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[Lewis, June 1, 1806]
 Sunday June 1st 1806.
 Yesterday evening Charbono an LaPage returned, having made a broken
 voyage. they ascended the river on this side nearly opposite to a
 village eight miles above us, here their led horse which had on him
 their merchandize, feell into the river from the side of a steep clift
 and swam over; they saw an indian on the opposite side whom they
 prevailed on to drive their horse back again to them; in swiming the
 river the horse lost a dressed Elkskin of LaPages and several small
 articles, & their paint was destroyed by the water. here they remained
 and dryed their articles the evening of the 30th Ult. the indians at
 the village learning their errand and not having a canoe, made an
 attempt esterday morning to pass the river to them on a raft with a
 parsel of roots and bread in order to trade with them; the indian raft
 struck a rock, upset and lost thir cargo; the river having fallen heir
 to both merchandize and roots, our traders returned with empty bags.
 This morning Drewyer accompanyed by Hohastillpilp set out in surch of
 two tomahawks of ours which we have understood were in the possession
 of certain indians residing at a distance in the plains on the South
 side of the Kooskoske; the one is a tomahawk which Capt. C. left at our
 camp on Musquetoe Creek and the other was stolen from us while we lay
 at the forks of this and the Chopunnish rivers last fall. Colter and
 Willard set out this morning on a hunting excurtion towards the quamash
 grounds beyond Collins's Creek. we begin to feel some anxiety with
 rispect to Sergt. Ordway and party who were sent to Lewis's river for
 salmon; we have received no inteligence of them since they set out. we
 desired Drewyer to make some enquiry after the Twisted hair; the old
 man has not been as good as his word with rispect to encamping near us,
 and we fear we shall be at a loss to procure guides to conduct us by
 the different routs we wish to pursue from Traveller's rest to the
 waters of the Missouri.--I met with a singular plant today in blume of
 which I preserved a specemine; it grows on the steep sides of the
 fertile hills near this place, the radix is fibrous, not much branched,
 annual, woody, white and nearly smooth. the stem is simple branching
 ascending, 21/2 feet high celindric, villose and of a pale red colour.
 the branches are but few and those near it's upper extremity. the
 extremities of the branches are flexable and are bent down near their
 extremities with the weight of the flowers. the leaf is sissile,
 scattered thinly, nearly linear tho somewhat widest in the middle, two
 inches in length, absolutely entire, villose, obtusely pointed and of
 an ordinary green. above each leaf a small short branch protrudes,
 supporting a tissue of four or five smaller leaves of the same
 appearance with those discribed. a leaf is placed underneath eah
 branch, and each flower. the calyx is a one flowered spathe. the
 corolla superior consists of four pale perple petals which are
 tripartite, the central lobe largest and all terminate obtusely; they
 are inserted with a long and narrow claw on the top of the germ, are
 long, smooth, & deciduous. there are two distinct sets of stamens the
 1st or principal consist of four, the filaments of which are capillary,
 erect, inserted on the top of the germ alternately with the petals,
 equal short, membranous; the anthers are also four each being elivated
 with it's fillament, they are linear and reather flat, erect sessile,
 cohering at the base, membranous, longitudinally furrowed, twise as
 long as the fillament naked, and of a pale perple colour. the second
 set of stamens are very minute are also four and placed within and
 opposite to the petals, these are scarcely persceptable while the 1st
 are large and conspicuous; the filaments are capillary equal, very
 short, white and smooth. the anthers are four, oblong, beaked, erect,
 cohering at the base, membranous, shorter than the fillaments, white
 naked and appear not to form pollen. there is one pistillum; the germ
 of which is also one, cilindric, villous, inferior, sessile, as long as
 the 1st stamens, and marked with 8 longitudinal furrows. the single
 style and stigma form a perfict monapetallous corolla only with this
 difference, that the style which elivates the stigma or limb is not a
 tube but solid tho it's outer appearance is that of the tube of a
 monopetallous corolla swelling as it ascends and gliding in such manner
 into the limb that it cannot be said where the style ends, or the
 stigma begins; jointly they are as long as the corolla, white, the limb
 is four cleft, sauser shaped, and the margins of the lobes entire and
 rounded. this has the appearance of a monopetallous flower growing from
 the center of a four petalled corollar, which is rendered more
 conspicuous in consequence of the 1st being white and the latter of a
 pale perple. I regret very much that the seed of this plant are not yet
 ripe and it is proble will not be so during my residence in this
 neighbourhood.
 
 
 [Clark, June 1, 1806]
 Sunday June 1st 1806.
 Late last evening Shabono & Lapage returnd. haveing made a broken
 voyage. they assended the river on this Side nearly opposit to the
 Village Eight miles above us, here their led horse who had on him their
 Stock of Merchindize fell into the river from the Side of a Steep Clift
 and swam over, they Saw an indian on the opposit side whome they
 provailed on to drive their horse back again to them; in swiming the
 horse lost a dressed Elk skin of LaPages and Several small articles,
 and their paint was distroyed by the water. here they remained and
 dryed their articles the evening of the 30th ulto. the indians at the
 village learned their errand and not haveing a canoe, made an attempt
 Yesterday morning made an attempt to pass the river to them on a raft
 with a parcel of roots and bread in order to trade with them; the
 indian raft Struck a rock upset and lost their Cargo; the river haveing
 Swallowed both Merchindize & roots, our traders returned with empty
 bags. This morning Geo. Drewyer accompanied by Hohastillpilp Set out in
 Serch of two tomahawks of ours which we have understood were in the
 possession of certain indians resideing at a distance in the Plains on
 the South Side of Flat Head river; one is a pipe tomahawk which Capt L.
 left at our Camp on Musquetor Creek and the other was stolen from me
 whilst we lay at the forks of this and Chopunnish rivers last fall.
 Colter and Willard Set out this morning on a hunting excurtion towards
 the quawmash grounds beyond Colins creek. we begin to feel Some anxiety
 with respect to Sergt. Ordway and party who were Sent to Lewis's river
 for salmon; we have receved no intillegence of them Sence they Set out.
 we desired Drewyer to make Some enquiry after the Twisted hair; the old
 man has not been as good as his word with respect to encamping near us,
 and we fear we Shall be at a loss to procure guides to conduct us by
 the different routs we wish to pursue from Travillers rest to the
 waters of the Missouri
 
 
 [Lewis, June 2, 1806]
 Monday June 2cd 1806.
 McNeal and york were sent on a trading voyage over the river this
 morning. having exhausted all our merchandize we are obliged to have
 recourse to every subterfuge in order to prepare in the most ample
 manner in our power to meet that wretched portion of our journy, the
 Rocky Mountain, where hungar and cold in their most rigorous forms
 assail the waried traveller; not any of us have yet forgotten our
 sufferings in those mountains in September last, and I think it
 probable we never shall. Our traders McNeal and York were furnished
 with the buttons which Capt. C. and myself cut off our coats, some eye
 water and Basilicon which we made for that purpose and some Phials and
 small tin boxes which I had brought out with Phosphorus. in the evening
 they returned with about 3 bushels of roots and some bread having made
 a successful) voyage, not much less pleasing to us than the return of a
 good cargo to an East India Merchant.--Collins, Sheilds, R & J. Feilds
 and Shannon set out on a hunting excurtion to the Quawmash grounds on
 the lower side of Collins's Creek. our horses many of them have become
 so wild that we cannot take them without the assistance of the Indians
 who are extreemly dextrous in throwing a rope and taking them with a
 noose about the neck; as we frequently want the use of our horses when
 we cannot get the assistance of the indians to take them, we had a
 strong pound formed today in order to take them at pleasure. Drewyer
 arrived this evening with Neeshneparkkeeook and Hohastillpilp who had
 accompanyed him to the lodges of the persons who had our tomahawks. he
 obtained both the tomahawks principally by the influence of the former
 of these Cheifs. the one which had been stolen we prized most as it was
 the private property of the late Sergt. Floyd and Capt. C. was
 desireous of returning it to his friends. the man who had this tomahawk
 had purchased it from the Indian that had stolen it, and was himself at
 the moment of their arrival just expiring. his relations were unwilling
 to give up the tomehawk as they intended to bury it with the disceased
 owner, but were at length induced to do so for the consideration of a
 hadkerchief, two strands of beads, which Drewyer gave them and two
 horses given by the cheifs to be killed agreeably to their custom at
 the grave of the disceased. The bands of the Chopunnish who reside
 above the junction of Lewis's river and the Kooskooske bury their dead
 in the earth and place stones on the grave. they also stick little
 splinters of wood in betwen the interstices of the irregular mass of
 stone piled on the grave and afterwards cover the whole with a roof of
 board or split timber. the custom of sacreficing horses to the
 disceased appears to be common to all the nations of the plains of
 Columbia. a wife of Neeshneeparkkeeook died some short time since,
 himself and hir relations saceficed 28 horses to her. The Indians
 inform us that there are a plenty of Moos to the S. E. of them on the
 East branch of Lewis's river which they call Tommanamah R. about Noon
 Sergt. Ordway Frazier and Wizer returned with 17 salmon and some roots
 of cows; the distance was so great from which they had brought the fish
 that most of them were nearly spoiled. these fish were as fat as any I
 ever saw; sufficiently so to cook themselves without the addition of
 grease; those which were sound were extreemly delicious; their flesh is
 of a fine rose colour with a small admixture of yellow. these men set
 out on the 27th ult. and in stead of finding the fishing shore at the
 distance of half a days ride as we had been informed, they did not
 reach the place at which they obtained their fish untill the evening of
 the 29th having travelled by their estimate near 70 miles. the rout
 they had taken however was not a direct one; the Indians conducted them
 in the first instance to the East branch of Lewis's river about 20
 miles above it's junction with the South branch, a distance of about 50
 Ms. where they informed them they might obtain fish; but on their
 arrival at that place finding that the salmon had not yet arrived or
 were not taken, they were conducted down that river to a fishery a few
 miles below the junction of the forks of Lewis's river about 20 Ms.
 further, here with some difficulty and remaining one day they purchased
 the salmon which they brought with them. the first 20 Ms. of their rout
 was up Commeap Creek and through a plain open country, the hills of the
 creek continued high and broken with some timber near it's borders. the
 ballance of their rout was though a high broken mountanous country
 generally well timbered with pine the soil fertile in this quarter they
 met with an abundance of deer and some bighorned animals. the East fork
 of Lewis's river they discribe as one continued rapid about 150 Yds.
 wide it's banks are in most places solid and perpendicular rocks, which
 rise to a great hight; it's hills are mountains high. on the tops of
 some of those hills over which they passed, the snow had not entirely
 disappeared, and the grass was just springing up. at the fishery on
 Lewis's river below the forks there is a very considerable rapid nearly
 as great from the information of Segt. Ordway as the great falls of the
 Columbia the river 200 Yds. wide. their common house at this fishery is
 built of split timber 150 feet long and 35 feet wide flat at top. The
 general course from hence to the forks of Lewis's river is a little to
 the West of south about 45 Ms.--The men at this season resort their
 fisheries while the women are employed in collecting roots. both forks
 of Lewis's river above their junction appear to enter a high
 Mountainous country.--my sick horse being much reduced and apearing to
 be in such an agoni of pain that there was no hope of his recovery I
 ordered him shot this evening. the other horses which we casterated are
 all nearly recovered, and I have no hesitation in declaring my beleif
 that the indian method of gelding is preferable to that practiced by
 ourselves.
 
 
 [Clark, June 2, 1806]
 Monday June 2nd 1806
 McNeal and York were Sent on a tradeing voyage over the river this
 morning. having exhosted all our Merchendize we were obliged to have
 recourse to every Subterfuge in order to prepare in the most ample
 manner in our power to meet that wretched portion of our journy, the
 Rocky Mountains, where hungar and Cold in their most regorous form
 assail the waried traveller; not any of us have yet forgotten our those
 mountains in September last, I think it probable we never Shall. Our
 traders McNeal and York are furnished with the buttons which Capt L-.
 and my Self Cut off of our Coats, Some eye water and Basilicon which we
 made for that purpose and Some phials of eye water and Some tin boxes
 which Capt L. had brought from Philadelphia. in the evening they
 returned with about 3 bushels of roots and Some bread haveing made a
 Suckcessfull voyage, not much less pleasing to us than the return of a
 good Cargo to an East India merchant.
 Shields, Collins, Reuben & Joseph Field & Shannon Set out on a hunting
 excurtion to the quaw mash the lower side of Collins Creek & towards
 the Mountains.
 Drewyer arived this evening with Neeshneparkkeeook and Hohashillpilp
 who had accompanied him to the lodge of the person who had our
 tomahawks. he obtained both the tomahawks principally by the influence
 of the former of those Chiefs. the one which had been Stolen we prized
 most as it was the private property of the late Serjt. Floyd and I was
 desireous of returning it to his friends. The man who had this tomahawk
 had purchased it from the man who had Stolen it, and was himself at the
 moment of their arival just expireing. his relations were unwilling to
 give up the tomahawk as they intended to bury it with the deceased
 owner, but were at length to do so for the Consideration of a
 handkerchief, two Strands of heeds, which drewyer gave them and two
 horses given by the Chiefs to be Killed agreeable to their custom at
 the grave of the deceased. The custom of Sacrificeing horses to the
 disceased appears to be Common to all the nations of the plains of the
 Columbia. a Wife of Neeshneeparkkeeook died Some Short time Sence,
 himself and her relations sacrificed horses to her. The Indians inform
 us that there is a plenty of Moos to the S. E. of them on the East
 branch of Lewis's river which they Call Tommawamah River. About noon
 Sergt. Ordway Frazier and Wiser returnd. with 17 Salmon and Some roots
 of the Cows; the distance was So great from whence they brought the
 fish, that most of them were nearly Spoiled. those fish were as fat as
 any I ever saw; Sufficiently So to cook themselves without the addition
 of Grease or butter; those which were Sound were extreemly delicious;
 their flesh is of a fine rose colour with a Small admixture of yellow.
 these men Set out on the 27th ulto. and in Sted of finding the fishing
 Shore at the distance of half a days ride as we had been informed, they
 did not reach the place at which they obtained their fish untill the
 evening of the 29th haveing traveled near 70 miles. the rout they had
 taken however was not a direct one; the Indians Conducted them in the
 first instance to the East fork of Lewis's river about 10 miles above
 it's junction with the South branch, a distance of about 50 miles where
 they informed them they might obtain fish; but on their arival at that
 place finding that the Salmon had not arived or were not taken, they
 were Conducted down that river to a fishery a fiew miles below the
 junction of the forks of Lewis's River about 20 miles further, here
 they remained one day and with some dificuelty, they purchased the
 Salmon which they brought with them. the first 20 ms. Of their rout was
 up Commeap Creek and through a plain open Country, the hills of the
 Creek Continued high and broken with Some timber near it's borders, the
 ballance of their rout was through a high broken Mountanious Country.
 generally well timbered with pine the soil fertile. in this quarter the
 meet with abundance of deer and Some big-horned Animals. The East fork
 of Lewis's river they discribe as one Continued rapid of about 150
 yards wide, it's banks are in most places Solid and perpindicular
 rocks, which rise to a great hight; it's hills are mountanious high. on
 the top of Some of those hills over which they passed, the Snow had not
 entirely disappeared, and the grass was just springing up. at the
 fishery on Lewis's river below the forks there is a very Considerable
 rapid, nearly as Great from the information of Sergt. Ordway as the
 Great falls of the Columbia the river 200 yards wide. their common
 house at this fishery is built of Split timber 150 feet long and 35
 feet in width, flat at top. the general Course from here to the forks
 of Lewis's river is a little to the west of South about 45 ms. The men
 at this Season resort their fisheries while the womin are employed in
 collecting roots-. both forks above the junction of Lewis's river
 appear to enter a high Mountainious Country. our horses are all
 recovering & I have no hesitation in declareing that I believe that the
 Indian Method of guilding preferable to that practised by ourselves.
 
 
 [Lewis, June 3, 1806]
 Tuesday June 3rd 1806.
 Our invalids are all on the recovery; Bratton is much stronger and can
 walk about with considerable ease. the Indian Cheif appears to be
 gradually recovering the uce of his limbs, and the child is nearly
 well; the imposthume on his neck has in a great measure subsided and
 left a hard lump underneath his left ear; we still continue the
 application of the onion poltice. at 2 P.M. The Broken arm and 3 of his
 wariars visited us and remained all night. Colter, Jo. Fields and
 Willard returned this evening with five deer and one bear of the brown
 speceis; the hair of this was black with a large white spot on the
 breast containing a small circular black spot. today the Indians
 dispatched an express over the mountains to travellers rest or the
 neighbourhood of that Creek on Clark's river in order to learn from the
 Oote-lash-shoots a band of the Flatheads who have wintered there, the
 occurrences that have taken place on the East side of the mountains
 during that season. this is the band which we first met with on that
 river. the mountains being practicable for this express we thought it
 probable that we could also pass, but the indians informed us that
 several of the creeks would yet swim our horses, that there was no
 grass and that the roads were extreemly deep and slipery; they inform
 us that we may pass conveniently in twelve or fourteen days. we have
 come to a resolution to remove from hence to the quawmash grounds
 beyond Collins's creek on the 10th to hunt in that neighbourhood a few
 days, if possible lay in a stock of meat and then attempt the mountains
 about the middle of this month. I begin to lose all hope of any
 dependance on the Salmon as this river will not fall sufficiently to
 take them before we shall leave it, and as yet I see no appearance of
 their runing near the shores as the indians informed us they would in
 the course of a few days. I find that all the salmon which they procure
 themselves they obtain on Lewis's river, and the distance thither is
 too great for us to think of sending after them even had we merchandize
 with which to purchase.
 
 
 [Clark, June 3, 1806]
 Tuesday June 3rd 1806
 Our invalids are all on the recovery; bratten is much Stronger and can
 walk about with Considerable ease. the Indian Chief appears to be
 gradually recovering the use of his limbs, and the child is nearly
 well; the inflomation on his neck Continus but the Swelling appears to
 Subside. we Still Continue the application of the onion poltice. at 3
 P.M. the broken arm and three wariors visited us and remained all
 night. Colter, Jos. Fields and Willard returned this evening with five
 deer and one bear of the brown Species; the hair of this was black with
 a large white Spot on the breast containing a Small circular black
 Spot. (this Species of bear is Smaller than our Common black bear) this
 was a female bear and as our hunters informed us had cubs last year,
 this they judged from the length and Size of her tits &c. this bear I
 am Confident is not larger than the yerlin Cubs of our Country. To day
 the Indians dispatched an express over the mountains to Travellers rest
 or to the neighbourhood of that Creek on Clark's river in order to
 learn from a band of Flat-Heads who inhabit that river and who have
 probably Wintered on Clarks river near the enterance of travellers rest
 Creek, the occurences which have taken place on the East Side of the
 mountains dureing the last winter. this is the band which we first met
 with on that river. the Mountains being practicable for this express we
 thought it probable that we could also pass, but the Chiefs informs us
 that Several of the Creek's would yet swim our horses, that there was
 no grass and that the road was extreemly deep and slipery; they inform
 us that we may pass Conveniently in twelve or fourteen days. we have
 come to a resolution to remove from hence to the Quawmash Grounds
 beyond Colins Creek on the 10th to hunt in that neighbourhood a fiew
 days, if possible lay in a Stock of Meat, and then attempt the
 Mountains about the Middle of this month. I begin to lose all hope of
 any dependance on the Salmon as this river will not fall Sufficiently
 to take them before we Shall leave it, and as yet I see no appearance
 of their running near the Shore as the indians informed us they would
 in the course of a fiew days. I find that all the Salmon which they
 precure themselves they obtain on Lewis's river, and the distance
 thither is too great for us to think of Sending after them, even had we
 merchendize with which to purchase the salmon.-.
 
 
 [Lewis, June 4, 1806]
 Wednesday June 4th 1806.
 about noon The 3 Cheifs left us and returned to their vilages. while
 they were with us we repeated the promises we had formerly made them
 and invited them to the Missouri with us, they declined going untill
 the latter end of the summer and said it was there intention to spend
 the ensuing winter on the East side of the Rocky mountains. they gave
 us no positive answer to a request which we made, that two or three of
 their young men should accompany me to the falls of the Missouri and
 there wait my return from the upper part of Maria's river where it was
 probable I should meet with some of the bands of the Minnetares from
 Fort de Prarie; that in such case I should indeavor to bring about a
 good understanding between those indians and themselves, which when
 effected they would be informed of it though the young men thus sent
 with me, and that on the contrary should I not be fortunate enough to
 meet with these people nor to prevail on them to be at peace they would
 equally be informed through those young men, and they might still
 remain on their guard with rispect to them untill the whites had it in
 their power to give them more effectual releif. The Broken Arm invited
 us to his village and said he wished to speak to us before we set out,
 and that he had some roots to give us for our journey over the
 mountains; Capt. C. promised to visit him as he wished the day after
 tomorrow.--Sheilds returned this evening from the quawmash grounds with
 2 deer which he had killed.
 
 
 [Clark, June 4, 1806]
 Wednesday June 4th 1806
 about noon the 3 chiefs left us and returned to their villages. While
 they were with us we repeeted the promisces we had formerly made them
 and envited them to the Missouri with us, they declined going untill
 the latter end of the Summer, and Said it was their intintion to Spend
 the insiewing winter on the East Side of the Rocky Mountains, they gave
 us no positive answer to a request which we made, that two or three of
 their young men Should accompany Capt L. to the falls of Missouri and
 there wait his return from the upper part of Maria's river where it was
 probable he Should meet with Some of the bands of the Blakfoot Indians
 and Minitarres of Fort dePrarie, that in Such Case Capt L. would
 indeavor to bring about a good understanding between those indians and
 themselves, which when effected they would be informed of it through
 the young men thus Sent with him. and that on the contrary Should he
 not be fortunate enough to meet with those people, nor to provaile on
 them to be at peace they would equally be informed through those young
 men, and they might Still remain on their guard with respect to them,
 untill the Whites had it more in their Power to give them more
 effectual relief. I also urged the necessaty of Sending one or two of
 their Considerate men to accompany me by way of the Shoshonees on the
 head of Jeffersons river and about the three forks of the Missouri
 which whome there is most probably Some of the Chiefs of those bands of
 Shoshones with whome they are at war, and by which means a message Sent
 to that nation & good understanding brought about between the Shoshones
 and the Chopunnish Nations which appears to be the wish of both
 Nations. The Broken Arm envited us to his Village and Said he wished to
 Speak to us before we Set out, and that he had Some roots to give us
 for our journey over the mountains; I promised to visit him as he
 wished the day after tomorrow-. Shields returned this evining from the
 Quawmash grounds with two Deer which he had killed
 
 
 [Lewis, June 5, 1806]
 Thursday June 5th 1806.
 Colter and Bratton were permitted to visit the indian villages today
 for the purpose of trading for roots and bread, they were fortunate and
 made a good return. we gave the indian cheif another sweat today,
 continuing it as long as he could possibly bear it; in the evening he
 was very languid but appeared still to improve in the use of his limbs.
 the child is recovering fast the inflamation has subsided intirely, we
 discontinued the poltice, and applyed a plaster of basilicon; the part
 is still considerably swolen and hard. in the evening R. Feilds Shannon
 and Labuish return from the chaise and brought with them five deer and
 a brown bear. among the grasses of this country I observe a large
 speceis which grows in moist situations; it rises to the hight of eight
 or ten feet, the culm is jointed, hollow, smooth, as large as a goos
 quill and more firm than ordinary grasses; the leaf is linnear broad
 and rough; it has much the appearance of the maden cain as it is called
 in the state of Gergia, and retains it's virdure untill late in the
 fall. this grass propegates principally by the root which is horizontal
 and perennial. a second speceis grows in tussucks and rises to the
 hight of six or eight feet; it seems to delight in the soil of the
 river bottoms which possess a greater mixture of sand than the hills in
 this neighbourhood. this is also a harsh course grass; it appears to be
 the same which is called the Corn grass in the Southern states, and the
 foxtail in Virginia. a third speceis resembles the cheet, tho the
 horses feed on it very freely. a fourth and most prevalent speceis is a
 grass which appears to be the same called the blue grass common to many
 parts of the United States; it is common to the bottom as well as the
 uplands, is now seeding and is from 9 inches to 2 feet high; it affords
 an excellent pasture for horses and appears to bear the frosts and snow
 better than any grass in our country; I therefore regret very much that
 the seed will not be ripe before our probable departure. this is a fine
 soft grass and would no doubt make excellent hay if cultivated. I do
 not find the greenswoard here which we met with on the lower part of
 the Columbia. there are also several speceis of the wild rye to be met
 with in the praries. among the plants and shrubs common to our contry I
 observe here the seven bark, wild rose, vining honeysickle, sweet
 willow, red willow, longleafed pine, Cattail or cooper's flag,
 lamsquarter, strawberry, raspberry, tonge grass, musterd, tanzy,
 sinquefield, horsemint, coltsfoot, green plantin, cansar weed, elder,
 shoemate and several of the pea blume flowering plants.-
 
 
 [Clark, June 5, 1806]
 Thursday June 5th 1806
 Colter and Bratten were permitted to visit the Indian Village to day
 for the purpose of tradeing for roots and bread, they were fortunate
 and made a good return. we gave the Indian Cheif another Sweat to-day,
 continuing it as long as he could bear it. in the evening he was very
 languid but Still to improve in the use of his limbs. the Child is
 revovereing fast. I applied a plaster of Sarve made of the Rozen of the
 long leafed pine, Beas wax and Beare oil mixed, which has Subsided the
 inflomation entirely, the part is Considerably Swelled and hard-. in
 the evening Reuben Fields, G. Shannon, Labiech, & Collins returned from
 the chaise and brought with them five deer and a brown Bear.
 Among the Grasses of this Country I observe a large Species which grows
 in moist Situations; it rises to the hight of Eight or ten feet, the
 Culm is jointed, hollow, Smooth, as large as a goose quill, and more
 firm than ordinary grass; the leaf is linner broad and rough; it has
 much the appearance of the Meadin Cain as it is Called in the Southern
 parts of the U States, and retains it's virdue untill late in the fall.
 this grass propegates principally by the Root which is horozontal and
 perennial.-. a Second Species grows in tussucks and rises to the hight
 of Six or Eight feet; it Seams to delight in the Soil of the river
 bottoms which possess agreater mixture of Sand than the hills in this
 neighbourhood. this is also a harsh Course grass; it appears to be the
 Same which is Called the Corn grass in the Southern States, and the
 Foxtail in Virginia. a third Species resembles the cheet, tho the
 horses feed on it very freely. a fouth and most prevalent Species is a
 grass which appears to be the Same Called the blue Grass common to
 maney parts of the United States; it is common to the bottoms as well
 as the uplands, is now Seeding and is from 9 inches to 2 feet high; it
 affords an excellent paterage for horses and appears to bear the frost
 and Snow better than any grass in our Country; I therefore regrete very
 much that the Seed will not be ripe before our probable departure. this
 is a fine Soft grass and would no doubt make excellent hay if
 cultivated. I do not find the Green Sword here which we met with on the
 lower part of the Columbia. There are also Several Species of the wild
 Rye to be met with in the praries. among the plants and Shrubs common
 to our Country I observe here the Seven bark, Wild rose, vineing honey
 suckle, Sweet willow, red willow, long leafed pine, Cattail or Coopers
 Flag. Lambs quarter, Strawberries, Raspberries, Goose berries, tongue
 grass, Mustard, tanzy, Sinquefield, horse mint, water penerial, elder,
 Coalts foot, Green Plantin, canser weed, Shoemate, and Several of the
 pea blume flowering plants.-. Frazier who had permission to visit the
 Twisted Hairs Lodge at the distance of ten or twelve miles did not
 return this evening-. The river falls in course of the day and rises
 Some at night as will be Seen by the remarks in the Diary of the
 weather. this most probably is the melding of the Snows dureing the day
 &c.
 
 
 [Lewis, June 6, 1806]
 Friday June 6th 1806.
 This morning Frazier returned having been in quest of some roots and
 bread which had left at the lodg of the Twisted hair when on his way to
 the fishery on Lewis's river. the Twisted hair came with him but I was
 unable to converse with him for the want of an interpreter, Drewyer
 being absent with Capt. C. This Cheif left me in the evening and
 returned to his village. Capt C. Visited the Broken Arm today agreeably
 to his promise; he took with him Drewyer and several others. they were
 received in a friendly manner. The Broken Arm informed Capt. C. that
 the nation would not pass the mountain untill the latter end of the
 summer, and that with rispect to the young men whom we had requested
 should accompany us to the falls of the Missouri, were not yet
 scelected for that purpose nor could they be so untill there was a
 meeting of the nation in counsil. that this would happen in the course
 of ten or twelve days as the whole of the lodges were about to remove
 to the head of the Commeap Creek in the plain near Lewis's river, that
 when they had assembled themselves they would hold a council and
 scelect the young men. that if we set out previously to that period the
 men would follow us. we therefore do not calculate on any assistance
 from them as guides, but depend more upon engageing some of the
 Ootlashshoots in the neighborhood of Travellers rest C. for that
 purpose. The broken arm gave Capt. C. a few dryed Quawmas roots as a
 great present, but in our estimation those of cows are much better, I
 am confident they are much more healthy. The men who were with Capt. C.
 obtained a good store of roots and bread in exchange for a number of
 little notions, using the Yanke phrase, with which their own enginuity
 had principally furnished them. on examination we find that our whole
 party have an ample store of bread and roots for our voyage, a
 circumstance not unpleasing. They retuned at 5 P.M. shortly after which
 we were visited by Hohastillpilp the two young Cheifs who gave us the
 horses in behalf of the nation some time since and several others, who
 remained all night. The Kooskooske is about 150 Yds. wide at this place
 and discharges a vast body of water; notwithstanding it high state the
 water remains nearly transparent, and it's temperature appeas to be
 quite as cold as that of our best springs. we meet with a beautifull
 little bird in this neighbourhood about the size and somewhat the shape
 of the large spar-row. it is reather longer in proportion to it's bulk
 than the sparrow. it measures 7 inches from the extremity of the beek
 to that of the tail, the latter occupying 21/2 inches. the beak is
 reather more than half an inch in length, and is formed much like the
 Virginia nitingale; it is thick and large for a bird of it's size; wide
 at the base, both chaps convex, and pointed, the uper exceeds the under
 chap a little is somewhat curved and of a brown colour; the lower chap
 of a greenish yellow. the eye full reather large and of a black colour
 both puple and iris. the plumage is remarkably delicate; that of the
 neck and head is of a fine orrange yellow and red, the latter
 predominates on the top of the head and arround the base of the beak
 from whence it graduly deminishes & towards the lower part of the neck,
 the orrange yellow prevails most; the red has the appearance of being
 laid over a ground of yellow. the breast, the sides, rump and some long
 feathers which lie between the legs and extend underneath the tail are
 of a fine orrange yellow. the tail, back and wings are black, ecept a
 small stripe of yellow on the outer part of the middle joint of the
 wing, 1/4 of an inch wide and an inch in length. the tail is composed
 of twelve feathers of which those in the center are reather shortest,
 and the plumage of all the feathers of the tail is longest on that side
 of the quill next the center of the tail. the legs and feet are black,
 nails long and sharp; it has four toes on each foot, of which three are
 forward and one behind; that behind is as long as the two outer of the
 three toes in front.
 
 
 [Clark, June 6, 1806]
 Friday June 6th 1806
 I visited the Broken Arm to day agreeable to my promis of the 4th inst.
 and took with me Drewyer & three other men I was receved in a friendly
 manner. The broken Arm informed me that maney of the Small chiefs of
 the different Bands of his nation had not heard our word from our own
 mouths, Several of them were present and was glad to See me &c. I
 repeeted in part what had been Said in Council before. The Broken arm
 told me that the nation would not pass the mountains untill the latter
 part of the Summer, and with respect to the young men who we had
 requested to accompany us to the falls of Missouri, were not yet
 Selected for that purpose nor could they be So untill they had a
 Meeting of the Nation in Council. that this would happen in the Course
 of ten or 12 days as the whole of the Lodges were about to Move to the
 head of Commeap Creek in the Plain of Lewis's river, that when they
 held a council they would Select two young men. that if we Set out
 previously to that time the men would follow us. we therefore do not
 Calculate any assistance from them as guides, but depend more upon
 engageing Some of the Oatlash-shoots on Clarks river in the
 neighbouringhood of Travellers rest C. for that purpose. The Broken Arm
 gave me a fiew Quawmash roots as a great preasent, but in my estimation
 those of Cows is much better. I am Confident they are much more
 healthy. The Broken Arm informed me that they had latterly been
 informed that a party of the Shoshones had arived at the Ye-E-al-po
 Nation who reside to the South of the enterance of Kooskooske into
 Lewis's river. and had informed that people that their nation (the
 Shoshones) had received the talk which was given their relations on the
 head of the East fork of Lewis's river last fall, and were resolved to
 pursue our Councils, and had came foward for the purpose of makeing
 peace with them, and allso with the Chopunnish &c. that they had Sent
 Several men in Serch of those people with a view to bring them to
 Lewis's river at which place the Broken Arm informed me he Should meet
 them and Smoke the pipe of peace. which he Should afterwards Send by
 with Some of his Chiefs in company with those Shoshones to their nation
 and confirm a piece which never Should be broken on his part. he
 produced two pipes one of which he said was as a present to me the
 other he intended to Send to the Shoshones &c. and requested me to take
 one, I receved the one made in the fascion of the Country, the other
 which was of Stone curiously inlaid with Silver in the common form
 which he got from the Shoshones. I deckorated the Stem of this pipe
 with blue ribon and white wampom and informed the Chief this was the
 emblem of peace with us.
 The men who accompanied me obtained a good Store of roots and bread in
 exchange for a number of little notions, useing the Yanke phrase, with
 which their own enginuiety had principally furnished them. on
 examonation we find our whole party have a Sufficient Store of bread
 and roots for our Voyage. a Circumstance not unpleasing-.
 I returned at 4 P. M followed by Hohastillpilp the 2 young Chiefs who
 gave us the horses in behalf of the nation Some time Sence, the young
 man who gave us the horse at Collins Creek to kill as we Came up, and
 Several others. I met the twisted hair and two other indians with
 Frazier on the opposit bank from our Camp this Morning & Sent him over
 to our Camp. I met him this evening on his return home. he informed me
 he could not accompany us across the mountains as his brother was Sick
 &c.-.
 
 
 [Clark, June 6, 1806]
 The Chopunnish call the Crow Indians Up-shar-look-kar
 Chopunnish name for Sin-sho-cal Dearbourne R ditto--do--Cal la mar-Sha
 mosh Meddesons ditto--do--Co-ma win-nim Maria River ditto ditto-
 Ta-ki-a-ki-a Mescle Shell R ditto--ditto Wah-wo-ko-ye-o-cose is th ____
 ditto do--Rockejhone--Elk river
 ditto do--Koos-koos-an-nim-a the little Missouri ditto--do-
 Walch-Nim-mah--Knife R ditto--do Ni-hi-Sir-te--C. R
 
 
 [Lewis, June 7, 1806]
 Saturday June 7th 1806.
 The two young Cheifs who visited last evening returned to their village
 on Commeap C. with some others of the natives. Sergt. Gass, McNeal,
 Whitehouse and Goodrich accompanyed them with a view to procure some
 pack or lash ropes in exchange for parts of an old sain, fish giggs,
 peices of old iron, old files and some bullets. they were also directed
 to procure some bags for the purpose of containing our roots & bread.
 in the evening they all returned except Whitehouse and Goodrich who
 remained all night. they procured a few strings but no bags.
 Hohastillpilp passed the river today and brought over a horse which he
 gave Frazier one of our party who had previously made him a present of
 a pair of Cannadian shoes or shoe-packs. Drewyer set out on a hunting
 excurtion up Collins's Creek this evening. we wish to leave the deer in
 the neighbourhood of the quawmash plains undisturbed untill the 10th
 when we intend removing thither to lay in some meat for our voyage over
 the Mountains. our party are much engaged in preparing their saddles
 arranging their loads provisions &c for our departure. There is a
 speceis of cherry which grows in this neighbourhood in sitations like
 the Choke cherry or near the little rivulets and wartercouses. it
 seldom grows in clumps or from the same cluster of roots as the choke
 cherry dose. the stem is simple branching reather diffuse stem the
 cortex is of a redish dark brown and reather smooth. the leaf is of the
 ordinary dexture and colour of those of most cherries, it is petiolate;
 a long oval 11/4 inhes in length and 1/2 an inch in width, obtuse,
 margin so finely serrate that it is scarcely perseptable & smooth. the
 peduncle is common 1 inch in length, branch proceeding from the
 extremities as well as the sides of the branches, celindric gradually
 tapering; the secondary peduncles are about 1/2 an inch in length
 scattered tho proceeding more from the extremity of the common peduncle
 and are each furnished with a small bracted. the parts of
 fructification are much like those discribed of the choke cherry except
 that the petals are reather longer as is the calix reather deeper. the
 cherry appears to be half grown, the stone is begining to be hard and
 is in shape somewhat like that of the plumb; it appears that when ripe
 it would be as large as the Kentish cherry, which indeed the growth of
 the bush somewhat resembles; it rises about 6 or 8 feet high
 
 
 [Clark, June 7, 1806]
 Saurday June 7th 1806.
 The two young cheafs and other Indians who accompanied them Crossed the
 river and returned to their Village this morning after brackfast;
 Shabono Sergt Gass McNeal, Whitehouse & Goodrich accompanied them for
 the purpose of purchaseing or exchangeing old peces of Sane, fish gig,
 peces of iron, bullets, and old files and Such articles as they Could
 raise for ropes and Strings for to lash their loads, and bags to Cary
 their roots in Sergt. Gass, Shabono & McNeal returned at 2 P M haveing
 precured a String each only. Whitehouse and Goodrich continued at the
 Village all night. Hohastillpilp crossed the river to day and brought
 over a horse and gave it to Frazier one of our party who had made him a
 present previously of a Par of Canidian Shoes. one of our men informed
 me one of the young Chiefs who had given us two horses already was in
 Serch of one which he intended to give to me. George Drewyer Set out on
 a hunting excurtion up Collins's Creek alone. our party are all much
 engaged in prepareing Sadles and packing up their Stores of Provisions
 &c.--The Flat Head river is about 150 yards wide at this place and
 discharges a vast body of water; notwithstanding it's high State the
 water remains nearly transparent, and it's temperature appears to be
 quit as cold as that of our best Springs. we met with a butifull little
 bird in this neighbourhood about the Size and Somewhat the Shape of the
 large Sparrow. it measures 7 inches from the extremity of the beak to
 that of the tail, the latter Occupying 21/2 inches. the beak is reather
 more than half an inch in length, and is formed much like the Virginia
 Nightingal; red bd. it is thick and large for a bird of it's size, wide
 at the base, both Chaps convex, and pointed, the upper exceeds the
 under chap a little is Somewhat cirved and of a brown Colour; the lower
 chap of a Greenish yellow. the eye full reather large and of a black
 colour both puple and iris. the plumage is remarkably delicate; that of
 the neck and head is of a fine orrange yellow and red. the latter
 predomonates on the top of the head and around the base of the beak
 from whence it gradually diminishes towards the lower part of the Neck,
 the orring yellow prevails most, the red has the Appearance of haveing
 been laid over a Ground of yellow. the breast, the Sides, rump and some
 long feathers which lie between the legs extend underneath the tail is
 of a fine orrange yellow. the tail, back and wings are black, except a
 Small Strip of yellow on the outer part of the Middle joint of the
 wing, 1/4 of an inch wide and an inch in length. the tail is composed
 of 12 feathers of which those in the Center are reather Shortest, and
 the plumage of all the feathers of the tail is longest on that Side of
 the quill next to the Center of the tail. the legs and feet are black,
 nails long and Sharp; it has four toes on each foot, of which three are
 forward and one behind; that behind is as long as the two outer of the
 three toes in front
 
 
 [Lewis, June 8, 1806]
 Sunday June 8th 1806.
 Drewyer returned this morning from the chase without having killed
 anything. his hose left him last night, he pursued him but did not
 overtake him untill he had nearly reached our camp. The sick Cheif is
 fast on the recovery, he can bear his weight on his legs, and has
 acquired a considerable portion of strength. the child is nearly well;
 Bratton has so far recovered that we cannot well consider him an
 invalid any longer, he has had a tedious illness which he boar with
 much fortitude and firmness.--The Cutnose visited us today with ten or
 twelve warriors; two of the latter were Y-e-let-pos a band of the
 Chopunnish nation residing on the South side of Lewis's river whom we
 have not previously seen. the band with which we have been most
 conversent call themselves pel-late-pal-ler. one of the yeletpos
 exchanged his horse for an indifferent one of ours and received a
 tomahawk to boot; this tomahawk was one for which Capt. C. had given
 another in exchange with the Clahclel-lah Chief at the rapids of the
 Columbia. we also exchanged two other of our indifferent horses with
 unsound backs for much better horses in fine order without any
 consideration but the horse itself. several foot rarces were run this
 evening between the indians and our men. the indians are very active;
 one of them proved as fleet as Drewer and R. Fields, our swiftest
 runners. when the racing was over the men divided themselves into two
 parties and played prison base, by way of exercise which we wish the
 men to take previously to entering the mountain; in short those who are
 not hunters have had so little to do that they are geting reather lazy
 and slouthfull.--after dark we had the violin played and danced for the
 amusement of ourselves and the indians.--one of the indians informed us
 that we could not pass the mountains untill the full of the next moon
 or about the first of July, that if we attempted it sooner our horses
 would be at least three days travel without food on the top of the
 mountain; this information is disagreable inasmuch as it causes some
 doubt as to the time at which it will be most proper for us to set out.
 however as we have no time to loose we will wrisk the chanches and set
 out as early as the indians generally think it practicable or the
 middle of this month.
 
 
 [Clark, June 8, 1806]
 Sunday June 8th 1806
 Drewyer returned this morning from the chase without killing any thing.
 his horse left him last night and he prosued him near our camp before
 he cought him. The Sick Chief is much mended, he can bear his weight on
 his legs and recovers Strength. the Child has nearly recovered. The Cut
 nose and ten or 12 came over today to visit us, two of those were of
 the tribes from the plains of Lewis's river whome we had not before
 Seen; one of those men brought a horse which I gave a tomahawk which I
 had exchanged for with the Chief of the Clahclahlah's Nation below the
 Great rapids of Columbia, and broken-down horse which was not able to
 Cross the mountains. we also exchanged 2 of our indeferent horses for
 Sound back horses. in the evening Several foot races were run by the
 men of our party and the Indians; after which our party divided and
 played at prisoners base untill night. after dark the fiddle was played
 and the party amused themselves in danceing. one of those Indians
 informed us that we could not cross the mountains untill the full of
 the next moon, or about the 1st of July. if we attempted it Sooner our
 horses would be three days without eateing, on the top of the Mountns.
 this information is disagreeable to us, in as much as it admits of Some
 doubt, as to the time most proper for us to Set out. at all events we
 Shall Set out at or about the time which the indians Seem to be
 generally agreed would be the most proper. about the middle of this
 month
 
 
 [Lewis, June 9, 1806]
 Monday June 9th 1806.
 This morning we had all our horses brought up and indeavoured to
 exchange five or shix with the Indians in consequence of their having
 unsound backs but succeeded in exchanging one only. Hohastillpilp with
 several of the natives who visited us yesterday took leave of us and
 set out for the plains near Lewis's river where the nation are about to
 assemble themselves. The broken arm made us a short visit this morning
 and took leave of us, being about to set out with his village today in
 order to join the nation at their rendezvouz on Lewis's R. The Cutnose
 or Neeshneeparkkeeook borrowed a horse and rode down the Kooskooske
 River a few miles this morning in quest of some young eagles which he
 intends raising for the benifit of their feathers; he returned soon
 after with a pair of young Eagles of the grey kind; they were nearly
 grown and prety well feathered. in the evening the young Chief who gave
 both Capt. C. and myself a horse some time since, came to our camp with
 a party of young men and remained all night. this evening one of our
 party obtained a very good horse for an indifferent one by giving the
 indian an old leather shirt in addition. we eat the last of our meat
 yesterday evening and have lived on roots today. our party seem much
 elated with the idea of moving on towards their friends and country,
 they all seem allirt in their movements today; they have every thing in
 readiness for a move, and notwithstanding the want of provision have
 been amusing themselves very merrily today in runing footraces pitching
 quites, prison basse &c. the river has been falling for several days
 and is now lower by near six feet than it has been; this we view as a
 strong evidence that the great body of snow has left the mountains,
 though I do not conceive that we are as yet loosing any time as the
 roads is in many parts extreemly steep rocky and must be dangerous if
 wet and slippry; a few days will dry the roads and will also improve
 the grass.
 
 
 [Clark, June 9, 1806]
 Moday June 9th 1806
 We had all of our horses brought up and attempted to exchange our Sore
 back and most indifferent horses with the indians for Sound back
 horses, we exchanged one only. Hohasillpilp took his leave of us and
 Set out for the Plains of Lewises river, with Several of the nativs who
 Visited us yesterday. The broken arm came over and continued a fiew
 minits with us this morning, and also took his leave of us & Set out
 with his Village for the plains of Lewis's river. The Cut nose borrowed
 a horse and rode down the flathead river a fiew miles to take Some
 young Eagles, which he intends to raise for their feathers. in the
 evening one of the young Cheifs who had given both Capt Lewis and my
 Self a horse came to our camp accompanied by 10 of his people and
 continued with us all night. one of our men exchanged a very
 indefferent horse for a very good one. our party exolted with the idea
 of once more proceeding on towards thier friends and Country are elert
 in all their movements and amuse themselves by pitching quates,
 Prisoners bast running races &c-.
 The flat head river is Still falling fast and nearly as low as it was
 at the time we arrived at this place. this fall of water is what the
 nativs have informed us was a proper token for us. when this river fell
 the Snows would be Sufficiently melted for us to Cross the Mountains.
 the greater length of time we delayed after that time, the higher the
 grass would grow on th Mountains-.
 
 
 [Lewis, June 10, 1806]
 Tuesday June 10th 1806.
 This morning we arrose early and had our horses collected except one of
 Cruzatt's and one of Whitehouse's, which were not to be found; after a
 surch of some hours Cruzatt's horse was obtained and the indians
 promised to find the other and bring it to us at the quawmash flatts
 where we purpose encamping a few days. at 11 A.M. we set out with the
 party each man being well mounted and a light load on a second horse,
 beside which we have several supenemary horses in case of accedent or
 the want of provision, we therefore feel ourselves perfectly equiped
 for the mountains. we ascended the river hills which are very high and
 about three miles in extent our sourse being N. 22° E. thence N. 15 W. 2
 m to Collins's creek. thence due North 5 m. to the Eastern border of
 the quawmash flatts where we encamped near the place we first met with
 the Chopunnish last fall. the pass of Collins's Creek was deep and
 extreemly difficult tho we passed without sustaining further injury
 than weting some of our roots and bread. the country through which we
 passed is extreemly fertile and generally free of stone, is well
 timbered with several speceis of fir, long leafed pine and larch. the
 undergrowth is chooke cherry near the water courses, black alder, a
 large speceis of redroot now in blume, a growth which resembles the
 pappaw in it's leaf and which bears a burry with five valves of a deep
 perple colour, two speceis of shoemate sevenbark, perple haw, service
 berry, goosburry, a wild rose honeysuckle which bears a white berry,
 and a species of dwarf pine which grows about ten or twelve feet high.
 bears a globular formed cone with small scales, the leaves are about
 the length and much the appearance of the common pitch pine having it's
 leaves in fassicles of two; in other rispects they would at a little
 distance be taken for the young plants of the long leafed pine. there
 are two speceis of the wild rose both quinqui petallous and of a damask
 red but the one is as large as the common red rose of our gardens. I
 observed the apples of this speceis last fall to be more than triple
 the size of those of the ordinary wild rose; the stem of this rose is
 the same with the other tho the leaf is somewhat larger. after we
 encamped this evening we sent out our hunters; Collins killed a doe on
 which we suped much to our satisfaction. we had scarcely reached
 Collins's Creek before we were overtaken by a party of Indians who
 informed us that they were going to the quawmash flatts to hunt; their
 object I beleive is the expectation of bing fed by us in which how ever
 kind as they have been we must disappoint them at this moment as it is
 necessary that we should use all frugallaty as well as employ every
 exertion to provide meat for our journey. they have encamped with us.
 we find a great number of burrowing squirels about our camp of which we
 killed several; I eat of them and found them quite as tender and well
 flavored as our grey squirel. saw many sand hill crains and some ducks
 in the slashey glades about this place.
 
 
 [Clark, June 10, 1806]
 Tuesday June 10th 1806.
 rose early this morning and had all the horses Collected except one of
 Whitehouses horses which could not be found, an Indian promised to find
 the horse and bring him on to us at the quawmash fields at which place
 we intend to delay a fiew days for the laying in Some meat by which
 time we Calculate that the Snows will have melted more off the
 mountains and the grass raised to a sufficient hight for our horses to
 live. we packed up and Set out at 11 A M we Set out with the party each
 man being well mounted and a light load on a 2d horse, besides which we
 have several supernumary horses in case of accident or the want of
 provisions, we therefore feel ourselves perfectly equiped for the
 Mountains. we assended the hills which are very high and about three
 miles in extent our course being N. 22° E, thence N. 15° W 2 ms. to Collins
 Creek. Thence North 5 Miles to the Eastern boarders of the Quawmash
 flatts where we encamped near the place I first met with the Chopunnish
 Nation last fall. the pass of Collins Creek was deep and extreemly
 difficult tho we passed without sustaining further injury than wetting
 some of our roots and bread. The Country through which we passed is
 extreemly fertile and generally free from Stone, is well timbered with
 several Species of fir, long leafed pine and Larch. the undergrowth is
 choke cherry near the watercourses, black alder, a large species of red
 root now in blume, a Growth which resembles the poppaw in it's leaf and
 which bears a berry with five valves of a deep purple colour, two
 species of Shoemate, Seven bark, perple haw, Service berry, Goose
 berry, wildrose, honey suckle which bears a white berry, and a Species
 of dwarf pine which grows about 10 or 12 feet high, bears a globarlar
 formed cone with Small Scales, the leaf is about the length and much
 the appearance of the pitch pine haveing it's leaves in fassicles of
 two; in other respects they would at a little distance be taken for the
 young plants of the long leafed pine. There are two Species of the wild
 rose both quinque petallous and of a damask red, but the one is as
 large as the common red rose of our guardens. I observed the apples of
 these Species last fall to be more than triple the Size of those of the
 ordinary wild rose; the Stem of this rose is the Same with the other
 tho the leaf is somewhat larger. after we encamped this evening we Sent
 out our hunters; Collins killed a doe on which we Suped much to our
 Satisfaction, we had not reached the top of the river hills before we
 were overtaken by a party of 8 Indians who informed me that they were
 gowing to the quawmash flatts to hunt; their object I belive is the
 expectation of being fed by us in which however kind as they have been
 we must disappoint them at this moment as it is necessary that we
 Should use all frugallaty as well as employ every exertion to provide
 meat for our journey. they have encamped with us. we find a great
 number of burrowing Squirels about our camp of which we killed Several;
 I eate of them and found them quit as tender and well flavd. as our
 grey squirel. Saw many Sand hill crains and Some ducks in the Slashey
 Glades about this place-.
 
 
 [Lewis, June 11, 1806]
 Wednesday June 11th 1806.
 All our hunters were out this morning by daylight; Labuish and Gibson
 only proved successfull, the former killed a black bear of the brown
 speceis and a very large buck, the latter also killed a fine fat buck.
 five of the Indians also turned out and hunted untill noon, when they
 returned without having killed anything; at three P.M. the left us on
 their return to ther villages. previous to their departure one of our
 men exchanged an indifferent horse with one of them for a very good
 one. in the evening our hunters resumed the chase; as game has become
 scarce and shye near our camp they were directed to hunt at a greater
 distance and therefore set out prepared to remain all night and make a
 mornings hunt in grounds not recently frequented. Whitehouse returned
 this morning to our camp on the Kooskooske in surch of his horse.--As I
 have had frequent occasion to mention the plant which the Chopunnish
 call quawmash I shall here give a more particular discription of that
 plant and the mode of preparing it for food as practiced by the
 Chopunnish and others in the vicinity of the Rocky Mountains with whom
 it forms much the greatest portion of their subsistence. we have never
 met with this plant but in or adjacent to a piny or fir timbered
 country, and there always in the open grounds and glades; in the
 Columbian vally and near the coast it is to be found in small
 quantities and inferior in size to that found in this neighbourhood and
 in the high rich flatts and vallees within the rocky mountains. it
 delights in a black rich moist soil, and even grows most luxuriantly
 where the land remains from 6 to nine inches under water untill the
 seed are nearly perfect which in this neighbourhood or on these flats
 is about the last of this month. neare the river where I had an
 opportunity of observing it the seed were begining to ripen on the 9th
 inst. and the soil was nearly dry. it seems devoted to it's particular
 soil and situation, and you will seldom find it more than a few feet
 from the inundated soil tho within it's limits it grows very closely in
 short almost as much so as the bulbs will permit; the radix is a
 tunicated bulb, much the consistence shape and appearance of the onion,
 glutanous or somewhat slymy when chewed and almost tasteless and
 without smell in it's unprepared state; it is white except the thin or
 outer tunicated scales which are few black and not succulent; this bulb
 is from the size of a nutmeg to that of a hens egg and most commonly of
 an intermediate size or about as large as an onion of one years growth
 from the seed. the radicles are numerous, reather large, white,
 flexable, succulent and diverging. the foliage consists of from one to
 four seldom five radicale, linear sessile and revolute pointed leaves;
 they are from 12 to 18 inches in length and from 1 to 3/4 of an inch in
 widest part which is near the middle; the uper disk is somewhat groved
 of a pale green and marked it's whole length with a number of small
 longitudinal channels; the under disk is a deep glossy green and
 smooth. the leaves sheath the peduncle and each other as high as the
 surface of the earth or about 2 inches; they are more succulent than
 the grasses and less so than most of the fillies hyesinths &c.--the
 peduncle is soletary, proceeds from the root, is columner, smooth
 leafless and rises to the hight of 2 or 21/2 feet. it supports from 10
 to forty flowers which are each supported by seperate footstalk of 1/2
 an inch in length scattered without order on the upper portion of the
 peduncle. the calix is a partial involucret situated at the base of the
 footstalk of each flower on the peduncle; it is long thin and begins to
 decline as soon as the corolla expands. the corolla consists of six
 long oval, obtusly pointed skye blue or water coloured petals, each
 about 1 inch in length; the corolla is regular as to the form and size
 of the petals but irregular as to their position, five of them are
 placed near ech other pointing upward while one stands horizantally or
 pointing downwards, they are inserted with a short claw on the
 extremity of the footstalk at the base of the germ; the corolla is of
 course inferior; it is also shriveling, and continues untill the seeds
 are perfect. The stamens are perfect, six in number; the filaments each
 elivate an anther, near their base are flat on the inside and rounded
 on the outer terminate in a subulate point, are bowed or bent upwards,
 inserted on the inner side and on the base of the claws of the petals,
 below the germ, are equal both with rispect to themselves and the
 corolla, smooth & membraneous. the Anther is oblong, obtusely pointed,
 2 horned or forked at one end and furrowed longitudinally with four
 channels, the upper and lower of which seem almost to divide it into
 two loabs, incumbent patent, membranous, very short, naked, two valved
 and fertile with pollen, which last is of a yellow colour---the anther
 in a few hours after the corolla unfoalds, bursts, discharges it's
 pollen and becomes very minute and shrivled; the above discription of
 the anther is therefore to be understood of it at the moment of it's
 first appearance. the pistillum is only one, of which, the germ is
 triangular reather swolen on the sides, smooth superior, sessile,
 pedicelled, short in proportion to the corolla atho wide or bulky; the
 style is very long or longer than the stamens, simple, cilindrical,
 bowed or bent upwards, placed on the top of the germ, membranous
 shrivels and falls off when the pericarp has obtained its full size.
 the stigma is three cleft very minute, & pubescent. the pericarp is a
 capsule, triangular, oblong, obtuse, and trilocular with three
 longitudinal valves. the seed so far as I could judge are numerous not
 very minute and globelar.--soon after the seeds are mature the peduncle
 and foliage of this plant perishes, the grownd becomes dry or nearly so
 and the root encreases in size and shortly becomes fit for use; this
 happens about the middle of July when the natives begin to collect it
 for use which they continue untill the leaves of the plant attain some
 size in the spring of the year. when they have collected a considerable
 quantity of these roots or 20 30 bushels which they readily do by means
 of stick sharpened at one end, they dig away the surface of the earth
 forming a circular concavity of 21/2 feet in the center and 10 feet in
 diameter; they next collect a parsel of split dry wood with which they
 cover this bason in the grown perhaps a foot thick, they next collect a
 large parsel of stones of about 4 or 6 lbs. weight which are placed on
 the dry wood; fire is then set to the wood which birning heats the
 stones; when the fire has subsided and the stones are sufficiently
 heated which are nearly a red heat, they are adjusted in such manner in
 the whole as to form as level a surface as pissible, a small quantity
 of earth is sprinkled over the stones and a layer of grass about an
 inch thick is put over the stones; the roots, which have been
 previously devested of the black or outer coat and radicles which rub
 off easily with the fingers, are now laid on in a conical pile, are
 then covered with a layer of grass about 2 or 3 inches thick; water is
 now thrown on the summit of the pile and passes through the roots and
 to the hot stones at bottom; some water is allso poared arround the
 edges of the hole and also finds its way to the hot stones; as soon as
 they discover from the quantity of steem which issues that the water
 has found its way generally to the hot stones, they cover the roots and
 grass over with earth to the debth of four inches and then build a fire
 of dry wood all over the connical mound which they continue to renew
 through the course of the night or for ten or 12 hours after which it
 is suffered to cool two or three hours when the earth and grass are
 removed and the roots thus sweated and cooked with steam are taken out,
 and most commonly exposed to the sun on scaffoalds untill they become
 dry, when they are black and of a sweet agreeable flavor. these roots
 are fit for use when first taken from the pitt, are soft of a sweetish
 tast and much the consistency of a roasted onion; but if they are
 suffered to remain in bulk 24 hour after being cooked they spoil. if
 the design is to make bread or cakes of these roots they undergo a
 second process of baking being previously pounded after the fist baking
 between two stones untill they are reduced to the consistency of dough
 and then rolled in grass in cakes of eight or ten lbs are returned to
 the sweat intermixed with fresh roots in order that the steam may get
 freely to these loaves of bread. when taken out the second time the
 women make up this dough into cakes of various shapes and sizes usually
 from 1/2 to 3/4 of an inch thick and expose it on sticks to dry in the
 sun, or place it over the smoke of their fires.--the bread this
 prepared if kept free from moisture will keep sound for a great length
 of time. this bread or the dryed roots are frequently eaten alone by
 the natives without further preparation, and when they have them in
 abundance they form an ingredient in almost every dish they prepare.
 this root is pallateable but disagrees with me in every shape I have
 ever used it.
 
 
 [Clark, June 11, 1806]
 Wednesday June 11th 1806
 All of our hunters were out by daylight this Morning. Labeech and Shann
 was the only Suckcessull hunters, Labeech killed a Black bear and a
 large buck, and Gibson killed a very fat Buck. five of the indians also
 turned out and hunted untill near Meridn. without having killed any
 thing. at 3 P M they all packed up and returned to their village. one
 of our men exchanged an indifferent horse for a verey good one with
 those people before they left us. in the evening all our hunters turned
 out in different directions with a view to find some probable Spot of
 killing deer and were directed to lay out all night and hunt in the
 morning early. Whitehouse returned this morning to our camp on the
 Kooskooske in Serch of his horse.
 As I have had frequent occasion to mention the plant which the
 Chopunnish and other nations of the Columbia call Quawmash I Shall here
 give a more particular discription of that plant and the mode of
 prepareing it for food as practiced by the Chopinnish and others in the
 vicinity of the Rocky Mountains with whome it forms much the greatest
 portion of their Subsistence. we have never met with this plant but in
 or adjacent to a piney or fir timbered Country, and there always in the
 open grounds and glades; in the Columbian Vally and near the Coast it
 is to be found in small quantities and inferior in Size to that found
 in this neighbourhood or on those high rich flatts and vallies within
 the rocky moun-tains. it delights in a black rich moist Soil, and even
 grows most luxuriently where the lands remain from 6 to 9 inches under
 water untill the seed are nearly perfect, which in this neighbourhood
 or on those flatts is about the last of this month. near the river
 where I had an oppertunity of observing it, the Seed were beginning to
 ripen on the 9th inst. and the Soil was nearly dry. it seems devoted to
 it's particular Soil and Situation, and you will Seldom find more than
 a fiew feet from an inundated Soil tho within it's limits it grows very
 closely. in short almost as much so as the bulbs will permit. the radix
 is a tumicated bulb, much the consistence Shape and appearance of the
 Onion, glutinous or somewhat Slymey when chewed and almost tasteless
 and without smell in it's unprepared state; it is white except the thin
 or outer tumicated scales which are flew black and not Suculent; this
 bulb is from the Size of a nutmeg to that of a hen egg and most
 commonly of an intermediate size or about as large as a common onion of
 one years growth from the Seed. the radicles are noumerous, reather
 large, white, flexeable, Succulent and deviding the foliage consists of
 from one to four seldom five radicals, liner Sessile and revolute
 pointed leaves; they are from 12 to 18 inches in length and from 1 to
 3/4 of an inch in widest part which is nearest the middle; the upper
 disk is Somewhat groved of a pale green and marked it's whole length
 with a number of Small longitudinal channels; the under disk is of a
 deep glossy green and Smooth. the leaves sheath the peduncle and each
 other as high as the Surface of the earth or about 2 inches; they are
 more succulent than the grasses and less so than most of the lillies
 hyisinths &c.--the peduncle is soletary, proceeds from the root, is
 columner, smooth and leafless and rises to the hight of 2 or 21/2 feet.
 it supports from 10 to 40 flowers which are each surported by a
 Seperate footstalk of 1/2 an inch in length scattered without order on
 the upper portion of the peduncle. the calix is a partial involucre or
 involucret Situated at the base of the footstalk of each flower on the
 peduncle; it is long thin and begins to decline as soon as the corrolla
 expands. the corolla consists of five long oval obtusely pointed Skye
 blue or water coloured petals, each about 1 inch in length; the Corolla
 is regular as to the form and size of the petals but irregular as to
 their position, five of them are placed near each other pointing
 upwards while one stands horozontially, or pointing downwards, they are
 inserted with a Short Claw on the extremity of the footstalk at the
 base of the germ; the corolla is of course inferior; it is also
 shriveling, and continues untill the Seed are perfect. The Stamens are
 perfect, Six in number; the falaments each elivate an anther, near
 their base are flat on the inner side and rounded on the outer,
 termonate in a subulate point, and bowed or bent upwards inserted on
 the inner Side and on the base of the Claws of the petals, below the
 germ, are equal both with respect to themselves and the Corolla, Smooth
 membranous. the Anther is oblong obtusely pointed, 2 horned or forked
 at one end and furrowed longitudinally with four channels, the upper
 and lower of which Seem almost to divide it into two loabs, incumbent,
 patent, membranous, very short, necked, two valved and fertile with
 pollen, which last is of a yellow colour. the Anther in a fiew hours
 after the Corolla unfoalds, bursts discharges it's pollen and becomes
 very manute and chrivled; the above discription of the Anther is
 therefore to be understood of it, at the moment of it's first
 appearance. the pistillum is only one, of which the Germ is triangular
 reather Swolen on the Sides, Smooth, Superior, Sessile, pedicelled,
 Short in proportion to the Corolla tho wide or bulky; the Style is very
 long or longer than the stamens, simple, cilindrical, bowed or bent
 upwards, placed on the top of the germ, membranous shrivels and falls
 off when the pericarp has obtained it's full Size.
 the Stigma is three clefts very manute and pubescent. the pericarp is a
 capsule, triangular, oblong, obtuse, and trilocular with three
 longitudinal valves. the Seed So far as I could judge are noumerous not
 very manute and globilar.--Soon after the seed are mature the peduncle
 and foliage of this plant perishes, the ground becoms dry or nearly so
 and the root increases in size and shortly become fit for use; this
 happens about the middle of July when the nativs begin to collect it
 for use which they continue untill the leaves of the plant obtain Some
 Size in the Spring of the year. when they have Collected a considerable
 quantity of these roots or 20 or 30 bushels which they readily do by
 means of Sticks Sharpened at one end, they dig away the surface of the
 earth forming a cercular concavity of 21/2 feet in the center and 10
 feet in diameter; they next collect a parcel of dry split wood with
 which they cover this bason from the bottom perhaps a foot thick, they
 next collect a parcel of Stones from 4 to 6 lb. weight which are placed
 on the dry wood; fire is then Set to the wood which burning heats the
 Stones; when the fire has subsided and the Stones are sufficiently
 heated which are nearly a red heat, they are adjusted in such manner in
 the hole as to form as leavel a Surface as possible, a small quantity
 of earth is Sprinkled over the Stones, and a layer of grass about an
 inch thick is laid over the Stone; the roots which have been previously
 devested of the black or outer coat and radicles which rub off easily
 with the fingers, are now laid on in a circular pile, are then covered
 with a layer of grass about 2 or 3 inches thick; water is then thrown
 on the Summit of the pile and passes through the roots and to the hot
 Stones at bottom; Some water is also pored around the edges of the
 hole, and also find it's way to the hot Stones. they cover the roots
 and grass over with earth to the debth of four inches and then build a
 fire of dry wood all over the Connical mound which they Continue to
 renew through the course of the night or for 10 or 12 hours, after
 which it is Suffered to cool, 2 or three hours, when the earth and
 grass are removed. and the roots thus Sweated are cooled with Steam or
 taken out, and most commonly exposed to the Sun on Scaffolds untill
 they become dry. when they are black and of a Sweet agreeable flavor.
 these roots are fit for use when first taken from the pitt, are Soft of
 a Sweetish taste and much the consistancy of a roasted onion; but if
 they are Suffered to remain in bulk 24 hours after being cooked they
 Spoil. if the design is to make bread or cakes of those roots they
 undergo a Second preperation of baking being previously pounded after
 the first baking between two Stones untill they are reduced to the
 consistancy of dough and then rolled in grass in cakes of 8 or 10
 pounds, are returned to the Sweat intermixes with fresh roots in order
 that the steam may get freely to those loaves of bread. when taken out
 the Second time the Indn. woman make up this dough into cakes of
 various Shapes and Sizes, usually from 1/2 to 3/4 of an inch thick and
 expose it on sticks to dry in the Sun, or place it over the smoke of
 their fires.--The bread thus prepared if kept free from moisture will
 Sound for a great length of time. this bread or the dryed roots are
 frequently eaten alone by the nativs without further preperation, and
 when they have them in abundance they form an ingrediant in almost
 every dish they prepare. this root is palateable but disagrees with us
 in every shape we have ever used it. the nativs are extreemly fond of
 this root and present it their visiters as a great treat. when we first
 arrived at the Chopunnish last fall at this place our men who were half
 Starved made So free a use of this root that it made them all Sick for
 Several days after.
 
 
 [Lewis, June 12, 1806]
 Thursday June 12th 1806.
 All our hunters except Gibson returned about noon; none of them had
 killed anything except Sheilds who brought with him two deer. in the
 evening they resumed their hunt and remained out all night. an indian
 visited us this evening and spent the night at our camp. Whitehouse
 returned with his horse at 1 P.M. the days are now very warm and the
 Musquetoes our old companions have become very troublesome. The Cutnose
 informed us on the 10th before we left him that two young men would
 overtake us with a view to accompany me to the falls of the Missouri.
 nothing interesting occurred in the course of this day. our camp is
 agreeably situated in a point of timbered land on the eastern border of
 an extensive level and beautiful) prarie which is intersected by
 several small branches near the bank of one of which our camp is
 placed. the quawmash is now in blume and from the colour of its bloom
 at a short distance it resembles lakes of fine clear water, so complete
 is this deseption that on first sight I could have swoarn it was water.
 
 
 [Clark, June 12, 1806]
 Thursday June 12th 1806.
 All our hunters except Gibson returned about noon; none of them had
 killed any thing except Shields who brought with him two deer. in the
 evening they resumed their hunt and remained out all night. an Indian
 visited us this evening and Spent the night at our Camp. Whitehouse
 returned with his horse at 1 P.M. the days are very worm and the
 Musquetors our old Companions have become very troublesom.
 The Cutnose informed us on the 10th before we left him that two young
 Chiefs would overtake us with a view to accompany us to the Falls of
 the Missouri and probably to the Seat of our Governmt. nothing
 interesting occured in the course of this day. our camp is agreeably
 Situated in a point of timbered land on the eastern borders of an
 extensive leave) and butifull prarie which is intersected by Several
 Small branches near the bank of one of which our Camp is placed. the
 quawmash is now in blume at a Short distance it resembles a lake of
 fine clear water, So complete is this deseption that on first Sight I
 could have Sworn it was water.
 
 
 [Lewis, June 13, 1806]
 Friday June 13th 1806.
 Reubin Feilds and Willard were ordered to proceed on our road to a
 small prarie 8 miles distant on this side of Collins's Creek and there
 hunt until our arrival; they departed at 10 A.M. about noon seven of
 our hunters returned with 8 deer; they had wounded several others and a
 bear but did not get them. in the evening Labuish and Cruzatte returned
 and reported that the buzzards had eaten up a deer which they had
 killed butchered and hung up this morning. The indian who visited us
 yesterday exchanged his horse for one of ours which had not perfectly
 recovered from the operation of castration and received a small ax and
 a knife to boot, he seemed much pleased with his exchange and set out
 immediately to his village, as if fearfull that we would cansel the
 bargain which is customary among themselves and deemed only fair. we
 directed the meat to be cut thin and exposed to dry in the sun. we made
 a digest of the Indian Nations West of the Rocky Mountains which we
 have seen and of whom we have been repeated informed by those with whom
 we were conversent. they amount by our estimate to 69,000
 
 
 [Clark, June 13, 1806]
 Friday June 13th 1806.
 Ordered Rubin Fields and Willard to proceed on to a Small prarie in the
 Mountains about 8 miles and there hunt untill we arrive the Set out at
 10 A.M. Soon after they Set out all of our hunters returned each with a
 deer except Shields who brought two in all 8 deer. Labeech and P.
 Crusatt went out this morning killed a deer & reported that the buzzds.
 had eate up the deer in their absence after haveing butchered and hung
 it up. The indian who visited us yesterday exchanged his horse with one
 of our party for a very indiferant one in which exchange he rcived a
 Small ax a Knife &c. Soon after he had exchanged he returned to his
 village well Satisfied. we caused the meat to be cut thin and dried in
 the sun. I make a list of the Indian Nations their place of residence,
 and probable number of Soles of each nation from estimation and indian
 information &c.
 
 
 [Lewis, June 14, 1806]
 Saturday June 14th 1806. Sent our hunters out early this morning.
 Colter killed a deer and brought it in by 10 A.M. the other hunters
 except Drewyer returned early without having killed anything. Drewyer
 returned. we had all our articles packed up and made ready for an early
 departure in the morning. our horses were caught and most of them
 hubbled and otherwise confined in order that we might not be detained.
 from hence to traveller's rest we shall make a forsed march; at that
 place we shal probably remain one or two days to rest ourselves and
 horses and procure some meat. we have now been detained near five weeks
 in consequence of the snows; a serious loss of time at this delightfull
 season for traveling. I am still apprehensive that the snow and the
 want of food for our horses will prove a serious imbarrassment to us as
 at least four days journey of our rout in these mountains lies over
 hights and along a ledge of mountains never intirely destitute of snow.
 every body seems anxious to be in motion, convinced that we have not
 now any time to delay if the calculation is to reach the United States
 this season; this I am detirmined to accomplish if within the compass
 of human power.
 
 
 [Clark, June 14, 1806]
 Saturday June 14th 1806
 Sent out Hunters this morning Colter killed a deer and brought it in by
 10 A M Drewyer did not return untill night he wounded deer but could
 get none &c ____ neither of the other hunters killed nothing. we had
 our articles packed up ready for a Start in the morning, our horses
 Collected and hobble that they may not detain us in the morning. we
 expect to Set out early, and Shall proceed with as much expedition as
 possible over those Snowey tremendious mountains which has detained us
 near five weeks in this neighbourhood waiting for the Snows to melt
 Sufficent for us to pass over them. and even now I Shudder with the
 expectation with great dificuelties in passing those Mountains, from
 the debth of Snow and the want of grass Sufficient to Subsist our
 horses as about 4 days we Shall be on the top of the Mountain which we
 have every reason to beleive is Covered with Snow the greater part of
 the year.
 
 
 [Lewis, June 15, 1806]
 Sunday June 15th 1806.
 We had some little difficulty in collecting our horses this morning
 they had straggled off to a greater distance than usual. it rained very
 hard in the morning and after collecting our horses we waited for it to
 abait, but as it had every appearance of a settled rain we set out at
 10 A.M. we passed a little prarie at the distance of 81/2 me. to which
 we had previously sent R. Feilds and Willard. we found two deer which
 they had killed and hung up. at the distance of 21/2 miles further we
 arrived at Collins's Creek where we found our hunters; they had killed
 another deer, and had seen two large bear together the one black and
 the other white. we halted at the creek, dined and graized our horses.
 the rains have rendered the road very slippery insomuch that it is with
 much difficulty our horses can get on several of them fell but
 sustained no injury. after dinner we proceeded up the creek about 1/2 a
 mile, passing it three times, thence through a high broken country to
 an Easterly fork of the same creek about 101/2 miles and incamped near
 a small prarie in the bottom land the fallen timber in addition to the
 slippry roads made our march slow and extreemly laborious on our
 horses. the country is exceedingly thickly timbered with long leafed
 pine, some pitch pine, larch, white pine, white cedar or arborvita of
 large size, and a variety of firs. the undergrowth principally reed
 root from 6 to 10 feet high with all the other speceis enumerated the
 other day. the soil is good; in some plaices it is of a red cast like
 our lands in Virginia about the S. W. mountains. Saw the speckled
 woodpecker, bee martin and log cock or large woodpecker. found the nest
 of a humming bird, it had just began to lay its eggs.--Came 22 Miles
 today.
 
 
 [Clark, June 15, 1806]
 Sunday June 15th 1806
 Collected our horses early with the intention of makeing an early
 Start. Some hard Showers of rain detained us untill ____ A M at which
 time we took our final departure from the quawmash fields and proceeded
 with much dificuelty owing to the Situation of the road which was very
 Sliprey, and it was with great dificulty that the loaded horses Could
 assend the hills and Mountains they frequently Sliped down both
 assending and decending those Steep hills. at g miles we passed through
 a Small prarie in which was quawmash in this Prarie Reubin Fields &
 Willard had killed and hung up two deer at 2 miles further we arrived
 at the Camp of R. Fields & Willard on Collin's Creek, they arrived at
 this Creek last evening and had killed another Deer near the Creek.
 here we let our horses graze in a Small glade and took dinner. the rain
 Seased and Sun Shown out. after detaining about 2 hours we proceeded on
 passing the Creek three times and passing over Some ruged hills or
 Spurs of the rocky Mountain, passing the Creek on which I encamped on
 the 17th Septr. last to a Small glade of about 10 acres thickly Covered
 with grass and quawmash, near a large Creek and encamped. we passed
 through bad fallen timber and a high Mountain this evening. from the
 top of this Mountain I had an extensive view of the rocky Mountains to
 the South and the Columbian plains for great extent also the S W.
 Mountains and a range of high Mountains which divides the waters of
 Lewis's & Clarks rivers and seems to termonate nearly a West Cours.
 Several high pts. to the N & N. E. Covered with Snow. a remarkable high
 rugd mountain in the forks of Lewis's river nearly South and covered
 with Snow. The vally up the Chopunnish river appears extensive
 tolerably leavel and Covered with timber. The S W. Mountain is very
 high in a S S W. derection.
 
 
 [Lewis, June 16, 1806]
 Monday June 16th 1806.
 We collected our horses very readily this morning, took breakfast and
 set out at 6 A.M.; proceeded up the creek about 2 miles through some
 handsom meadows of fine grass abounding with quawmash, here we passed
 the creek & ascended a ridge which led us to the N. E. about seven
 miles when we arrived at a small branch of hungry creek. the difficulty
 we met with from the fallen timber detained us untill 11 oC before we
 reached this place. here is a handsome little glade in which we found
 some grass for our horses we therefore halted to let them graize and
 took dinner knowing that there was no other convenient situation for
 that purpose short of the glaids on hungry creek where we intended to
 encamp, as the last probable place, at which we shall find a sufficient
 quantity of grass for many days. this morning Windsor busted his rifle
 near the muzzle. before we reached this little branch on which we dined
 we saw in the hollows and N. hillsides large quatities of snow yet
 undisolved; in some places it was from two to three feet deep.
 vegetation is proportionably backward; the dogtooth violet is just in
 blume, the honeysuckle, huckburry and a small speceis of white maple
 are begining to put fourth their leaves; these appearances in this
 comparatively low region augers but unfavourably with rispect to the
 practibility of passing the mountains, however we determined to
 proceed, accordingly after taking a haisty meal we set out and
 continued our rout though a thick wood much obstructed with fallen
 timber, and intersepted by many steep ravines and high hills. the snow
 has increased in quantity so much that the greater part of our rout
 this evening was over the snow which has become sufficiently firm to
 bear our horshes, otherwise it would have been impossible for us to
 proceed as it lay in immence masses in some places 8 or ten feet deep.
 we found much difficulty in pursuing the road as it was so frequently
 covered with snow. we arrived early in the evening at the place that
 Capt. C. had killed and left the flesh of a horse for us last
 September. here is a small glade in which there was some grass, not a
 sufficiency for our horses but we thought it most advisable to remain
 here all night as we apprehended if we proceeded further we should find
 less grass. the air is pleasent in the course of the day but becomes
 very cold before morning notwithstanding the shortness of the nights.
 Hungry creek is but small at this place but is deep and runs a perfect
 torrent; the water is perfectly transparent and as cold as ice. the
 pitch pine, white pine some larch and firs constite the timber; the
 long leafed pine extends a little distance on this side of the main
 branch of Collins's creek, and the white cedar not further than the
 branch of hungry creek on which we dined. I killed a small brown
 pheasant today, it feeds on the tender leaves and buds of the fir and
 pitch pine. in the fore part of the day I observed the Cullumbine the
 blue bells and the yelow flowering pea in blume. there is an abundance
 of a speceis of anjelico in these mountains, much stonger to the taist
 and more highly scented than that speceis common to the U States. know
 of no particular virtue or property it possesses; the natives dry it
 cut it in small peices which they string on a small cord and place
 about their necks; it smells very pleasantly. we came 15 miles today.
 
 
 [Clark, June 16, 1806]
 Monday June 16th 1806
 Collected our horses early and Set Out 7 A M proceeded on up the Creek
 through a gladey Swompy bottom with grass and quawmash Crossed the
 Creek to the East and proceeded on through most intolerable bad fallen
 timber over a high Mountain on which great quantity of Snow is yet
 lying premisquissly through the thick wood, and in maney places the
 banks of snow is 4 feet deep. we noned it or dined on a Small Creek in
 a small open Vally where we found Some grass for our horses to eate,
 altho Serounded by Snow no other Convenient Situation Short of the
 glades on Hungery Creek where we intended to encamp, as the last
 probable place, at which we Shall find a Sufficent quantity of grass
 for maney days. This morning Windsor bursted his rifle near the Muzzle.
 Vigitation is propotionable backward; the dog tooth Violet is just in
 blume, the honeysuckle, huckleberry and a Small Species of white maple
 are beginning to put foth their leaves, where they are clear of the
 Snow, those appearances in this comparratively low region augers but
 unfavourably with respect to the practibility of passing the Mountains,
 however we deturmine to proceed, accordingly after takeing a hasty meal
 we Set out and Continued our rout through a thick wood much obstructed
 with fallen timber, and interupted by maney Steep reveins and hills
 which wer very high. the Snow has increased in quantity So much that
 the great part of our rout this evening was over the Snow which has
 become Sufficently firm to bear our horses, otherwise it would have
 been impossible for us to proceed as it lay in emince masses in Some
 places 8 or ten feet deep. We found much dificulty in finding the road,
 as it was So frequently covered with Snow. we arived early in the
 evening at the place I had killed and left the flesh of a horse for the
 party in my rear last Septr. here is a Small glade in which there is
 Some grass, not a Sufficency of our horses, but we thought it
 adviseable to remain here all night as we apprehended if we proceeded
 further we should find less grass. The air is pleasant in the Course of
 the day, but becomes very cold before morning not withstanding the
 Shortness of the night. Hungary Creek is but Small at this place but is
 deep and runs a perfect torrent; the water is perfectly transparent and
 as Cold as ice. the titch pine, white pine Some Larch and firs consists
 the timber, the long leafed pine extends but a Short distance on the
 Mts. Capt. L. killed a Small brown pheasant today, it feeds on the
 tender leaves and buds of the fir and pitch pine. in the forepart of
 the day I observed the Cullumbine the blue bells and the Yellow
 flowering pea in blume. there is an abundance of a Species of Anjelico
 in the mountains much Stronger to the taiste, and more highly Scented
 than that Species common to the U States. I know of no particular
 virtue or property it possesses the nativs dry it Cut it in Small
 pieces which they string on a Small Cord and place about the necks; it
 Smells pleasently. we Come 15 Ms. today.
 
 
 [Lewis, June 17, 1806]
 Tuesday June 17th 1806.
 we collected our horses and set out early; we proceeded down hungry
 creek about seven miles passing it twice; we found it difficult and
 dangerous to pass the creek in consequence of its debth and rapidity;
 we avoided two other passes of the creek by ascending a very steep
 rocky and difficult hill. beyond this creek the road ascends the
 mountain to the hight of the main leading ridges which divides the
 Waters of the Chopunnish and Kooskooske rivers. this hill or reather
 mountain we ascended about 3 miles when we found ourselves invelloped
 in snow from 12 to 15 feet deep even on the south sides of the hills
 with the fairest exposure to the sun; here was winter with all it's
 rigors; the air was cold, my hands and feet were benumbed. we knew that
 it would require five days to reach the fish wears at the entrance of
 Colt Creek, provided we were so fortunate as to be enabled to follow
 the proper ridges of the mountains to lead us to that place; short of
 that point we could not hope for any food for our horses not even
 underwood itself as the whole was covered many feet deep in snow. if we
 proceeded and should get bewildered in these mountains the certainty
 was that we should loose all our horses and consequently our baggage
 instruments perhaps our papers and thus eminently wrisk the loss of the
 discoveries which we had already made if we should be so fortunate as
 to escape with life. the snow boar our horses very well and the
 travelling was therefore infinitely better that the obstruction of
 rocks and fallen timber which we met with in our passage over last fall
 when the snow lay on this part of the ridge in detached spots only.
 under these circumstances we conceived it madnes in this stage of the
 expedition to proceed without a guide who could certainly conduct us to
 the fish wears on the Kooskooske, as our horses could not possibly
 sustain a journey of more than five days without food. we therefore
 came to the resolution to return with our horses while they were yet
 strong and in good order and indevour to keep them so untill we could
 procure an indian to conduct us over the snowey mountains, and again to
 proceed as soon as we could procure such a guide, knowing from the
 appearance of the snows that if we remained untill it had desolved
 sufficiently for us to follow the road that we should not be enabled to
 return to the United States within this season. having come to this
 resolution, we ordered the party to make a deposit for all the baggage
 which we had not immediate use for, and also all the roots and bread of
 cows which they had except an allowance for a few days to enable them
 to return to some place at which we could subsist by hunting untill we
 procured a guide. we left our instruments papers &c beleiving them
 safer here than to wrisk them on horseback over the roads and creeks
 which we had passed. our baggage being laid on scaffoalds and well
 covered we began our retrograde march at 1 P.M. having remained about 3
 hours on this snowey mountain. we returned by the rout we had come to
 hungry creek, which we ascended about 2 miles and encamped. we had here
 more grass for our horses than the preceeding evening yet it was but
 scant. the party were a good deel dejected tho not so as I had
 apprehended they would have been. this is the first time since we have
 been on this long tour that we have ever been compelled to retreat or
 make a retrograde march. it rained on us most of this evening.
 
 
 [Clark, June 17, 1806]
 Tuesday June 17th 1806
 We Collected our horses and Set out early; we proceeded down hungary
 Creek about 7 miles passing it twice; we found it dificuelt and
 dangerous to pass the creek in consequence of it's debth and rapidity;
 we avoided two other passes of the creek, by assending a Steep rockey
 and difficuelt hill. beyond this Creek the road assends the mountain to
 the hight of the main leading ridges, which divides the waters of the
 Kooskooske and Chopunnish Riv's. This mountain we ascended about 3
 miles when we found ourselves invelloped in snow from 8 to 12 feet deep
 even on the South Side of the mountain. I was in front and Could only
 prosue the derection of the road by the trees which had been peeled by
 the nativs for the iner bark of which they Scraped and eate, as those
 pealed trees were only to be found Scattered promisquisley, I with
 great difficulty prosued the direction of the road one mile further to
 the top of the mountain where I found the Snow from 12 to 15 feet deep,
 but fiew trees with the fairest exposure to the Sun; here was Winter
 with all it's rigors; the air was Cold my hands and feet were benumed.
 we knew that it would require four days to reach the fish weare at the
 enterance of Colt Creek, provided we were So fortunate as to be enabled
 to follow the poper ridge of the mountains to lead us to that place; of
 this all of our most expert woodsmen and principal guides were
 extreemly doubtfull; Short of that point we could not hope for any food
 for our horses not even under wood itself as the whole was covered many
 feet deep in Snow. if we proceeded and Should git bewildered in those
 Mountains the Certainty was that we Should lose all of our horses and
 consequencely our baggage enstrements perhaps our papers and thus
 eventially resque the loss of our discoveries which we had already made
 if we Should be So fortunate as to escape with life. the Snow bore our
 horses very well and the traveling was therefore infinately better than
 the obstruction of rocks and fallen timber which we met with in our
 passage over last fall when the Snow lay on this part of the ridge in
 detached spops only. under these Circumstances we Conceived it madness
 in this stage of the expedition to proceed without a guide who Could
 Certainly Conduct us to the fishwears on the Kooskooske, as our horses
 could not possibly Sustain a journey of more than 4 or 5 days without
 food. we therefore Come to the resolution to return with our horses
 while they were yet strong and in good order, and indeaver to keep them
 So untill we could precure an indian to conduct us over the Snowey
 Mountains, and again to proceed as soon as we could precure Such a
 guide, knowing from the appearance of the snows that if we remained
 untill it had disolved Sufficiently for us to follow the road that we
 Should not be enabled to return to the United States within this
 Season. having come to this resolution, we ordered the party to make a
 deposit of all the baggage which we had not imediate use for, and also
 all the roots and bread of Cows which they had except an allowance for
 a fiew days to enable them to return to Some place at which we could
 Subsist by hunting untill we precured a guide. we left our instrements,
 and I even left the most of my papers believing them Safer here than to
 Wrisk them on horseback over the road, rocks and water which we had
 passed. our baggage being laid on Scaffolds and well covered, we began
 our retragrade march at 1 P.M. haveing remain'd about three hours on
 this Snowey mountain. we returned by the rout we had advanced to
 hungary Creek, which we assended about 2 miles and encamped. we had
 here more grass for our horses than the proceeding evening, yet it was
 but scant. the party were a good deel dejected, tho not as much So as I
 had apprehended they would have been. this is the first time Since we
 have been on this long tour that we have ever been compelled to retreat
 or make a retragrade march. it rained on us the most of this evening.
 on the top of the Mountain the Weather was very fluctiating and
 uncertain snowed cloudy & fair in a few minets.
 
 
 [Lewis, June 18, 1806]
 Wednesday June 18th 1806.
 This morning we had considerable difficulty in collecting our horses
 they having straggled off to a considerable distance in surch of food
 on the sides of the mountains among the thick timber; at 9 OCk. we
 collected them all except one of Drewyers and one of Sheildes; we set
 out leaving Sheilds and LaPage to collect the two lost horses and
 follow us. We dispatched Drewyer and Shannon to the Chopunnish Indians
 in the plains beyond the Kooskooske in order to hasten the arrival of
 the indians who had promised to accompany us or to procure a gude at
 all events and rejoin us as soon as possible. we sent by them a rifle
 which we offered as a reward to any of them who would engage to conduct
 us to traveller's rest; we also dirrected them if they found difficulty
 in induciny any of them to accompany us to offer the reward of two
 other guns to be given them immediately and ten horses at the falls of
 Missouri. we had not proceeded far this morning before Potts cut his
 leg very badly with one of the large knives; he cut one of the large
 veigns on the inner side of the leg; I found much difficulty in stoping
 the blood which I could not effect untill I applyed a tight bandage
 with a little cushon of wood and tow on the veign below the wound.
 Colter's horse fel with him in passing hungry creek and himself and
 horse were driven down the creek a considerable distance rolling over
 each other among the rocks. he fortunately escaped without injury or
 the loss of his gun. by 1 P.M. we returned to the glade on the branch
 of hungry Creek where we had dined on the 16th inst. here we again
 halted and dined. as there was much appearance of deer about this place
 we left R. and J. Feilds with directions to hunt this evening and
 tomorrow morning at this place and to join us in the evening at the
 meadows of Collin's creek where we intend remaining tomorrow in order
 to rest our horses and hunt. after dinner we proceeded on to Collin's
 Creek and encamped in a pleasant situation at the upper part of the
 meadows about 2 ms. above our encampment of the 15th inst. we sent out
 several hunters but they returned without having killed anything. they
 saw a number of salmon in the creek and shot at them several times
 without success. we directed Colter and Gibson to fix each of them a
 gigg in the morning and indevour to take some of the salmon. the
 hunters saw much fresh appearance of bear but very little of deer. we
 hope by means of the fish together with what deer and bear we can kill
 to be enabled to subsist untill our guide arrives without the necessity
 of returning to the quawmash flats. there is a great abundance of good
 food here to sustain our horses.
 
 
 [Clark, June 18, 1806]
 Wednesday June 18th 1806
 This morning we had considerable dificuelty in collecting our horses
 they haveing Strageled of to a considerable distance in Serch of food
 on the Sides of the mountains among the thick timber, at 9 oClock we
 Collected them all except 2 one of Shields & one of Drewyer's. we Set
 out leaving Shields and LePage to collect the two lost horses and
 follow us.
 We dispatched Drewyer and Shannon to the Chopunnish Indians in the
 plains beyond the Kooskooske in order to hasten the arrival of the
 Indians who promised to accompany us, or to precure a guide at all
 events and rejoin us as Soon as possible. We Sent by them a riffle
 which we offered as a reward to any of them who would engage to conduct
 us to Clarks river at the entrance of Travellers rest Creek; we also
 directed them if they found difficuelty in induceing any of them to
 accompany us to offer the reward of two other guns to be given them
 immediately and ten horses at the falls of Missouri. we had not
 proceeded far this morning before J. Potts cut his leg very badly with
 one of the large knives; he cut one of the large veins on the iner side
 of the leg; Colters horse fell with him in passing hungary creek and
 himself and horse were driven down the Creek a considerable distance
 roleing over each other among the rocks. he fortunately escaped without
 much injurey or the loss of his gun. he lost his blanket. at 1 P. M we
 returned to the glade on a branch of hungary Creek where we had dined
 on the 16th instant. here we again halted and dined. as there was some
 appearance of deer about this place we left J. & R Field with
 directions to hunt this evening and tomorrow morning at this place and
 join us in the evening in the Meadows on Collin's Creek where we
 intended to remain tomorrow in order to restour horses and hunt. after
 dinner we proceeded on to the near fork of Collins Creek and encamped
 in a pleasant Situation at the upper part of the Meadows about 2 miles
 above our encampment of the 15th inst. we Sent out Several hunters but
 they returned without having killed any thing-. they saw a number of
 large fish in the Creek and Shot at them Several times without
 Suckcess. we Gibson and Colter to fix each of themselves a gigg in the
 morning and indeaver to take Some of those fish. the hunters Saw much
 fresh appearance of Bear, but very little deer Sign. we hope by the
 means of the fish together with what deer and bear we can kill to been
 abled to Subsist untill our guide arives without the necessaty of
 returning to the quawmash flats. there is great abundance of good food
 here to Sustain our horses. we are in flattering expectations of the
 arrival of two young chiefs who informed us that they intended to
 accompany us to the U. States, and Should Set out from their village in
 9 nights after we left them on the 19th inst. if they Set out at that
 time Drewyer & Shannon will meet them, and probably join us on the 20th
 or 21st-. Musquetors Troublesome.
 
 
 [Lewis, June 19, 1806]
 Thursday June 19th 1806.
 Our hunters were out very early this morning, they returned before noon
 with one deer only. the Fishermen had been more unsuccessfull, they
 returned without a single fish and reported they could find but few and
 those they had tryed to take in vain. they had broke both their giggs
 which were of indian fabrication made of bone. I happened to have a
 pointed peice of iron in my pouch which answered by cuting in two
 peices to renew boath giggs. they took one fish this evening which
 proved to be a salmon trout much to our mortification, for we had hoped
 that they were the salmon of this spring arrival and of course fat and
 fine. these trout are of the red kind they remain all winter in the
 upper parts of the rivers and creeks and are generally poor at this
 season. At 2 P.M. J & R Feilds arived with two deer; John Sheilds and
 LaPage came with them, they had not succeeded in finding their horses.
 late in the evening Frazier reported that my riding horse that of Capt
 Clark and his mule had gone on towards the Quawmash flatts and that he
 had pursued their tracks on the road about 21/2 miles. we determined to
 send out all the hunters in the morning in order to make a fair
 experiment of the pactability of our being able to subsist at this
 place and if not we shall move the day after to the Quawmash flatts.
 the musquetoes have been excessively troublesome to us since our
 arrival at this place particularly in the evening. Cruzatte brought me
 several large morells which I roasted and eat without salt pepper or
 grease in this way I had for the first time the true taist of the
 morell which is truly an insippid taistless food. our stock of salt is
 now exhausted except two quarts which I have reserved for my tour up
 Maria's River and that I left the other day on the mountain.-
 
 
 [Clark, June 19, 1806]
 Thursday June 19th 1806
 This morning early Collins Labeesh & Crusat turned out to hunt, and
 Gibson & Colter fixed two Indian giggs and went in Serch of fish in the
 Creek. I took my gun and walked up the Creek about 4 Miles Saw some
 bear Sign and one fish only. Gibson killed only one fish which we found
 to be the Salmon Trout of the dark Species. this fish was of the common
 Size pore, and indifferently flavoured. Labeesh killed one Deer neither
 of the others killed any thing. about 1 P.M. Jo. & R Fields Shields &
 LaPage came up. Reubin &Joseph Fields brought two Deer which R. had
 killed in the Small glade on a branch of Hungary Creek where we had
 left them yesterday. Shields & LaPage did not find the two horses which
 we lost yesterday morning. they report that they hunted with great
 diligence in the vicinity of our camp of the 17th without suckcess. in
 my walk of this day up the Creek I observed a great abundance of fine
 grass sufficient to Sustain our horses any length of time we chose to
 Stay at this place. Several glades of quawmash. the S W. Sides of the
 hills is fallen timber and burnt woods, the N. E. Sides of the hills is
 thickly timbered with lofty pine, and thick under growth This evening
 Several Salmon trout were Seen in the Creek, they hid themselves under
 the banks of the Creek which jutted over in Such a manner as to secure
 them from the Stroke of our giggs nets and spears which were made for
 the purpose of taking those Salmon trout. we concluded to delay at this
 place another day with a view to give time to the two young Chiefs to
 arrive in case they set out on the 19th inst. as they informed us they
 Should they will have Sufficient time to join us tomorrow or early the
 next day. Should we get a guide from this place it will Save us two
 days march through some of the worst road through those Mountains,
 crouded with fallin timber mud holes and steep hills &c. we directed
 all the hunters to turn out early and kill something for us to live on
 &c. Musquetors troublesom
 
 
 [Lewis, June 20, 1806]
 Friday June 20th 1806.
 Our hunters set out early this morning; most of them returned before
 noon. R. Feilds killed a brown bear the tallons of which were
 remarkably short broad at their base and sharply pointed this was of
 the speceis which the Chopunnish call Yah-kar. it was in very low order
 and the flesh of the bear in this situation is much inferior to lean
 venison or the flesh of poor Elk. Labush and Cruzatte returned late in
 the evening with one deer which the former had killed. we also caught
 seven salmon trout in the course of the day. the hunters assured us
 that their greatest exertions would not enable them to support us here
 more than one or two days longer from the great scarcity of game and
 the difficult access of the country, the under brush being very thick
 and great quantities of fallen timber. as we shall necessarily be
 compelled to remain more than two days for the return of Drewyer and
 Shannon we determined to return in the morning as far as the quawmash
 flatts and indeavour to lay in another stock of meat for the mountains,
 our former stock being now nearly exhausted as well as what we have
 killed on our return. by returning to the quawmash flatts we shall
 sooner be informed whether or not we can procure a guide to conduct us
 through the mountains; should we fail in procuring one, we have
 determined to wrisk a passage on the following plan immediately,
 because should we wait much longer or untill the snow desolves in such
 manner as to enable us to follow the road we cannot hope to reach the
 United States this winter; this is that Capt. C. or myself shall take
 four of our most expert woodsmen with three or four of our best horses
 and proceed two days in advance taking a plentiful) supply of
 provision. for this party to follow the road by the marks which the
 baggage of the indians has made in many places on the sides of the
 trees by rubing against them, and to blaize the trees with a tomahawk
 as they proceeded. that after proceeding two days in advance of hungary
 creek two of those men would be sent back to the main party who by the
 time of their return to Hungary Creek would have reached that place.
 the men so returning would be enabled to inform the main party of the
 probable success of the preceeding party in finding the road and of
 their probable progress, in order that should it be necessary, the main
 party by the delay of a day or two at hungary creek, should give the
 advance time to mark the road through before the main party could
 overtake them, and thus prevent delay on the part of the rout where no
 food is to be obtained for our horses. should it so happen that the
 advance could not find the road by the marks on the trees after
 attempting it for two days, the whole of then would return to the main
 party. in which case we wold bring back our baggage and attempt a
 passage over these mountains through the country of the Shoshones
 further to the South by way of the main S. Westerly fork of Lewis's
 river and Madison or Gallatin's rivers, where from the information of
 the Chopunnish there is a passage which at this season of the year is
 not obstructed by snow, though the round is very distant and would
 require at least a month in it's performance. The Shoshones informed us
 when we first met with them that there was a passage across the
 mountains in that quarter but represented the difficulties arrising
 from steep high and rugged mountains and also an extensive and barren
 plain which was to be passed without game, as infinitely more difficult
 than the rout by which we came. from the circumstance of the Chopunnish
 being at war with that part of the Shoshones who inhabit the country on
 this side of the Mountains through which the road passes I think it is
 highly probable that they cannot be well informed with rispect to the
 road, and further, had there been a better road in that quarter the
 Shoshones on the East fork of Lewis's river who knew them both would
 not have recommended that by which we came to this country. the
 travelling in the mountains on the snow at present is very good, the
 snow bears the horses perfictly; it is a firm coase snow without a
 crust, and the horses have good foot hold without sliping much; the
 only dificulty is finding the road, and I think the plan we have
 devised will succeed even should we not be enabled to obtain a guide.
 Although the snow may be stated on an average at 10 feet deep yet
 arround the bodies of the trees it has desolved much more than in other
 parts not being generally more than one or two feet deep immediately at
 the roots of the trees, and; of course the marks left by the rubing of
 the indian baggage against them is not concealed. the reason why the
 snow is comparitively so shallow about the roots of the trees I presume
 proceeds as well from the snow in falling being thrown off from their
 bodies by their thick and spreading branches as from the reflection of
 the sun against the trees and the warmth which they in some measure
 acquire from the earth which is never frozen underneath these masses of
 snow. Bratton's horse was also discovered to be absent this evening. I
 presume he has also returned to the flatts.
 
 
 [Clark, June 20, 1806]
 Friday June 20th 1806
 The hunters turned out early in different directions, our guiggers also
 turned out with 2 guigs a Bayonet fixed on a pole, a Scooping nett and
 a Snar made of horse. near the ford of the Creek in a deep hole we
 killed Six Salmon trout & 2 others were killed in the Creek above in
 the evening. Reubin Field killed a redish brown bear which was very
 meagure. the tallons of this bear was remarkably Short broad at their
 base and Sharply pointed, this was of the Species the Chopunnish call
 Yahkar. as it was in very low order the flesh was indifferent. Labiesh
 & Crusat returned late in the evening with one deer which the former
 had killed. the hunters assured us that, their greatest exertions would
 not enable them to support us here more than one or two days longer,
 from the great scercity of game and the dificuelt access of the
 Country, the under brush being very thick and great quantities of
 fallen timber. as we shall necessarily be compelled to remain more than
 two days for the return of Drewyer & Shannon we determine to return in
 the morning as far as the quawmash flatts, and endeaver to lay in
 another Stock of meat for the mountains, our former Stock now being
 nearly exhosted as well as what we have killed on our rout. by
 returning to the quawmash flatts we Shall Sooner be informed wheather
 or not we can precure a guide to conduct us through the Mountains;
 Should we fail in precureing one, we are deturmined to wrisk a passage
 on the following plan immediately, because Should we wait much longer,
 or untill the Snow disolves in Such manner as to enable us to follow
 the road we cannot expect to reach the U States this Winter; this is
 that Capt. L. or myself shall take four of our most expert woods men
 with 3 or four of our best horses and proceed two days in advance
 takeing a plentiful Supply of provisions. for this party to follow the
 road by the mark the indins have made in many places with their baggage
 on the Sides of the trees by rubbing against them, and to blaize the
 trees with a tomahawk as they proceed. that after proceeding two days
 in advance of Hungary Creek, two of those men would be sent back to the
 party who by the time of their return to hungary Creek would have
 reached that place. the men So returning would be enabled to inform the
 main party of the probable Suckcess of the proceeding party in finding
 the road and of their probable progress, in order that Should it be
 necessary, the main party by a delay of a day or two a hungary Creek,
 should give the advance time to make the road through before the main
 party could overtake them, and thus prevent delay on that part of the
 rout where no food is to be obtained for our horses. Should it So
 happen that the advance Should not find the road by the marks of the
 trees after attempting it for two days, the whole of them would return
 to the main party. in which Case we would bring back our baggage and
 attempt a passage over the Mountains through the Country of the
 Shoshones further to the South, by way of the main S Westerly fork of
 Lewis's river and Madisons or Gallitins river's, where from the
 information of the Chopunnish, there is a passage where at this season
 of the year is not obstructed by snow, though the round is very distant
 and would require at least a month in it's preformance. The Shoshones
 informed us when we first met with them that there was a passage across
 the Mountains in that quarter but represented the difficuelties
 arriseing from Steep ruggid high mountains, and also an extensive and
 barren plain which was to be passed without game, as infinitely more
 difficuelt than the rout by which we Came. from the Circumstance of the
 Chopunnish being at war with that part of the Shoshones who inhabit the
 Country on this side of the Mountains through which the road passes, I
 think it is highly probable they cannot be well informed with respect
 to the road, and further, had there been a better road in that quarter
 the Shoshones on the East fork of Lewis's river who knew them boath
 would not have recommend'd that by which we came to this country. The
 travelling in the Mountains on the Snow, at present is very good, the
 Snow bears the horses perfectly; it is a firm coase Snow without a
 crust, and the horses have good foot hold without slipping much; the
 only dificuelty is finding the road, and I think the plan we have
 devised will Suckceed even Should we not be enabled to obtain a guide.
 altho the Snow may be Stated on an average at 10 feet deep, yet arround
 the body of the trees it has disolved much more than in other parts,
 not being generally more than one or two feet deep imediately at the
 roots of the trees, and of course the marks made by the rubbing of the
 Indian baggage against them is not Concealed. The reason why the Snow
 is comparitively So Shallow about the roots of the trees, 1 prosume
 proceeds as well from the Snow in falling being thrown off from their
 bodies by the thick and Spreading branches, as from the reflection of
 the Sun against the trees and the warmth which they in Some measure
 acquire from the earth which is never frozen underneath those masses of
 Snow. 4 of our horses are absent.
 
 
 [Lewis, June 21, 1806]
 Saturday June 21st 1806.
 We collected our horses early set out on our return to the flatts. we
 all felt some mortification in being thus compelled to retrace our
 steps through this tedious and difficult part of our rout, obstructed
 with brush and innumerable logs of fallen timber which renders the
 traveling distressing and even dangerous to our horses. one of
 Thompson's horses is either choked this morning or has the distemper
 very badly I fear he is to be of no further service to us. an excellent
 horse of Cruzatte's snagged himself so badly in the groin in jumping
 over a parsel of fallen timber that he will evidently be of no further
 service to us. at the pass of Collin's Creek we met two indians who
 were on their way over the mountain; they had brought with them the
 three horses and the mule that had left us and returned to the quawmash
 grounds. these indians returned with us about 1/2 a mile down the creek
 where we halted to dine and graize our horses at the same place I had
 halted and remained all night with the party on the ____ of Septembr
 last. as well as we could understand the indians they informed us that
 they had seen Drewyer and Shannon and that they would not return untill
 the expiration of two days; the cause why Drewyer and Shannon had not
 returned with these men we are at a loss to account for. we pressed
 these indians to remain with us and to conduct us over the mountain on
 the return of Drewyer and Shannon. they consented to remain two nights
 for us and accordingly deposited their store of roots and bread in the
 bushes at no great distance and after dinner returned with us, as far
 as the little prarie about 2 miles distant from the creek, here they
 halted with their horses and informed us they would remain untill we
 overtook them or at least two nights. they had four supenumery horses
 with them. we sent on four hunters a head to the quawmash flatts to
 take an evenings hunt; they so far succeeded as to kill one deer. we
 left Reubin and J. Feilds at the Creek where we dined together with
 Sergt Gass in order to hunt about that place untill our return. at
 seven in the evening we found ourselves once more at our old encampment
 where we shall anxiously await the return of Drewyer and Shannon.
 
 
 [Clark, June 21, 1806]
 Saturday June 21st 1806
 We collected our horses early and Set out on our return to the flatts.
 we all felt Some mortification in being thus compelled to retrace our
 Steps through this tedious and difficuelt part of our rout, obstructed
 with brush and innumerable logs and fallen timber which renders the
 traveling distressing and even dangerous to our horses. one of
 Thompsons horses is either choked this morning or has the distemper
 badly. I fear he is to be of no further Survice to us. an excellent
 horse of Cruzatt's snagged himself So badly in the groin in jumping
 over a parcel of fallen timber that he will eventually be of no further
 Survice to us. at the pass of Collin's Creek we met two indians who
 were on their way over the mountains, they had brought with them the
 three horses and the Mule which had left us and returned to the
 quawmash ground. those indians returned with us about 1/2 a mile down
 the Creek where we halted to dine and graze our horses. as well as we
 Could understand the indians they informed us they had Seen Geo Drewyer
 & Shannon, and that they would not return untill the expiration of two
 days. the cause why Drewyer & Shannon did not return with these men we
 are at a loss to account for. we pressed those indians to remain with
 us and conduct us over the Mountains on the return of Drewyer &
 Shannon. they consented to remain two nights for us and accordingly
 deposited their Stores of roots & Bread in the bushes at no great
 distance and after Dinner returned with us, as far as the little prarie
 about 2 Miles distance from the Creek, here they halted with their
 horses and informed us they would remain untill we overtook them or at
 least 2 nights. they had four Supernoumery horses with them. We Sent on
 four hunters a head to the quawmash flatts to make an evening hunt;
 they So far Suckceeded as to kill one deer. We left R. and Jo. Fields
 at the Creek where we dined, and Sergt. Gass in order to hunt about
 that place untill our return. at 7 in the evening we found ourselves
 once more at our old encampment where we Shall anxiously await the
 return of Drewyer & Shannon.
 
 
 [Lewis, June 22, 1806]
 Sunday June 22nd 1806.
 this morning by light all hands who could hunt were sent out; the
 result of this days perfomance was greater than we had even hoped for.
 we killed eight deer and three bear. we dispatched Whitehouse to the
 Kooskooske near our old encampment above Collins's Creek in order to
 procure some Salmon which we have understood the natives are now taking
 in considerable quantities near that place. we gave Whitehouse a few
 beads which Capt. C. had unexpectedly found in one of his waistcoat
 pockets to purchase the fish. nothing further worthy of notice occurred
 in the course of this day. the last evening was cool but the day was
 remarkably pleasent with a fine breize from the N. W. neither Drewyer
 Shannon nor Whitehouse returned this evening.--Potts's legg is inflamed
 and very painfull to him. we apply a poltice of the roots of Cows.-
 
 
 [Clark, June 22, 1806]
 Sunday June 22nd 1806
 This morning by light all hands who Could hunt were Sent out, the
 result of the days performance was greater than we had even hopes for.
 we killed eight Deer and three Bear. we despatched whitehouse to the
 Kooskooke near our old encampment above Collins Creek in order to
 precure Some Salmon which we understood the nativs are now takeing in
 considerable quantities near that place. we gave whitehouse a fiew
 beeds which I unexpectedly found in one of my waistcoat pockets to
 purchase the fish. nothing further occured in the Course of this day.
 the last evening was Cool but the day was remarkably pleasant with a
 fine breeze from the N. W. neither Shannon Drewyer nor whitehouse
 returned this evening.--Potts legg is inflamed and very painfull to
 him. we apply a poltice of the root of Cowes
 
 
 [Lewis, June 23, 1806]
 Monday June 23rd 1806.
 Apprehensive from Drewyer's delay that he had met with some difficulty
 in procuring a guide, and also that the two indians who had promised to
 wait two nights for us would set out today, we thought it most
 advisable to dispatch Frazier and Wiser to them this morning with a vew
 if possible to detain them a day or two longer; and directed that in
 the event of their not being able to detain the indians, that Sergt.
 Gass, R & J. Feilds and Wiser should accompany the indians by whatever
 rout they might take to travellers rest and blaize the trees well as
 they proceeded and wait at that place untill our arrivall with the
 party. the hunters as usual wer dispatched early this morning. the does
 now having their fawns the hunters can bleat them up and in that manner
 kill them with more facility and ease. the indians pursue the game so
 much on horseback in this neighbourhood that it is very shye. our
 hunters killed 4 deer and a bear today. at 4 P.M. Drewyer Shannon and
 Whitehouse returned. Drewyer brought with him three indians who had
 consented to accompany us to the falls of the Missouri for the
 compensation of two guns. one of those men is the brother of the
 cutnose and the other two are the same who presented Capt. Clark and
 myself each with a horse on a former occasion at the Lodge of the
 broken arm. these are all young men of good character and much
 respected by their nation. we directed the horses to be brought near
 camp this evening and secured in such manner that they may be readily
 obtained in the morning being determined to make an early start if
 possible.--Colter one of our hunters did not return this evening.
 
 
 [Clark, June 23, 1806]
 Monday June 23rd 1806
 Apprehensive from Drewyer & Shannons delay that they had met with Some
 dif icuelty in precureing a guide, and also that the two indians who
 had promised to wait two nights for us would Set out today, we thought
 it most adviseable to dispatch Wizer & Frazier to them this morning
 with a view if possible to detain them a day or two longer; and
 directed that in the event of their not being able to detain the
 indians, that Sergt. Gass, Jo. & R. Field & Wiser Should accompany the
 Indians by whatever rout they might take to travellers rest and blaize
 the trees well as they proceeded, and wait at that place untill our
 arival with the party. the hunters as usial were dispatched early this
 morning. The does now haveing their young the hunters can blait them
 up, and in that manner kill them with more facillity and ease. the
 indians pursue the game So much on horse back in this neighbourhood
 that it is very Shye. our hunters killed ____ deer today. at 4 P.M.
 Shannon Drewyer & Whitehouse returned. Shannon & Drewyer brought with
 them three indians who had consented to accompany us to the falls of
 the Missouri for the Compensation of 2 guns. one of those men is the
 brother of the Cutnose and the other two are the Same who presented
 Capt L. and myself with a horse on a former occasion at the Lodge of
 the broken arm, and the two who promised to pursue us in nine nights
 after we left the river, or on the 19th inst. Those are all young men
 of good Charrector and much respected by their nation. those men infor
 us that thir nation as well as the Wallar-wallars have made peace with
 the Shoshones agreeable to our late advice to them. they also inform us
 that they have heard by means of the Skeetsomis Nation & Clarks river
 that the Big bellies of Fort de Prarie Killed great numbers of the
 Shoshons and Otte lee Shoots which we met with last fall on the East
 fork of Lewis's river and high up the West fork of Clarks river &c.
 We directed the horses to be brought near Camp and secured in Such a
 manner that they may be readily obtained in the morning being
 deturmined to make an early Start if possible-.--Colter one of our
 hunters did not return this evening
 
 
 [Lewis, June 24, 1806]
 Tuesday June 24th 1806.
 We collected our horses early this morning and set out accompanyed by
 our three guides. Colter joined us this morning having killed a bear,
 which from his discription of it's poverty and distance we did not
 think proper to send after. we nooned it as usual at Collins's Creek
 where we found Frazier, solus; the other four men having gone in
 pursuit of the two indian men who had set out from Collins's Creek two
 hours before Frazier and Wizer arrived. after dinner we continued our
 rout to Fish Creek a branch of Collins's Creek where we had lain on the
 19th & 20th inst. here we found Sergt. Gass Wiser and the two indians
 whom they had prevailed on to remain at that place untill our arrival;
 R. & J. Feilds had only killed one small deer only while they lay at
 Collins's Creek and of this they had been liberal to the indians
 insomuch that they had no provision; they had gone on to the branch of
 hungary Creek at which we shall noon it tomorrow in order to hunt. we
 had fine grass for our horses this evening.
 
 
 [Clark, June 24, 1806]
 Tuesday June 24th 1806
 We collected our horses early this morning and Set out accompanied by
 our 3 guides. Colter joined us this morning haveing killed a Bear,
 which from his discription of it's poverty and distance we did not
 think proper to send after. We nooned it as usial at Collins's Creek
 where we found Frazier, solus; the other four men haveing Born in
 pursute of the two indians who had Set out from Collin's Creek two
 hours before Fraziers arrival Wiser arrived there. after dinner we
 Continued our rout to fish Creek a branch of Collin's creek where we
 had lain the 15th 18th 19th & 20th inst. here we found Sargt. Gass,
 Wiser and the two indian men whome they had prevaild on to remain at
 that place untill our arival; Jos. & R. Field had killed one Small deer
 only while they lay at Collins creek, and of this they had been liberal
 to the indians insomuch that they had no provisions; they had gone on
 to the branch of hungary Creek at which we shall noon it tomorrow in
 order to hunt. we had fine grass for our horses this evening.
 
 
 [Lewis, June 25, 1806]
 Wednesday June 25th 1806.
 last evening the indians entertained us with seting the fir trees on
 fire. they have a great number of dry lims near their bodies which when
 set on fire creates a very suddon and immence blaze from bottom to top
 of those tall trees. they are a beatifull object in this situation at
 night. this exhibition reminded me of a display of fireworks. the
 natives told us that their object in seting those trees on fire was to
 bring fair weather for our journey.--We collected our horses readily
 and set out at an early hour this morning. one of our guides complained
 of being unwell, a symptom which I did not much like as such complaints
 with an indian is generally the prelude to his abandoning any
 enterprize with which he is not well pleased. we left them at our
 encampment and they promised to pursue us in a few hours. at 11 A.M. we
 arrived at the branch of hungary creek where we found R. & J. Feilds.
 they had not killed anything. here we halted and dined and our guides
 overtook us. at this place I met with a plant the root of which the
 shoshones eat. it is a small knob root a good deel in flavor an
 consistency like the Jerusalem Artichoke. it has two small oval smooth
 leaves placed opposite on either side of the peduncle just above the
 root. the scape is only about 4 inches long is round and smooth. the
 roots of this plant formed one of those collections of roots which
 Drewyer took from the Shoshones last summer on the head of Jefferson's
 river. after dinner we continued our rout to hungary Creek and encamped
 about one and a half miles below our encampment of the 16th inst.--the
 indians continued with us and I beleive are disposed to be faithfull to
 their engagement. I gave the sik indian a buffaloe robe he having no
 other covering except his mockersons and a dressed Elkskin without the
 hair. Drewyer and Sheilds were sent on this morning to hungry Creek in
 surch of their horses which they fortunately recovered.
 
 
 [Clark, June 25, 1806]
 Wednesday June 25th 1806
 last evening the indians entertained us with Setting the fir trees on
 fire. they have a great number of dry limbs near their bodies which
 when Set on fire create a very Sudden and eminence blaize from bottom
 to top of those tail trees. they are a boutifull object in this
 Situation at night. this exhibition remide me of a display of firewoks.
 the nativs told us that their object in Setting those trees on fire was
 to bring fair weather for our journey-. We Collected our horses and Set
 out at an early hour this morning. one of our guides Complained of
 being unwell, a Symptom which I did not much like as such complaints
 with an indian is generally the prelude to his abandoning any
 enterprize with which he is not well pleased. we left 4 of those
 indians at our encampment they promised to pursue us in a fiew hours.
 at 11 A.M. we arrived at the branch of hungary Creek where we found Jo.
 & R. Fields. they had not killed anything. here we halted and dined and
 our guides overtook us. at this place the squaw Collected a parcel of
 roots of which the Shoshones Eat. it is a Small knob root a good deel
 in flavour and Consistency like the Jerusolem artichoke. it has two
 Small Smooth oval leaves placed opposit on either Side of the peduncle
 just above the root. the scope is only about 4 inches long is round and
 Smooth. the roots of this plant forms one of the Colection of roots
 which D-. took from the Shoshones last fall on the head of Jefferson
 river. after dinner we continued our rout to hungary creek and encamped
 about one and a half miles below our Encampment of the 16th inst.--The
 indians all continue with us and I beleive are disposed to be faithfull
 to their engagements. Capt. L. gave the Sick indian a Small buffalow
 robe which he brought from the Missouri, this indian having no other
 Covering except his mockersons and a dressed Elk Skin without the
 hair-. Drewyer & Shields were sent on this morning to hungary Creek in
 serch of their horses which they fortunately recovered.---came ____
 miles to daye.
 
 
 [Lewis, June 26, 1806]
 Thursday June 26th 1806.
 This morning we collected our horses and set out after an early
 breakfast or at 6 A.M. we passed by the same rout we had travelled on
 the 17th inst. to our deposit on the top of the snowey mountain to the
 N. E. of hungary Creek. here we necessarily halted about 2 hours to
 arrange our baggage and prepare our loads. we cooked and made a haisty
 meal of boiled venison and mush of cows. the snow has subsided near
 four feet since the 17th inst. we now measured it accurately and found
 from a mark which we had made on a tree when we were last here on the
 17th that it was then 10 feet 10 inches which appeared to be about the
 common debth though it is deeper still in some places. it is now
 generally about 7 feet. on our way up this mountain about the border of
 the snowey region we killed 2 of the small black pheasant and a female
 of the large dommanicker or speckled pheasant, the former have 16
 fathers in their tail and the latter 20 while the common pheasant have
 only 18. the indians informed us that neither of these speceis drumed;
 they appear to be very silent birds for I never heared either of them
 make a noise in any situation. the indians haistened to be off and
 informed us that it was a considerable distance to the place which they
 wished to reach this evening where there was grass for our horses.
 accordingly we set out with our guides who lead us over and along the
 steep sides of tremendious mountains entirely covered with snow except
 about the roots of the trees where the snow had sometimes melted and
 exposed a few square feet of the earth. we ascended and decended
 severall lofty and steep hights but keeping on the dividing ridge
 between the Chopunnish and Kooskooske rivers we passed no stream of
 water. late in the evening much to the satisfaction of ourselves and
 the comfort of our horses we arrived at the desired spot and encamped
 on the steep side of a mountain convenient to a good spring. having
 passed a few miles our camp of 18 Sepr 1805 here we found an abundance
 of fine grass for our horses. this situation was the side of an
 untimbered mountain with a fair southern aspect where the snows from
 appearance had been desolved about 10 days. the grass was young and
 tender of course and had much the appearance of the greenswoard. there
 is a great abundance of a speceis of bear-grass which grows on every
 part of these mountains it's growth is luxouriant and continues green
 all winter but the horses will not eat it. soon after we had encamped
 we were overtaken by a Chopunnish man who had pursued us with a view to
 accompany me to the falls of the Missouri. we were now informed that
 the two young men whom we met on the 21st and detained several days are
 going on a party of pleasure mearly to the Oote-lash-shoots or as they
 call them Sha-lees a band of the Tush-she-pah nation who reside on
 Clark's river in the neighbourhood of traveller's rest. one of our
 guides lost 2 of his horses, which he returned in surch of; he found
 them and rejoined us a little before dark.
 
 
 [Clark, June 26, 1806]
 Thursday June 26th 1806
 We collected our horses and Set out early and proceeded on Down hungary
 Creek a fiew miles and assended to the Summit of the mountain where we
 deposited our baggage on the 17th inst. found every thing Safe and as
 we had left them. the Snow which was 10 feet 10 inches deep on the top
 of the mountain, had sunk to 7 feet tho perfectly hard and firm. we
 made Some fire Cooked dinner and dined, while our horses Stood on snow
 7 feet deep at least. after dinner we packed up and proceeded on. about
 the borders of the Snowey region we killed 2 Small black pheasents and
 a female of the large dommanicker or Speckled pheasent, the former have
 16 feathers in the tail and the latter 20 while the common Pheasent
 have 18. the indians informed us that neither of these Speces drumed;
 they appear to be very Silent birds for I never heard any of them make
 any noise. the Indians hastened us off and informed us that it was a
 considerable distance to the place they wished to reach this evening
 where there was grass for our horses. accordingly we Set out with our
 guides who led us over and along the Steep Sides of tremendious
 Mountains entirely covered with Snow except about the roots of the
 trees where the Snow was partially melted and exposed a Small Spot of
 earth. we assended and decended Several Steep lofty hights but keeping
 on the dividing ridge of the Chopunnish & Kooskooske river we passed no
 Stream of water. late in the evening much to the Satisfaction of
 ourselves and the Comfort of the horses we arived at the desired Spot
 and Encamped on the Steep Side of a Mountain Convenient to a good
 Spring. here we found an abundance of fine grass for our horses. this
 Situation was the Side of an untimbered mountain with a fair Southern
 aspect where the Snow from appearance had been disolved about 10 days,
 the grass was young and tender of course and had much the appearance of
 the Green Swoard. there is a great abundance of Species of bear grass
 which grows on every part of those Mountains, its growth is luxurient
 and continues green all winter but the horses will not eate it. Soon
 after we had encamped we were over taken by a Chopunnish man who had
 pursued us with a view to accompany Capt Lewis to the falls of
 Missouri. we were now informed that the two young men we met on the
 21st and detained Several days were going on a party of pleasure mearly
 to the Oat-lash-shoots or as they call them Sha-lees a band of the
 Tush-she-pah Nation who reside on Clarks river in the neighbourhood of
 the Mouth of Travelers rest. one of our Guides lost 2 of his horses, he
 returned in Serch of them he found them & rejoined us at Dark. all of
 the Indians with us have two & 3 horses each. I was taken yesterday
 with a violent pain in my head which has tormented me ever Since, most
 violently
 
 
 [Lewis, June 27, 1806]
 Friday June 27th 1806.
 We collected our horses early and set out. the road still continued on
 the heights of the same dividing ridge on which we had traveled
 yesterday for nine miles or to our encampment of the 18th of September
 last. about one mile short of this encampment on an elivated point we
 halted by the request of the Indians a few minutes and smoked the pipe.
 on this eminence the natives have raised a conic mound of stones of 6
 or eight feet high and on it's summit erected a pine pole of 15 feet
 long from hence they informed us that when passing over with their
 familes some of the men were usually sent on foot by the fishery at the
 entrance of Colt Creek in order to take fish and again met the main
 party at the Quawmash glade on the head of the Kooskooske river. from
 this place we had an extensive view of these stupendous mountains
 principally covered with snow like that on which we stood; we were
 entirely surrounded by those mountains from which to one unacquainted
 with them it would have seemed impossible ever to have escaped; in
 short without the assistance of our guides I doubt much whether we who
 had once passed them could find our way to Travellers rest in their
 present situation for the marked trees on which we had placed
 considerable reliance are much fewer and more difficult to find than we
 had apprehended. these fellows are most admireable pilots; we find the
 road wherever the snow has disappeared though it be only for a few
 hundred paces. after smoking the pipe and contemplating this seene
 sufficient to have damp the sperits of any except such hardy travellers
 as we have become, we continued our march and at the distance of 3 ms.
 decended a steep mountain and passed two small branches of the
 Chopunnish river just above their forks and again ascended the ridge on
 which we passed several miles and at a distance of 7 ms. arrived at our
 encampment of September near which we passed 3 small branches of the
 Chopunnish river and again ascended to the dividing ridge on which we
 continued nine miles when the ridge became lower and we arrived at a
 situation very similar to our encampment of the last evening tho the
 ridge was somewhat higher and the snow had not been so long desolved of
 course there was but little grass. here we encamped for the night
 having traveled 28 miles over these mountains without releiving the
 horses from their packs or their having any food. the indians inform us
 that there is an abundance of the mountain sheep or what they call
 white buffaloe. we saw three black-tailed or mule deer this evening but
 were unable to get a shoot at them. we also saw several tracks of those
 animals in the snow. the indians inform that there is great abundance
 of Elk in the vally about the Fishery on the Kooskooske River. our meat
 being exhausted we issued a pint of bears oil to a mess which with
 their boiled roots made an agreeable dish. Potts's legg which has been
 much swolen and inflamed for several days is much better this evening
 and gives him but little pain. we applyed the pounded roots and leaves
 of the wild ginger & from which he found great relief.--neare our
 encampment we saw a great number of the yellow lilly with reflected
 petals in blume; this plant was just as forward here at this time as it
 was in the plains on the 10th of may.
 
 
 [Clark, June 27, 1806]
 Friday June 27th 1806
 We collected our horses early and Set out. the road Still Continue on
 the hights of the Dividing ridge on which we had traveled yesterday for
 9 Ms. or to our encampment of the 16th Septr. last. about 1 m. Short of
 the encampment we halted by the request of the Guides a fiew minits on
 an ellevated point and Smoked a pipe on this eminance the nativs have
 raised a conic mound of Stons of 6 or 8 feet high and erected a pine
 pole of 15 feet long. from hence they informed us that when passing
 over with their families some of the men were usually Sent on foot by
 the fishery at the enterance of Colt Creek in order to take fish and
 again meet the party at the quawmash glade on the head of Kooskoske
 river. from this place we had an extencive view of these Stupendeous
 Mountains principally Covered with Snow like that on which we Stood; we
 were entirely Serounded by those mountains from which to one
 unacquainted with them it would have Seemed impossible ever to have
 escaped, in short without the assistance of our guides, I doubt much
 whether we who had once passed them could find our way to Travellers
 rest in their present Situation for the marked trees on which we had
 placed Considerable reliance are much fewer and more difficuelt to find
 than we had apprehended. those indians are most admireable pilots; we
 find the road wherever the Snow has disappeared tho it be only for a
 fiew paces. after haveing Smoked the pipe and Contemplating this Scene
 Sufficient to have dampened the Spirits of any except Such hardy
 travellers as we have become, we continued our march and at the dist.
 Of 3 m. decended a Steep mountain and passed two Small branches of the
 Chopunnish river just above their fok, and again assend the ridge on
 which we passed. at the distance of 7 m. arived at our Encampment of
 16th Septr. last passed 3 Small branches passed on a dividing ridge
 rugid and we arived at a Situation very Similar to our Situation of
 last night tho the ridge was Somewhat higher and the Snow had not been
 So long disolved of course there was but little grass. here we Encamped
 for the night haveing traveled 28 Ms. over these mountains without
 releiveing the horses from their packs or their haveing any food. the
 Indians inform us that there is an abundance of the Mountain Sheep, or
 what they Call white Buffalow on those Mountains. we Saw 3 black tail
 or mule deer this evening but were unable to get a Shoot at them. we
 also Saw Several tracks of those animals in the snow. our Meat being
 exhosted we issued a point of Bears Oil to a mess which with their
 boiled roots made an agreeable dish. Jo. Potts leg which had been much
 Swelled and inflaimed for several days is much better this evening and
 givs him but little pain. we applied the poundd root & leaves of wild
 ginger from which he found great relief. Near our encampment we saw
 great numbers of the Yellow lilly with reflected petals in blume; this
 plant was just as foward here at this time as it was in the plains on
 the 10th of May. My head has not pained me so much to day as yesterday
 and last night.
 
 
 [Lewis, June 28, 1806]
 Saturday June 28th 1806.
 This morning we collected our horses and set out as usual after an
 early breakfast. several of our horses had straggled to a considersble
 distance in surch of food but we were fortunate enough to find them in
 good time they look extreemly gant this morning, however the indians
 informed us that at noon we would arrive at a place where there was
 good food for them. we continued our rout along the dividing ridge
 passing one very deep hollow and at the distance of six miles passed
 our encampment of the 16 of September last, one and a half miles
 further we passed the road which leads by the fishery falling in on the
 wright immediately on the dividing ridge about eleven O'clock we
 arrived at an untimbered side of a mountain with a Southern aspect just
 above the fishery here we found an abundance of grass for our horses as
 the Indians had informed us. as our horses were very hungary and much
 fatiegued and from information no other place where we could obtain
 grass for them within the reach of this evening's travel we determined
 to remain at this place all night having come 13 miles only. the water
 was distant from our encampment we therefore melted snow and used the
 water principally. the whole of the rout of this day was over deep
 snows. we find the traveling on the snow not worse than without it, as
 the easy passage it gives us over rocks and fallen timber fully
 compensate for the inconvenience of sliping, certain it is that we
 travel considerably faster on the snow than without it. the snow sinks
 from 2 to 3 inches with a hors, is coarse and firm and seems to be
 formed of the larger and more dense particles of the snow; the surface
 of the snow is reather harder in the morning than after the sun shines
 on it a few hours, but it is not in that situation so dense as to
 prevent the horse from obtaining good foothold. we killed a small black
 pheasant; this bird is generally found in the snowey region of the
 mountains and feeds on the leaves of the pine and fir. there is a
 speceis of small whortleburry common to the hights of the mountains,
 and a speceis of grass with a broad succulent leaf which looks not
 unlike a flag; of the latter the horses are very fond, but as yet it is
 generally under the snow or mearly making it's appearance as it
 confined to the upper parts of the highest mountains.
 
 
 [Clark, June 28, 1806]
 Saturday June 28th 1806
 This morning we Colected our horses and Set out as usial after an early
 brackfast. we continued our rout along the dividig ridge over knobs &
 through deep hollows passed our encampmt of the 14 Sept. last near the
 forks of the road leaving the one on which we had Came one leading to
 the fishery to our right imediately on the dividing ridge. at 12 oClock
 we arived at an untimberd side of a mountain with a southern aspect
 just above the fishery here we found an abundance of grass for our
 horses as the guids had informed us. as our horses were hungary and
 much fatiegued and from information no other place where we could
 obtain grass for them within the reach of this evening's travel we
 deturmined to remain at this place all night haveing come 13 m. only.
 the water was distant from our Encampment we therefore melted Snow and
 used the water. the whole of the rout of this day was over deep Snow.
 we find the travelling on the Snow not worse than without it, as easy
 passage it givs us over rocks and fallen timber fully compensates for
 the inconvenience of sliping, certain it is that we travel considerably
 faster on the snow than without it. the Snow Sinks from 2 to 3 inches
 with a horse, is course and firm and seems to be formed of the larger
 particles the surface of the snow sees to be rather harder in the
 morning than after the Sun Shines on it a fiew hours, but it is not in
 that situation so dense as to prevent the horses from obtaining good
 foothold. I killed a Small black pheasant; this bird is generally found
 in the Snowey region of the mountains and feeds on the leaves of the
 pine & fir. there is a Species of Small huckleberry common to the
 hights of the mountains, and a Species of grass with a broad succulent
 leaf which looks not unlike a flag; of the latter the horses are very
 fond, but as yet it is generally under the Snow, or mearly makeing it's
 appearance as it confined to the upper part of the highest mountains.
 
 
 [Lewis, June 29, 1806]
 Sunday June 29th 1806.
 We collected our horses early this morning and set out, having
 previously dispatched Drewyer and R. Fields to the warm springs to
 hunt. we pursued the hights of the ridge on which we have been passing
 for several days; it terminated at the distance of 5 ms. from our
 encampment and we decended to, and passed the main branch of the
 Kooskooske 11/2 ms. above the entrance of Quawmash creek wid falls in
 on the N. E. side. when we decended from this ridge we bid adieu to the
 snow. near the river we fund a deer which the hunters had killed and
 left us. this was a fortunate supply as all our oil was now exhausted
 and we were reduced to our roots alone without salt. the Kooskooske at
 this place is about 30 yds. wide and runs with great volocity. the bed
 as all the mountain streams is composed of smooth stones. beyond the
 river we ascended a very steep acclivity of a mountain about 2 Miles
 and arrived at it's summit where we found the old road which we had
 pased as we went out, coming in on our wright. the road was now much
 plainer and more beaten, which we were informed happened from the
 circumstance of the Ootslashshoots visiting the fishery frequently from
 the vally of Clark's river; tho there was no appearance of there having
 been here this spring. at noon we arrived at the quawmas flatts on the
 Creek of the same name and halted to graize our horses and dine having
 traveled 12 miles. we passed our encampment of the 13th of September at
 10 ms. where we halted there is a pretty little plain of about 50 acres
 plentifully stocked with quawmash and from apperances this fromes one
 of the principal stages or encampments of the indians who pass the
 mountains on this road. we found after we had halted that one of our
 packhorses with his load and one of my riding horses were left behind.
 we dispatched J. Feilds and Colter in surch of the lost horses. after
 dinner we continued our march seven miles further to the warm springs
 where we arrived early in the evening and sent out several hunters, who
 as well as R Fields and Drewyer returned unsuccessful; late in the
 evening Colter and J. Fields joined us with the lost horses and brought
 with them a deer which they had killed, this furnished us with supper.
 these warm springs are situated at the base of a hill of no
 considerable hight on the N side and near the bank of travellers rest
 creek which at that place is about 10 yards wide. these springs issue
 from the bottoms and through the interstices of a grey freestone rock,
 the rock rises in iregular masy clifts in a circular range arround the
 springs on their lower side. immediately above the springs on the creek
 there is a handsome little quamas plain of about 10 acres. the
 prinsipal spring is about the temperature of the warmest baths used at
 the hot springs in Virginia. In this bath which had been prepared by
 the Indians by stoping the run with stone and gravel, I bathed and
 remained in 19 minutes, it was with dificulty I could remain thus long
 and it caused a profuse sweat two other bold springs adjacent to this
 are much warmer, their heat being so great as to make the hand of a
 person smart extreemly when immerced. I think the temperature of these
 springs about the same as the hotest of the hot springs in Virginia.
 both the men and indians amused themselves with the use of a bath this
 evening. I observed that the indians after remaining in the hot bath as
 long as they could bear it ran and plunged themselves into the creek
 the water of which is now as cold as ice can make it; after remaining
 here a few minutes they returned again to the warm bath, repeating this
 transision several times but always ending with the warm bath. I killed
 a small black pheasant near the quamash grounds this evening which is
 the first I have seen below the snowy region. I also saw some young
 pheasants which were about the size of Chickens of 3 days old. saw the
 track of two bearfoot indians who were supposed to be distressed
 rufugees who had fled from the Minnetares.
 
 
 [Clark, June 29, 1806]
 Sunday June 29th 1806
 We colected our horses and Set out haveing previously dispatched
 Drewyer & R. Field to the Warm Springs to hunt. we prosued the hights
 of the ridge on which we have been passing for several days; it
 termonated at the distance of 5 M. from our encampment, and we decended
 to & passed the main branch of Kooskooke 11/2 Ms. above the enterance
 of Glade Creek which falls in on the N. E. Side. we bid adew to the
 Snow. near the River we found a Deer which the hunters had killed and
 left us. this was a fortunate Supply as all our bears oil was now
 exhosted, and we were reduced to our roots alone without Salt. the
 river is 30 yds wide and runs with great velossity. the bead as all the
 Mountain streams is composed of Smooth Stone. beyond this river we
 assended a Steep Mountain about 2 Miles to it's Sumit where we found
 the old road which we had passed on as we went out. comeing in on our
 right, the road was now much plainer and much beaten. at noon we arived
 at the quawmash flatts on Vally Creek and halted to graize our horses
 and dined haveing traveled 12 Miles here is a pretty little plain of
 about 50 acres plentifully Stocked with quawmash and from appearance
 this forms one of the principal Stages of the indians who pass the
 mountains on this road. we found that one of our pack horss with his
 load and one of Capt. L.s. horses were missing we dispatched Jo. Field
 & Colter in serch of the lost horse's. after dinner we continued our
 march 7 ms further to the worm Springs where we arrived early in the
 evening, and Sent out Several hunters, who as well as R. Field &
 Drewyer returned unsuksessfull; late in the evening Jo. Field & Colter
 joined us with the lost horses and brought with them a Deer which J. F.
 had killed, this furnished us with a Supper.
 Those Worm or Hot Springs are Situated at the base of a a hill of no
 considerable hight, on the N. Side and near the bank of travellers rest
 Creek which is at that place about 10 yds wide. these Springs issue
 from the bottom and through the interstices of a grey freestone rock,
 the rock rises in irregular masy clifts in a circular range, arround
 the Springs on their lower Side. imediately above the Springs on the
 Creek there is a handsom little quawmash plain of about 10 acres. the
 principal Spring is about the temperature of the Warmest baths used at
 the Hot Springs in Virginia. in this bath which had been prepared by
 the Indians by stopping the river with Stone and mud, I bathed and
 remained in 10 minits it was with dificuelty I could remain this long
 and it causd a profuse swet. two other bold Springs adjacent to this
 are much warmer, their heat being so great as to make the hand of a
 person Smart extreemly when immerced. we think the temperature of those
 Springs about the Same as that of the hotest of the hot Springs of
 Virginia. both the Men and the indians amused themselves with the use
 of the bath this evening. I observe after the indians remaining in the
 hot bath as long as they could bear it run and plunge themselves into
 the Creek the water of which is now as Cold as ice Can make it; after
 remaining here a fiew minits they return again to the worm bath
 repeeting this transision Several times but always ending with the worm
 bath. Saw the tracks of 2 bearfooted indians-.
 
 
 [Lewis, June 30, 1806]
 Monday June 30th 1806.
 We dispatched Drewyer and J. Fields early this morning to hunt on the
 road and indeavour to obtain some meat for us. just as we had prepared
 to set out at an early hour a deer came in to lick at these springs and
 one of our hunters killed it; this secured us our dinners, and we
 proceeded down the creek sometimes in the bottoms and at other times on
 the top or along the steep sides of the ridge to the N. of the Creek.
 at one mile from the springs we passed a stout branch of the creek on
 the north side and at noon having travelled 13 ms. we arrived at the
 entrance of a second Northen branch of the creek where we had nooned it
 on the 12 th of Septr. last. here we halted, dined and graized our
 horses. while here Sheilds took a small tern and killed a deer. at this
 place a road turns off to the wright which the indians informed us
 leads to Clarks river some distance below where there is a fine
 extensive vally in which the Shalees or Ootslashshoots sometimes
 reside. in descending the creek this morning on the steep side of a
 high hill my horse sliped with both his hinder feet out of the road and
 fell, I also fell off backwards and slid near 40 feet down the hill
 before I could stop myself such was the steepness of the declivity; the
 horse was near falling on me in the first instance but fortunately
 recovers and we both escaped unhirt. I saw a small grey squirrel today
 much like those of the Pacific coast only that the belly of this was
 white. I also met with the plant in blume which is sometimes called the
 lady's slipper or mockerson flower. it is in shape and appearance like
 ours only that the corolla is white, marked with small veigns of pale
 red longitudinally on the inner side. after dinner we resumed our
 march. soon after seting out Sheilds killed another deer and in the
 course of the evening we picked up three others which Drewyer had
 killed along the road making a total of 6 today. Deer are very abundant
 in the neighbourhood of travellers rest of both speceis, also some
 bighorns and Elk. a little before sunset we arrived at our old
 encampment on the south side of the creek a little above it's entrance
 into Clark's river. here we encamped with a view to remain two days in
 order to rest ourselves and horses & make our final arrangements for
 seperation. we came 19 ms. after dinner the road being much better than
 it has been since we entered the mountains we found no appearance of
 the Ootslashshoots having been here lately. the indians express much
 concern for them and apprehend that the Minnetares of fort de Prarie
 have distroyed them in the course of the last winter and spring, and
 mention the tracks of the bearfoot Indians which we saw yesterday as an
 evidence of their being much distressed.--our horses have stood the
 journey supprisingly well, most of them are yet in fine order, and only
 want a few days rest to restore them perfectly.-
 
 
 [Clark, June 30, 1806]
 Monday June 30th 1806
 We dispatched Drewyer & Jo. Field early this morning ahead to hunt.
 just as we had prepard. to set out at an early hour, a deer Came in to
 lick at the Springs and one of our hunters killed it; this Secired to
 us our dinner. and we proceeded down the Creek, Sometimes in the
 bottoms and at other times on the tops or along the Steep Sides of the
 ridge to the N of the Creek. at 11/2 m. we passd our encampment of the
 12th of Septr. last. we noon'd it at the place we had on the 12 of
 Septr. last whiles here Shields killed a deer on the N. fork near the
 road. here a rode leads up the N. fork and passed over to an extensive
 vally on Clarks river at Some distance down that river as our guids
 inform us. after dinner we resumed our march. Soon after Setting out
 Shields killed another deer, and we picked up 3 others which G Drewyer
 had killed along the road. Deer are very abundant in the neighbourhood
 of travellers rest of boath Specis, also Some big horn and Elk. a
 little before Sunset we arrived at our old encampment on the S. Side of
 the Creek a little above its enterance into Clarks river. here we
 Encamped with a view to remain 2 days in order to rest ourselves and
 horses and make our final arrangements for Seperation. we found no
 signs of the Oatlashshots haveing been here lately. the Indians express
 much Concern for them and apprehend that the Menetarries of Fort d Prar
 have destroyed them in the course of the last Winter and Spring, and
 mention the tracts of the bearfooted indians which we Saw yesterday as
 an evidence of their being much distressed-. our horses have stood the
 journey Supirisinly well and only want a fiew days rest to restore them.
 
 
 [Clark, June 30, 1806]
 Descended the mountain to Travellers rest leaveing those tremendious
 mountanes behind us-in passing of which we have experiensed Cold and
 hunger of which I shall ever remember. in passing over this part of the
 Rocky mountains from Clarks river, to the quawmash flats from the 14th
 to the 19th of Septr. 1805 we marched through Snow, which fell on us on
 the night of the 14th and nearly all the day of the 15 in addition to
 the cold rendered the air cool and the way difficuelt. our food was
 horses of which we eate three.--On our return we Set out from the
 quawmash flats on the 15th of June and commenes the assent of the rocky
 mountains; the air became cool and vigitation backward--on the 16th we
 met with banks of Snow and in the hollars and maney of the hill Sides
 the Snow was from 3 to 4 feet deep and Scercely any grass vegitation
 just commencing where the Snow had melted--on the 17th at meridian, the
 Snow became So deep in every derection from 6 to 8 feet deep we could
 not prosue the road there being no grass for our horses we were obliged
 to return to the quawmash flatts to precure meat to live on as well as
 grass for our horses--leaveing our baggage on the mountains We precured
 5 Indians as pilots and on the 24th of June 1806 we again under took
 those Snowey regn. on the 26th we with our baggage arived at an open
 plain serounded with Snow where there was grass for horses on the 27th
 & 28th also passing over Snow 6 or 8 feet deep all the way on 29th
 passed over but little Snow--but saw great masses of it lying in
 different directions