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[Clark, April 1, 1805]
 April 1st 1805 we have Thunder lightning hail and rain to day the first
 rain of note Sinc the 15 of October last, I had the Boat Perogus &
 Canos put in the water, and expect to Set off the boat with despatches
 in her will go 6 Americans 3 frenchmen, and perhaps Several ricarra
 Chief imediately after we Shall assend in 2 perogus & 6 canoes,
 accompanied by 5 french who intends to assend a Short distance to trap
 the beavr which is in great abundance highr up our party will consist
 of one Interpter & Hunter, one French man as an interpreter with his
 two wives (this man Speaks Minetary to his wives who are L hiatars or
 Snake Indians of the nations through which we Shall pass, and to act as
 interpretress thro him)--26 americans & french my servant and an Mandan
 Indian and provisions for 4 months
 [Clark, April 1, 1805]
 Fort Mandan
 April the 1st Tuesday 1805
 The fore part of to day haile rain with Thunder & lightning, the rain
 continued by intimitions all day, it is worthey of remark that this is
 the 1st rain which has fallen Since we have been here or Since the 15
 of October last, except a fiew drops at two or three defferent times
 had the Boat Perogus & Canoes all put into the water.
 [Clark, April 2, 1805]
 April the 2nd a Cold rain day we are writeing and prepareing dispatches
 all day--I conclude to Send my journal to the President of the United
 States in its original State for his own perusial, untill I call for it
 or Some friend if I should not return, an this journal is from the 13th
 of May 1804 untill the 3rd of April 1805. wrote untill verry late at
 night but little time to devote to my friends, the river is falling
 [Clark, April 2, 1805]
 April the 2nd Friday 1805
 a cloudy day rained all the last night we are preparing to Set out all
 thing nearly ready. The 2d Chief of the 2d Mandan Village took a miff
 at our not attending to him perticelarely after being here about ten
 day and moved back to his village
 The mandans Killed twenty one elk yesterday 15 miles below this, they
 were So meager that they Scercely fit for use
 [Clark, April 3, 1805]
 3rd of April we Shall pack up to day and Set out tomorrow.
 [Clark, April 3, 1805]
 April the 3rd Thursday 1805
 a white frost this morning, Some ice on the edge of the water, a fine
 day Pack up and prepare to load
 Mrs. La Roche & McKinsey Clerk to the N W. Compy. visit us. Mr.
 McKinzey wishes to get pay for his horse lost in our Service this
 winter and one of which was robed this winter by the Tetons, we Shall
 pay this man for his horse. we are all day ingaged packing up Sundery
 articles to be Sent to the President of the U. S.
 bow an quiver of arrows-with some Ricara's tobacco seed
 No. 11 a Martin Skin, Containing the tail of a Mule Deer, a weasel and
 three Squirels from the Rockey mountains.
 No. 12. The bones & Skeleton of a Small burrowing wolf of the Praries
 the Skin being lost by accident.
 No. 99 The Skeliton of the white and Grey hare.
 Box No. 2, contains 4 Buffalow Robes, and a ear of Mandan Corn.
 The large Trunk Contains a male & female Brarow and female's Skeliton.
 a Carrote of Ricaras Tobacco
 a red fox Skin Containing a Magpie.
 No. 14 Minitarras Buffalow robe Containing Some articles of Indian
 No. 15 a Mandan robe containing two burrowing Squirels, a white weasel
 and the Skin of a Loucirvea.
 13 red fox Skins.
 1 white Hare Skin &.
 4 horns of the mountain ram
 1 Robe representing a battle between the Sioux & Ricaras,
 Minetarras and Mandans.
 In Box No. 3.
 nos. 1 & 2 The Skins of the Male & female Antelope with their
 Skelitons. & the Skin of a yellow Bear which I obtained from the Scions
 No. 4. Box Specimens of plants numbered from 1 to 67.
 Specimens of Plants numbered frome 1 to 60.
 1 Earthen pot Such as the Mandans Manufacture and use for
 culinary purposes.
 Box No 4 Continued
 1 Tin box, containing insects mice &c. a Specimine of the fur of the
 a Specimon of a plant, and a parcel of its roots highly prized by the
 natives as
 an efficatious remidy in Cases of the bite of the rattle Snake or Mad
 In a large Trunk
 Skins of a Male and female Braro, or burrowing Dog of the Prarie, with
 the Skeliton of the female.
 1 Skin of the red fox Containing a Magpie.
 2 Cased Skins of the white hare.
 1 Minitarra Buffalow robe Containing Some articles of Indian Dress
 1 Mandan Buffalow robe Containing a dressed Lousirva Skin, and 2 Cased
 Skins of the Burrowing Squirel of the Praries.
 13 red fox Skins
 4 Horns of the Mountain Ram or big horn.
 1 Buffalow robe painted by a mandan man representing a battle fought 8
 years Since by the Sioux & Ricaras against the mandans, menitarras & Ah
 wah bar ways (Mandans &c. on horseback)
 Cage No. 6.
 Contains a liveing burrowing Squirel of the praries
 Cage No. 7.
 Contains 4 liveing magpies
 Cage No. 9.
 Containing a liveing hen of the Prarie
 a large par of Elks horns containing by the frontal bone-
 [Clark, April 4, 1805]
 April the 4th 1805 Wednesday
 a blustering windey Day the Clerks of the N W. Co. leave us we are
 arrangeing all things to Set out &c.
 [Clark, April 5, 1805]
 April the 5th 1805 Thursday
 we have our 2 perogues & Six Canoes loaded with our Stores &
 provisions, principally provisions. the wind verry high from the N W. a
 number of Mandans visit us to day
 [Clark, April 6, 1805]
 April the 6th Friday Saturday 1805
 a fine day visited by a number of mandans, we are informed of the
 arrival of the whole of the ricarra nation on the other Side of the
 river near their old village. we Sent an interpreter to See with orders
 to return imediately and let us know if their Chiefs ment to go down to
 See their great father.
 [Lewis, April 7, 1805]
 Fort Mandan April 7th 1805.
 Having on this day at 4 P.M. completed every arrangement necessary for
 our departure, we dismissed the barge and crew with orders to return
 without loss of time to S. Louis, a small canoe with two French hunters
 accompanyed the barge; these men had assended the missouri with us the
 last year as engages. The barge crew consisted of six soldiers and two
 ____ Frenchmen; two Frenchmen and a Ricara Indian also take their
 passage in her as far as the Ricara Vilages, at which place we expect
 Mr. Tiebeau to embark with his peltry who in that case will make an
 addition of two, perhaps four men to the crew of the barge. We gave
 Richard Warfington, a discharged Corpl., the charge of the Barge and
 crew, and confided to his care likewise our dispatches to the
 government, letters to our private friends, and a number of articles to
 the President of the United States. One of the Frenchmen by the Name of
 Gravline an honest discrete man and an excellent boat-man is imployed
 to conduct the barge as a pilot; we have therefore every hope that the
 barge and with her our dispatches will arrive safe at St. Louis. Mr.
 Gravlin who speaks the Ricara language extreemly well, has been
 imployed to conduct a few of the Recara Chiefs to the seat of
 government who have promised us to decend in the barge to St. Liwis
 with that view.-
 At same moment that the Barge departed from Fort Mandan, Capt. Clark
 embaked with our party and proceeded up the river. as I had used no
 exercise for several weeks, I determined to walk on shore as far as our
 encampment of this evening; accordingly I continued my walk on the N.
 side of the River about six miles, to the upper Village of the Mandans,
 and called on the Black Cat or Pose cop'se ha, the great chief of the
 Mandans; he was not at home; I rested myself a minutes, and finding
 that the party had not arrived I returned about 2 miles and joined them
 at their encampment on the N. side of the river opposite the lower
 Mandan village. Our party now consisted of the following Individuals.
 Sergts. John Ordway, Nathaniel Prior, & Patric Gass; Privates, William
 Bratton, John Colter, Reubin, and Joseph Fields, John Shields, George
 Gibson, George Shannon, John Potts, John Collins, Joseph Whitehouse,
 Richard Windsor, Alexander Willard, Hugh Hall, Silas Goodrich, Robert
 Frazier, Peter Crouzatt, John Baptiest la Page, Francis Labiech, Hue
 McNeal, William Werner, Thomas P. Howard, Peter Wiser, and John B.
 Interpreters, George Drewyer and Tauasant Charbono also a Black man by
 the name of York, servant to Capt. Clark, an Indian Woman wife to
 Charbono with a young child, and a Mandan man who had promised us to
 accompany us as far as the Snake Indians with a view to bring about a
 good understanding and friendly intercourse between that nation and his
 own, the Minetares and Ahwahharways.
 Our vessels consisted of six small canoes, and two large perogues. This
 little fleet altho not quite so rispectable as those of Columbus or
 Capt. Cook were still viewed by us with as much pleasure as those
 deservedly famed adventurers ever beheld theirs; and I dare say with
 quite as much anxiety for their safety and preservation. we were now
 about to penetrate a country at least two thousand miles in width, on
 which the foot of civillized man had never trodden; the good or evil it
 had in store for us was for experiment yet to determine, and these
 little vessells contained every article by which we were to expect to
 subsist or defend ourselves. however as this the state of mind in which
 we are, generally gives the colouring to events, when the immagination
 is suffered to wander into futurity, the picture which now presented
 itself to me was a most pleasing one. entertaing as I do, the most
 confident hope of succeading in a voyage which had formed a darling
 project of mine for the last ten years, I could but esteem this moment
 of my departure as among the most happy of my life. The party are in
 excellent health and sperits, zealously attatched to the enterprise,
 and anxious to proceed; not a whisper of murmur or discontent to be
 heard among them, but all act in unison, and with the most perfect
 harmony. I took an early supper this evening and went to bed. Capt.
 Clark myself the two Interpretters and the woman and child sleep in a
 tent of dressed skins. this tent is in the Indian stile, formed of a
 number of dressed Buffaloe skins sewed together with sinues. it is cut
 in such manner that when foalded double it forms the quarter of a
 circle, and is left open at one side where it may be attatched or
 loosened at pleasure by strings which are sewed to its sides to the
 purpose. to erect this tent, a parsel of ten or twelve poles are
 provided, fore or five of which are attatched together at one end, they
 are then elivated and their lower extremities are spread in a circular
 manner to a width proportionate to the demention of the lodge, in the
 same position orther poles are leant against those, and the leather is
 then thrown over them forming a conic figure.
 [Clark, April 7, 1805]
 7th of April Satturday 1805"
 a windey day, The Interpreter we Sent to the Villages returned with
 Chief of the Ricara's & 3 men of that nation this Chief informed us
 that he was Sent by his nation to Know the despositions of the nations
 in this neighbourhood in respect to the recara's Settleing near them,
 that he had not yet made those arrangements, he request that we would
 Speek to the Assinniboins, & Crow Inds. in their favour, that they
 wished to follow our directions and be at peace with all, he viewed all
 nations in this quarter well disposed except the Sioux. The wish of
 those recaras appears to be a junction with the Mandans & Minetarras in
 a Defensive war with the Sioux who rob them of every Spece of property
 in Such a manner that they Cannot live near them any longer. I told
 this Chief we were glad to See him, and we viewed his nation as the
 Dutifull Children of a Great father who would extend his protection to
 all those who would open their ears to his good advice, we had already
 Spoken to the Assinniboins, and Should Speeke to the Crow Indians if we
 Should See them &c. as to the Sioux their Great father would not let
 them have any more good Guns &c. would take Care to prosu Such measurs
 as would provent those Sioux from Murding and taking the property from
 his dutyfull red Children &c.--we gave him a certificate of his good
 Conduct & a Small Medal, a Carrot of Tobacco and a String of Wompom--he
 requested that one of his men who was lame might decend in the boat to
 their nation and returned to the Mandans well Satisfied
 The name of this Chief of War is Kah-kah, we to-Raven brave.
 This Cheif delivered us a letter from Mr. Taboe. informing us of the
 wish of the Grand Chiefs of the Ricarras to visit their Great father
 and requesting the privolage of put'g on board the boat 3000 w of Skins
 &c. & adding 4 hands and himself to the party. this preposeal we Shall
 agree to, as that addition will make the party in the boat 15 Strong
 and more able to defend themselves from the Seoux &c.
 [Clark, April 7, 1805]
 Fort Mandan April 7th 1805"
 Sunday, at 4 oClock P M, the Boat, in which was 6 Soldiers 2 frenchmen
 & an Indian, all under the command of a corporal who had the charge of
 dispatches, &c.-and a Canoe with 2 french men, Set out down the river
 for St. Louis. at the same time we Sout out on our voyage up the river
 in 2 perogues and 6 canoes, and proceded on to the 1st villg. of
 Mandans & Camped on the S. S.--our party consisting of Sergt. Nathaniel
 Pryor Sgt. John Ordway Sgt. Pat. Gass, William Bratten, John Colter
 Joseph & Reubin Fields, John Shields George Gibson George Shannon, John
 Potts, John Collins, Jos. Whitehouse, Richard Windser, Alexander
 Willard, Hugh Hall, Silas Gutrich, Robert Frazure, Peter Crouzat, John
 Baptiest la page, Francis Labich, Hugh McNeal, William Werner, Thomas
 P. Howard, Peter Wiser, J. B. Thompson and my Servent york, George
 Drewyer who acts as a hunter & interpreter, Shabonah and his Indian
 Squar to act as an Interpreter & interpretress for the snake
 Indians-one Mandan & Shabonahs infant. Sah-kah-gar we a
 [Lewis, April 8, 1805]
 April 8th Set out early this morning, the wind blew hard against us
 from the N. W. we therefore traveled very slowly. I walked on shore,
 and visited the black Cat, took leave of him after smoking a pipe as is
 their custom, and then proceeded on slowly by land about four miles
 where I wated the arrival of the party, at 12 Oclock they came up and
 informed me that one of the small canoes was behind in distress. Capt
 Clark returned foud she had filled with water and all her loading wet.
 we lost half a bag of hisquit, and about thirty pounds of powder by
 this accedent; the powder we regard as a serious loss, but we spread it
 to dry immediately and hope we shall still be enabled to restore the
 greater part of it. this was the only powder we had which was not
 perfectly secure from geting wet. we took dinner at this place, and
 then proceed on to oure encampment, which was on the S. side opposite
 to a high bluff. the Mandan man came up after we had encamped and
 brought with him a woman who was extreemly solicitous to accompany one
 of the men of our party, this however we positively refused to permit.
 From the upper point on an island (being the point to which Capt. Clark
 took his last course when he assended the river in surch of a place for
 winter quarters 1st November last) to a point of wood land Stard side,
 passing a high bluff on the Lard. N 40° W. 31/2
 [Clark, April 8, 1805]
 8th of April Monday 1805
 Set out verry early wind hard a head from the N. W. proceeded on passed
 all the villages the inhabitents of which flocked down in great numbers
 to view us, I took my leave of the great Chief of the Mandans who gave
 me a par of excellent mockersons, one Canoe filed with water every
 thing in her got wet. 2/3 of a barrel of powder lost by this accedent.
 Camped on the S. S. opsd. a high bluff an Indian joined us, also an
 Indian woman with a view to accompany us, the woman was Sent back the
 man being acquainted with the Countrey we allowed him to accompanie ns
 [Lewis, April 9, 1805]
 Tuesday April 9th
 Set out as early as it was possible to see this morning and proceed
 about five miles where we halted and took beakfas--the Indian man who
 had promised us to accompany us as far as the Snake Indians, now
 informed us of his intention to relinquish the journey, and accordingly
 returned to his village. we saw a great number of brant passing up the
 river, some of them were white, except the large feathers in the first
 and second joint of the wing which are black. there is no other
 difference between them and the common gray brant but that of their
 colour--their note and habits are the same, and they are freequently
 seen to associate together. I have not yet positively determined
 whether they are the same, or a different species.--Capt Clark walked
 on shore to-day and informed me on his return, that passing through the
 prarie he had seen an anamal that precisely resembled the burrowing
 squrril, accept in point of size, it being only about one third as
 large as the squirrel, and that it also burrows. I have observed in
 many parts of the plains and praries the work of an anamal of which I
 could never obtain a view. their work resembles that of the salamander
 common to the sand hills of the States of South Carolina and Georgia;
 and like that anamal also it never appears above the ground. the little
 hillocks which are thrown up by these anamals have much the appearance
 of ten or twelve pounds of loose earth poared out of a vessel on the
 surface of the plain. in the state they leave them you can discover no
 whole through which they throw out this earth; but by removing the
 loose earth gently you may discover that the soil has been broken in a
 circle manner for about an inch and a half in diameter, where it
 appears looser than the adjacent surface, and is certainly the place
 through which the earth has been thrown out, tho the operation is
 performed without leaving any visible aperture.--the Bluffs of the
 river which we passed today were upwards of a hundred feet high, formed
 of a mixture of yellow clay and sand--many horizontal stratas of
 carbonated wood, having every appearance of pitcoal at a distance; were
 seen in the the face of these bluffs. these stratas are of unequal
 thicknesses from I to 5 feet, and appear at different elivations above
 the water some of them as much as eighty feet. the hills of the river
 are very broken and many of them have the apearance of having been on
 fire at some former period. considerable quantities of pumice stone and
 lava appear in many parts of these hills where they are broken and
 washed down by the rain and melting snow. when we halted for dinner the
 squaw busied herself in serching for the wild artichokes which the mice
 collect and deposit in large hoards. this operation she performed by
 penetrating the earth with a sharp stick about some small collections
 of drift wood. her labour soon proved successful, and she procurrd a
 good quantity of these roots. the flavor of this root resembles that of
 the Jerusalem Artichoke, and the stalk of the weed which produces it is
 also similar, tho both the root and stalk are much smaller than the
 Jarusalem Artichoke. the root is white and of an ovate form, from one
 to three inches in length and usually about the size of a man's finger.
 one stalk produces from two to four, and somitimes six of these roots.
 at the distance of 6 miles passed a large wintering or hunting camp of
 the Minetares on the Stard. side. these lodges about thirty in number
 are built of earth and timber in their usual stile. 21/4 miles higher
 we passed the entrance of Miry Creek, which discharges itself on the
 Stard. side. this creek is but small, takes it's rise in some small
 lakes near the Mouse river and passes in it's course to the Missouri,
 through beatifull, level, and fertile plains, intirely destitute of
 timber.--Three miles above the mouth of this creek we passed a hunting
 camp of Minetares who had prepared a park and were wating the return of
 the Antelope; which usually pass the Missouri at this season of the
 year from the Black hills on the South side, to the open plains on the
 north side of the river; in like manner the Antelope repasses the
 Missouri from N. to South in the latter end of Autumn, and winter in
 the black hills, where there is considerable bodies of woodland. we
 proceed on 111/2 miles further and encamped on the N. side in a most
 beatifull high extensive open bottom
 [Clark, April 9, 1805]
 9th of April Tuesday 1805.
 Set out this morning verry early under a gentle breeze from the S. E.
 at Brackfast the Indian deturmined to return to his nation. I saw a
 Musquetor to day great numbers of Brant flying up the river, the Maple,
 & Elm has buded & Cotton and arrow wood beginning to bud. I saw in the
 prarie an animal resembling the Prarie dog or Barking Squirel & burrow
 in the Same way, this animal was about 1/3 as large as the barking
 Squirel. But fiew resident birds or water fowls which I have Seen as
 yet at 6 miles passed an old hunting camp of Menitarrees on the S. S.
 21/2 miles higher passed the mouth of Miry Creek on the S. S. passed a
 hunting Camp of Minetarees on the S. S. waiting the return of the
 Antilope, Saw Great numbers of Gees feedin in the Praries on the young
 grass, I saw flowers in the praries to day, juniper grows on the Sides
 of the hills, & runs on the ground all the hills have more or Less
 indefferent Coal in Stratias at different bites from the waters edge to
 80 feet. those Stratias from 1 inch to 5 feet thick. we Campd. on the
 S. S. above some rocks makeing out in the river in a butifull ellivated
 [Lewis, April 10, 1805]
 Wednesday April 10th 1805.
 Set out at an early hour this morning at the distance of three miles
 passed some Minetares who had assembled themselves on the Lard shore to
 take a view of our little fleet. Capt Clark walked on shore today, for
 several hours, when he returned he informed me that he had seen a gang
 of Antelopes in the plains but was unable to get a shoot at them he
 also saw some geese and swan. the geese are now feeding in considerable
 numbers on the young grass which has sprung up in the bottom prariesthe
 Musquetoes were very troublesome to us today. The country on both sides
 of the missouri from the tops of the river hills, is one continued
 level fertile plain as far as the eye can reach, in which there is not
 even a solitary tree or shrub to be seen except such as from their
 moist situations or the steep declivities of hills are sheltered from
 the ravages of the fire. at the distance of 12 miles from our
 encampment of last night we arrived at the lower point of a bluff on
 the Lard side; about 11/2 miles down this bluff from this point, the
 bluff is now on fire and throws out considerable quantities of smoke
 which has a strong sulphurious smell. the appearance of the coal in the
 blufs continues as yesterday. at 1 P.M. we overtook three french
 hunters who had set out a few days before us with a view of traping
 beaver; they had taken 12 since they left Fort Mandan. these people
 avail themselves of the protection which our numbers will enable us to
 give them against the Assinniboins who sometimes hunt on the Missouri
 and intend ascending with us as far as the mouth of the Yellow stone
 river and continue there hunt up that river. this is the first essay of
 a beaver hunter of any discription on this river. the beaver these
 people have already taken is by far the best I have ever seen. the
 river bottoms we have passed to-day are wider and possess more timber
 than usualthe courant of the Missouri is but moderate, at least not
 greater than that of the Ohio in high tide; it's banks are falling in
 but little; the navigation is therefore comparitively with it's lower
 portion easy and safe.--we encamped this evening on a willow point,
 Stard. side just above a remarkable bend in the river to the S. W.
 which we called the little bason.-
 [Clark, April 10, 1805]
 10th of April Wednesday 1805
 Set out verry early. the morning cool and no wind proceeded on passed a
 camp of Inds. on the L. S. this day proved to be verry worm, the
 Misquetors troublesom. I Saw Several Antilope on the S. S. also gees &
 Swan, we over took 3 french men Trappers The countrey to day as usial
 except that the points of Timber is larger than below, the Coal
 Continue to day, one man Saw a hill on fire at no great distance from
 the river, we camped on the S. S. just above a remarkable bend in the
 river to the S W, which we call the little bacon.
 [Lewis, April 11, 1805]
 Thursday April 11th
 Set out at an early hour; I proceeded with the party and Capt Clark
 with George Drewyer walked on shore in order to procure some fresh meat
 if possible. we proceeded on abot five miles, and halted for breakfast,
 when Capt Clark and Drewyer joined us; the latter had killed, and
 brought with him a deer which was at this moment excepable as we had
 had no fresh meat for several days. the country from fort Mandan to
 this place is so constantly hunted by the Minetaries that there is but
 little game we halted at two P.M. and made a comfortable dinner on a
 venison stake and beavers tales with the bisquit which got wet on the
 8th inst. by the accidant of the canoe filling with water before
 mentioned. the powder which got wet by the same accedent, and which we
 had spread to dry on the baggage of the large perogue, was now examined
 and put up; it appears to be almost restored, and our loss is therefore
 not so great as we had at first apprehended.--the country much the same
 as yesterday. on the sides of the hills and even the banks of the
 rivers and sandbars, there is a white substance that appears in
 considerable quantities on the surface of the earth, which tastes like
 a mixture of common salt and glauber salts. many of the springs which
 flow from the base of the river hills are so strongly impregnated with
 this substance that the water is extreemly unpleasant to the taste and
 has a purgative effect.--saw some large white cranes pass up the river-
 these are the largest bird of that genus common to the country through
 which the Missouri and Mississippi pass. they are perfectly white
 except the large feathers of the two first joints of the wing which are
 black. we encamped this evening on the Stard. shore just above the
 point of woodland which formed to extremity of the last course of this
 day. there is a high bluff opposite to us, under which we saw some
 Indians, but the river is here so wide that we could not speake to
 them; suppose them to be a hunting party of Minetares.--we killed two
 gees today.
 [Clark, April 11, 1805]
 11th of April Thursday 1805
 Set out verry early I walked on Shore, Saw fresh bear tracks, one deer
 & 2 beaver killed this morning in the after part of the day killed two
 gees; Saw great numbers of Gees Brant & Mallard Some White Cranes Swan
 & guls, the plains begin to have a green appearance, the hills on
 either side are from 5 to 7 miles asunder and in maney places have been
 burnt, appearing at a distance of a redish brown choler, containing
 Pumic Stone & lava, Some of which rolin down to the base of those
 hills--In maney of those hills forming bluffs to the river we procieve
 Several Stratums of bituminious Substance which resembles Coal; thong
 Some of the pieces appear to be excellent Coal it resists the fire for
 Some time, and consumes without emiting much flaim.
 The plains are high and rich Some of them are Sandy Containing Small
 pebble, and on Some of the hill Sides large Stones are to be Seen--In
 the evening late we observed a party of Me ne tar ras on the L. S. with
 horses and dogs loaded going down, those are a part of the Menetarras
 who camped a little above this with the Ossinniboins at the mouth of
 the little Missouri all the latter part of the winter we Camped on the
 S. S. below a falling in bank. the river raise a little.
 [Lewis, April 12, 1805]
 Friday April the 12th 1805.
 Set out at an early hour. our peroge and the Canoes passed over to the
 Lard side in order to avoid a bank which was rappidly falling in on the
 Stard. the red perogue contrary to my expectation or wish passed under
 this bank by means of her toe line where I expected to have seen her
 carried under every instant. I did not discover that she was about to
 make this attempt untill it was too late for the men to reembark, and
 retreating is more dangerous than proceeding in such cases; they
 therefore continued their passage up this bank, and much to my
 satisfaction arrived safe above it. this cost me some moments of
 uneasiness, her cargo was of much importance to us in our present
 advanced situation--We proceeded on six miles and came too on the lower
 side of the entrance of the little Missouri on the Lard shore in a fine
 plain where we determined to spend the day for the purpose of celestial
 observation. we sent out 10 hunters to procure some fresh meat. at this
 place made the following observations.-
 The night proved so cloudy that I could make no further observations.
 George Drewyer shot a Beaver this morning, which we found swiming in
 the river a small distance below the entrance of the little Missouri.
 the beaver being seen in the day, is a proof that they have been but
 little hunted, as they always keep themselves closly concealed during
 the day where they are so.--found a great quantity of small onions in
 the plain where we encamped; had some of them collected and cooked,
 found them agreeable. the bulb grows single, is of an oval form, white,
 and about the size of a small bullet; the leaf resembles that of the
 shive, and the hunters returned this eying with one deer only. the
 country about the mouth of this river had been recently hunted by the
 Minetares, and the little game which they had not killed and frightened
 away, was so extreemly shy that the hunters could not get in shoot of
 The little Missouri disembogues on the S. side of the Missouri 1693
 miles from the confluence of the latter with the Mississippi. it is 134
 yards wide at it's mouth, and sets in with a bould current but it's
 greatest debth is not more than 21/2 feet. it's navigation is extreemly
 difficult, owing to it's rapidity, shoals and sand bars. it may however
 be navigated with small canoes a considerable distance. this river
 passes through the Northern extremity of the black hills where it is
 very narrow and rapid and it's banks high an perpendicular. it takes
 it's rise in a broken country West of the Black hills with the waters
 of the yellow stone river, and a considerable distance S. W. of the
 point at which it passes the black hills. the country through which it
 passes is generally broken and the highlands possess but little timber.
 there is some timber in it's bottom lands, which consists of Cottonwood
 red Elm, with a small proportion of small Ash and box alder. the under
 brush is willow, red wood, (sometimes called red or swamp willow-) the
 red burry, and Choke cherry the country is extreamly broken about the
 mouth of this river, and as far up on both sides, as we could observe
 it from the tops of some elivated hills, which stand betwen these two
 rivers, about 3 miles from their junction. the soil appears fertile and
 deep, it consists generally of a dark rich loam intermixed with a small
 proportion of fine sand. this river in it's course passed near the N.
 W. side of the turtle mountain, which is said to be no more than 4 or 5
 leagues distant from it's entrance in a straight direction, a little to
 the S. of West.--this mountain and the knife river have therefore been
 laid down too far S. W. the colour of the water, the bed of the river,
 and it's appearance in every respect, resembles the Missouri; I am
 therefore induced to believe that the texture of the soil of the
 country in which it takes it's rise, and that through which it passes,
 is similar to the country through which the Missouri passes after
 leaving the woody country, or such as we are now in.--on the side of a
 hill not distant from our camp I found some of the dwarf cedar of which
 I preserved a specimen (See No. 2). this plant spreads it's limbs
 alonge the surface of the earth, where they are sometimes covered, and
 always put forth a number of roots on the under side, while on the
 upper there are a great number of small shoots which with their leaves
 seldom rise higher than 6 or eight inches. they grow so close as
 perfectly to conceal the eath. it is an evergreen; the leaf is much
 more delicate than the common Cedar, and it's taste and smell the same.
 I have often thought that this plant would make very handsome edgings
 to the borders and walks of a garden; it is quite as handsom as box,
 and would be much more easily propegated.--the appearance of the
 glauber salts and Carbonated wood still continue.
 [Clark, April 12, 1805]
 12th April Friday 1805
 a fine morning Set out verry early, the murcery Stood 56° above 0.
 proceeded on to the mouth of the Little Missouri river and formed a
 Camp in a butifull elivated plain on the lower Side for the purpose of
 takeing Some observations to fix the Latitude & Longitude of this
 river. this river falls in on the L. Side and is 134 yards wide and 2
 feet 6 Inches deep at the mouth, it takes its rise in the N W extremity
 of the black mountains, and through a broken countrey in its whole
 course washing the N W base of the Turtle Mountain which is Situated
 about 6 Leagues S W of its mouth, one of our men Baptiest who came down
 this river in a canoe informs me that it is not navagable, he was 45
 days descending.
 One of our men Shot a beaver Swimming below the mouth of this river.
 I walked out on the lower Side of this river and found the countrey
 hilley the Soil composed of black mole & a Small perportion of Sand
 containing great quantity of Small peable Some limestone, black flint,
 & Sand Stone I killed a Hare Changeing its Colour Some parts retaining
 its long white fur & other parts assumeing the Short grey, I Saw the
 Magpie in pars, flocks of Grouse, the old field lark & Crows, &
 observed the leaf of the wild Chery half grown, many flowers are to be
 seen in the plains, remains of Minetarra & Ossinneboin hunting Camps
 are to be Seen on each Side of the two Missouris
 The wind blew verry hard from the S. all the after part of the day, at
 3 oClock P M. it became violent & flowey accompanied with thunder and a
 little rain. We examined our canoes &c found Several mice which had
 already commenced cutting our bags of corn & parched meal, the water of
 the little Missouri is of the Same texture Colour & quallity of that of
 the Big Missouri the after part of the day so Cloudy that we lost the
 evening observation.
 [Lewis, April 13, 1805]
 Saturday April 13th
 Being disappointed in my observations of yesterday for Longitude, I was
 unwilling to remain at the entrance of the river another day for that
 purpose, and therefore determined to set out early this morning; which
 we did accordingly; the wind was in our favour after 9 A.M. and
 continued favourable untill three 3 P.M. we therefore hoisted both the
 sails in the White Perogue, consisting of a small squar sail, and
 spritsail, which carried her at a pretty good gate, untill about 2 in
 the afternoon when a suddon squall of wind struck us and turned the
 perogue so much on the side as to allarm Sharbono who was steering at
 the time, in this state of alarm he threw the perogue with her side to
 the wind, when the spritsail gibing was as near overseting the perogue
 as it was possible to have missed. the wind however abating for an
 instant I ordered Drewyer to the helm and the sails to be taken in,
 which was instant executed and the perogue being steered before the
 wind was agin placed in a state of security. this accedent was very
 near costing us dearly. beleiving this vessell to be the most steady
 and safe, we had embarked on board of it our instruments, Papers,
 medicine and the most valuable part of the merchandize which we had
 still in reserve as presents for the Indians. we had also embarked on
 board ourselves, with three men who could not swim and the squaw with
 the young child, all of whom, had the perogue overset, would most
 probably have perished, as the waves were high, and the perogue upwards
 of 200 yards from the nearest shore; however we fortunately escaped and
 pursued our journey under the square sail, which shortly after the
 accident I directed to be again hoisted. our party caught three beaver
 last evening; and the French hunters 7. as there was much appearance of
 beaver just above the entrance of the little Missouri these hunters
 concluded to remain some days; we therefore left them without the
 expectation of seeing them again.--just above the entrance of the
 Little Missouri the great Missouri is upwards of a mile in width, tho
 immediately at the entrance of the former it is not more than 200 yards
 wide and so shallow that the canoes passed it with seting poles. at the
 distance of nine miles passed the mouth of a creek on the Stard. side
 which we called onion creek from the quantity of wild onions which grow
 in the plains on it's borders. Capt. Clark who was on shore informed me
 that this creek was 16 yards wide a mile & a half above it's entrance,
 discharges more water than creeks of it's size usually do in this open
 country, and that there was not a stick of timber of any discription to
 be seen on it's borders, or the level plain country through which it
 passes. at the distance of 10 miles further we passed the mouth of a
 large creek; discharging itself in the center of a deep bend. of this
 creek and the neighbouring country, Capt Clark who was on shore gave me
 the following discription "This creek I took to be a small river from
 it's size, and the quantity of water which it discharged. I ascended it
 11/2 miles, and found it the discharge of a pond or small lake, which
 had the appearance of having formerly been the bed of the Missouri.
 several small streems discharge themselves into this lake. the country
 on both sides consists of beautifull level and elivated plains;
 asscending as they recede from the Missouri; there were a great number
 of Swan and gees in this lake and near it's borders I saw the remains
 of 43 temperary Indian lodges, which I presume were those of the
 Assinniboins who are now in the neighbourhood of the British
 establishments on the Assinniboin river-" This lake and it's discharge
 we call Boos Egg from the circumstance of Capt Clark shooting a goose
 while on her nest in the top of a lofty cotton wood tree, from which we
 afterwards took one egg. the wild gees frequently build their nests in
 this manner, at least we have already found several in trees, nor have
 we as yet seen any on the ground, or sand bars where I had supposed
 from previous information that they most commonly deposited their eggs.-
 saw some Bufhaloe and Elk at a distance today but killed none of them.
 we found a number of carcases of the Buffaloe lying along shore, which
 had been drowned by falling through the ice in winter and lodged on
 shore by the high water when the river broke up about the first of this
 month. we saw also many tracks of the white bear of enormous size,
 along the river shore and about the carcases of the Buffaloe, on which
 I presume they feed. we have not as yet seen one of these anamals, tho
 their tracks are so abundant and recent. the men as well as ourselves
 are anxious to meet with some of these bear. the Indians give a very
 formidable account of the strengh and ferocity of this anamal, which
 they never dare to attack but in parties of six eight or ten persons;
 and are even then frequently defeated with the loss of one or more of
 their party. the savages attack this anamal with their bows and arrows
 and the indifferent guns with which the traders furnish them, with
 these they shoot with such uncertainty and at so short a distance, that
 they frequently mis their aim & fall a sacrefice to the bear. two
 Minetaries were killed during the last winter in an attack on a white
 bear. this anamall is said more frequently to attack a man on meeting
 with him, than to flee from him. When the Indians are about to go in
 quest of the white bear, previous to their departure, they paint
 themselves and perform all those superstitious rights commonly observed
 when they are about to make war uppon a neighbouring nation. Oserved
 more bald eagles on this part of the Missouri than we have previously
 seen saw the small hawk, frequently called the sparrow hawk, which is
 common to most parts of the U States. great quantities of gees are seen
 feeding in the praries. saw a large flock of white brant or gees with
 black wings pass up the river; there were a number of gray brant with
 them; from their flight I presume they proceed much further still to
 the N. W.--we have never been enabled yet to shoot one of these birds,
 and cannot therefore determine whether the gray brant found with the
 white are their brude of the last year or whether they are the same
 with the grey brant common to the Mississippi and lower part of the
 Missouri.--we killed 2 Antelopes today which we found swiming from the
 S. to the N. side of the river; they were very poor.--We encamped this
 evening on the Stard. shore in a beautiful) plain, elivated about 30
 feet above the river.
 [Clark, April 13, 1805]
 13th of April Satturday 1805
 Set out this morning at 6 oClock, the Missouri above the mouth of
 Little Missouri widens to nearly a mile containing a number of Sand
 bars this width &c. of the River Continues Generally as high as the
 Rochejhone River.
 Cought 3 beaver this morning, at 9 miles passd. the mouth of a Creek on
 the S. S. on the banks of which there is an imence quantity of wild
 onions or garlick, I was up this Creek 1/2 a m. and could not See one
 Stick of timber of any kind on its borders, this creek is 16 yds wide
 1/2 a mile up it and discharges more water than is common for Creeks of
 its Size. at about 10 miles higher we pass a Creek about 30 yards wide
 in a deep bend to the N W. This creek I took to be a Small river from
 its Size & the quantity of water which it discharged, I ascended it
 11/2 mes and found it the discharge of a pond or Small Lake which has
 appearance of haveing been once the bead of the river, Some Small
 Streams discharge themselves into this Lake. the Countery on both Side
 is butifull elevated plains assending in Some parts to a great distance
 near the aforesaid Lake (which we call Goose egg L from a Circumstance
 of my Shooting a goose on her neast on Some Sticks in the top of a high
 Cotton wood tree in which there was one egg) We Saw 8 buffalow at a
 distance, We also Saw Several herds of Elk at a distance which were
 verry wild, I Saw near the Lake the remains of 43 lodges, which has
 latterly been abandond I Suppose them to have been Ossinniboins and now
 near the british establishments on the Ossinniboin River tradeing. we
 camped on the S. S. in a butifull Plain. I observe more bald Eagles on
 this part of the Missouri than usial also a Small Hawk Killed 2
 Antelopes in the river to day emence numbers of Geese to be seen pared
 &c. a Gange of brant pass one half of the gange white with black wings
 or the large feathers of the 1 s & 2d joint the remds. of the comn.
 color. a voice much like that of a goos & finer &c.
 [Lewis, April 14, 1805]
 Sunday April 14th 1805.
 One of the hunters saw an Otter last evening and shot at it, but missed
 it. a dog came to us this morning, which we supposed to have been lost
 by the Indians who were recently encamped near the lake that we passed
 yesterday. the mineral appearances of salts, coal and sulpher, together
 with birnt hills & pumicestone still continue.--while we remained at
 the entrance of the little Missouri, we saw several pieces of pumice
 stone floating down that stream, a considerable quanty of which had
 lodged against a point of drift wood a little above it's entrance.
 Capt. Clark walked on shore this morning, and on his return informed me
 that he had passed through the timbered bottoms on the N. side of the
 river, and had extended his walk several miles back on the hills; in
 the bottom lands he had met with several uninhabited Indian lodges
 built with the boughs of the Elm, and in the plains he met with the
 remains of two large encampments of a recent date, which from the
 appearance of some hoops of small kegs, seen near them we concluded
 that they must have been the camps of the Assinniboins, as no other
 nation who visit this part of the missouri ever indulge themselves with
 spirituous liquor. of this article the Assinniboins are pationately
 fond, and we are informed that it forms their principal inducement to
 furnish the British establishments on the Assinniboin river with the
 dryed and pounded meat and grease which they do. they also supply those
 establishments with a small quantity of fur, consisting principally of
 the large and small wolves and the small fox skins. these they barter
 for small kegs of ruin which they generally transport to their camps at
 a distance from the establishments, where they revel with their friends
 and relations as long as they possess the means of intoxication, their
 women and children are equally indulged on those occations and are all
 seen drunk together. so far is a state of intoxication from being a
 cause of reproach among them, that with the men, it is a matter of
 exultation that their skill and industry as hunters has enabled them to
 get drunk frequently. in their customs, habits, and dispositions these
 people very much resemble the Siouxs from whom they have descended. The
 principal inducement with the British fur companies, for continuing
 their establishments on the Assinniboin river, is the Buffaloe meat and
 grease they procure from the Assinniboins, and Christanoes, by means of
 which, they are enabled to supply provision to their engages on their
 return from rainy Lake to the English river and the Athabaskey country
 where they winter; without such resource those voyagers would
 frequently be straitened for provision, as the country through which
 they pass is but scantily supplyed with game, and the rappidity with
 which they are compelled to travel in order to reach their winter
 stations, would leave therm but little leasure to surch for food while
 on their voyage.
 The Assinniboins have so recently left this neighbourhood, that the
 game is scarce and very shy. the river continues wide, and not more
 rapid than the Ohio in an averge state of it's current. the bottoms are
 wide and low, the moister parts containing some timber; the upland is
 extreemly broken, chonsisting of high gaulded nobs as far as the eye
 can reach on ether side, and entirely destitute of timber. on these
 hills many aromatic herbs are seen; resembling in taste, smel and
 appearance, the sage, hysop, wormwood, southernwood and two other herbs
 which are strangers to me; the one resembling the camphor in taste and
 smell, rising to the hight of 2 or 3 feet; the other about the same
 size, has a long, narrow, smooth, soft leaf of an agreeable smel and
 flavor; of this last the Atelope is very fond; they feed on it, and
 perfume the hair of their foreheads and necks with it by rubing against
 it. the dwarf cedar and juniper is also found in great abundance on the
 sides of these hills. where the land is level, it is uniformly fertile
 consisting of a dark loam intermixed with a proportion of fine sand. it
 is generally covered with a short grass resembling very much the blue
 grass.--the miniral appearances still continue; considerable quantities
 of bitumenous water, about the colour of strong lye trickles down the
 sides of the hills; this water partakes of the taste of glauber salts
 and slightly of allumn.--while the party halted to take dinner today
 Capt Clark killed a buffaloe bull; it was meagre, and we therefore took
 the marrow bones and a small proportion of the meat only. near the
 place we dined on the Lard. side, there was a large village of
 burrowing squirrels. I have remarked that these anamals generally
 celect a South Easterly exposure for their residence, tho they are
 sometimes found in the level plains.--passed an Island, above which two
 small creeks fall in on Lard side; the upper creek largest, which we
 called Sharbono's Creek after our interpreter who encamped several
 weeks on it with a hunting party of Indians. this was the highest point
 to which any whiteman had ever ascended; except two Frenchmen who
 having lost their way had straggled a few miles further, tho to what
 place precisely I could not learn.--I walked on shore above this creek
 and killed an Elk, which was so poor that it was unfit for uce; I
 therefore left it, and joined the party at their encampment on the
 Stard shore a little after dark. on my arrival Capt Clark informed me
 that he had seen two white bear pass over the hills shortly after I
 fired, and that they appeared to run nearly from the place where I
 shot. the lard. shore on which I walked was very broken, and the hills
 in many places had the appearance of having sliped down in masses of
 several acres of land in surface.--we saw many gees feeding on the
 tender grass in the praries and several of their nests in the trees; we
 have not in a single instance found the nest of this bird on or near
 the ground. we saw a number of Magpies their nests and eggs. their
 nests are built in trees and composed of small sticks leaves and grass,
 open at top, and much in the stile of the large blackbird comm to the U
 States. the egg is of a bluish brown colour, freckled with redish brown
 spots. one of the party killed a large hooting owl. I observed no
 difference between this burd and those of the same family common to the
 U States, except that this appeared to be more booted and more thickly
 clad with feathers.-
 [Clark, April 14, 1805]
 14th of April Sunday 1805.
 a fine morning, a dog came to us this morning we Suppose him to be left
 by the Inds. who had their camps near the Lake we passd. yesterday not
 long Sence, I observed Several Single Lodges built of Stiks of cotten
 timber in different parts of the bottoms. in my walk of this day which
 was through the wooded bottoms and on the hills for several miles back
 from the river on the S. S. I Saw the remains of two Indian incampments
 with wide beeten tracks leading to them. those were no doubt the Camps
 of the Ossinnaboin Indians (a Strong evidence is hoops of Small Kegs
 were found in the incampments) no other nation on the river above the
 Sioux make use of Spiritious licquer, the Ossinniboins is said to be
 pasionately fond of Licquer, and is the principal inducement to their
 putting themselves to the trouble of Catching the fiew wolves and foxes
 which they furnish, and recive their liquor always in small Kegs. The
 Ossinniboins make use of the Same kind of Lodges which the Sioux and
 other Indians on this river make use of--Those lodges or tents are made
 of a number of dressed buffalow Skins Sowed together with Sinues &
 deckerated with the tales, & Porcupine quils, when open it forms a half
 circle with a part about 4 Inches wide projecting about 8 or 9 Inches
 from the center of the Streight Side for the purpose of attaching it to
 a pole to it the hight they wish to raise the tent, when they errect
 this tent four poles of equal length are tied near one end, those poles
 are elevated and 8 10 or 12 other poles are anexed forming a Circle at
 the ground and lodging in the forks of the four attached poles, the
 tents are then raised, by attach the projecting part to a pole and
 incumpassing the poles with the tent by bringing the two ends together
 and attached with a Cord, or laied as high as is necessary, leaveing
 the lower part open for about 4 feet for to pass in & out, and the top
 is generally left open to admit the Smoke to pass--The Borders of the
 river has been So much hunted by those Indians who must have left it
 about 8 or 10 days past and I prosume are now in the neighbourhood of
 British establishments on the Osinniboin; the game is Scerce and verry
 wild. The River Continues wide and the current jentle not more rapid
 than the Current of the Ohio in middle State--The bottoms are wide and
 low and the moist parts of them Contain Som wood such as cotton Elm &
 Small ash, willow rose bushes &c. &c. &. next to the hills Great
 quantity of wild Isoop, the hills are high broken in every direction,
 and the mineral appearance of Salts Continue to appear in a greater
 perportion, also Sulpher, Coal & bitumous water in a Smaller quantity,
 I have observed but five burnt hills, about the little Missouri, and I
 have not Seen any pumey stone above that River I Saw Buffalow on the L.
 S. Crossed and dureing the time of dinner killed a Bull, which was
 pore, we made use of the best of it, I Saw a village of Burrowing dogs
 on the L. S. passed a Island above which two Small Creeks falls in on
 the L. S. the upper of which is the largest and we call Shabonas Creek
 after our interpreter who incamped several weeks on this Creek and is
 the highest point on the Missouri to which a white man has been
 previous to this time. Capt. Lewis walked out above this creek and
 killed an Elk which he found So meager that it was not fit for use, and
 joined the boat at Dusk at our Camp on the S. S. opposit a high hill
 Several parts of which had Sliped down. on the Side of those hills we
 Saw two white bear running from the report of Capt. Lewis Shot, those
 animals assended those Steep hills with Supprising ease & verlocity.
 they were too far to discover their prosise Colour & Size--Saw Several
 gees nests on trees, also the nests & egs of the Magpies, a large grey
 owl killed, booted & with ears &c.
 [Lewis, April 15, 1805]
 Monday April 15th 1805.
 Set out at an early hour this morning. I walked on shore, and Capt.
 Clark continued with the party it being an invariable rule with us not
 to be both absent from our vessels at the same time. I passed through
 the bottoms of the river on the Stard. side. they were partially
 covered with timber & were extensive, level and beatifull. in my walk
 which was about 6 miles I passed a small rivulet of clear water making
 down from the hills, which on tasting, I discovered to be in a small
 degree brackish. it possessed less of the glauber salt, or alumn, than
 those little streams from the hills usually do.--in a little pond of
 water fromed by this rivulet where it entered the bottom, I heard the
 frogs crying for the first time this season; their note was the same
 with that of the small frogs which are common to the lagoons and swamps
 of the U States.--I saw great quantities of gees feeding in the
 bottoms, of which I shot one. saw some deer and Elk, but they were
 remarkably shy. I also met with great numbers of Grouse or prarie hens
 as they are called by the English traders of the N. W. these birds
 appeared to be mating; the note of the male is kuck, kuck, kuck, coo,
 coo, coo. the first part of the note both male and female use when
 flying. the male also dubbs something like the pheasant, but by no
 means as loud. after breakfast Capt. Clark walked on the Std. shore,
 and on his return in the evening gave me the following account of his
 ramble. "I ascended to the high country, about 9 miles distant from the
 Missouri. the country consists of beatifull, level and fertile plains,
 destitute of timber I saw many little dranes, which took their rise in
 the river hills, from whence as far as I could see they run to the N.
 E." these streams we suppose to be the waters of Mous river a branch of
 the Assinniboin which the Indians informed us approaches the Missouri
 very nearly, about this point. "I passed," continued he, "a Creek about
 20 yards wide," which falls into the Missouri; the bottoms of this
 creek are wide level and extreemly fertile, but almost entirely
 destitute of timber. the water of this creek as well as all those
 creeks and rivulets which we have passed since we left Fort Mandan was
 so strongly impregnated with salts and other miniral substances that I
 was incapable of drinking it. I saw the remains of several camps of the
 Assinniboins; near one of which, in a small ravene, there was a park
 which they had formed of timber and brush, for the purpose of taking
 the Cabrie or Antelope. it was constructed in the following manner. a
 strong pound was first made of timbers, on one side of which there was
 a small apparture, sufficiently large to admit an Antelope; from each
 side of this apparture, a curtain was extended to a considerable
 distance, widening as they receded from the pound.--we passed a rock
 this evening standing in the middle of the river, and the bed of the
 river was formed principally of gravel. we encamped this evening on a
 sand point on Lard. side. a little above our encampment the river was
 confined to a channel of 80 yards in width.-
 [Clark, April 15, 1805]
 15th of April Monday 1805
 Set out at an early hour, Captn Lewis walked on Shore and Killed a
 goose, passed a Island in a bend to the L. S. the wind hard from the S.
 E. after brackfast I walked on Shore and assended to the high Countrey
 on the S. S. and off from the Missouri about three miles the countrey
 is butifull open fertile plain the dreans take theer rise near the
 Clifts of the river and run from the river in a N E derection as far as
 I could See, this is the part of the River which Mouse river the waters
 of Lake Winnipec approaches within a fiew miles of Missouri, and I
 believe those dreans lead into that river. we passed a creek about 20
 yds. wide on the S. S. the bottoms of this Creek is extensive &
 fertile, the water of this as also, all the Streams which head a fiew
 miles in the hills discharge water which is black & unfit for use (and
 can Safely Say that I have not Seen one drop of water fit for use above
 fort Mandan except Knife and the little Missouris Rivers and the
 Missouri, the other Streams being So much impregnated with mineral as
 to be verry disagreeble in its present State.) I saw the remains of
 Several Camps of ossinniboins, near one of those camps & at no great
 distance from the mouth of the aforesid Creek, in a hollow, I saw a
 large Strong pen made for the purpose of Catching the antelope, with
 wings projecting from it widining from the pen
 Saw Several gangs of Buffalow and Some elk at a distance, a black bear
 Seen from the Perogues to day--passed a rock in the Middle of the
 river, Some Smaller rocks from that to the L. Shore, the dog that came
 to us yesterday morning continues to follow us, we camped on a Sand
 point to the L. S.
 [Lewis, April 16, 1805]
 Tuesday April 16th 1805.
 Set out very early this morning. Capt. Clark walked on Shore this
 morning, and killed an Antelope, rejoined us at 1/2 after eight A.M.-
 he informed me that he had seen many Buffaloe Elk and deer in his
 absence, and that he had met with a great number of old hornets nests
 in the woody bottoms through which he had passed.--the hills of the
 river still continue extreemly broken for a few miles back, when it
 becomes a fine level country of open fertile lands immediately on the
 river there are many fine leavel extensive and extreemly fertile high
 plains and meadows. I think the quantity of timbered land on the river
 is increasing. the mineral appearances still continue. I met with
 several stones today that had the appearance of wood first carbonated
 and then petrefyed by the water of the river, which I have discovered
 has that effect on many vegitable substances when exposed to it's
 influence for a length of time. l believe it to be the stratas of Coal
 seen in those hills which causes the fire and birnt appearances
 frequently met with in this quarter. where those birnt appearances are
 to be seen in the face of the river bluffs, the coal is seldom seen,
 and when you meet with it in the neighbourhood of the stratas of birnt
 earth, the coal appears to be presisely at the same hight, and is
 nearly of the same thickness, togeter with the sand and a sulphurious
 substance which ususually accompanys it. there was a remarkable large
 beaver caught by one of the party last night. these anamals are now
 very abundant. I have met with several trees which have been felled by
 them 20 Inches in diameter. bark is their only food; and they appear to
 prefer that of the Cotton wood and willow; as we have never met with
 any other species of timber on the Missouri which had the appearance of
 being cut by them.--we passed three small creeks on the Stard. side.
 they take their rise in the river hills at no great distance. we saw a
 great number of geese today, both in the plains and on the river--I
 have observed but few ducks, those we have met with are the Mallard and
 blue winged Teal
 [Clark, April 16, 1805]
 16th of April Tuesday 1805
 Wind hard from the S. E I walked on Shore and Killed an antilope which
 was verry meagre, Saw great numbers of Elk & some buffalow & Deer, a
 verry large Beaver Cought this morning. Some verry handsom high planes
 & extensive bottoms, the mineral appearances of Coal & Salt together
 with Some appearance of Burnt hils continue. a number of old hornets
 nests Seen in every bottom more perticularly in the one opposit to the
 place we camped this night--the wooded bottoms are more extensive to
 day than Common. passed three Small Creeks on the S. S. to day which
 take their rise in the hills at no great distance, Great numbers of
 Gees in the river & in the Plains feeding on the Grass.
 [Lewis, April 17, 1805]
 Wednesday April 17th 1805.
 A delightfull morning, set out at an erly hour. the country though
 which we passed to (lay was much the same as that discribed of
 yesterday; there wase more appearance of birnt hills, furnishing large
 quanties of lava and pumice stone, of the latter some pieces were seen
 floating down the river. Capt. Clark walked on shore this morning on
 the Stard. side, and did not join us untill half after six in the
 evening. he informed me that he had seen the remains of the Assinniboin
 encampments in every point of woodland through which he had passed. we
 saw immence quantities of game in every direction around us as we
 passed up the river; consisting of herds of Buffaloe, Elk, and
 Antelopes with some deer and woolves. tho we continue to see many
 tracks of the bear we have seen but very few of them, and those are at
 a great distance generally runing from us; I thefore presume that they
 are extreemly wary and shy; the Indian account of them dose not
 corrispond with our experience so far. one black bear passed near the
 perogues on the 16th and was seen by myself and the party but he so
 quickly disappeared that we did not shoot at him.--at the place we
 halted to dine on the Lard. side we met with a herd of buffaloe of
 which I killed the fatest as I concieved among them, however on
 examining it I found it so poar that I thought it unfit for uce and
 only took the tongue; the party killed another which was still more
 lean. just before we encamped this evening we saw some tracks of
 Indians who had passed about 24 hours; they left four rafts of timber
 on the Stard. side, on which they had passed. we supposed them to have
 been a party of the Assinniboins who had been to war against the rocky
 mountain Indians, and then on their return. Capt. Clark saw a Curlou
 today. there were three beaver taken this morning by the party. the men
 prefer the flesh of this anamal, to that of any other which we have, or
 are able to procure at this moment. I eat very heartily of the beaver
 myself, and think it excellent; particularly the tale, and liver. we
 had a fair wind today which enabled us to sail the greater part of the
 distance we have travled, encamped on the Lard shore the extremity of
 the last course
 [Clark, April 17, 1805]
 17th of April Wednesday 1805
 a fine morning wind from the S E. Genly to day handsom high extencive
 rich Plains on each Side, the mineral appearances continue with greater
 appearances of Coal, much greater appearance of the hills haveing been
 burnt, more Pumice Stone & Lava washed down to the bottoms and some
 Pumice Stone floating in the river, I walked on the S. S. Saw great
 numbs. of Buffalow feeding in the Plains at a distance Capt. Lewis
 killed 2 Buffalow buls which was near the water at the time of dineing,
 they were So pore as to be unfit for use. I Saw Several Small parties
 of antelopes large herds of Elk, Some white wolves, and in a pond
 (formed on the S. S. by the Missouries Changeing its bead) I Saw Swan
 Gees & different kinds of Ducks in great numbers also a Beaver house.
 Passed a Small Creek on the S. S. & Several runs of water on each Side,
 Saw the remains of Indian camps in every point of timbered land on the
 S. S. in the evining a thunder gust passed from the S W, without rain,
 about Sunset Saw Some fresh Indians track and four rafts on the shore
 S. S. Those I prosume were Ossinniboins who had been on a war party
 against the Rockey Mountain Indians--Saw a Curlow, Some verry large
 beaver taken this morning. those animals are made use of as food and
 preferred by the party to any other at this Season
 [Lewis, April 18, 1805]
 Thursday April 18th 1805.
 A fine morning, set out at an early hour. one Beaver caught this
 morning by two traps, having a foot in each; the traps belonged to
 different individuals, between whom, a contest ensued, which would have
 terminated, most probably, in a serious rencounter had not our timely
 arrival at the place prevented it. after breakfast this morning, Capt.
 Clark walked on Stad. shore, while the party were assending by means of
 their toe lines, I walked with them on the bank; found a species of pea
 bearing a yellow flower, and now in blume; it seldom rises more than 6
 inches high, the leaf & stalk resembles that of the common gardin pea,
 the root is pirenial. (See specimen of vegitables No. 3.) I also saw
 several parsels of buffaloe's hair hanging on the rose bushes, which
 had been bleached by exposure to the weather and became perfectly
 white. it every appearance of the wool of the sheep, tho much finer and
 more silkey and soft. I am confident that an excellent cloth may be
 made of the wool of the Buffaloe. the Buffaloe I killed yesterday had
 cast his long hare, and the poll which remained was very thick, fine,
 and about 2 inches in length. I think this anamal would have furnished
 about five pounds of wool. we were detained today from one to five P.M.
 in consequence of the wind which blew so violently from N. that it was
 with difficulty we could keep the canoes from filling with water altho
 they were along shore; I had them secured by placing the perogues on
 the out side of them in such manner as to break the waves off them. at
 5 we proceed, and shortly after met with Capt. Clark, who had killed an
 Elk and a deer and was wating our arrival. we took the meat on board
 and continued our march untill nearly dark when we came too on the
 Stard side under a boald welltimbered bank which sheltered us from the
 wind which had abated but not yet ceased. here we encamped, it being
 the extremity of the last course of this day.-
 [Clark, April 18, 1805]
 18th of April Thursday 1805
 Set out at an early hour one Beaver & a Musrat Cought this morning, the
 beaver cought in two traps, which like to have brought about a
 missunderstanding between two of the party &c. after brackfast I
 assended a hill and observed that the river made a great bend to the
 South, I concluded to walk thro the point about 2 miles and take
 Shabono, with me, he had taken a dost of Salts &c. his Squar followed
 on with his child, when I Struck the next bend of the river could See
 nothing of the Party, left this man & his wife & Child on the river
 bank and went out to hunt, Killed a young Buck Elk, & a Deer, the Elk
 was tolerable meat, the Deer verry pore, Butcherd the meat and
 Continued untill near Sunset before Capt Lewis and the party Came up,
 they were detained by the wind, which rose Soon after I left the boat
 from the N W. & blew verry hard untill verry late in the evening. we
 Camped on the S. S. in an excellent harbor, Soon after We came too, two
 men went up the river to Set their beaver traps they met with a Bear
 and being without their arms thought prodent to return &c. the wild
 Cheries are in bloom, Great appearance of Burnt hills Pumice Stone &c.
 the Coal & Salt appearance Continued, the water in the Small runs much
 better than below,--Saw Several old Indian Camps, the game, Such as
 Buffalow Elk, antelopes & Deer verry plenty
 [Lewis, April 19, 1805]
 Friday April 19th 1805.
 The wind blew So hard this morning from N. W. that we dared not to
 venture our canoes on the river.--Observed considerable quantities of
 dwarf Juniper on the hillsides (see specimen No. 4) it seldom rises
 higher then 3 feet.--the wind detained us through the couse of this
 day, tho we were fortunate in having placed ourselves in a safe
 harbour. the party killed one Elk and a beaver today. The beaver of
 this part of the Missouri are larger, fatter, more abundant and better
 clad with fur than those of any other part of the country that I have
 yet seen; I have remarked also that their fur is much darker.
 [Clark, April 19, 1805]
 19th of April Friday 1805
 a blustering windey day the wind So hard from the N, W. that we were
 fearfull of ventering our Canoes in the river, lay by all day on the S.
 Side in a good harber, the Praries appear to green, the cotton trees
 bigin to leave, Saw some plumb bushes in full bloom, those were the
 plumb bushes which I have Seen for Some time. Killed an Elk an a Beaver
 to day--The beaver of this river is much larger than usial, Great deal
 of Sign of the large Bear,
 [Lewis, April 20, 1805]
 Saturday April 20th 1805.
 The wind continued to blow tolerably hard this morning but by no means
 as violently as it (lid yesterday; we determined to set out and
 accordingly departed a little before seven. I walked on shore on the N.
 side of the river, and Capt Clark proceeded with the party. the river
 bottoms through which I passed about seven miles were fertil and well
 covered with Cottonwood some Box alder, ash and red Elm. the under
 brush, willow, rose bushes Honeysuccle, red willow, goosbury, currant
 and servicebury & in the open grounds along the foot of the river hills
 immence quantities of the hisop. in the course of my walk I killed two
 deer, wounded an Elk and a deer; saw the remains of some Indian hunting
 camps, near which stood a small scaffold of about 7 feet high on which
 were deposited two doog slays with their harnis. underneath this
 scaffold a human body was lying, well rolled in several dressed
 buffaloe skins and near it a bag of the same materials containg sundry
 articles belonging to the disceased; consisting of a pare of
 mockersons, some red and blue earth, beaver's nails, instruments for
 dressing the Buffalo skin, some dryed roots, several platts of the
 sweet grass, and a small quantity of Mandan tobacco.--I presume that
 the body, as well as the bag containing these articles, had formerly
 been placed on the scaffold as is the custom of these people, but had
 fallen down by accedent. near the scaffold I saw the carcase of a large
 dog not yet decayed, which I supposed had been killed at the time the
 human body was left on the scaffold; this was no doubt the reward,
 which the poor doog had met with for performing the ____-friendly
 office to his mistres of transporting her corps to the place of
 deposit. it is customary with the Assinniboins, Mandans, Minetares &c
 who scaffold their dead, to sacrefice the favorite horses and doggs of
 their disceased relations, with a view of their being servicable to
 them in the land of sperits. I have never heard of any instances of
 human sacrefices on those occasions among them.
 The wind blew so hard that I concluded it was impossible fror the
 perogues and canoes to proceed and therefore returned and joined them
 about three in the evening. Capt. Clark informed me that soon after
 seting out, a part of the bank of the river fell in near one of the
 canoes and had very nearly filled her with water. that the wind became
 so hard and the waves so high that it was with infinite risk he had
 been able to get as far as his present station. the white perrogue and
 several of the canoes had shiped water several times but happily our
 stores were but little injured; those which were wet we put out to dry
 and determined to remain untill the next morning. we sent out four
 hunters who soon added 3 Elk 4 gees and 2 deer to our stock of
 provisions. the party caught six beaver today which were large and in
 fine order. the Buffaloe, Elk and deer are poor at this season, and of
 tours are not very palitable, however our good health and apetites make
 up every necessary deficiency, and we eat very heartily of them.-
 encamped on Stard side; under a high well timbered bank.
 [Clark, April 20, 1805]
 20th of April Satturday 1805
 wind a head from the N W. we Set out at 7 oClock proceeded on, Soon
 after we Set out a Bank fell in near one of the Canoes which like to
 have filled her with water, the wind became hard and waves So rought
 that we proceeded with our little Canoes with much risque, our
 Situation was Such after Setting out that we were obliged to pass round
 the 1st Point or lay exposed to the blustering winds & waves, in
 passing round the Point Several canoes took in water as also our large
 Perogue but without injuring our Stores & much I proceeded on to the
 upper part of the 1st bend and came too at a butifull Glade on the S.
 S., about 1 mile below Capt Lewis who had walked thro the point, left
 his Coat & a Deer on the bank which we took on board,-. a Short
 distance below our Camp I Saw Some rafts on the S. S. near which, an
 Indian woman was Scaffeled in the Indian form of Deposing their dead, &
 fallen down She was or had been raised about 6 feet inclosed in Several
 robes tightly laced around her, with her dog Slays, her bag of
 Different coloured earths paint Small bones of animals beaver nales and
 Several other little trinkets, also a blue jay, her dog was killed and
 lay near her. Capt. Lewis joined me Soon after I landed & informed me
 he has walked Several miles higher, & in his walk killed 2 Deer &
 wounded an Elk & a Deer, our party Shot in the river four beaver &
 cought two, which were verry fat and much admired by the men, after we
 landed they killed 3 Elk 4 Gees & 2 Deer we had Some of our Provisions
 & which got a little wet aired, the wind Continued So hard that we were
 Compelled to delay all day. Saw Several buffalow lodged in the drift
 wood which had been drouned in the winter in passing the river; Saw the
 remains of 2 which had lodged on the Side of the bank & eate by the
 This morning was verry cold, Some Snow about 2 oClock from flying
 clouds, Some frost this morning & the mud at the edge of the water was
 [Lewis, April 21, 1805]
 Sunday April 21st 1805.
 Set out at an early hour this morning. Capt Clark walked on shore; the
 wind tho a head was not violent. the country through which we passed is
 very simelar in every rispect to that through which we have passed for
 several days.--We saw immence herds of buffaloe Elk deer & Antelopes.
 Capt Clark killed a buffaloe and 4 deer in the course of his walk
 today; and the party with me killed 3 deer, 2 beaver, and 4 buffaloe
 calves. the latter we found very delicious. I think it equal to any
 veal I ever tasted. the Elk now begin to shed their horns. passed one
 large and two small creeks on the Lard. side, tho neither of them
 discharge any water at present. the wind blew so hard this evening that
 we were obliged to halt several hours. we reached the place of
 incampment after dark, which was on the Lard. side a little above White
 earth river which discharges itself on the Stard. side. immediately at
 the mouth of this river it is not more than 10 yards wide being choked
 up by the mud of the Missouri; tho after leaving the bottom lands of
 this river, or even sooner, it becomes a boald stream of sixty yards
 wide and is deep and navigable. the course of this river as far as I
 could see from the top of Cut bluff, was due North. it passes through a
 beatifull level and fertile vally about five miles in width. I think I
 saw about 25 miles up this river, and did not discover one tree or bush
 of any discription on it's borders. the vally was covered with Elk and
 buffaloe. saw a great number of gees today as usual, also some swan and
 [Clark, April 21, 1805]
 21st of April Sunday 1805
 Set out early the wind gentle & from the N. W. the river being verry
 Crooked, I concluded to walk through the point, the Countrey on either
 Side is verry Similar to that we have passed, Saw an emence number of
 Elk & Buffalow, also Deer Antelopes Geese Ducks & a fiew Swan, the
 Buffalow is about Calveing I killed a Buffalow & 4 Deer in my walk to
 day, the party killed 2 deer 2 beaver & 4 Buffalow Calves, which was
 verry good veele. I Saw old Camps of Indians on the L. Side, we passed
 1 large & 2 Small Creeks on the L. Side neither of them discharge any
 water into the river, in the evening the wind became verry hard a head,
 we made Camp at a late hour which was on the L. Side a little above the
 mouth of White Earth River which falls in on the Stad Side and is 60
 yds. wide, several Mes. up
 [Lewis, April 22, 1805]
 Monday April 22cd 1805.
 Set out at an early hour this morning; proceeded pretty well untill
 breakfat, when the wind became so hard a head that we proceeded with
 difficulty even with the assistance of our toe lines. the party halted
 and Cpt. Clark and myself walked to the white earth river which
 approaches the Missouri very near at this place, being about 4 miles
 above it's entrance. we found that it contained more water than streams
 of it's size generally do at this season. the water is much clearer
 than that of the Missouri. the banks of the river are steep and not
 more than ten or twelve feet high; the bed seems to be composed of mud
 altogether. the salts which have been before mentioned as common on the
 Missouri, appears in great quantities along the banks of this river,
 which are in many places so thickly covered with it that they appear
 perfectly white. perhaps it has been from this white appearance of it's
 banks that the river has derived it's name. this river is said to be
 navigable nearly to it's source, which is at no great distance from the
 Saskashawan, and I think from it's size the direction which it seems to
 take, and the latitude of it's mouth, that there is very good ground to
 believe that it extends as far North as latitude 50°.--this stream passes
 through an open country generally.--the broken hills of the Missouri
 about this place exhibit large irregular and broken masses of rocks and
 stones; some of which tho 200 feet above the level of the water seem at
 some former period to have felt it's influence, fo they appear smoth as
 if woarn by the agetation of the water. this collection consists of
 white & grey gannite, a brittle black rock, flint, limestone,
 freestone, some small specimens of an excellent pebble and occasionally
 broken stratas of a stone which appears to be petrefyed wood, it is of
 a black colour, and makes excellent whetstones. Coal or carbonated wood
 pumice stone lava and other mineral apearances still continue. the coal
 appears to be of better quality; I exposed a specimen of it to the fire
 and found that it birnt tolerably well, it afforded but little flame or
 smoke, but produced a hot and lasting fire.--I asscended to the top of
 the cutt bluff this morning, from whence I had a most delightfull view
 of the country, the whole of which except the vally formed by the
 Missouri is void of timber or underbrush, exposing to the first glance
 of the spectator immence herds of Buffaloe, Elk, deer, & Antelopes
 feeding in one common and boundless pasture. we saw a number of bever
 feeding on the bark of the trees alonge the verge of the river, several
 of which we shot, found them large and fat. walking on shore this
 evening I met with a buffaloe calf which attatched itself to me and
 continued to follow close at my heels untill I embarked and left it. it
 appeared allarmed at my dog which was probably the cause of it's so
 readily attatching itself to me. Capt Clark informed me that he saw a
 large drove of buffaloe pursued by wolves today, that they at length
 caught a calf which was unable to keep up with the herd. the cows only
 defend their young so long as they are able to keep up with the herd,
 and seldom return any distance in surch of them.-
 [Clark, April 22, 1805]
 22nd of April Monday 1805
 a verry cold morning Some frost, we Set out at an early hour and
 proceeded on verry well untill brackfast at which time the wind began
 to blow verry hard ahead, and Continued hard all day we proceeded on
 with much dificuelty with the assistance of the toe Ropes. Capt. Lewis
 & my Self walked to the ____ River which is near the Missouri four
 miles above its mouth, this river is 60 yards wide and contains a
 greater perportion of water at this time than is Common for Rivers of
 its Size it appears navagable as fur as any of the party was, and I am
 told to near its Source in morrasses in the open Plains, it passes (as
 far as we can See which is 6 or 7 Leagus) thro a butifull extinsive
 vallie, rich & fertile and at this time Covered with Buffalow, Elk &
 antelopes, which may be Seen also in any other direction in this
 quarter--this river must take its rise at no great distance Easte of
 the Saskashawan, and no doubt as far N. as Latd. 50°
 Some of the high plains or the broken Revien of the river contains
 great quantity of Pebble Stones of various Sizes, The Stratum of Coal
 is much richer than below, the appearances of Mineral & burnt hills
 Still continue the river riseing a little, Saw an emence number of
 beaver feeding on the waters edge & Swiming Killed Several, Capt. Lewis
 assended a hill from the top of which he had a most inchanting prospect
 of the Countrey around & the meanderings of the two rivers, which is
 remarkable Crooked--a buffalow calf which was on the Shore alone
 followed Cap Lewis Some distance,--I observed a large drove of buffalow
 prosued by wolves the wolves cought one of their Calves in my view,
 those animals defend their young as long as they Can keep up with the
 [Lewis, April 23, 1805]
 Tuesday April 23rd
 Set out at an early hour this morning. about nine A.M. the wind arose,
 and shortly after became so violent that we were unabled to proceed, in
 short it was with much difficulty and some risk that I was enabled to
 get the canoes and perogues into a place of tolerable safety, there
 being no timber on either side of the river at this place. some of the
 canoes shiped water, and wet several parsels of their lading, which I
 directed to be opened and aired we remained untill five in the evening
 when the wind abating in some measure, we reloaded, and proceeded.
 shortly after we were joined by Capt. Clark who had walked on shore
 this morning, and passing through the bottom lands had fallen on the
 river some miles above, and concluding that the wind had detained us,
 came down the river in surch of us. he had killed three blacktaled, or
 mule deer, and a buffaloe Calf, in the course of his ramble. these hard
 winds, being so frequently repeated, become a serious source of
 detention to us.--incamped on the Stard. side.-
 [Clark, April 23, 1805]
 23rd of April 1805
 a cold morning at about 9 oClock the wind as usial rose from the N W
 and continued to blow verry hard untill late in the evening I walked on
 Shore after brackfast in my walk on the S side passed through extensive
 bottoms of timber intersperced with glades & low open plains, I killed
 3 mule or black tail Deer, which was in tolerable order, Saw Several
 others, I also killed a Buffalow Calf which was verry fine, I Struck
 the river above the Perogus which had Come too in a bend to the L. S.
 to Shelter from the wind which had become violently hard, I joined Capt
 Lewis in the evening & after the winds falling which was late in the
 evening we proceeded on & encamped on the S. S. The winds of this
 Countrey which blow with Some violence almost every day, has become a
 Serious obstruction in our progression onward, as we Cant move when the
 wind is high without great risque, and if there was no risque the winds
 is generally a head and often too violent to proceed
 [Lewis, April 24, 1805]
 Wednesday April 24th
 The wind blew so hard during the whole of this day, that we were unable
 to move. notwithstanding that we were sheltered by high timber from the
 effects of the wind, such was it's violence that it caused the waves to
 rise in such manner as to wet many articles in the small canoes before
 they could be unloaded. we sent out some hunters who killed 4 deer & 2
 Elk, and caught some young wolves of the small kind.--Soar eyes is a
 common complaint among the party. I believe it origenates from the
 immence quantities of sand which is driven by the wind from the
 sandbars of the river in such clouds that you are unable to discover
 the opposite bank of the river in many instances. the particles of this
 sand are so fine and light that they are easily supported by the air,
 and are carried by the wind for many miles, and at a distance
 exhibiting every appearance of a collumn of thick smoke. so penitrating
 is this sand that we cannot keep any article free from it; in short we
 are compelled to eat, drink, and breath it very freely. my pocket
 watch, is out of order, she will run only a few minutes without
 stoping. I can discover no radical defect in her works, and must
 therefore attribute it to the sand, with which, she seems plentifully
 charged, notwithstanding her cases are double and tight.
 [Clark, April 24, 1805]
 24th of April Wednesday 1805
 The wind rose last night and continued blowing from the N. & N W. and
 Sometimes with great violence, untill 7 oClock P. M, Several articles
 wet in the Perogues by their takeing water &c. as the wind was a head
 we could not move today Sent out hunters, they killed 4 Deer 2 Elk &
 cought Some young wolves of the Small kind, The party complain much of
 the Sand in their eyes, the Sand is verry fine and rises in clouds from
 the Points and bars of the river, I may Say that dureing those winds we
 eat Drink & breeth a prepotion of Sand.
 [Lewis, April 25, 1805]
 Thursday April 25th 1805.
 The wind was more moderate this morning, tho still hard; we set out at
 an early hour. the water friezed on the oars this morning as the men
 rowed. about 10 oclock A.M. the wind began to blow so violently that we
 were obliged to lye too. my dog had been absent during the last night,
 and I was fearfull we had lost him altogether, however, much to my
 satisfaction he joined us at 8 Oclock this morning. The wind had been
 so unfavorable to our progress for several days past, and seeing but
 little prospect of a favourable chang; knowing that the river was
 crooked, from the report of the hunters who were out yesterday, and
 beleiving that we were at no very great distance from the Yellow stone
 River; I determined, in order as mush as possible to avoid detention,
 to proceed by land with a few men to the entrance of that river and
 make the necessary observations to determine it's position, which I
 hoped to effect by the time that Capt. Clark could arrive with the
 party; accordingly I set out at 1 t OCk. on the Lard. side, accompanyed
 by four men. we proceeded about four miles, when falling in with some
 bufaloe I killed a yearling calf, which was in good order; we soon
 cooked and made a hearty meal of a part of it, and renewed our march
 our rout lay along the foot of the river hills. when we had proceeded
 about four miles, I ascended the hills from whence I had a most
 pleasing view of the country, perticularly of the wide and fertile
 values formed by the missouri and the yellowstone rivers, which
 occasionally unmasked by the wood on their borders disclose their
 meanderings for many miles in their passage through these delightfull
 tracts of country. I could not discover the junction of the rivers
 immediately, they being concealed by the woods, however, sensible that
 it could not be distant I determined to encamp on the bank of the
 Yellow stone river which made it's appearance about 2 miles South of
 me. the whol face of the country was covered with herds of Buffaloe,
 Elk & Antelopes; deer are also abundant, but keep themselves more
 concealed in the woodland. the buffaloe Elk and Antelope are so gentle
 that we pass near them while feeding, without apearing to excite any
 alarm among them, and when we attract their attention, they frequently
 approach us more nearly to discover what we are, and in some instances
 pursue us a considerable distance apparenly with that view.--in our way
 to the place I had determined to encamp, we met with two large herds of
 buffaloe, of which we killed three cows and a calf. two of the former,
 wer but lean, we therefore took their tongues and a part of their
 marrow-bones only. I then proceeded to the place of our encampment with
 two of the men, taking with us the Calf and marrowbones, while the
 other two remained, with orders to dress the cow that was in tolerable
 order, and hang the meat out of the reach of the wolves, a precaution
 indispensible to it's safe keeping, even for a night. we encamped on
 the bank of the yellowstone river, 2 miles South of it's confluence
 with the Missouri. On rejoining Capt. Clark, the 26th in the evening,
 he informed me, that at 5 P.M. after I left him the wind abated in some
 measure and he proceeded a few miles further and encamped.
 [Clark, April 25, 1805]
 25th of April Thursday 1805
 The wind was moderate & ahead this morning, we Set out at an early hour
 The morning cold, Some flying Clouds to be Seen, the wind from the N.
 ice collected on the ores this morning, the wind increased and became
 So violent about 1 oClock we were obliged to lay by our Canoes haveing
 taken in Some water, the Dog which was lost yesterday, joined us this
 finding that the winds retarded our progression for maney days past,
 and no apparance of an alteration, and the river being Crooked that we
 could never have 3 miles fair wind, Capt. Lewis concluded to go by land
 as far as the Rochejhone or yellow Stone river, which we expect is at
 no great distance by land and make Some Selestial observations to find
 the Situation of its mouth, and by that measure not detain the Perogues
 at that place any time for the purpose of makeing those necessary
 observations he took 4 men & proceeded on up the Missouri on the L.
 Side, at 5 oClock the wind luled and we proceeded on and incamped.
 [Lewis, April 26, 1805]
 Friday April 26th 1805.
 This morning I dispatched Joseph Fields up the yellowstone river with
 orders to examine it as far as he could conveniently and return the
 same evening; two others were directed to bring in the meat we had
 killed last evening, while I proceeded down the river with one man in
 order to take a view of the confluence of this great river with the
 Missouri, which we found to be two miles distant on a direct line N. W.
 from our encampment. the bottom land on the lower side of the
 yellowstone river near it's mouth for about one mile in width appears
 to be subject to inundation; while that on the opposite side of the
 Missouri and the point formed by the junction of these rivers is of the
 common elivation, say from twelve to 18 feet above the level of the
 water, and of course not liable to be overflown except in extreem high
 water, which dose not appear to be very frequent there is more timber
 in the neighbourhood of the junction of these rivers, and on the
 Missouri as far below as the White earth river, than there is on any
 part of the Missouri above the entrance of the Chyenne river to this
 place. the timber consists principally of Cottonwood, with some small
 elm, ash and boxalder. the under growth on the sandbars and verge of
 the river is the small leafed willow; the low bottoms, rose bushes
 which rise to three or four feet high, the redburry, servicebury, and
 the redwood; the high bottoms are of two discriptions either timbered
 or open; the first lies next to the river and it's under brush is the
 same with that of the low timbered bottoms with the addition of the
 broad leafed willow, Goosbury, choke cherry, purple currant; and
 honeysuckle bushis; the open bottoms border on the hills, and are
 covered in many parts by the wild hyssop which rises to the hight of
 two feet. I observe that the Antelope, Buffaloe Elk and deer feed on
 this herb; the willow of the sandbars also furnish a favorite winter
 food to these anamals as well as the growse, the porcupine, hare, and
 rabbit. about 12 Olock I heard the discharge of several guns at the
 junction of the rivers, which announced to me the arrival of the paty
 with Capt Clark; I afterwards learnt that they had fired on some
 buffaloe which they met with at that place, and of which they killed a
 cow and several Calves; the latter are now fine veal. I dispatched one
 of the men to Capt Clark requesting him to send up a canoe to take down
 the meat we had killed and our baggage to his encampmt, which was
 accordingly complyed with. after I had completed my observations in the
 evening I walked down and joined the party at their encampment on the
 point of land fromed by the junction of the rivers; found them all in
 good health, and much pleased at having arrived at this long wished for
 spot, and in order to add in some measure to the general pleasure which
 seemed to pervade our little community, we ordered a dram to be issued
 to each person; this soon produced the fiddle, and they spent the
 evening with much hilarity, singing & dancing, and seemed as perfectly
 to forget their past toils, as they appeared regardless of those to
 come. in the evening, the man I had sent up the river this morning
 returned, and reported that he had ascended it about eight miles on a
 streight line; that he found it crooked, meandering from side to side
 of the valley formed by it; which is from four to five miles wide. the
 corrent of the river gentle, and it's bed much interrupted and broken
 by sandbars; at the distance of five miles he passed a large Island
 well covered with timber, and three miles higher a large creek falls in
 on the S. E. sides above a high bluff in which there are several
 stratas of coal. the country bordering on this river as far as he could
 percieve, like that of the Missouri, consisted of open plains. he saw
 several of the bighorned anamals in the couse of his walk; but they
 were so shy that he could not get a shoot at them; he found a large
 horn of one of these anamals which he brought with him. the bed of the
 yellowstone river is entirely composed of sand and mud, not a stone of
 any kind to be seen in it near it's entrance. Capt Clark measured these
 rivers just above their confluence; found the bed of the Missouri 520
 yards wide, the water occupying 330. it's channel deep. the yellowstone
 river including it's sandbar, 858 yds. of which, the water occupyed 297
 yards; the depest part 12 feet; it was falling at this time & appeard
 to be nearly at it's summer tide.--the Indians inform that the
 yellowstone river is navigable for perogues and canoes nearly to it's
 source in the Rocky Mountains, and that in it's course near these
 mountains it passes within less than half a day's march of a navigable
 part of the Missouri. it's extreem sources are adjacent to those of the
 Missouri, river platte, and I think probably with some of the South
 branch of the Columbia river. the first part of its course lies through
 a mountanous rocky country tho well timbered and in many parts fertile;
 the middle, and much the most extensive portion of the river lies
 through a delightfull rich and fertile country, well covered with
 timber, intersperced with plains and meadows, and well watered; it is
 some what broken in many parts. the lower portion consists of fertile
 open plains and meadows almost entirely, tho it possesses a
 considerable proportion of timber on it's borders. the current of the
 upper portion is extreemly rappid, that of the middle and lower
 portions much more gentle than the Missouri. the water of this river is
 turbid, tho dose not possess as much sediment as that of the Missouri.
 this river in it's course recieves the waters of many large tributary
 strains principally from the S. E. of which the most considerable are
 the Tongue and bighorn rivers the former is much the largest, and heads
 with the river Platte and Bighorn river, as dose the latter with the
 Tongue river and the river Platte.--a suficient quantity of limestone
 may be readily procured for building near the junction of the Missouri
 and yellowstone rivers. I could observe no regular stratas of it, tho
 it lies on the sides of the river hills in large irregular masses, in
 considerable quantities; it is of a light colour, and appears to be of
 an excellent quality.-
 [Clark, April 26, 1805]
 26th of April Friday 1805
 last night was verry Cold. the Thermometer Stood at 32 abov 0 this
 morning. I Set out at an early hour, as it was cold I walked on the
 bank, & in my walk Shot a beaver & 2 Deer, one of the Deer in tolerable
 order, the low bottom of the river is generaly Covered with wood
 willows & rose bushes, red berry, wild Cherry & red or arrow wood
 intersperced with glades The timber is Cottonwood principally, Elm
 Small ash also furnish a portion of the timber, The Clay of the bluffs
 appear much whiter than below, and Contain Several Stratums of Coal, on
 the hill Sides I observe pebbles of different Size & Colour--The river
 has been riseing for Several days, & raised 3 inches last night, at 12
 oClock arrived at the forks of the Roche Johne & Missouri and formed a
 Camp on the point Soon after George Drewyer Came from Capt Lewis &
 informed me that he was a little way up the Roche johne and would join
 me this evining, I Sent a canoe up to Capt Lewis and proceeded measure
 the width of the rivers, and find the debth. The Missouri is 520 yards
 wide above the point of yellow Stone and the water covers 330 yards;
 the YellowStone River is 858 yards wide includeing its Sand bar, the
 water covers 297 yards and the deepest part is 12 feet water, it is at
 this time falling, the Missouri rising The Indians inform that the
 yellow Stone River is navagable for Perogues to near its Source in the
 Rocky Mountains, it has many tributary Streams, principally on the S.
 E. Side, and heads at no great distance from the Missouri, the largest
 rivers which fall into it is Tongue river which heads with the waters
 of River Platt, and Big horn river which also heads with Platt & Tongue
 R the current of this river is Said to be rapid near its mouth it is
 verry jentle, and its water is of a whitish colour much Clearer of
 Sediment than the Missouri. the Countrey on this river is Said to be
 broken in its whole Course & Contains a great deel of wood, the
 countrey about its mouth is verry fine, the bottoms on either Side is
 wooded with Cotton wood, ash, Elm &c. near the banks of the river back
 is higher bottoms and Covered with red berry, Goose berry & rose bushes
 &. interspersed with Small open Glades, and near the high land is
 Generally open rich bottoms--at our arrival at the forks I observed a
 Drove of Buffalow Cows & Calves on a Sand bar in the point, I directed
 the men to kill the fattest Cow, and 3 or 4 Calves, which they did and
 let the others pass, the Cows are pore, Calves fine veele.
 Capt Lewis joined me in the evening after takeing equal altitudes a
 little way up the YellowStone river the Countrey in every direction is
 plains except the moist bottoms of the river, which are covered with
 Some indifferent timber Such as Cotton wood Elm & Small ash, with
 different kind of Stubs & bushes in the forks about 1 mile from the
 point at which place the 2 rivers are near each other a butifull low
 leavel plain Commences, and extends up the Missourie & back, this plain
 is narrow at its commencement and widens as the Missouri bends north,
 and is bordered by an extencive wood land for many miles up the yellow
 Stone river, this low plain is not Subject to over flow, appear to be a
 few inches above high water mark and affords a butifull commanding
 Situation for a fort near the commencement of the Prarie, about ____
 miles from the Point & ____ yards from the Missouri a Small lake is
 Situated, from this lake the plain rises gradually to a high butifull
 Countrey, the low Plain continues for Some distance up both rivers on
 the Yellow Stone it is wide & butifull opsd. the point on the S. Side
 is Some high timbered land, about 11/2 miles below on the Same Side a
 little distance from the water is an elivated plain--Several of the
 party was up the yellow Stone R Several miles, & informed that it
 meandered throught a butifull Countrey Joseph Fields discovered a large
 Creek falling into the Yellowstone River on the S E Side 8 miles up
 near which he Saw a big horn animal, he found in the Prarie the horn of
 one of those animals which was large and appeared to have laid Several
 years I Saw maney buffalow dead on the banks of the river in different
 places Some of them eaten by the white bears & wolves all except the
 Skin & bones, others entire, those animals either drounded in
 attempting to Cross on the ice dureing the winter or Swiming across to
 bluff banks where they Could not get out & too weak to return we Saw
 several in this Situation.
 emence numbers of antelopes in the forks of the river, Buffalow & Elk &
 Deer is also plenty beaver is in every bend. I observe that the Magpie
 Goose duck & Eagle all have their nests in the Same neighbourhood, and
 it is not uncommon for the Magpie to build in a few rods of the eagle,
 the nests of this bird is built verry Strong with Sticks Covered verry
 thickly with one or more places through which they enter or escape, the
 Goose I make no doubt falls a pray to those vicious eagles
 [Lewis, April 27, 1805]
 Saturday April 27th 1805. Previous to our seting out this morning I
 made the following observations.
 This morning I walked through the point formed by the junction of the
 rivers; the woodland extends about a mile, when the rivers approach
 each other within less than half a mile; here a beatifull level low
 plain commences and extends up both rivers for many miles, widening as
 the rivers recede from each other, and extending back half a mile to a
 plain about 12 feet higher than itself; the low plain appears to be a
 few inches higher than high water mark and of course will not be liable
 to be overflown; tho where it joins the high plain a part of the
 Missouri when at it's greatest hight, passes through a channel of 60 or
 70 yards wide and falls into the yellowstone river. on the Missouri
 about 21/2 miles from the entrance of the yellowstone river, and
 between this high and low plain, a small lake is situated about 200
 yards wide extending along the edge of the high plain parallel with the
 Missouri about one mile. on the point of the high plain at the lower
 extremity of this lake I think would be the most eligible site for an
 establishment. between this low plain and the Yellowstone river their
 is an extensive body of timbered land extending up the river for many
 miles. this site recommended is about 400 yards distant from the
 Missouri and about double that distance from the river yellowstone;
 from it the high plain, rising very gradually, extends back about three
 miles to the hills, and continues with the same width between these
 hills and the timbered land on the yellowstone river, up that stream,
 for seven or eight miles; and is one of the hadsomest plains I ever
 beheld. on the Missouri side the hills sircumscribe it's width, & at
 the distance of three miles up that river from this site, it is not
 more than 400 yards wide. Capt Clark thinks that the lower extremity of
 the low plane would be most eligible for this establishment; it is true
 that it is much nearer both rivers, and might answer very well, but I
 think it reather too low to venture a permanent establishment,
 particularly if built of brick or other durable materials, at any
 considerable expence; for so capricious, and versatile are these
 rivers, that it is difficult to say how long it will be, untill they
 direct the force of their currents against this narrow part of the low
 plain, which when they do, must shortly yeald to their influence; in
 such case a few years only would be necessary, for the annihilation of
 the plain, and with it the fortification.--I continued my walk on
 shore; at 11 A.M. the wind became very hard from N. W. insomuch that
 the perogues and canoes were unable either to proceede or pass the
 river to me; I was under the necessity therefore of shooting a goose
 and cooking it for my dinner. the wind abated about 4. P.M. and the
 party proceeded tho I could not conveniently join them untill night.
 altho game is very abundant and gentle, we only kill as much as is
 necessary for food. I believe that two good hunters could conveniently
 supply a regiment with provisions. for several days past we have
 observed a great number of buffaloe lying dead on the shore, some of
 them entire and others partly devoured by the wolves and bear. those
 anamals either drownded during the winter in attempting to pass the
 river on the ice during the winter or by swiming acrss at present to
 bluff banks which they are unable to ascend, and feeling themselves too
 weak to return remain and perish for the want of food; in this
 situation we met with several little parties of them.--beaver are very
 abundant, the party kill several of them every day. The Eagles,
 Magpies, and gees have their nests in trees adjacent to each other; the
 magpye particularly appears fond of building near the Eagle, as we
 scarcely see an Eagle's nest unaccompanyed with two or three Magpies
 nests within a short distance.--The bald Eagle are more abundant here
 than I ever observed them in any part of the country.
 [Clark, April 27, 1805]
 27th of April Satturday 1805
 after take the azmuth of the Sun & brackfasting we Set out wind
 moderate & a head, at 11 oClock the wind rose and continued to blow
 verry hard a head from the N. W. untill 4 oClock P M, which blew the
 Sand off the Points in Such clouds as almost Covered us on the opposit
 bank, at 4 I Set out from my unpleasent Situation and proceeded on,
 Capt. Lewis walked on Shore in the Point to examine & view the Countrey
 and could not get to the boats untill night, Saw great numbers of Goats
 or antilopes, Elk, Swan Gees & Ducks, no buffalow to day I Saw Several
 beaver and much Sign, I Shot one in the head which imediately Sunk,
 altho the game of different kinds are in abundance we Kill nothing but
 what we can make
 [Lewis, April 28, 1805]
 Sunday April 28th 1805.
 Set out this morning at an early hour; the wind was favourable and we
 employed our sails to advantage. Capt Clark walked on shore this
 morning, and I proceeded with the party. the country through which we
 passed today is open as usual and very broken on both sides near the
 river hills, the bottoms are level fertile and partially covered with
 timber. the hills and bluffs exhibit their usual mineral appearances,
 some birnt hills but no appearance of Pumicestone; coal is in great
 abundance and the salts still increase in quantity; the banks of the
 river and sandbars are incrusted with it in many places and appear
 perfectly white as if covered with snow or frost.--the woods are now
 green, tho the plains and meadows appear to abate of the verdure those
 below exhibited some days past. we past three small runs today. two
 falling in on the Stard. and one on the Lard. side, they are but small
 afford but little water and head a few miles back in the hills. we saw
 great quantities of game today; consisting of the common and mule deer,
 Elk, Buffaloe, and Antelopes; also four brown bear, one of which was
 fired on and wounded by one of the party but we did not get it; the
 beaver have cut great quantities of timber; saw a tree nearly 3 feet in
 diameter that had been felled by them. Capt. Clark in the course of his
 walk killed a deer and a goose; & saw three black bear; he thinks the
 bottoms are not so wide as they have been for some days past.
 [Clark, April 28, 1805]
 28th of April Sunday 1805
 a fine day river falling, wind favourable from the S. E. and moderate,
 I walked on Shore to view the Countrey, from the top of the high hills,
 I beheld a broken & open Countrey on both Sides, near the river Some
 verry handsom low plains, I killd. a Deer & a goose, Saw three black
 bear great numbers of Elk antelopes & 2 Gangues of Buffalow, the hills
 & Bluffs Shew the Straturs of Coal, and burnt appearances in maney
 places, in and about them I could find no appearance of Pumice Stone,
 the wood land have a green appearance, the Plains do not look So green
 as below, The bottoms are not So wide this afternoon as below Saw four
 bear this evening, one of the men Shot at one of them. The Antilopes
 are nearly red, on that part which is Subject to change i e the Sides &
 2/3 of the back from the head, the other part as white as Snow, 2 Small
 runs fall in on the S. Side and one this evening on the Lard Side those
 runs head at a fiew miles in the hills and discharge but little water,
 the Bluffs in this part as also below Shew different Straturs of Coal
 or carbonated wood, and Coloured earth, such as dark brown, yellow a
 lightish brown, & a dark red &c.
 [Lewis, April 29, 1805]
 Monday April 29th 1805.
 Set out this morning at the usual hour; the wind was moderate; I walked
 on shore with one man. about 8 A.M. we fell in with two brown or yellow
 bear; both of which we wounded; one of them made his escape, the other
 after my firing on him pursued me seventy or eighty yards, but
 fortunately had been so badly wounded that he was unable to pursue so
 closely as to prevent my charging my gun; we again repeated our fir and
 killed him. it was a male not fully grown, we estimated his weight at
 300 lbs. not having the means of ascertaining it precisely. The legs of
 this bear are somewhat longer than those of the black, as are it's
 tallons and tusks incomparably larger and longer. the testicles, which
 in the black bear are placed pretty well back between the thyes and
 contained in one pouch like those of the dog and most quadrupeds, are
 in the yellow or brown bear placed much further forward, and are
 suspended in seperate pouches from two to four inches asunder; it's
 colour is yellowish brown, the eyes small, black, and piercing; the
 front of the fore legs near the feet is usually black; the fur is finer
 thicker and deeper than that of the black bear. these are all the
 particulars in which this anamal appeared to me to differ from the
 black bear; it is a much more furious and formidable anamal, and will
 frequently pursue the hunter when wounded. it is asstonishing to see
 the wounds they will bear before they can be put to death. the Indians
 may well fear this anamal equiped as they generally are with their bows
 and arrows or indifferent fuzees, but in the hands of skillfull
 riflemen they are by no means as formidable or dangerous as they have
 been represented. game is still very abundant we can scarcely cast our
 eyes in any direction without percieving deer Elk Buffaloe or
 Antelopes. The quantity of wolves appear to increase in the same
 proportion; they generally hunt in parties of six eight or ten; they
 kill a great number of the Antelopes at this season; the Antelopes are
 yet meagre and the females are big with young; the wolves take them
 most generally in attempting to swim the river; in this manner my dog
 caught one drowned it and brought it on shore; they are but clumsey
 swimers, tho on land when in good order, they are extreemly fleet and
 dureable. we have frequently seen the wolves in pursuit of the Antelope
 in the plains; they appear to decoy a single one from a flock, and then
 pursue it, alturnately relieving each other untill they take it. on
 joining Capt Clark he informed me that he had seen a female and faun of
 the bighorned anamal; that they ran for some distance with great
 aparent ease along the side of the river bluff where it was almost
 perpendicular; two of the party fired on them while in motion without
 effect. we took the flesh of the bear on board and proceeded. Capt.
 Clark walked on shore this evening, killed a deer, and saw several of
 the bighorned anamals. there is more appearance of coal today than we
 have yet seen, the stratas are 6 feet thick in some instances; the
 earth has been birnt in many places, and always appears in stratas on
 the same level with the stratas of coal. we came too this evening in
 the mouth of a little river, which falls in on the Stard. side. This
 stream is about 50 yards wide from bank to bank; the water occupyes
 about 15 yards. the banks are of earth only, abrupt, tho not high--the
 bed, is of mud principally. Capt Clark, who was up this streeam about
 three miles, informed me that it continued about the same width, that
 it's current was gentle and it appeared navigable for perogus it
 meanders through an extensive, fertile, and beautifull vally as far as
 could bee seen about N. 30°W. there was but one solitary tree to be seen
 on the banks of this river after it left the bottom of the Missouri.
 the water of this river is clear, with a brownish yelow tint. here the
 highlands receede from the Missouri, leaving the vally formed by the
 river from seven to eight miles wide, and reather lower then usual.-
 This stream my friend Capt. C. named Marthas river
 [Clark, April 29, 1805]
 29th of April Monday 1805
 Set out this morning at the usial hour. the wind is moderate & from the
 N E had not proceeded far eer we Saw a female & her faun of the Bighorn
 animal on the top of a Bluff lying, the noise we made allarmed them and
 they came down on the Side of the bluff which had but little Slope
 being nearly purpindicular, I directed two men to kill those anamals,
 one went on the top and the other man near the water they had two Shots
 at the doe while in motion without effect, Those animals run & Skiped
 about with great ease on this declivity & appeared to prefur it to the
 leavel bottom or plain. Capt Lewis & one man walkd on Shore and he
 killed a yellow Bear & the man with him wounded one other, after
 getting the flesh of the bear on bord which was not far from the place
 we brackfast, we proceeded on Saw 4 gangus of buffalow and great
 numbers of Antelopes in every direction also Saw Elk and Several
 wolves, I walked on Shore in the evening & killed a Deer which was So
 meager as to be unfit for use The hills Contain more Coal, and has a
 greater appearance of being burnt that below, the burnt parts appear on
 a parrilel with the Stratiums of Coal, we Came too in the mouth of a
 Little river on the S. S. which is about 50 or 60 yards from bank to
 bank, I was up this Stream 3 miles it continues its width and glides
 with a gentle Current, its water is about 15 yards wide at this time,
 and appears to be navagable for Canoes &c. it meanders through a
 butifull & extencive vallie as far as can be Seen about N 30° W. I saw
 only a Single tree in this fertile vallie The water of the River is
 clear of a yellowish Colour, we call this river Martheys river in honor
 to the Selebrated M. F
 Here the high land widen from five to Eight miles and much lower than
 below, Saw Several of the big horn animals this evening. The Wolves
 distroy great numbers of the antilopes by decoying those animals
 Singularly out in the plains and prosueing them alternetly, those
 antelopes are Curious and will approach any thing which appears in
 motion near them &c.
 [Lewis, April 30, 1805]
 Tuesday April 30th 1805.
 Set out at sunrise. the wind blew hard all last night, and continued to
 blow pretty hard all day, but not so much, as to compell us to ly by.
 the country as usual is bare of timber; the river bottoms are level and
 fertile and extensive, but possess but little timber and that of an
 indifferent quality even of it's kind; principally low cottonwood,
 either too small for building, or for plank or broken and dead at top
 and unsound in the center of the trunk. saw great quantities of game as
 usual. Capt. Clark walked on shore the greater part of the day, past
 some old Indian lodges built of drift wood; they appear to be of
 antient date and not recently inhabited. I walked on shore this evening
 and killed a buck Elk, in tolerable order; it appeared to me to be the
 largest I had seen, and was therefore induced to measure it; found it
 five feet three inches from the point of the hoof, to the top of the
 sholders; the leg and hoof being placed as nearly as possible in the
 same position they would have been had the anamal been standing.
 [Clark, April 30, 1805]
 30th of April Tuesday 1805
 The wind blew hard from the N E all last night, we Set out at Sunrise
 the wind blew hard the greater part of the day and part of the time
 favourable, we did not lie by to day on account of the wind I walked on
 Shore to day our interpreter & his Squar followed, in my walk the Squar
 found & brought me a bush Something like the Current, which She Said
 bore a delicious froot and that great quantites grew on the Rocky
 Mountains, this Srub was in bloom has a yellow flower with a deep Cup,
 the froot when ripe is yellow and hangs in bunches like Cheries, Some
 of those berries yet remained on the bushes. The bottoms above the
 mouth of the last river is extensive level & fertile and covered with
 indifferent timber in the points, the up land appear to rise gradually,
 I saw Great numbers of Antelopes, also Scattering Buffalow, Elk, Deer,
 wolves, Gees, ducks & Grows--I Killed 2 Gees which we dined on to day
 Capt Lewis walked on Shore and killed an elk this evening, and we Came
 too & camped on the S. S the Countrey on both Sides have a butifull