing more
 wood in its bottoms than the Missouri--this river Capt Lewis walked up
 for a Short distance & he Saw an old encampment of Indians (I also saw
 large encampment on the Stard Side at the mouth of a Small Creek of
 about 100 Lodges which appeared to be 5 or 6 weeks past, the Indian
 woman examined the mockersons &c. and told us they were the Indians
 which resided below the rocky mountains & to the North of this
 river,that her nation make their mockersons differently) at 61/2 miles
 passed a considerable rapid at which place the hills approach near the
 river on both Sides, leaveing a narrow bottom on the Stard. Side, (ash
 rapid) and continue Close all day but little timber, I walked on the
 bank in the evening and saw the remains of a number of buffalow, which
 had been drove down a Clift of rocks I think from appearances that
 upwards of 100 of those animals must have perished here, Great numbers
 of wolves were about this place & verry jentle I killed one of them
 with my Spear. The hills above ash rapid Contains more rock and Coal,
 and the more rapid points. we Came too for Dinner opposit the enterence
 of a Small river which falls in on the Lard Side and is about ____
 yards wide, has a bold running Stream, Soon after we Came too it began
 to rain & blow hard, and as we were in a good harbor & Small point of
 woods on the Stard Side, and no timber for some distance above, induced
 us to conclude to Stay all night. we gave the men a dram, altho verry
 Small it was Sufficent to effect Several men. one of our hunters killed
 an elk this evening--I killed 2 beaver on the Side of the bank a table
 Spoon full of water exposed to the air in a Saucer would avaperate in
 36 hours when the mercury did not Stand higher than the temperate point
 in the heat of the day.
 [Lewis, May 30, 1805]
 Thursday May 30th 1805.
 The rain which commenced last evening continued with little
 intermission untill 11this morning when we set out; the high wind which
 accompanied the rain rendered it impracticable to procede earlyer. more
 rain has now fallen than we have experienced since the 15th of
 September last. many circumstances indicate our near approach to a
 country whos climate differs considerably from that in which we have
 been for many months. the air of the open country is asstonishingly dry
 as well as pure. I found by several experiments that a table spoon full
 of water exposed to the air in a saucer would avaporate in 36 hours
 when the murcury did not stand higher than the temperate point at the
 greatest heat of the day; my inkstand so frequently becoming dry put me
 on this experiment. I also observed the well seasoned case of my
 sextant shrunk considerably and the joints opened. The water of the
 river still continues to become clearer and notwithstanding the rain
 which has fallen it is still much clearer than it was a few days past.
 this day we proceded with more labour and difficulty than we have yet
 experienced; in addition to the imbarrasments of the rappid courant,
 riffles, & rockey point which were as bad if not worse than yesterday,
 the banks and sides of the bluff were more steep than usual and were
 now rendered so slippery by the late rain that the men could scarcely
 walk. the chord is our only dependance for the courant is too rappid to
 be resisted with the oar and the river too deep in most places for the
 pole. the earth and stone also falling from these immence high bluffs
 render it dangerous to pass under them. the wind was also hard and
 against us. our chords broke several times today but happily without
 injury to the vessels. we had slight showers of rain through the course
 of the day, the air was could and rendered more disagreeable by the
 rain. one of the party ascended the river hills and reported on his
 return that there was snow intermixed with the rain which fell on the
 hights; he also informed us that the country was level a little back
 from the river on both sides. there is now no timber on the hills, an
 only a few scattering cottonwood, ash, box Alder and willows to be seen
 along the river. in the course of the day we passed several old
 encampment of Indians, from the apparent dates of which we conceived
 that they were the several encampments of a band of about 100 lodges
 who were progressing slowly up the river; the most recent appeared to
 have been evacuated about 5 weeks since. these we supposed to be the
 Minetares or black foot Indians who inhabit the country watered by the
 Suskashawan and who resort to the establishment of Fort de Prarie, no
 part of the Missouri from the Minetaries to this place furnishes a
 perminent residence for any nation yet there is no part of it but what
 exhibits appearances of being occasionally visited by some nation on
 hunting excurtions. The Minnetares of the Missoury we know extend their
 excurtions on the S. side as high as the yellowstone river; the
 Assinniboins still higher on the N. side most probably as high as about
 Porcupine river and from thence upwards most probably as far as the
 mountains by the Minetares of Fort de Prarie and the Black Foot Indians
 who inhabit the S. fork of the Suskashawan. I say the Missouri to the
 Rocky mountains for I am convinced that it penetrates those mountains
 for a considerable distance.--Two buffaloe killed this evening a little
 above our encampment.
 [Clark, May 30, 1805]
 May 30th Thursday 1805
 The rain conmmenced yesterday evining, and continued moderately through
 the course of the night, more rain has now fallin than we have
 experienced Since the 15th of September last, the rain continued this
 morning, and the wind too high for us to proceed, untill about 11
 oClock at which time we Set out, and proceeded on with great labour, we
 were obliged to make use of the Tow rope & the banks were So muddey &
 Slipery that the men could Scercely walk not with Standing we proceeded
 on as well as we could wind hard from the N W. in attempting to assend
 a rapid our toe Cord broke & we turned without injurey, those rapids or
 Shoaley points are noumerous and dificuelt, one being at the mouth of
 every drean Some little rain at times all day one man assended the high
 Countrey and it was raining & Snowing on those hills, the day has
 proved to be raw and Cold. Back from the river is tollerably leavel, no
 timber of any kind on the hills, and only a fiew Scattering cotton
 willow & ash near the river, much hard rock; & rich earth, the Small
 portion of rain which has fallen causes the rich earth as deep as is
 wet to Slip into the river or bottoms &c.
 we discover in Several places old encampments of large bands of
 Indians, a fiew weeks past and appear to be makeing up the river--Those
 Indians we believe to be the Blackfoot Inds. or Menetares who inhabit
 the heads of the Saskashowin & north of this place and trade a little
 in the Fort de Prarie establishments. we Camped in a grove of Cotton
 trees on the Stard Side, river rise 11/2 In.
 [Lewis, May 31, 1805]
 Friday May 31st 1805.
 This morning we proceeded at an early hour with the two perogues
 leaving the canoes and crews to bring on the meat of the two buffaloe
 that were killed last evening and which had not been brought in as it
 was late and a little off the river. soon after we got under way it
 began to rain and continued untill meridian when it ceased but still
 remained cloudy through the ballance of the day. The obstructions of
 rocky points and riffles still continue as yesterday; at those places
 the men are compelled to be in the water even to their armpits, and the
 water is yet very could, and so frequent are those point that they are
 one fourth of their time in the water, added to this the banks and
 bluffs along which they are obliged to pass are so slippery and the mud
 so tenacious that they are unable to wear their mockersons, and in that
 situation draging the heavy burthen of a canoe and walking ocasionally
 for several hundred yards over the sharp fragments of rocks which
 tumble from the clifts and garnish the borders of the river; in short
 their labour is incredibly painfull and great, yet those faithfull
 fellows bear it without a murmur. The toe rope of the white perogue,
 the only one indeed of hemp, and that on which we most depended, gave
 way today at a bad point, the perogue swung and but slightly touched a
 rock, yet was very near overseting; I fear her evil gennii will play so
 many pranks with her that she will go to the bottomm some of those
 days.--Capt. C. walked on shore this morning but found it so
 excessively bad that he shortly returned. at 12 OCk. we came too for
 refreshment and gave the men a dram which they received with much
 cheerfullness, and well deserved.
 The hills and river Clifts which we passed today exhibit a most
 romantic appearance. The bluffs of the river rise to the hight of from
 2 to 300 feet and in most places nearly perpendicular; they are formed
 of remarkable white sandstone which is sufficiently soft to give way
 readily to the impression of water; two or thre thin horizontal stratas
 of white free-stone, on which the rains or water make no impression,
 lie imbeded in these clifts of soft stone near the upper part of them;
 the earth on the top of these Clifts is a dark rich loam, which forming
 a graduly ascending plain extends back from 1/2 a mile to a mile where
 the hills commence and rise abruptly to a hight of about 300 feet more.
 The water in the course of time in decending from those hills and
 plains on either side of the river has trickled down the soft sand
 clifts and woarn it into a thousand grotesque figures, which with the
 help of a little immagination and an oblique view at a distance, are
 made to represent eligant ranges of lofty freestone buildings, having
 their parapets well stocked with statuary; collumns of various
 sculpture both grooved and plain, are also seen supporting long
 galleries in front of those buildings; in other places on a much nearer
 approach and with the help of less immagination we see the remains or
 ruins of eligant buildings; some collumns standing and almost entire
 with their pedestals and capitals; others retaining their pedestals but
 deprived by time or accident of their capitals, some lying prostrate an
 broken othes in the form of vast pyramids of connic structure bearing a
 sereis of other pyramids on their tops becoming less as they ascend and
 finally terminating in a sharp point. nitches and alcoves of various
 forms and sizes are seen at different hights as we pass. a number of
 the small martin which build their nests with clay in a globular form
 attatched to the wall within those nitches, and which were seen
 hovering about the tops of the collumns did not the less remind us of
 some of those large stone buildings in the U States. the thin stratas
 of hard freestone intermixed with the soft sandstone seems to have
 aided the water in forming this curious scenery. As we passed on it
 seemed as if those seens of visionary inchantment would never have and
 end; for here it is too that nature presents to the view of the
 traveler vast ranges of walls of tolerable workmanship, so perfect
 indeed are those walls that I should have thought that nature had
 attempted here to rival the human art of masonry had I not recollected
 that she had first began her work. These walls rise to the hight in
 many places of 100 feet, are perpendicular, with two regular faces and
 are from one to 12 feet thick, each wall retains the same thickness at
 top which it possesses at bottom. The stone of which these walls are
 formed is black, dence and dureable, and appears to be composed of a
 large portion of earth intermixed or cemented with a small quantity of
 sand and a considerable portion of talk or quarts. these stones are
 almost invariably regular parallelepipeds, of unequal sizes in the
 walls, but equal in their horizontal ranges, at least as to debth.
 these are laid regularly in ranges on each other like bricks, each
 breaking or covering the interstice of the two on which it rests. thus
 the purpendicular interstices are broken, and the horizontal ones
 extend entire throughout the whole extent of the walls. These stones
 seem to bear some proportion to the thickness of the walls in which
 they are employed, being larger in the thicker walls; the greatest
 length of the parallelepiped appears to form the thickness of the
 thiner walls, while two or more are employed to form that of the
 thicker walls. These walls pass the river in several places, rising
 from the water's edge much above the sandstone bluffs, which they seem
 to penetrate; thence continuing their course on a streight line on
 either side of the river through the gradually ascending plains, over
 which they tower to the hight of from ten to seventy feet until) they
 reach the hills, which they finally enter and conceal themselves. these
 walls sometimes run parallel to each other, with several ranges near
 each other, and at other times interscecting each other at right
 angles, having the appearance of the walls of ancient houses or
 gardens. I walked on shore this evening and examined these walls
 minutely and preserved a specimine of the stone. I found the face of
 many of the river hills formed of Clifts of very excellent free stone
 of a light yellowish brown colour; on these clifts I met with a species
 of pine which I had never seen, it differs from the pitchpine in the
 particular of it's leaf and cone, the first being vastly shorter, and
 the latter considerably longer and more pointed. I saw near those
 bluffs the most beautiful) fox that I ever beheld, the colours appeared
 to me to be a fine orrange yellow, white and black, I endevoured to
 kill this anamal but it discovered me at a considerable distance, and
 finding that I could get no nearer, I fired on him as he ran, and
 missed him; he concealed himself under the rocks of the clift; it
 appeared to me to be about the size of the common red fox of the
 Atlantic states, or reather smaller than the large fox common to this
 country; convinced I am that it is a distinct species. The appearance
 of coal continues but in small quantities, but little appearance of
 birnt hills or pumice stones the mineral salts have in some measure
 abated and no quarts. we saw a great number of the Bighorn some mule
 deer and a few buffaloe and Elk, no antelopes or common deer. Drewyer
 who was with me and myself killed two bighorned anamals; the sides of
 the Clifts where these anamals resort much to lodg, have the peculiar
 smell of the sheepfolds. the party killed in addition to our hunt 2
 buffaloe and an Elk. the river today has been from 150 to 250 yds. wide
 but little timber today on the river.
 [Clark, May 31, 1805]
 May 31st Friday 1805.
 A cloudy morning we dispatched all the Canoes to Collect the meat of 2
 Buffalow killed last night a head and a little off the river, and
 proceeded on with the perogues at an early hour. I attempted to walk on
 Shore Soon found it verry laborious as the mud Stuck to my mockersons &
 was verry Slippery. I return'd on board. it continued to rain
 moderately untill about 12 oClock when it ceased, & Continued Cloudy.
 the Stone on the edge of the river continue to form verry Considerable
 rapids, which are troublesom & dificuelt to pass, our toe rope which we
 are obliged to make use of altogether broke & we were in Some danger of
 turning over in the perogue in which I was, we landed at 12 and
 refreshed the men with a dram, our men are obliged to under go great
 labour and fatigue in assending this part of the Missouri, as they are
 compelled from the rapidity of the Current in many places to walk in
 the water & on Slippery hill Sides or the Sides of rocks, on Gravel &
 thro a Stiff mud bear footed, as they Cannot keep on Mockersons from
 the Stiffness of the mud & decline of the Slipy. hills Sides--the Hills
 and river Clifts of this day exhibit a most romantick appearance on
 each Side of the river is a white Soft Sand Stone bluff which rises to
 about half the hight of the hills, on the top of this Clift is a black
 earth on points, in maney places this Sand Stone appears like antient
 ruins some like elegant buildings at a distance, Some like Towers &c.
 &c. in maney places of this days march we observe on either Side of the
 river extraodanary walls of a black Semented Stone which appear to be
 regularly placed one Stone on the other, Some of those walls run to the
 hite of 100 feet, they are from about 1 foot to 12 feet thick and are
 perpendicular, those walls Commence at the waters edge & in Some places
 meet at right angles--those walls appear to Continue their Course into
 the Sand Clifts, the Stones which form those walls are of different
 Sizes all Squar edged, Great numbers has fallen off from the walls near
 the river which cause the walls to be of uneaquil hite, in the evening
 the Countrey becomes lower and the bottoms wider, no timber on the
 uplands, except a few Cedar & pine on the Clifts a few Scattering
 Cotton trees on the points in the river bottoms, The apparance of Coal
 Continus Capt Lewis walked on Shore & observed a Species of Pine we had
 never before Seen, with a Shorter leaf than Common & the bur different,
 he also Collected Some of the Stone off one of the walls which appears
 to be a Sement of Isin glass black earth we Camped on the Stard Side in
 a Small timbered bottom above the mouth of a Creek on the Stard Side
 our hunters killed, 2 animals with big horns, 2 Buffalow & an Elk, we
 Saw Great numbers of those big horned animals on the Clifts, but fiew
 Buffalow or Elk, no antelope, a fiew mule deer, Saw a fox to day. The
 river rises a little it is from 150 to 250 yds. wide
 [Clark, May 31, 1805]
 May 31st Friday 1805
 Cloudy morning, we proceeded on at an early hour with the two Perogues
 leaving the Canoes and crews to bring on the meat of two Buffalow that
 were killed last evening and which had not been brought in as it was
 late and a little off the river. Soon after we got under way it began
 to rain and Continued untill 12 oClock when it Seased but Still
 remained cloudy through the ballance of the day. the obstructions of
 rocky points and riffles Still continue as yesterday; at those places
 the men are compelled to be in the water even to their armpits, and the
 water is yet very cold, and So frequent are those points that they are
 one fourth of their time in the water. added to this the bank and bluff
 along which they are obliged to pass are So Slippery and the mud So
 tenatious that they are unable to bare their mockersons, and in that
 Situation dragging the heavy burthen of a Canoe and Walking
 occasionally for Several hundred yards over the Sharp fragments of
 rocks which tumble from the Clifts; and in Short their labour is
 incredibly painfull and great, yet those faithfull fellows bear it
 without a murmer.
 The toe rope of the white perogue, the only one indeed of hemp, and
 that on which we most depended, gave way to day at a bad point, the
 perogue Swong and but slightly touched a rock, yet was very near
 oversetting; I fear her evil Ginnie will play So many pranks with her
 that She will go to the bottom Some of those days.
 I attempted to walk on Shore this morning but found it so excessivily
 bad that I Soon returned on board. at 12 oClock we came too for
 refreshment and gave the men a dram which they received with much
 Chearfulness, and well deserved all wet and disagreeable. Capt. Lewis
 walked on Shore, he informed one that he Saw "the most butifull fox in
 the world" the Colour appeared to him to be of a fine Orrange yellow,
 white and black, he fired at this fox running and missed him, he
 appeared to be about the size of the common red fox of the united
 States, or rather smaller.
 The hills and river clifts which we pass to day exhibit a most romantic
 appearance. The Bluffs of the river rise to the hight of from 2 to 300
 feet and in most places nearly perpendicular; they are formed of
 remarkable white Sandstone which is Sufficiently Soft to give way
 readily to the impression of water; two or three thin horizontal
 Stratas of white free Stone, on which the rains or water make no
 impression, lie imbeded in those clifts of Soft Stone near the upper
 part of them; the earth on the top of these clifts is a dark rich loam,
 which forming a gradual ascending plain extend back from 1/2 a mile to
 a mile where the hills commence and rise abruptly to the hight of about
 300 feet more. The water in the Course of time acecending from those
 hills and plains on either Side of the river has trickled down the Soft
 Sand Clifts and woarn it into a thousand grotesque figures; which with
 the help of a little imagination and an oblique view at a distance are
 made to represent elegant ranges of lofty freestone buildings, haveing
 their parapets well Stocked with Statuary; Colloms of various
 Sculptures both Grooved and plain, are also Seen Supporting long
 galleries in part of those buildings; in other places on a much nearer
 approach and with the with the help of less immagination we See the
 remains of ruins of eligant buildings; Some Collumns Standing and
 almost entire with their pedestals and Capitals, others retaining their
 pedestals but deprived by time or accedint of their capitals, Some
 lying prostrate and broken, others in the form of vast Pyramids of
 connic Structure bearing a Serious of other pyramids on their tops
 becomeing less as they ascend and finally termonateing in a Sharp
 point. nitches and alcoves of various forms and Sizes are Seen at
 different hights as we pass. a number of the Small martin which build
 their nests with Clay of a globular form attached to the wall within
 those nitches, and which were Seen hovering about the top of the
 collumns did not the less remind us of Some of those large Stone
 buildings in the United States. The thin Stratas of hard free Stone
 intermixed with the Soft Sand Stone Seems to have aided the water in
 forming this Curious Scenery.
 as we passed on it Seemed as if those Seens of Visionary enchantment
 would never have an end; for here it is too that nature presents to the
 view of the traveler vast ranges of walls of tolerable workmanship, So
 perfect indeed are those walls that I Should have thought that nature
 had attempted here to rival the human art of Masonry had I not
 recollected that She had first began her work. These walls rise to the
 hight in many places of 100 feet, are perpindicular, with two regular
 faces, and are from one to 12 feet thick, each wall retains the Same
 thickness to the top which it possesses at bottom. The Stone of which
 these walls are formed is black, dense and dureable, and appears to be
 Composed of a large portion of earth intermixed or Cemented with a
 Small quantity of Sand and a Considerable portion of quarts. these
 Stones are almost invariably regular parallelepipeds, of unequal Sizes
 in the wall, but equal in their horizontal ranges, at least as to
 debth. These are laid regularly in ranges on each other like bricks,
 each breaking or covering this interstice of the two on which it rests,
 thus the pirpendicular interstices are broken, and the horizontal ones
 extend entire throughout the whole extent of the walls. These Stones
 Seam to bear Some proportion to the thickness of the walls in which
 they are employd, being larger in the thicker walls; the greatest
 length of the parallelepiped appear to form the thickness of the thiner
 walls, while two or more are employed to form that of the thicker
 walls. Those walls pass the river in Several places rising from the
 waters edge much above the Sand Stone Bluffs, which they Seam to
 penetrate; thence Continueing their course on a Streight line on either
 Side of the river thorough the gradually ascending plains over which
 they tower to the hight of from ten to 90 feet untill they reach the
 hills which they finally enter and Conceal themselves. these walls
 Sometimes run parallel to each other, with Several ranges near each
 other, and at other times intersecting each other at right angles,
 haveing the appearance of the walls of ancient houses or gardins. both
 Capt Lewis and My self walked on Shore this evening and examined those
 walls minutely and preserved a Specimine of the Stone.--I found many
 clifts of very excellent free Stone of a light yellowish brown Colour.
 Capt. Lewis observed a Species of pine which I had never Seen, it
 differs from the pitch pine in the particular of its leaf and Cone, the
 first being partly Shorter, and the latter considerably longer and more
 pointed. The appearance of Coal Continues but in Smaller quantities,
 but little appearance of burnt hills or pumicestone. the mineral Salt
 in Some measure have abated and no quarts. we Saw a great number of the
 Big Horn, Some mule deer, and a few Buffalow and Elk, no antelopes or
 Common Deer-. Capt. Lewis killed a Big horn animal. the party killed 2
 Buffalow one Elk and a Big horn or Ibex to day-. The river has been
 from 150 to 250 yards wide but little timber on the river to day. river
 less muddy than it was below.