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The most useful bibliography for this period is that in Edward Charming and Albert B. Hart, Guide to American History (1896), §§ 186, 189, 198-202, which, although lacking references to works published in the last ten years, is reasonably complete as regards the sources and the standard authorities. A less comprehensive list, annotated with critical comments, is found in J. N. Larned, Literature of American History (1902). Older and less complete, but still capable of use, is William E. Foster, References to the History of Presidential Administrations (1885). The Cambridge Modern History, VIII., The United States (1903), contains a select bibliography of the period; and the index volume of Hermann Von Hoist, Constitutional History of the United States, VIII. (1892), contains a list of authorities which deals chiefly with the period after 1850. See also the Critical Essay on Authorities in the preceding and following volumes of this series, Garrison, Westward Extension, and Chadwick, Causes of the Civil War.


The secondary work which studies the events of the period before the Civil War in the greatest detail is Hermann E. Von Hoist, Constitutional History of the United States, IV.-VI. (1885-1892). The author based his writings on a thorough study of the public documents and other published material in the field, and displayed a consistently critical attitude towards the men and measures of the slavery controversy which renders his work of unique service. He was not, however, in sympathy with American political or social habits, judged overharshly, and was so strongly anti- slavery in predisposition as seriously to impair the value of his treatment of southern leaders. Less detailed in treatment, but far more successful in point of view of combined scholarship and impartiality, is James Ford Rhodes, History of the United States from the Compromise of 1850 (7 vols., 1893-1906), which devotes parts of vols. I. to III. to this period and bids fair to be regarded as the standard account of these years. It needs, however, to be supplemented on the side of diplomatic and legal history. James Schouler, History of the United States (6 vols., 1880-1897), covers this period in the fifth volume, adequately as to facts, but in somewhat mechanical form and with a strongly northern spirit. The account by John W. Burgess, The Middle Period (1897), and The Civil War and the Constitution (2 vols., 1901), is concise, analytical, legalistic, and founded on a limited range of sources.

Other general works are frankly controversial, almost all of them written by northern partisans. Horace Greeley, The American Conflict (2 vols., 1864), gives a brief resume, with extracts from documents; James G. Blaine, Twenty Years of Congress (2 vols., 1884-1886), comments on economic and political events. The full but ill-digested narrative in Henry Wilson, Rise and Fall of the Slave Power (3 vols., 1872-1877), has the value attaching to authorship by an active participant in the contests it describes. George Lunt, The Origin of the Late War (1866), describes events from the stand-point of the conservative Whig. On the southern side there is little of value; Alexander H. Stephens, The War between the States (2 vols., 1868-1870), and Jefferson Davis, The Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government (2 vols., 1881), slip over this field with little detail of discussion.


The only general compilation of documents in this field is Michael W. Cluskey, Political Text-Book (1857), which contains a mass of miscellaneous material bearing on the political history of the country from 1850 to 1857. The Whig Almanac (annual vols., 1851 to 1855) an( i its continuation, The Tribune Almanac (annual vols., 1856 to 1861), contain much political information; and the American Almanac (annual vols., 1850 to 1861) has collections of federal and state statistics. Albert Bushnell Hart, American History Told by Contemporaries (4 vols., 1897-1901), contains extracts from a number of sources. William MacDonald, Select Documents Illustrative of the History of the United States (1898), comprises the most important public documents of these years. Among special collections containing documentary matter are two devoted to presidential papers — James D. Richardson, Messages and Papers of the Presidents (10 vols., 1896-1897), and Edwin Williams, Statesman's Manual (4 vols., 1858). John B. Moore, International Arbitrations (5 vols., 1896); Freeman Snow, Treaties and Topics in American Diplomacy (1894), and J. C. Bancroft Davis, editor, Treaties and Conventions (1871), contain material relating to foreign affairs. Charles F. Dunbar, Extracts from the Laws . . . relating to Currency and Finance (1891), and Frank W. Taussig, State Papers and Speeches on the Tariff (1892), include documents bearing on financial history. Ben Perley Poore, Federal and State Constitutions (2 vols., 1877), prints the state constitutions and amendments adopted in this period; and Edward Stanwood, History of the Presidency (1898), and Thomas V. Cooper and Hector T. Fenton, American Politics (1882), reprint party platforms and election statistics.



The primary sources for most of the history of this period are the public documents of the United States. The history of legislation and of party and public opinion, besides a good deal of information upon local politics and federal administration, are to be found in the Congressional Globe, from the thirty-first Congress, second session, to the thirty-fifth Congress, second session. The progress of federal finances, foreign affairs, military and administrative action is to be studied from the House and Senate Journals, Executive Documents, and Miscellaneous Documents, and in the Reports of Committees from the thirty-first to the thirty-sixth, or in some cases later, congresses. The Statutes at Large of the United States contain the laws of this period in vols. IX. to XI. (1851 to 1859), and the United States Supreme Court Reports (vols. 8 to 24, Howard), are indispensable for the judicial history. The British and Foreign State Papers (in vols. XXXVIII. to L., 1862 to 1867) contain much of the correspondence relating to controversies to which the United States was a party. In addition, important material is to be found in the documents of the various states, the Legislative Journals, the Session Laivs, or Acts and Resolves, and the reports of state supreme court decisions.


The magazines of the period contain some political material and are of value in exhibiting the social and intellectual life of the times. Among the northern periodicals, Harper's New Monthly Magazine runs through the period, as does the older North American Review. Putnam's Magazine began in 1853, and the Atlantic Monthly in 1857. The American Whig Review lived only to 1852, but the Democratic Review lasted until 1859. In the south, the Southern Quarterly Review did not survive 1856, but the Southern Literary Messenger, edited by William Gilmore Simms and containing the best products of southern pens, existed through the decade. Among economic periodicals, the Bankers' Magazine, of New York, and Hunt's Merchants* Magazine, of Philadelphia, furnish much information, mainly about northern conditions, and De Bow's Commercial Review, of New Orleans, is especially valuable for the material it contains relating to the economic and political welfare of the south.

Among newspapers, all shades of political opinion are represented by numerous examples. The radical abolitionist point of view is exhibited in the Liberator and the National Anti-Slavery Standard; the Free Soil position by the National Era. Anti-slavery Whig and Republican sentiments are shown in the New York Tribune, the New York Times, the Chicago Tribune, the Boston Advertiser, and the official Whig organs in the west; the Ohio State Journal, Indiana State Journal, and the Wisconsin State Journal. An example of the Whig element in a border state is the Baltimore American. Anti-slavery Democrats at the north are represented by the New York Evening Post and the Chicago Democrat; the Hunker Democracy by the Cleveland Plain Dealer and the Washington Union. At the south, the Charleston Mercury and the New Orleans Delta represent the extreme pro-slavery wing, and the Richmond Enquirer a rather more moderate attitude. It is not possible to enumerate the journals which contribute information regarding the politics and life of the time. The use of the telegraph and the habit of copying freely from each other tended to make the more important papers of nearly equal value for news, the distinguishing feature being the presence or absence of editorial power.


The published works of statesmen and others who were active in this period include few by southerners. The leading ones are: The Life, Correspondence, and Speeches of Henry Clay (edited by Calvin Colton, 6 vols., 1857; reissued 1896); The Works of Daniel Webster (6 vols., 1851); The Private Correspondence of Daniel Webster (edited by Fletcher Webster, 1857); The Writings and Speeches of Daniel Webster ("national edition," by J. W. Mclntyre, 18 vols., 1903); The Works of William H. Seward (edited by G. E. Baker, 5 vols., 1853-1884); The Works of Charles Sumner (15 vols., 1870-1883); The Complete Works of Abraham Lincoln (edited by John G. Nicolay and John Hay, 2 vols., 1904); The Speeches, Lectures, and Letters of Wendell Phillips (1863); The Works of Rufus Choate (edited by Samuel G. Brown, 2 vols., 1862); R. C. Winthrop, Addresses and Speeches (4 vols., 1852-1886); Edward Everett, Orations and Speeches on Various Occasions (4 vols., 1853-1868); The Orations and Addresses of George William Curtis (edited by Charles Eliot Norton, 2 vols., 1891); The Speeches, Correspondence, etc., of Daniel S. Dickinson (2 vols., 1867); and John A Dix, Speeches and Occasional Addresses (2 vols., 1864). The only writings of ultra-southern men of this period which have been published are, James H. Hammond, Letters and Speeches (1866), and Thomas L. Clingman, Writings and Speeches (1877). The Lincoln-Douglas Debates were published in i860, and have been reissued in 1899. Rowland G. Hazard, Economics and Politics (1889), contains material bearing on political and financial life in this decade. A few collections of letters to and by public men have appeared: James S. Pike, First Blows of the Civil War (1879); Salmon P. Chase, Diary and Correspondence (American Historical Association, Report, 1902); and Some Papers of Franklin Pierce {American Historical Review y X., 97, 350).


Few of the many volumes of reminiscences contribute to the knowledge of events in the political world, but their value is considerable on the social and personal side. Among the more important are the following, which treat of political doings at Washington: Horace Greeley, Recollections of a Busy Life (1868); Nathan Sargent, Public Men and Events (2 vols., 1875); J. W. Forney, Anecdotes of Public Men (2 vols., 1873, 1881); Ben Perley Poore, Perley's Reminiscences (1886); Thurlow Weed, Autobiography (1884); Richard W. Thompson, Recollections of Sixteen Presidents (1894); James A. Hamilton, Reminiscences (1869). Two elaborate attempts at self-justification are James Buchanan, Mr. Buchanan's Administration on the Eve of the Rebellion (1866); and J. Madison Cutts, A Brief Treatise upon Constitutional and Party Questions as Received Orally from the Late Stephen A. Douglas (1866). Episodes in diplomatic history are touched upon by Samuel C. Goodrich, Recollections of a Lifetime (1856), and by Maunsell B. Field, Memories of Many Men and Some Women (1874). Western political life is set forth in John Sherman, Recollections of Forty Years (2 vols., 1895); George W. Julian, Political Recollections (1884); and Henry Villard, Memoirs (2 vols., 1904). Massachusetts politics appear in George S. Boutwell, Reminiscences of Sixty Years (2 vols., 1902), and Charles T. Congdon, Reminiscences of a Journalist (1880). Southern political life is illustrated by Benjamin F. Perry, Reminiscences of Public Men (1883); Henry S. Foote, Casket of Reminiscences (1874); Reuben Davis, Recollections of Mississippi and the Mississippians (1889); and Moncure D. Conway, Autobiography (2 vols., 1904). The views of representative anti-slavery leaders appear in James Freeman Clarke, Anti-Slavery Days (1883); Samuel J. May, Recollections of the Anti-Slavery Conflict (1869); Levi Coffin, Reminiscences (1880); and the Life and Times of Frederick Douglass, Written by Himself (revised ed., 1895).


The lives of leading men are among the best secondary authorities for the period, although here, as in general, the southern literary representation is regrettably inferior. For I the "Unionist," or conservative northern, stand-point there :are three admirable biographies by George Ticknor Curtis — James Buchanan (2 vols., 1883), Daniel Webster (2 vols., 1870), and Benjamin R. Curtis (2 vols., 1879). Others representing the same tendency are: Andrew C. McLaughlin, Lewis Cass (1891) ; Samuel G. Brown, Rufus Choate (1870); Robert C. Winthrop, Jr., Memoir of Robert C. Winthrop (1897); and George C. Gorham, Life and Public Services of Edwin M. Stanton (2 vols., 1899). Douglas still awaits an adequate biography, the best campaign life being James W. Sheahan, Life of Stephen A. Douglas (i860). The more important lives of Republican leaders are: Edward L. Pierce, Memoir of Charles Sumner (4 vols., 1877); Frederic Bancroft, William H. Seward (2 vols., 1900); Frederick W. Seward, Seward at Washington (1891); Moorfield Storey, Charles Sumner (1900); James W. Schuckers, The Life and Public Services of Salmon P. Chase (1874); Robert B. Warden, The Private Life and Public Services of Salmon P. Chase (1874); Albert Bushnell Hart, Salmon Portland Chase (1899); Charles E. Hamlin, Life and Times of Hannibal Hamlin (1899); George W. Julian, Joshua R. Giddings (1892); these covering the congressional history of the times. The course of state politics appears in George S. Merriam, The Life and Times of Samuel Bowles (2 vols., 1885); William D. Foulke, Oliver P. Morton (2 vols., 1899); Parke Godwin, Life and Works of William Cullen Bryant (6 vols., 1883); Charles Francis Adams, Richard H. Dana (2 vols., 1890); and the numerous lives of Lincoln, especially John T. Morse, Abraham Lincoln (2 vols., 1893); John G. Nicolay and John Hay, Abraham Lincoln, a History (10 vols., 1890); Isaac N. Arnold, Life of Abraham Lincoln (1885); Ward H. Lamon, Life of Abraham Lincoln (1872); Ida M. Tarbell, The Life of Abraham Lincoln (4 vols., 1900); and a dozen others of less merit. Among biographies of radicals the Life of William Lloyd Garrison by His Children (4 vols., 1889), stands pre-eminent for fulness and thoroughness in its presentation of the combative abolitionist leader, written in a spirit of unqualified filial eulogy, but based in nearly every point upon the words of the subject of the biography. Other works illustrating the reforming activities of the time are: Oliver Johnson, Garrison and His Times (1880); Octavius B. Frothingham, Theodore Parker (1874), and Gerr it Smith (1879); John Weiss, Life and Correspondence of Theodore Parker (2 vols., 1864); James W. Chadwick, Theodore Parker (1901); Francis Tiffany, Dorothea L. Dix (1876); George L. Austin, Life and Times of Wendell Phillips (1888); Samuel T. Pickard, John G. Whittier (1894); J. Eliot Cabot, Ralph Waldo Emerson (2 vols., 1887); Lyman Abbott, Henry Ward Beecher (1903); Will-iam C. Beecher and Samuel Scoville, Biography of Henry Ward Beecher (1888); Edward Cary, George William Curtis (1894); Annie Field, Life and Letters of Harriet Beecher Stowe (1898); Charles E. St owe, Life of Harriet Beecher Stowe (1889); Ida H. Harper, Susan B. Anthony (2 vols., 1899); and the lives of John Brown referred to below in the section dealing with Kansas.

On the southern side the lives of representative Union men are: Calvin Colton, The Last Seven Years of the Life of Henry Clay (1856); Mrs. M. Coleman, The Life of John J. Crittenden (2 vols., 1871); Carl Schurz, Henry Clay (2 vols., 1887); William Meigs, The Life of Thomas Hart Benton (1904); Alfred M. Williams, Sam Houston and the War of Independence in Texas (1893); James S. Jones, Andrew Johnson (1901); but no adequate life exists of John Bell, John M. Clayton, or any other of the southern Whigs. The radical southern leaders are represented by Barton H. Wise, Henry A. Wise (1899); Mrs. Varina J. Davis, Jefferson Davis, a Memoir (2 vols., 1890); Frank H. Alfriend, Life of Jefferson Davis (1868); Henry Cleveland, Alexander H. Stephens in Public and Private (1868); Richard M. Johnston and William H. Browne, Life of Alexander H. Stephens (1878); Pleasant A. Stovall, Robert Toombs, Statesman, Speaker, Soldier, Sage (1892); John W. DuBose, The Life and Times of William Lowndes Yancey (1892); Samuel Tyler, Memoir of Roger B. Taney (1872); Henry A. Wise, Seven Decades of the Union, a Memoir of John Tyler (1876); Lyon G. Tyler, Letters and Times of the Tylers (2 vols., 1885); Samuel Boykin, Memorial Vol-ume of Howell Cobb (1870); Virginia Mason, Public Life of James M. Mason (1903); William P. Trent, William Gilmore Simms (1892); John F. H. Claiborne, Life . . . of John A. Quitman (2 vols., i860). Three volumes of brief essays upon political leaders deserve mention: John Savage, Our Living Representative Men (i860); David W. Bartlett, Presidential Candidates (1859); and William P. Trent, Southern Statesmen of the Old Regime (1897). Other biographies are referred to in connection with special fields of the period.


There is no general history of parties which treats fully of this period. Jesse Macy, Political Parties, 1846-1860 (1900), is an analytical and suggestive study of party policies and relations, but it does not deal with details. Party methods are considered in a number of modern monographs, the most considerable of which are M. Ostrogorski, Democracy and the Organization of Political Parties (2 vols., 1902); Jesse Macy, Party Organization and Party Machinery (1904); Mary P. Follett, The Speaker of the House of Representatives (1896); Edward C. Mason, The Veto Power (Harvard Historical Monographs, 1890); Lucy Maynard Salmon, The Appointing Power (1886); and Carl R. Fish, The Civil Service and the Patronage (Harvard Historical Studies, 1905). Single parties are treated in a few contemporary accounts and a number of recent scientific monographs. Among the former, partisan in temper, are Robert M. Ormsby, The Whig Party (1859); John H. Lee, Origin ... 0/ the American Party (1855) ; Thomas R. Whitney, A Defence of American Policy (1856); James R. Hambleton, The Political Campaign in Virginia in 1855 (1856). Among recent works, Louis D. Scisco, Political Nativism in New York (1901), is an exhaustive treatise, valuable for the entire history of the Know-Nothing movement. Other studies upon the same party are: Laurence F. Schmeckebier, The Know-Nothing Party in Maryland (1899); Charles Stickney, Know-Nothingism in Rhode Island (1894); and two studies of Massachusetts nativism by George H. Haynes— "A Know-Nothing Legislature," in American Historical Association, Report, 1896, and "The Causes of Know-Nothing Success," in American Historical Review, III., 67 (October, 1897). The career of the Free Soil and Republican organizations appears in Theodore Clarke Smith, The Liberty and Free Soil Parties in the Northwest (Harvard Historical Studies, 1897); Norman D. Harris, Negro Servitude in Illinois (1901); a series of articles by Russell Errett in the Magazine of Western History, X. (1889); and Francis Curtis, The Republican Party (2 vols., 1904). A valuable study of the growth of corrupt municipal politics in New York City appears in Gustavus Myers, The History of Tammany Hall (1901).


A full but drily technical study of the activity of the supreme court at this period is George W. Biddle, "Constitutional Development ... as Influenced by . . . Taney," in Henry W. Rogers (and others), The Constitutional History of the United States as Seen in the Development of American Law (1889). A more readable account is Hampton L. Carson, The Supreme Court of the United States (2 vols., 1892). George Ticknor Curtis, Constitutional History of the United States (2 vols., 1896), has an important chapter upon the Dred Scott case in which the author took part, but it is published in the incomplete state in which it was left at the death of the writer. Of the numerous contemporary pamphlets upon the Dred Scott case, the two best known are Thomas Hart Benton, Historical and Legal Examination of the Case of Dred Scott (1857), and Horace Gray and John Lowell A Legal Review of the Case of Dred Scott (1857).


The only general history of American diplomacy is John W. Foster, A Century of American Diplomacy (1900), which gives a brief but in the main correct survey of these years. The fisheries question is specially dealt with by John B. Henderson in American Diplomatic Questions (1901). The slave-trade and the Danish Sound dues are covered by Eugene Schuyler, American Diplomacy and the Furtherance of Commerce (1886). On Cuban relations there are two monographs: James M. Callahan, Cuba and International Relations (1899), is an elaborate study of the Cuban question deprived of much of its usefulness to the reader by the complete omission of references; more valuable to the student and much more readable is John H. Latane, "The Diplomacy of the United States in Regard to Cuba," in American Historical Association, Report, 1897; with which is to be compared an article by Sidney Webster, entitled "Mr. Marcy, the Cuban Question, and the Ostend Mani-festo," in Political Science Quarterly, VIII. (1893). On the complicated Central American question, the best account, thorough and impartial in spirit, is Ira D. Travis, The Clayton-Bulwer Treaty (1900). Briefer studies are in the volume of Henderson above referred to, and in John H. Latane, The Diplomatic Relations of the United States and Spanish America (1900). The work of Lindley M. Keasbey, The Nicaragua Canal and the Monroe Doctrine (1896), is disfigured by violent anti-British partisanship, and is to be used with caution. Thomas J. Lawrence, Essays on Disputed Questions (1884), discusses the Clayton-Bulwer treaty from a moderate British point of view. The career of William Walker, the filibuster, is treated in two general works, Hubert H. Bancroft, California, III., chaps, xvi., xvii. (1885), and Theodore H. Hittell, California, III. (1897). Contemporary accounts of more or less trust-worthiness are William Walker, The War in Nicaragua (i860) ; William V. Wells, Walker's Expedition to Nicaragua (1856). Modern studies are James T. Roche, The Story of the Filibusters (1896), and especially William C. Scroggs, " Walker and the Steamship Company," in American Historical Review, X. (July, 1905). Akin to the foregoing is Howard L. Wilson, "Buchanan's Proposed Intervention in Mexico," in American Historical Review, V. (July, 1900). The dealings of the United States with China and Japan are summed up by James M. Callahan, in American Relations in the Pacific and the Far East (1901); and by John W. Foster, American Diplomacy in the Orient (1903). A fuller but still a compact account of Japanese diplomacy is Inazo O. Nitobe, The Intercourse between the United States and Japan (1891). Two biographies by William E. Griffis are also to be consulted in this field — Commodore Matthew Calbraith Perry (188.7), and Townsend Harris (1895). The lives of two English statesmen who took part in diplomatic dealings contain a small amount of matter — T. Walrond, Life and Letters of James, Eighth Earl of Elgin (1872), and E. Ashley, Life of Henry John Temple, Viscount P aimer ston (2 vols., 1876).



There is no satisfactory general economic history for this period. Two compilations containing many facts in an uncoordinated shape are The First Century of the Republic (1876), and One Hundred Years of American Commerce, edited under the name of Chauncey M. Depew (1895). Industrial history appears in two works: Albert S. Bolles, The Industrial History of the United States (1879), which is incomplete and marked by strong protectionist views; and John L. Bishop, History of American Manufactures (3 vols., 1 861-1868), which is better, but not of the first rank. Of greater merit are certain special works: James D. B. DeBow, The Industrial Resources of the Southern and Western States (3 vols., 1852-1853); Benjamin F. French, The History of the Iron Trade (1858); and two modern monographs — James M. Swank, Iron in all Ages (second ed., 1892), and Matthew B. Hammond, The Cotton Industry (1897). The railway building of the period is described in John L. Ringwait, The American Transportation System (1888), and by Fletcher W. Hewes, in The American Railway (1889). The political aspect of railway construction is well handled by John B. Sanborn, Congressional Grants of Land in Aid of Railways (1899), and by William A. Scott, The Repudiation of State Debts (1893). Two writers treat of the American shipping industry from diametrically opposite points of view: David A. Wells, Our Merchant Marine (1890), holding that the loss of the carrying-trade was due to overprotection; and William W. Bates, The American Marine (1897), maintaining that the trouble was due to insufficient governmental support. The efforts to lay the Atlantic cable of 1858 are described in Henry M. Field, The History of the Atlantic Telegraph (1869).

The finances of the period are admirably summarized in Davis R. Dewey, The Financial History of the United States (1903), a work notable for clearness, completeness, and coolness of judgment. Albert S. Bolles, Financial History of the United States (3 vols., 1879-1886), has greater merits than the Industrial History, but does not cover the entire field and is controversial in tone. David Kinley, The Independent Treasury (1893), is a scientific study of part of the governmental machinery. William G. Sumner, Banking in all Nations (4 vols., 1896), vol. I., has an elaborate history of state banking prior to the Civil War, and a briefer treatment of the same subject is in Horace White, Money and Banking (1896). There are three contemporary monographs upon the panic of 1857: David M. Evans, The History of the Commercial Crisis (1859); James S. Gibbons, The Banks of New York . . and the Panic of 1857 (1858); and Max Wirth, Geschichte der Handelskrisen (1858). By far the best recent treatment of the panic and its results is in Charles F. Dunbar, Economic Essays (edited by O. M. W. Sprague, 1904). The tariff is treated from opposite points of view by Frank W. Taussig, Tariff History of the United States (revised ed., 1898), which is critical in its attitude towards protection; and Edward Stanwood, American Tariff Controversies (2 vols., 1903), which is frankly written from the protectionist stand-point, but with attempts at impartiality. No full study of the movements of population in this decade has been made, but there is a brief reference to municipal development in Adna F. Weber, The Growth of Cities in the Nineteenth Century (1899). The principal sources for the economic history of the decade are the volumes of the Eighth Census of the United States (4 vols., 1 864-1 866), the House Executive Documents and Senate Executive Documents, containing reports of secretaries of the treasury. The similar reports of state finances should not be overlooked.



The critical chapter of Albert Bushnell Hart, Slavery and Abolition {American Nation, XVI.), deals with the literature of this topic in detail. The nature of southern political life is well shown in Joseph Hodgson, The Cradle of the Confederacy (1876) ; Ulrich B. Phillips, "Georgia and State Rights," in the American Historical Association, Report, 1 901; and James W. Garner, "The First Struggle over secession in Mississippi," in Mississippi Historical Society, Publications, IV., 91 (1901). A useful and temperate book upon the south as a section is Edward Ingle, Southern Sidelights (1896). The classic works upon southern economic and social conditions before the war are: Frederick Law Olmsted, The Seaboard Slave States (1856; a new ed., 1904), A Journey through Texas (1857), and A Journey in the Back Country (i860). A condensation of these was published under the title The Cotton Kingdom (2 vols., 1861). A contemporary southern view is David Christy, Cotton is King (1855). A modern study of slavery before the war is in Matthew B. Hammond, The Cotton Industry (1897); and the subject is also treated by George W. Williams, The History of the Negro Race in America (2 vols., 1883). Hinton R. Helper, The Impending Crisis (1857), is of historical interest as showing the beliefs of an anti-slavery southerner about slavery and its effects, but its temper is too polemic to permit of accuracy. John C. Hurd, The Law of Freedom and Bondage (2 vols., 1858-1862) , is the most elaborate legal treatise upon slavery. William Goodell, The American Slave Code (1853), is a more anti-slavery presentation; and Thomas R. R. Cobb, An Inquiry into the Law of Negro Slavery (1858), gives a southern point of view. The leading books in defence of slavery as a positive good are Albert T. Bledsoe, Liberty and Slavery (1856) , William Harper, James H. Hammond, William G. Simms, and Thomas B. Dew, The Pro-Slavery Argument (1853); & n d, still more radical, the works of George Fitzhugh, Sociology for the South (1854), and Cannibals All (1857) . These views are conveniently summarized and analyzed in Charles E. Merriam, American Political Theories (1903). The sharp revival of the slave-trade at this period is described in W. E. Burghardt DuBois, The Suppression of the Slave-Trade {Harvard Historical Studies, 1896), and in more popular style in James R. Spears, The American Slave-Trade (1900). The conditions of social life and sectional feeling in the south have been described in a large number of reminiscent works, nearly all tinged with rose-color, but useful as showing how the southern aristocracy regarded themselves. Some of the best of these are: John S. Wise, The End of an Era (1899); Thomas Nelson Page, The Old South (1892); Mrs. V. V. Clayton, Black and White under the Old Regime (1899); Mrs. Roger A. Pryor, Reminiscences of Peace and War (1904); Ada Sterling, A Belle of the Fifties (1904); and William M.Polk, Leonidas Polk, Bishop and General (2 vols., 1893).


A few of the state histories are of value for the political life of the times. Among the southern states, Louisiana is treated fully in Alcee Fortier, The History of Louisiana (4 vols., 1904). Others are Dudley G. Wooten, A Comprehensive History of Texas (2 vols., 1898); Robert Lowry and William H. McCardle, History of Mississippi (1893); Lucien Carr, Missouri (1888); Walter B. Davis and Daniel S. Durrie, Illustrated History of Missouri (1876); W. F. Switzler, The Commonwealth of Missouri (edited by Chauncey R. Barns, 1877); Isaac W. Avery, History of the State of Georgia (1881); C. G. Smith, History of Georgia (1900); John W. Moore, History of North Carolina (1880); Nathaniel S. Shaler, Kentucky (1885). Among northern state histories the following contain political matter: Francis B. Lee, New Jersey (4 vols., 1902); Ellis H. Roberts, New York (2 vols., 1887); John Moses, Illinois, Historical and ' Statistical (2 vols., 1892); Charles R. Tuttle, Illustrated History of Wisconsin (1875) ; and Alexander M. Thompson, Political History of Wisconsin (1900). California has a voluminous literature, most of which is of purely local interest. The fullest and most authoritative histories of the state are Hubert Howe Bancroft, California, History of the Pacific States, XVII. (1888); Theodore H. Hittell, California (4 vols., 1885-1897); Franklin Tuthill, History of California (1866); and Josiah Royce, California (1886). For Utah and New Mexico the best summaries are in Hubert Howe Bancroft, History of the Pacific States, XII. and XXI. (1889).


The primary sources for Kansas history are to be found in the congressional documents and the territorial documents. Contemporary newspapers, especially those published in Kansas, are to be used with caution. Reminiscences are of doubtful value unless checked by the testimony of the documents. The Kansas Historical Society, Transactions (7 vols, published to 1902), contain many such, of all degrees of merit. Histories of Kansas are nearly all controversial in tone, for, although none has been written from the pro-slavery point of view, there was so much personal and factional antagonism among the members of the Free State party that recent works are all more or less tinged with their sentiments. The contemporary accounts are: Sara Robinson, Kansas, its Exterior and Interior Life (1856); William Phillips, The Conquest of Kansas (1856); Thomas H. Gladstone, The Englishman in Kansas (1857); and John H. Gihon, Governor Geary and Kansas (1857).

Among later writers there is a sharp division between those who hold that John Brown and "Jim" Lane were chiefly effective in gaining the day for the Free State party, and those who consider that peaceful and political means were more successful. The biographies of John Brown main-tain the former view: Frank B. Sanborn, Life and Letters of John Brown (1885); James Redpath, The Public Life of Captain John Brown (i860); John Newton, Captain John Brown (1902); William E. Connelly, John Brown (1900); and, to a less degree, Daniel W. Wilder, Annals of Kansas (1875); John N. Holloway, History of Kansas (1868); and Charles R. Tuttle, Centennial History of Kansas (1876). On the other side, the leading works are: Eli Thayer, The Kansas Crusade (1889), which claims full credit for the Emigrant Aid Society, and is supported rather more moder-ately by William Lawrence, The Life of Amos A. Lawrence (1888); and two books upholding the claims of Robinson — Charles Robinson, The Kansas Conflict (1892; second ed., 1898), the work of the Free State leader himself; and Frank W. Blackmar, The Life of Charles Robinson (1902). George W. Brown, a participant, writes three controversial works — Reminiscences of Old John Brown (1880), False Claims of Kansas Historians Truthfully Corrected (1902), and Reminiscences of Governor R. J. Walker (1902). Leverett W. Spring, Kansas, the Prelude to the War for the Union (1885), although not controversial in tone and eminently fair to the pro-slavery as well as the Free-State side, decides against the partisans of Brown and Lane, as does A. T. Andreas, The History of Kansas (1883). Two good articles in this field are Walter L. Fleming, "The Buford Expedition to Kansas," in American Historical Review, VI., 38 (October, 1900), and Leverett W. Spring, "The Career of a Kansas Politician," in American Historical Review, IV., 80 (October, 1898).


The observations of foreign travellers in the decade before the Civil War continue to be of value, although to a less degree than at earlier dates. William Chambers, Things as They Are in America (1854), is an example of a highly friendly account; Jean Jacques Ampere, Promenade en Amerique (2 vols., 1855), is a more critical work. Others worth consulting are Ferencz and Terezia Pulszky, White, Red, Black, Sketches of American Society (2 vols., 1853); Isabella Bird, The Englishwoman in America (1856); and Lady E. S. Wortley, Travels in the United States (1851). Descriptions of the new fashionable society life are in Nathaniel P. Willis, Hurrygraphs (1851); Charles N. Bristed, The Upper Ten Thousand (1852); and George William Curtis, Lotus-Eating (1852). A highly unfavorable view of the reform movements of the time is in George Lunt, Radicalism in Philosophy, Religion, and Social Life (1858). Modern studies of the Maine-law agitation are in Arthur Sherwell and John Rowntree, The Temperance Problem and Social Reform (1899); Frederick H. Wines and John Koren, The Liquor Problem in its Legislative Aspect (1897); Robert C. Pitman, Alcohol and the State (1877), and the Cyclopedia of Temperance and Prohibition (1891). The standard work on the woman's rights movement is Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, and Matilda J. Gage, The History of Woman Suffrage (4 vols., 1881). The authority upon the spiritualistic craze of the fifties is Frank Podmore, Modern Spiritualism (2 vols., 1902).

The general attitude of the north towards slavery is summed up and discussed by Charles E. Merriam, American Political Theories (1903). Since no new doctrines were developed by abolitionists during this period, it is not necessary to do more than mention the leading books published by them: William Chambers, American Slavery and Colour (1857), an d Richard Hildreth, Despotism in America (1854). Nehemiah Adams, A South-side View of Slavery (1855), won unending notoriety in New England as a defence of the institution. The subject of fugitive slaves and the attitude of the north towards them is shown in William Still, The Underground Railroad (1883), and particularly in Wilbur H. Siebert, The Underground Railroad (1898), the standard work on the subject. Marion G. McDougall, Fugitive Slaves (1891), is a useful summary; and Joel Parker, Personal Liberty Laws (1858), is a contemporary criticism of one aspect of the northern opposition to the fugitive-slave act. Three of the best-known cases of fugitive rescues are treated in Charles E. Stevens, Anthony Burns, a History (1856); Jacob R. Shipherd, History of the Oberlin-W elling-ton Rescue (1859); and The History of the Trial of Castner Hanway for Treason . . . by a Member of the Philadelphia Bar (1852).