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[Lewis, April 1, 1806]
 Tuesday April 1st 1806.
 This morning early we dispatched Sergt. Pryar with two men in a small
 canoe up quicksand river with orders to proceed as far as he could and
 return this evening. we also sent a party of three hunters over the
 river to hunt a large bottom of woodland and prarie above the entrance
 of the Quicksand river; the ballance of the hunters we sent out in
 different directions on this side of the Columbia and employed those
 about camp in making a rope of Elkskin. the Indians who encamped near
 us last evening continued with us untill about midday. they informed us
 that the quicksand river which we have heretofore deemed so
 considerable, only extendes through the Western mountains as far as the
 S. Western side of mount hood where it takes it's source. this mountain
 bears E from this place and is distant about 40 miles. this information
 was corroborated by that of sundry other indians who visited us in the
 course of the day. we were now convinced that there must be some other
 considerable river which flowed into the columbia on it's south side
 below us which we have not yet seen, as the extensive valley on that
 side of the river lying between the mountainous country of the Coast
 and the Western mountains must be watered by some stream which we had
 heretofore supposed was the quicksand river. but if it be a fact that
 the quicksand river heads in Mount Hood it must leave the valley within
 a few miles of it's entrance and runs nearly parallel with the Columbia
 river upwards. we indeavoured to ascertain by what stream the southern
 portion of the Columbian valley was watered but could obtain no
 satisfactory information of the natives on this head. they informed us
 that the quicksand river is navigable a short distance only in
 consequence of falls and rapids; and that no nation inhabits it.-
 Sergt. Pryar returned in the evening and reported that he had ascended
 the river six miles; that above the point at which it divides itself
 into two channels it is about 300 yds wide tho the channel is not more
 than 50 yds and only 6 ft deep. this is a large vollume of water to
 collect in so short a distance; I therefore think it probable that
 there are some large creeks falling into it from the S. W. the bed of
 this stream is formed entirely of quicksand; it's banks are low and at
 preasent overflows. the water is turbid and current rapid.the following
 are the courses taken by Sergt. Pryor. S. 10° W. 1 M. to a point on the
 Lard. side passing a large Island on Stard. S. 24° E. 2 m. to the head of
 an Island near the Lard. shore. S 33° E. 4 m. to a stard. point passing
 several islands on the Lard. side and a creek 50 yds. wide on Stard at
 11/2 miles. the river from hence appeared to bend to the East. he heard
 falls of water. several different tribes informed us that it heads at
 Mount Hood. We were visited by several canoes of natives in the course
 of the day; most of whom were decending the river with their women and
 children. they informed us that they resided at the great rapids and
 that their relations at that place were much streightened at that place
 for the want of food; that they had consumed their winter store of
 dryed fish and that those of the present season had not yet arrived. I
 could not learn wheather they took the Sturgeon but presume if they do
 it is in but small quantities as they complained much of the scarcity
 of food among them. they informed us that the nations above them were
 in the same situation & that they did not expect the Salmon to arrive
 untill the full of the next moon which happens on the 2d of May. we did
 not doubt the varacity of these people who seemed to be on their way
 with their families and effects in surch of subsistence which they find
 it easy to procure in this fertile valley.--This information gave us
 much uneasiness with rispect to our future means of subsistence. above
 falls or through the plains from thence to the Chopunnish there are no
 deer Antelope nor Elk on which we can depend for subsistence; their
 horses are very poor most probably at this season, and if they have no
 fish their dogs must be in the same situation. under these
 circumstances there seems to be but a gloomy prospect for subsistence
 on any terms; we therefore took it into serious consideration what
 measures we were to pursue on this occasion; it was at once deemed
 inexpedient to wait the arrival of the salmon as that would detain us
 so large a portion of the season that it is probable we should not
 reach the United States before the ice would close the Missouri; or at
 all events would hazard our horses which we lelft in charge of the
 Chopunnish who informed us that they intended passing the rocky
 mountains to the Missouri as early as the season would permit them wich
 is as we believe about the begining of May. should these people leave
 their situation near kooskooske before our arrival we may probably find
 much difficulty in recovering our horses; without which there will be
 but little possibility of repassing the mountains; we are therefore
 determined to loose as little time as possible in geting to the
 Chopunnish Village. at 3 P.M. the hunters who were sent over the river
 returned having killed 4 Elk and two deer; the Elk were in good order
 but the deer extreemly poor. they informed us that game is very plenty
 in that quarter. the hunters on this side of the river also returned
 but had killed nothing; they saw a few Elk and deer. there was also
 much sign of the black bear seen on the other side of the river. we
 sent a party to bring in the flesh of the Elk and deer that were
 killed. they did not return this evening. I purchased a canoe from an
 Indian today for which I gave him six fathoms of wampum beads; he
 seemed satisfyed with his bargain and departed in another canoe but
 shortly after returned and canceled the bargain; took his canoe and
 returned the beads. this is frequently the case in their method of
 traiding and is deemed fair by them. The last evening and this morning
 were so cloudy that I could neither obtain any Lunar observations nor
 equal altitudes.-
 
 
 [Clark, April 1, 1806]
 Tuesday April 1st 1806
 This morning early we dispatched Sergt. Pryor, with two men in a Small
 canoe up quick sand river with orders to proceed as far as he Could and
 return this evening. we also Sent a party of three hunters over the
 river to hunt a large bottom of woodland and prarie above the enterance
 of Q. Sand River; the ballance of the hunters we Sent out in different
 directions on this Side of the Columbia, and employed those about Camp
 in makeing a rope of Elk Skin.
 The information given by the indians to us last night respecting quick
 Sand river was corrobarated by Sundery other indians who visited us in
 the Course of this day. we were now convinced that if there information
 be just; that Some Considerable river which flowed into the Columbia on
 it's South Side below us which we have not yet Seen, as the extensive
 vally on that Side of the river lying between the mountanious Country
 of the Coast, and the western mountains must be watered by Some Stream,
 which we had heretofore Supposed was the quick Sand river. but if it be
 a fact that Quick Sand river heads in Mount Hood it must leave the
 vally within a fiew miles of it's enterance, and runs nearly parrilal
 with the Columbia River upwards. we indeavered to assertained by what
 Stream the South portion of the Columbian Vally was watered, but could
 obtain no Satisfactory information of the waters on this head. they
 inform us that the quick Sand river is not naviagable any distance in
 consequence of falls and rapids; and that no nation inhabit it. Sergt.
 Pryor returned in the evening and reported that he had assended the
 river Six Miles; that above the point which it divides itself into two
 Chanels, it is about 300 yards wide tho the Chanel is not more than 50
 yards, and only 6 feet deep. the other part of the river from 2 to 4
 inches water, the bead of this river is formed entirely of quick Sand;
 its banks are low and at present overflown. the water is turbed and
 current rapid.--The following are the Courses taken by Sergt. Pryor.-
 "S. 10° W. 1 mile to a point on the Lard. Side passing a large island on
 Stard Side. S 24° E. 2 m. to the head of the island near the Lard Shore.
 S 33° E 4 m. to a Stard. point passing Several islands on the Lard Side
 and a Creek 50 yards wide on the Stard. Side at 11/2 miles. the river
 from hence upwards bend to the East. a fall of water heard at no great
 distance up this river." Several diffirent tribes of indians inform us
 that it heads at Mount Hood which is in view.
 We were visited by Several Canoes of the nativs in the Course of this
 day; most of whome were decending the river with their womin and
 children. they inform us that they reside at the great rapids and that
 their relations at that place were much Streightened for the want of
 food; that they had consumed their winter Store of dryed fish and those
 of the present Season had not yet arived. I could not lern whether they
 took Sturgion but prosume if they do it is in but Small quantities as
 they complain much of the Scercity of food among them, they informed us
 that the nativs above them were in the Same Situation, and that they
 did not expect the Salmon to arrive untill the full of the next moon
 which happens on the 2nd of May. we did not doubt the veracity of those
 people who Seamed to be on their way with their families and effects in
 serch of Subsistence which they find it easy to precure in this fertile
 Vally-. This information givs us much uneasiness with respect to our
 future means of Subsistence, above the falls, on through the Plains
 from thence to the Chopunnish there are no Deer Antilopes or Elk on
 which we could depend for Subsistence; their horses are very poor most
 probably at this Season, and if they have no fish their dogs must be in
 the Same Situation. under these circumstances there Seams to be a
 gloomey prospect for Subsistence on any terms; we therefore took it
 into Serious Consideration what measure we were to pursue on this
 Occasion; it was at once deemed inexpedient to waite the arival of the
 Salmon as that would detain us So long a portion of the Season that it
 is probable we Should not reach the U States before the ice would close
 the Missouri; or at all events would hazard our horses which we left in
 charge of the Chopunnish who informed us that they intended passing the
 Rocky Mountains to the Missouri as early as the Season would permit
 them which is about the first of May. Should these people leave their
 Situation near Kooskooske before our arival we may probably find much
 dificulty in recovering our horses; without which there will be but
 little possibility of repassing the Mountains; we are therefore
 determined to lose as little time as possible in getting to the Cho
 punnish Village.
 at 3 P.M. the hunters who were Sent over the river returned, haveing
 Killed 4 Elk and 2 Deer; the Elk were in good order but the deer
 extreemly poor. they informed us that game is very plenty in that
 quarter. the hunters on this Side of the river also returned but had
 killed nothing; they Saw a fiew Elk and Deer. there were also much Sign
 of the black bear Seen on the other Side of the river. we Sent a party
 to bring in the flesh of the Elk and Deer that were killed. they did
 not return this evening. We purchased a Canoe from an Indian today for
 Six fathoms of white wampom; he Seemed Satisfied with his bargin and
 departed in another Canoe but Shortly after returned and canseled the
 bargain, took his canoe and returned the beeds. this is frequently the
 case in their method of tradeing and is deemed fair by them. The last
 evening and this morning were So cloudy that we could neither obtain
 any Lunar observations nor equal altitudes
 
 
 [Lewis, April 2, 1806]
 Wednesday April 2ed 1806.
 This morning we came to a resolution to remain at our present
 encampment or some where in this neighbourhood untill we had obtained
 as much dryed meat as would be necessary for our voyage as far as the
 Chopunnish. to exchange our perogues for canoes with the natives on our
 way to the great falls of the columbia or purchase such canoes from
 them for Elkskins and Merchandize as would answer our purposes. these
 canoes we intend exchanging with the natives of the plains for horses
 as we proceed untill we obtain as many as will enable us to travel
 altogether by land. at some convenient point, perhaps at the entrence
 of the S. E. branch of the Columbia, we purpose sending a party of four
 or five men a head to collect our horses that they may be in readiness
 for us by our arrival at the Chopunnish; calculating by thus acquiring
 a large stock of horses we shall not only sucure the means of
 transporting our baggage over the mountains but that we will also have
 provided the means of subsisting; for we now view the horses as our
 only certain resource for food, nor do we look forward to it with any
 detestation or borrow, so soon is the mind which is occupyed with any
 interesting object reconciled to it's situation. The men who were sent
 in quest of the Elk and deer that were killed yesterday returned at 8
 A.M. this morning. we now enformed the party of our intention of laying
 in a store of meat at this place, and immediately dispatched two
 parteis consisting of nine men to the opposite side of the river. five
 of those we sent below the Quicksand river and 4 above. we also sent
 out three others on this side, and those who remained in camp were
 employed in collecting wood making a scaffoald and cuting up the meat
 in order to dry it. about this time several canoes of the natives
 arrived at our camp and among others one from below which had on board
 eight men of the Shah-ha-la nation these men informed us that 2 young
 men whom they pointed out were Cash-hooks and resided at the falls of a
 large river which discharges itself into the Columbia on it's South
 side some miles below us. we readily prevailed on them to give us a
 sketch of this river which they drew on a mat with a coal. it appeared
 that this river which they called Mult-no-mah discharged itself behind
 the Island which we called the image canoe Island and as we had left
 this island to the S. both in ascending and decending the river we had
 never seen it. they informed us that it was a large river and run a
 considerable distance to the South between the mountains. Capt. Clark
 determined to return and examine this river accordingly he took a party
 of seven men and one of the perogues and set out 1/2 after 11 A.M., he
 hired one of the Cashhooks, for a birning glass, to pilot him to the
 entrance of the Multnomah river and took him on board with him. in
 their manners dress language and stature these people are the same with
 the quathlahpohtle nation and others residing in the neighbourhood of
 wappetoe Island. near the entrance of multnomah river a considerable
 nation resides on the lower side of that stream by the same name. as
 many as ten canoes with natives arrived at our camp in the course of
 the day; most of them were families of men women and children decencing
 the river. they all gave the same account of the scarcity of provision
 above. I shot my air gun, with which they were much astonished. one
 family consisting of ten or twelve persons remained near us all night.
 they conducted themselves in a very orderly manner. the three hunters
 on this side of the river returned in the evening they had killed two
 deer, tho they were so poor and at such a distance from camp that they
 brought in their skins only. the night and morning being cloudy I was
 again disappointed in making the observations I wished.
 Fir is the common growth of the uplands, as is the cottonwood, ash;
 large leafed ash and sweet willow that of the bottom lands. the
 huckleburry, shallon, and the several evergreen shrubs of that speceis
 which bear burries have seased to appear except that speceis which has
 the leaf with a prickly margin. among the plants of this prarie in
 which we are encamped I observe the passhequo, Shannetahque, and
 compound firn the roots of which the natives eat; also the water cress,
 strawburry, flowering pea not yet in blume, the sinquefoil, narrow
 dock, sand rush which are luxuriant and abundant in the river bottoms;
 a speceis of the bearsclaw of which I preserved a specemine it is in
 blume. the large leafed thorn has also disappeared. the red flowering
 currant is found here in considerable quantities on the uplands. the
 hunters inform me that there are extensive praries on the highlands a
 few miles back from the river on this side. the land is very fertile.
 
 
 [Clark, April 2, 1806]
 Wednesday April 2nd 1806
 This morning we came to a resolution to remain at our present
 encampment or Some where in this neighbourhood untill we had obtained
 as much dried meat as would be necessary for our voyage as far as the
 Chopunnish. to exchange our large Canoes for Small ones with the nativs
 on our way to the great Falls of the Columbia or purchase Such canoes
 from them for Elk skins and Merchindize as would answer our purposes.
 these canoes we intend exchangeing with the nativs of the Plains for
 horses as we proceed untill we obtain as maney as will enable us to
 travel altogether by land. at Some convenient point, perhaps at the
 enterance of Lewis's River we intend Sending a party of 4 or 5 men
 ahead to Collect our horses that they may be in readiness for us by our
 arrival at the Chopunnish; Calculating by thus acquireing a large Stock
 of horses we shall not only Secure the means of transporting our
 baggage over the Mountains, but that we also have provided the means of
 Subsisting; for we now view the horses as our only Certain resource for
 food, nor do we look foward to it with any detestation or horrow, So
 Soon is the Mind which is occupied with any interesting object,
 reconsiled to it's Situation. The men who went in quest of the Elk and
 Deer which were killed yesterday returned at 8 A.M. this morning. we
 now informed the party of our intention of laying in a Store of meat at
 this place, and imediately dispatched two parties Consisting of nine
 men to the opposit Side of the river. 5 of them below and 4 above quick
 Sand River. we also Sent out 3 others on this Side, and those who
 remained in Camp were employd in Collecting wood makeing a Scaffold and
 Cutting up the meat in order to dry it. about this time Several Canoes
 of the nativs arived at our Camp among others two from below with Eight
 men of the Shah-ha-la Nation those men informed us that they reside on
 the opposit Side of the Columbia near Some pine trees which they
 pointed to in the bottom South of the Dimond Island, they Singled out
 two young men whome they informed us lived at the Falls of a large
 river which discharges itself into the Columbia on it's South Side Some
 Miles below us. we readily provailed on them to give us a Sketch of
 this river which they drew on a Mat with a coal, it appeared that this
 river which they Call Mult-no'-mah discharged itself behind the Island
 we call the image Canoe island, and as we had left this Island to the
 South both in decending & assending the river we had never Seen it.
 they informed us that it was a large river and runs a Considerable
 distance to the South between the Mountains. I deturmined to take a
 Small party and return to this river and examine its Size and Collect
 as much information of the nativs on it or near its enterance into the
 Columbia of its extent, the Country which it waters and the nativs who
 inhabit its banks &c. I took with me Six Men. Thompson J. Potts, Peter
 Crusat, P. Wiser, T. P. Howard, Jos. Whitehouse & my man York in a
 large Canoe, with an Indian whome I hired for a Sun glass to accompany
 me as a pilot. at half past 11 A.M. I Set out, and had not proceeded
 far eer I saw 4 large Canoes at Some distance above decending and
 bending their Course towards our Camp which at this time is very weak
 Capt. Lewis haveing only 10 men with him. I hisitated for a moment
 whether it would not be advisable for me to return and delay untill a
 part of our hunters Should return to add more Strength to our Camp. but
 on a Second reflection and reverting to the precautions always taken by
 my friend Capt Lewis on those occasions banished all apprehensions and
 I proceeded on down. at 8 miles passed a village on the South side at
 this place my Pilot informed me he resided and that the name of his
 tribe is Ne-cha-co-lee, this village is back or to the South of Dimond
 island, and as we passed on the North Side of the island both decending
 & assending did not See or know of this Village. I proceeded on without
 landing at this village. at 3 P.M. I landed at a large double house of
 the Ne-er-choki-oo tribe of the Shah-ha-la Nation. at this place we had
 Seen 24 aditional Straw Huts as we passed down last fall and whome as I
 have before mentioned reside at the Great rapids of the Columbia. on
 the bank at different places I observed Small Canoes which the women
 make use of to gather Wappato & roots in the Slashes. those Canoes are
 from 10 to 14 feet long and from 18 to 23 inches wide in the widest
 part tapering from the center to both ends in this form and about 9
 inches deep and So light that a woman may with one hand haul them with
 ease, and they are Sufficient to Carry a woman an Some loading. I think
 100 of those canoes were piled up and Scattered in different directions
 about in the Woods in the vecinity of this house, the pilot informed me
 that those Canoes were the property of the inhabitents of the Grand
 rapids who used them ocasionally to gather roots. I entered one of the
 rooms of this house and offered Several articles to the nativs in
 exchange for Wappato. they were Sulkey and they positively refused to
 Sell any. I had a Small pece of port fire match in my pocket, off of
 which I cut a pece one inch in length & put it into the fire and took
 out my pocket Compas and Set myself doun on a mat on one Side of the
 fire, and a magnet which was in the top of my ink Stand the port fire
 cought and burned vehemently, which changed the Colour of the fire;
 with the Magnit I turned the Needle of the Compas about very briskly;
 which astonished and alarmed these nativs and they laid Several parsles
 of Wappato at my feet, & begged of me to take out the bad fire; to this
 I consented; at this moment the match being exhausted was of course
 extinguished and I put up the magnet &c. this measure alarmed them So
 much that the womin and children took Shelter in their beads and behind
 the men, all this time a very old blind man was Speaking with great
 vehemunce, appearently imploreing his gode. I lit my pipe and gave them
 Smoke & gave the womin the full amount of the roots which they had put
 at my feet. they appeared Somewhat passified and I left them and
 proceeded on on the South Side of Image Canoe Island which I found to
 be two Islands hid from the opposit Side by one near the Center of the
 river. the lower point of the upper and the upper point of the lower
 cannot be Seen from the North Side of the Columbia on which we had
 passed both decending and ascending and had not observed the apperture
 between those islands. at the distance of 13 Miles below the last
 village and at the place I had Supposed was the lower point of the
 image Canoe island, I entered this river which the nativs had informed
 us of, Called Mult no mah River so called by the nativs from a Nation
 who reside on Wappato Island a little below the enterance of this
 river. Multnomah discharges itself in the Columbia on the S. E. and may
 be justly Said to be 1/4 the Size of that noble river. Multnomah had
 fallen 18 inches from it's greatest annual height. three Small Islands
 are situated in it's mouth which hides the river from view from the
 Columbia from the enterance of this river, I can plainly See Mt.
 Jefferson which is high and Covered with snow S. E. Mt. Hood East, Mt
 St. Helians a high humped Mountain to the East of Mt St. Helians. I
 also Saw the Mt. Raneer Nearly North. Soon after I arived at this river
 an old man passed down of the Clark a'mos Nation who are noumerous and
 reside on a branch of this river which receives it's waters from
 Mt.,Jefferson which is emensely high and discharges itself into this
 river one day and a half up, this distance I State at 40 Miles. This
 nation inhabits 11 Villages their Dress and language is very Similar to
 the Quath-lah-poh-tle and other tribes on Wappato Island.
 The Current of the Multnomar is as jentle as that of the Columbia
 glides Smoothly with an eavin surface, and appears to be Sufficiently
 deep for the largest Ship. I attempted fathom it with a Cord of 5
 fathom which was the only Cord I had, could not find bottom 1/3 of the
 distance across. I proceeded up this river 10 miles from it's enterance
 into the Columbia to a large house on the N E. Side and Encamped near
 the house, the flees being So noumerous in the house that we could not
 Sleep in it. this is the house of the Cush-hooks Nation who reside at
 the falls of this river which the pilot informs me they make use of
 when they Come down to the Vally to gather Wappato. he also informs me
 that a number of other Smaller houses are Situated on two Bayous which
 make out on the S. E. Side a little below the house. this house appears
 to have been laterly abandoned by its inhabitants in which they had
 left Sundery articles Such as Small Canoes mats, bladdles of Oil and
 baskits bowls & trenchers. and as my pilot informed me was gorn up this
 to the falls to fish which is 2 days or 60 miles up. this house is 30
 feet wide & presisely 40 feet long. built in the usial form of broad
 boads Covered with bark.
 The course and distance assending the Molt no mar R from it's enterance
 into the Columbia at the lower point of the 3rd Image Canoe island. viz.
 S. 30°W. 2 Miles to the upper point of a Small island in the Middle of
 Moltnomar river. thence
 S. 10° W. 3 miles to a Sluce 80 yards wide which devides Wappato Island
 from the Main Stard. Side Shore passing a Willow point on the Lard.
 Side.
 S. 60° E. 3 miles to a large Indian house on the Lard Side below Some
 high pine land. high bold Shore on the Starboard Side. thence
 S. 30° E 2 miles to a bend under the high lands on the Stard Side
 miles 10 passing a Larborad point.
 thence the river bends to the East of S East as far as I could See. at
 this place I think the wedth of the river may be Stated at 500 yards
 and Sufficiently deep for a Man of War or Ship of any burthen.
 
 
 [Lewis, April 3, 1806]
 Thursday April 3rd 1806.
 Early this morning Joseph Feilds came over and informed me that Reubin
 Feilds Drewyer and himself had killed four Elk. as the party with me
 were now but weak and the Indians constantly crouding about our camp, I
 thought it best to send a few men to dry the meat on the other side of
 the river; accordingly Sergt Pryor and two men returned with Jos.
 Fields for that purpose. the hunters were ordered to continue the
 chase; while the others were employed in drying the meat. I have had no
 account as yet from the party below the entrance of Quicksand river.
 The Indians continued to visit us today in considerable numbers most of
 them were decending the river with their families. these poor people
 appeared to be almost starved, they picked up the bones and little
 peices of refuse meat which had been thrown away by the party. they
 confirm the report of the scarcity of provision among the natives
 above. I observe some of the men among them who wear a girdle arround
 the waist between which and the body in front they confine a small skin
 of the mink or polecat which in some measure conceals the parts of
 generation, they also frequently wear a cap formed of the skin of the
 deer's head with the ears left on it, they have some collars of leather
 wrought with porcupine quills after the method of the Shoshonees. From
 this place Mount Hood bears S. 85 E. distant 40 miles. This evening we
 completed drying the flesh of the Elk which had been brought to camp.
 at 6 P.M. Capt. Clark returned, having completely succeeded in his
 expedition. he found the entrance of the large river of which the
 Indians had informed us, just at the upper part of wappetoe Island. the
 following is a sketch of the rivers furnished Capt C. by an old and
 inteligent Indian man.-
 
 
 [Clark, April 3, 1806]
 Thursday April 3rd 1806
 The water had fallen in the course of last night five inches. I Set out
 and proceeded up a Short distance and attempted a Second time to fathom
 the river with my cord of 5 fathom but could find no bottom. the mist
 was So thick that I could See but a Short distance up this river. where
 I left it, it was binding to the East of S. E. being perfectly
 Sati'fyed of the Size and magnitude of this great river which must
 Water that vast tract of Country betwen the Western range of mountains
 and those on the Sea coast and as far S. as the Waters of Callifornia
 about Latd. 37° North I deturmined to return. at 7 oClock A.M. Set out on
 my return. the men exirted themselves and we arived at the Ne er cho ki
 oo house in which the nativs were So illy disposed yesterday at 11 A.M.
 I entered the house with a view to Smoke with those people who
 Consisted of about 8 families, finding my presence alarmed them So much
 that the children hid themselves, womin got behind their men, and the
 men hung their heads, I detained but a fiew minits and returnd on board
 the canoe. My pilot who Continued in the Canoe informed me on my return
 that those people as well as their relations were very illy disposed
 and bad people. I proceeded on along the South Side met five canoes of
 the Shah-ha-la Nation from the Great rapids with their wives and
 Children decending the Columbia into this fertile Vally in pursute of
 provi-sions. my Pilot informed me in a low voice that those people were
 not good, and I did not Suffer them to come along Side of my Canoe
 which they appeared anxious to do. their numbers in those canoes who
 appeard anxious to come along Side was 21 men and 3 boys. at 3 P M. we
 arived at the residence of our Pilot which consists of one long house
 with Seven appartments or rooms in Square form about 30 feet each room
 opening into a passage which is quit through the house those passages
 are about 4 feet in width and formed of Wide boads Set on end in the
 ground and reaching to the Ruff which Serves also as divisions to the
 rooms. The ground plot is in this form 1 1 1 1 is the passages. 2 2 &c.
 is the apartments about 30 feet square. this house is built of bark of
 the White Cedar Supported on long Stiff poles resting on the ends of
 broad boads which form the rooms &c. back of this house I observe the
 wreck of 5 houses remaining of a very large Village, the houses of
 which had been built in the form of those we first Saw at the long
 narrows of the E-lute Nation with whome those people are connected. I
 indeavored to obtain from those people of the Situation of their
 nation, if scattered or what had become of the nativs who must have
 peopled this great town. an old man who appeared of Some note among
 them and father to my guide brought foward a woman who was badly marked
 with the Small Pox and made Signs that they all died with the disorder
 which marked her face, and which She was verry near dieing with when a
 Girl. from the age of this woman this Distructive disorder I judge must
 have been about 28 or 30 years past, and about the time the Clatsops
 inform us that this disorder raged in their towns and distroyed their
 nation. Those people Speak a different language from those below tho in
 their dress habits and manners &c. they differ but little from the
 Quathlahpohtles. theire women ware the truss as those do of all the
 nations risideing from the quathlahpohtle to the enterance of Lewis's
 river and on the Columbia above for Some distance. those people have
 Some words the Same with those below but the air of their language is
 entirely different, their men are Stouter and much better made, and
 their womin ware larger & longer robes than those do below; those are
 most commonly made of Deer Skins dressed with the hair on them. they
 pay great attention to their aged Severall men and women whom I
 observed in this village had arived at a great age, and appeared to be
 helthy tho blind. I provailed on an old man to draw me a Sketch of the
 Multnomar River ang give me the names of the nations resideing on it
 which he readily done, See draft on the other Side and gave me the
 names Of 4 nations who reside on this river two of them very noumerous.
 The first is Clark a-mus nation reside on a Small river which takes its
 rise in Mount Jefferson and falls into the Moltnomar about 40 miles up.
 this nation is noumerous and inhabit 11 Towns. the 2d is the Cush-hooks
 who reside on the N E. Side below the falls, the 3rd is the Char-cowah
 who reside above the Falls on the S W. Side neether of those two are
 noumerous. The fourth Nation is the Cal-lar-po-e-wah which is very
 noumerous & inhabit the Country on each Side of the Multnomar from its
 falls as far up as the knowledge of those people extend. they inform me
 also that a high mountain passes the Multnomar at the falls, and above
 the Country is an open plain of great extent.
 I purchased 5 dogs of those people for the use of their Oil in the
 Plains, and at 4 P M left the Village and proceeded on to Camp where I
 joind Capt. Lewis
 The enterance of Multnomah river is 142 miles up the Columbia river
 from its enterance into the Pacific Ocean-. in my absence and Soon
 after I left camp Several Canoes of men women and Children came to the
 camp. and at one time there was about 37 of those people in Camp Capt
 Lewis fired his Air gun which astonished them in Such a manner that
 they were orderly and kept at a proper distance dureing the time they
 Continued with him--as maney as 10 Canoes arrived at Camp in the Course
 of this day. they all Seem to give the Same account of the Scercity of
 Provisions above. one family Continued all night and behaved themselves
 in a very orderly manner.
 on the 3rd Joseph Field returned from the woods and informed the
 Drewyer Rubin & himself had killed four Elk. Capt L. Sent Sergt. Pryor
 and two men with Joseph Field to dry the flesh of the Elk in the woods
 on Scaffolds with fire. the party bilow quick Sand river did not return
 to day. The Indians continue to vist our Camp in Considerable number
 from above with their families. these pore people appeared half
 Starved. they picked up the bones and little refuse meat which had been
 thrown away by the party. Capt L had the flesh of the 4 Elk which was
 killed on the 1st inst. dried--Some of the men of the nativs who
 visited Capt Lewis wore a girdle, with a Small Skin in front and a Cap
 of the Skin of the deers head &c.
 
 
 [Lewis, April 4, 1806]
 Friday April 4th 1806.
 This morning early we sent Sergt. Ordway in Surch of Sergt. Gass and
 party below the entrance of the Quicksand river fom whom we have yet
 had no report. in the course of a few hours both parties returned.
 Sergt. Gass and party brought the flesh of a bear and some venison.
 they informed us that they had killed an Elk and six deer tho the flesh
 of the greater part of those animals was so meagre that it was unfit
 for uce and they had therefore left it in the woods. Collins who had
 killed the bear, found the bed of another in which there were three
 young ones; and requested to be permitted to return in order to waylay
 the bed and kill the female bear; we permitted him to do so; Sergt.
 Gass and Windsor returned with him. Several parties of the natives
 visit us today as usual both from above and below; those who came from
 above were moving with their families, and those from below appeared to
 be empeled mearly by curiossity to see us. About noon we dispatched
 Gibson Shannon Howard and Wiser in one of the light canoes, with orders
 to proceed up the Columbia to a large bottom on the South side about
 six miles above us and to hunt untill our arrival. late in the evening
 Joseph Fields and Drewyer returned. they had killed two deer yesterday,
 and informed us that the meat would be dryed by midday tomorrow. we
 directed Drewyer and the two Feildses to ascend the river tomorrow to
 join Gibson and party, and hunt untill our arrival. this evening being
 fair I observed time and distance of Ys Eastern Limb from regulus with
 Sextant. k West.
 
 
 [Clark, April 4, 1806]
 Friday April 4th 1806.
 Mouth of quick Sand River
 This morning early we Sent Sergt. Ordway in Serch of Sergt. Gass and
 party below the enterance of quick Sand river from whome we have yet
 had no report. in the Course of a fiew hours both parties returned.
 Sergt. Gass and party brought the Flesh of a Bear, and Some venison.
 they informed us they had killed an Elk and Six Deer tho the flesh of
 the greater part of those Animals were So Meagre that it was unfit for
 uce, and they had therefore left it in the woods. Collins who had
 killed the Bear, found the bead of another in which there was three
 young ones; and requested to be permited to return in order to waylay
 the bed and kill the female bear; we permited him to do So; Sergt. Gass
 and Windser returned with him. Several parties of the nativs visit us
 to day as usial both from above and below; those who came from above
 were moveing with their families, and those from below appeared to be
 impeled mearly by curiosity to See us. About noon we dispatched Gibson,
 Shannon, Howard & Wiser in one of the light Canoes, with orders to
 proceed up the Columbia to a large bottom on the South Side about Six
 Miles above us and there to hunt untill our arrival. late in the
 evening Jos Fields and Drewyer returned with a load of dried meat. they
 had killed two deer yesterday and informed us that the meat would be
 dryed by Mid-day tomorrow. We directed Drewyer and Field's to assend
 the river tomorrow and join Gibson & party, and hunt untill our
 arrival. this evening being fair observed time and distance of moon's
 Eastern Limb from regulus with Sextant * West
 
 
 [Lewis, April 5, 1806]
 Saturday April 5th 1806.
 This morning was so cloudy that I could not obtain any lunar
 observations with a Aquila as I wished. Joseph Fields and Drewyer
 departed this morning agreeably to their orders of last evening. at 9
 A.M. we Sent Sergt. Ordway and a party to assist Sergt. Pryor in
 bringing in the meat of four Elk which he had dryed. at 1 P. M the
 party returned with the meat. it had been so illy dryed that we feared
 it would not keep. we therefore directed it to be cut thinner and
 redryed over a fire this evening, as we purpose setting out early in
 the morning. the deerskins which we have had cased for the purpose of
 containing our dryed meat are not themselves sufficiently dryed for
 that purpose, we directed them to be dryed by the fire also. the
 weather has been so damp that there was no possibility of pounding the
 meat as I wished.--we were visited today by several parties of the
 natives as usual; they behaved themselves in a very orderly manner.
 Observed Magnetic Azimuth and altitude of the sun with Circumferenter
 and Sextant.
 Saw the Log cock, the hummingbird, gees ducks &c today. the tick has
 made it's appearance it is the same with those of the Atlantic States.
 the Musquetoes have also appeared but are not yet troublesome.--this
 morning at 10 OClock Sergt. Gass returned with Collins and Windsor they
 had not succeeded in killing the female bear tho they brought the three
 cubs with them. the Indians who visited us today fancyed these petts
 and gave us wappetoe in exchange for them. Drewyer informed me that he
 never knew a female bear return to her young when they had been
 allarmed by a person and once compelled to leave them. The dogwood
 grows abundantly on the uplands in this neighbourhood. it differs from
 that of the United States in the appearance of it's bark which is much
 smoother, it also arrives here to much greater size than I ever
 observed it elsewhere sometimes the stem is nearly 2 feet in diameter.
 we measured a fallen tree of fir No 1 which was 318 feet including the
 stump which was about 6 feet high. this tree was only about 31/2 feet
 in diameter. we saw the martin, small gees, the small speckled
 woodpecker with a white back, the Blue crested Corvus, ravens, crows,
 eagles Vultures and hawks. the mellow bug and long leged spider have
 appeared, as have also the butterfly blowing fly and many other
 insects. I observe not any among them which appear to differ from those
 of our country or which deserve particular notice.
 
 
 [Clark, April 5, 1806]
 Saturday April 5th 1806.
 This morning was So Cloudy that we could not obtain any lunar
 observations with a Aquila as we wished.
 Joseph Field & Drewrey left us this morning agreeably to their orders
 of last evening. at the Same time we Sent Sergt. Ordway and five men to
 assist Sergt. Pryor in bringing in the meat of four Elk which he had
 dried in the woods. at 1 p.m.the party returned with the meat. it was
 not Sufficiently dryed to keep. we had it cut thiner and redryed over a
 fire this evening, as we purpose Setting out early in the morning. the
 dear skins which we had cased for the purpose of holding our dried meat
 is not Sufficently dry for that purpose, we derected them to be dried
 by the fire also. the weather being So damp that there was no
 possibullity of pounding the meat as I wished.--We were visited by
 Several parties of the nativs to day; they behaved themselves in a very
 orderly manner.
 Saw the Log cock, the humming bird, Geese, Ducks &c. to day. the tick
 has made it's appearance it is the Same with those of the Atlantic
 States. the Musquetors have also appeared, but are not yet much
 troublesom.--this morning at 10 A M Sergt. Gass returned with Collins
 and Windser they had not Succeeded in killing the female bear, tho they
 brought the three cub's with them. the Indians who visited us to day
 fancied those Petts and gave us wappato in exchange for them. Fir and
 White Cedar is the common growth of the up lands, as is the Cotton
 wood, ash, large leafed Ash and Sweet Willow that of the bottom lands.
 The Huckleberry, shallon, and the Several evergreen Shrubs, of that
 Speces that bears berries have Seased to appear, except that Species
 which has the leaf with a prickley Margin. among the plants of this
 prarie in which we are encamped I observe the pashequo, Shannetahque,
 and Compound firn, the root of which the nativs eate; also the water
 cress, Straw berry flowering pea not yet in blume, narrow dock, and
 rush which are luxuriant and abundent in the river bottoms. the large
 leafed thorn has also disappeard. The red flowering Current is found
 here in considerable quantities on the upland, and the Common Dog wood
 is found on either Side of the river in this neighbourhood and above
 Multnomah river. The Country on either Side is fertile, the bottom on
 the South Side is wide and inter sperced with Small ponds in which the
 nativs gather their Wappato. back of this bottom the Country rises to
 about 200 feet and the Soil is very rich as that also above q Sandy
 river quite to the Mountains. the Country on the N. Side from a fiew
 Miles above this place as low down as the enterance of
 Cah-wah-na-ki-ooks River rises to the hight generally of 150 or 200
 feet is tolerably leavel, thickly timbered with Fir and White Cedar.
 the Soil of the richest quallity. Some Small Praries on the bank of the
 river. That portion of Country below as low down as the enterance of
 Cah-wah na ki ooks River is a broken rich Country. the hills are high,
 the bottom lands as before mentioned and fertile &c.-The Country a fiew
 miles up the Multnomah River rises from the river bottoms to the hight
 of from 2 to 300 feet and is rich & fertile. Some Plains can be Seen to
 the N. E. of our Camp of 10 or 12 miles in Secumference The Hunters &
 Serjt Pryor informed us that they had Measured a tree on the upper Side
 of quick Sand River 312 feet long and about 4 feet through at the Stump.
 
 
 [Lewis, April 6, 1806]
 Sunday April 6th 1806.
 This morning we had the dryed meat secured in skins and the canoes
 loaded; we took breakfast and departed at 9 A.M. we continued up the N.
 side of the river nearly to the place at which we had encamped on the
 3rd of Nov. when we passed the river to the south side in quest of the
 hunters we had sent up yesterday and the day before. from the
 appearance of a rock near which we had encamped on the 3rd of November
 last I could judge better of the rise of the water than I could at any
 point below. I think the flood of this spring has been about 12 feet
 higher than it was at that time; the river is here about 11/2 miles
 wide; it's general width from the beacon rock which may be esteemed the
 head of tide water, to the marshey islands is from one to 2 miles tho
 in many places it is still wider. it is only in the fall of the year
 when the river is low that the tides are persceptable as high as the
 beacon rock. this remarkable rock which stands on the North shore of
 the river is unconnected with the hills and rises to the hight of seven
 hundred feet; it has some pine or reather fir timber on it's nothern
 side, the southern is a precipice of it's whole hight. it rises to a
 very sharp point and is visible for 20 miles below on the river. at the
 distance of ten miles from our encampment we met with our hunters in
 the upper end of the bottom to which we had directed them on the South
 side of the river. they had killed three Elk this morning and wounded
 two others so badly that they expected to get them. we therefore
 determined to encamp for the evening at this place in order to dry the
 meat, in surch of which we sent a party immediately and employed others
 in preparing scaffoalds and collecting firewood &c against their
 return. we found some indians with our hunters when we arrived; these
 people are constantly hanging about us.--As has been before mentioned
 Capt C set out with a party of seven men on 2ed inst. in surch of the
 entrance of the Multnomah river. he departed at 1/2 after 11 A. M and
 directed his course along the Southern side of the river. at the
 distance of 8 miles he passed the village of the Na-cha-co-lee tribe of
 the E-lute Nation; this village is not large and being situated on the
 main shore opposite to and S. of the Diamond Island it was concealed by
 that island from our view both ascending and decending the Columbia as
 we passed near the Northern shore. Capt C. passed this village without
 halting and continued his rout untill 3 P.M. when he arrived at a large
 double house of the Ne-er-cho-ki-oo tribe of the Shah'ha-la nation; at
 this place we had seen 24 additional straw and bark huts as we passed
 down last fall, the inhabitants of which as I have before mentioned
 reside at the great rapids of the Columbia river. about this place in
 different directions Capt C. saw a great number of small canoes lying
 scattered on the bank. these small canoes are employed by the women in
 collecting wappetoe; with one of these a woman enters a pond where the
 Sagitaria Sagittifolia grows frequently to her breast in water and by
 means of her toes and feet breakes the bulb of this plant loos from the
 parent radicle and disincumbering it from the mud it immediately rises
 to the surface of the water when she seizes it and throws it into her
 canoe which she always keeps convenient to her. they will remain in the
 water for hours together in surch of this bulb in middle of winter.
 those canoes are from 10 to 14 feet in length, from 18 to 23 inches in
 width near the middle tapering or becoming narrower towards either
 extremity and 9 inches deep their form is thus. they are so light that
 a woman can draw them over land or take them with ease through the
 swamps in any direction, and are sufficient to carry a single person
 and several bushells of roots. Capt. Clarks pilot informed him that the
 small canoes which he saw in the vicinity of this lodge were the
 property of the Shah-ha-las who used them occasionally when they visit
 this neighbourhood for the purpose of collecting roots. while at this
 place Capt C. entered one of the appartments of the house and offered
 several articles to the natives in exchange for wappetoe, they appeared
 to be in an ill humour and positively refused to let him have any.
 Capt. C. sat himself down near the fire and having a part of a portfire
 match in his pocket cut of a small peice of it and threw it in the
 fire; at the same time he took out his pocket compass and by means of a
 magnet which he had in the top of his inkstand he turned the nedle of
 the compass about very briskly; the match took fire and birned
 vehemently; the indians astonished and allarmed at these exhibitions,
 ran and brought several parcels of wappetoe and laid at his feet and
 begged that he would put out the bad fire; to this he consented; at
 this moment the match being exhausted was of course extenguished and he
 put up his compass & magnet. they were now much more complisant, tho
 the women and children were yet so much allarmed that they took refuge
 in their beads and behing the men who were seting opposite to Capt. C.
 during the whole of this farcical seen an old man who was seting by
 continued to speak with great vehemence apparently imploring his god
 for protection. Capt. C. gave them an adiquate compensation for their
 roots and having lighted his pipe smoaked with the men. they appeared
 in a great measure to get the better of their allarm and he left them
 and continued his rout along the south side of Image canoe Island which
 he found to be three islands, the one in the center concealing the
 apperture between the two others in such manner that from the north
 side of the river where we have previously passed they all appeared to
 form one island only. at the distance of 13 miles below the village
 just mentioned, and at the lower point of what we have heretofore
 deemed the image canoe Island, Capt C. entered the Multnomah river so
 called by the natives from a nation of that name who reside on wappetoe
 island a little below the entrance of this river? Multnomah river
 discharges itself on the S. side of the Columbia 140 miles above the
 entrance of the latter into the Pacific Ocean, and may be justly
 esteemed one fourth of that noble river. Capt. C. found that this river
 had attained it's greatest annual hight and had now fallen about 18
 inches. it has three small islands in it's mouth which conceal the
 river from the view of those who pass with the stream of the Columbia.
 from the Columbia at the entrance of the Multonomah river Mount
 Jefferson bears S. E. this is a noble mountain. I think equally as high
 as Mount St. Helines but it's distance being much greater than that of
 the latter, so great a portion of it dose not appear above the range of
 mountains which lie betwen boath those stupendious mountains and this
 point of view. like mount St. Heleans it's figure is a regular cone and
 is covered with eternal snow. M. St. Heleans from the same point boar N
 ____, Mount Hood due East, and Mount Raniei nearly North. there is also
 a very high humped mountain a little to the East of Mount St. Heleans
 which appears to lie in the same chain with those conic pointed
 mountains before mentioned. soon after Capt Clark entered the Multnomah
 river he was met by an old Indian man alone in a canoe decending the
 river, the pilot had some conversation with him and informed Capt. C.
 that this was a man of the Clark-a'-mas nation who are numerous and
 inhabit eleven vilages on either side of a river of the same name which
 has it's source in Mount Jefferson and after tranversing a woody and
 fertile country discharges itself into the Multnomah river on it's E.
 side at the distance of about 40 miles from it's junction with the
 Columbia. the Clarkamas river is navigable for canoes a great distance,
 from the Indian account almost to the foot of mount, Jefferson. the
 nation who inhabit it's borders live principally on fish with which
 this stream abounds and also on roots which they procure on it's
 borders. they sometimes also come down to the Multnomah and Columbia in
 surch of Wappatoe. they do not differ essentially in their language
 dress &c from the Quathlahpohtles and others in the vicinity of
 wappetoe island. The current of the Multnomah river is as gentle as
 that of the Columbia, glides smoothly with an even surface, and appears
 to possess sufficient debth for the largest ship. Capt. C. attempted to
 sound it with a cord of 5 fathoms which was the longest in his
 possession but could not find bottom at this debth for at least one
 third of the width of the river. Capt. C. ascended this river ten miles
 to a large wood house on the East side of the river, near which he
 encamped for the evening; the house being infested with such swarms of
 flees that they could not remain in it. this his guide informed him was
 the house of the Cush-hooks nation who reside just below the falls of
 the Multnomah river and who occasionally reside at this place for the
 purpose of collecting wappetoe. at present this house appeared to have
 been lately abandoned by the natives who had left therein exposed to
 every visiter various articles such as small canoes, mats, bladders of
 train oil, baskets, bowls and trenchers. this is a strong evidence of
 the honesty of the natives with rispect to the property of each other,
 but they have given us several evidences that they do not pay the same
 rispect to the property of white men. his guide further informed him
 that there were a number of small houses belonging to the last
 mentioned nation situated on two bayous which make out of the river a
 little above this large hose on the East side; that the inhabitants of
 these as well as those of the large house had gone up to the falls of
 the Multnomah river for the purpose of taking fish. these falls are
 situated at the distance of 2 days travel from the junction of the
 Multnomah and Columbia rivers agreeably to the Indian account which we
 have estimated at 60 miles or 20 m. above the entrance of Clarkamus
 river. Capt C. took the dementions of the hose of the Ne-mal-quin-ner
 tribe of the Cushhooks nation near which he encamped on the 2ed inst.
 and found it presisely thirty feet by 40 squar constructed with broad
 boards and covered with the bark of the white cedar or arborvita; the
 floor is on a level with the surface of the earth and the internal
 arrangement is similar to those of the natives of the Sea coast.--these
 people carry on a trafic with the Killamucks of the coast across the
 mountains and by way of the Killamucks river from the Killamucks they
 obtain their train oil. The courses and distances taken by Capt. Clark
 in ascending the Multnomah river from it's junction with the Columbia
 river, commencing at the lower extremity of the Image canoe Islands are
 as follows. (viz) S. 30° W. 4 m. to the upper point of a small island in
 the center of Multnomah river. thence S 10° W. 3 m. to a sluce 80 yds.
 wide on Stard. which dividing wappetoe Island from the main land
 discharges itself into wappetoe inlet passed a willow point on Lard. S.
 60° W. 3 ms. to a large indian house on the Lard. side, just below some
 high fir land the shore is bold and high on Stard. side. S 30° E. 2 ms.
 to the center of a bend under The highlands on Stard. side, passing a
 Lard. point; from hence the river directed it's course to the E. of S.
 E. as far as Capt. C. could perceive it.--at this place the Multnomah
 river is 500 yds. wide and sufficiently deep to admit the largest ship.
 the river appears to be washing away it's banks in some places, and has
 more sandbars and willow points than the Columbia.On the morning of the
 3rd inst. Capt. Clark observed that the water had fallen in the course
 of the night about 5 inches. he set out early and proceeded up the
 river a short distance few miles and attempted a second time to fathom
 it but with the same success as before he could nt find bottom with his
 cord of 5 fathoms for the distance of half the width of the stream.
 Capt C. having fully satisfyed himself of the magnitude of this great
 river he set out on his return at 7 A.M. I have but little doubt but
 that this river waters a vast tract of country lying between the
 Western mountains and the mountainous country of the sea coast
 extending as far south as the waters of the gulph of Callifornia or
 about Latitude 37° North. at 11 A.M. Capt. C. arrived at the
 Ne-er-cho-ki-oo house where he had allarmed the inhabtants yesterday.
 he halted here a few minutes to smoke with these people who consisted
 of eight families. he found that his presents excited fresh allarm
 particularly among the women and children who hid themselves and took
 refuge behind the men as yesterday; the men held down their heads and
 seemed much conserned; he therefore remained in the house but a few
 minutes, returned to his canoe and pursued his rout. his pilot now
 informed him that these people as well as their relations at the falls
 of the Columbia were illy disposed bad men. soon after he set out he
 met five canoes on board of which there were as many families of the
 Shah-ha-la nation decending the river in surch of subsistence. they
 were extreemly anxious to come along side, but he forbid their doing so
 as their number was too considerable there being 21 men on board these
 canoes. his pilot told him that they were mischevous bad men. at 3 P.M.
 he arrived at the present residence of his pilot on the South side of
 the river opposite the Diamond Island. here he halted about an hour he
 found this house very large; it consisted of seven appartments in one
 range above ground each about 30 feet square. the entrances to these
 appartments were from passages which extended quite across the house,
 about 4 feet wide and formed like the walls of the hose of broad boards
 set on end extending from beneath the floor to the roof of the house.
 the apperture or hole through which they enter all those wooden houses
 are remarkably small not generally more than 3 feet high and about 22
 inches wide. the ground plot of the Nechecolee house is thus 1 1 1 1
 the passages of 4 feet and 2 2 &c. the appartments of 30 feet square.
 this house is covered with the bark of the white cedar, laid on in a
 double course, supported by rafters and longitudinal round poles
 attatched to the rafters with cores of this bark. the peices of the
 cedar bark extend the whole length of the side of the roof and jut over
 at the eve about 18 inches. at the distance of 18 inches transverse
 splinters of dry fir is inserted through the cedar bark in order to
 keep it smooth and prevent it's edges from colapsing by the heat of the
 sun; in this manner the natives make a very secure light and lasting
 roof of this bark. in the vicinity of this house Capt. Clark observed
 the remains of five other large houses which appeared to have been sunk
 in the ground several feet and built after the method of those of the
 Elutes nation at the great narrows of the columbia with whom these
 people claim affinity. their language is the same with the Elutes, tho
 in their habits, dress manners &c they differ but little from the
 Quathlahpohtles and others in this neighborhood. they make use of some
 words common to their neighbours but the air of their language is
 entirely different. they are much better formed and their men larger
 than the nations below. their women wear larger and longer robes which
 are made principally of deerskins dressed in the hair. they pay great
 rispect to their aged persons. Capt. C. observed several persons of
 both sexes who appeared to have arrived to great age yet they appeared
 perfectly healthy tho most of them perfectly blind. the loss of sight I
 have observed to be more common among all the nations inhabiting this
 river than among any people I ever observed. they have almost
 invariably soar eyes at all stages of life. the loss of an eye is very
 common among them; blindness in perdsons of middle age is by no means
 uncommon, and it is almost invariably a concommitant of old age. I know
 not to what cause to attribute this prevalent deficientcy of the eyes
 except it be their exposure to the reflection of the sun on the water
 to which they are constantly exposed in the occupation of fishing.
 Capt. C. enquired of the Nechecole the cause of the decline of their
 village. an old man who appeared to be of some note among them and the
 father of his guide brought forward a woman who was much marked with
 the small pox, and made signs that the inhabitants of those houses
 which he saw in ruins had all died with the disorder which marked the
 face of the woman and with which this woman was very near dying when a
 girl. from the apparent age of the woman Capt. C. supposed that it was
 about 28 or 30 years since this disorder had prevailed among these
 people. this is about the time which we have supposed that it prevailed
 among the Clatsops and others of the coast. Capt C. now prevailed on
 this old man to give him a sketch of the Multnomah river it's branches
 and the position and names of the Indian nations residing thereon this
 the old man son executed with his finger in the dust. (see scetch
 inserted on the 3rd inst.). he informed that the Cush-hooks and
 Char-cow-ah nations who reside at the falls of that river were not
 numerous; but that the Cal-lah-po-e-wah nation who inhabited both sides
 of this river above the falls as far as it was known to himself or his
 nation were very numerous. that the country they inhabited was level
 and wholy destitute of timber. that a high range of mountains passed
 the Multnomah river at the falls, on the upperside of which the country
 was one vast plain. the nations who inhabit this country reside on the
 rivers and subsist like those of the Columbia on fish and roots
 principally. Capt C. bought five dogs of these people and set out for
 my camp at 5 P.M. where he arrived a little before dark, on the evening
 of the third.--the party whom we sent for the flesh of the Elk which
 Shannon had killed returned in the evening with that of four, one had
 by some mistake been omitted. Drewyer and shannon found the two wounded
 Elk and had killed them. we set all hands at work to prepare the meat
 for the saffoald they continued their operations untill late at night.
 we directed Shannon to go out early in the morning with a party to
 bring in the Elk which had been left last evening in mistake. we also
 directed Drewyer and the two Feildses to ascend the river early in the
 morning to a small bottom a few miles above and hunt untill our
 arrival.-
 
 
 [Clark, April 6, 1806]
 Sunday April 6th 1806.
 Two Indians Came last night very late to our Camp and continued all
 night. early we had all the meat packed up and our Canoes loaded ready
 for to Set out and after an early brackfast at which time all things
 were ready and we Set out and proceeded to the Camp of Gibson & party
 about 9 miles, they had killed 3 Elk at no great distance and Wounded
 two others so badly that we expect to precure them. Sent a party of Six
 men with Shannon who had killed the Elk to bring in the Elk, and formed
 a Camp, near which we had a Scaffold made ready to dry the meat as Soon
 as it Should arive. Reubin Field killed a bird of the Quail kind or
 Class which was whistleing near our Camp it is larger than the quail or
 partridge as they are Called Kentucky and Virginia. it's form is
 presisely that of our partridge tho its plumage differs in every part.
 the upper part of the head, Sides and back of the neck, including the
 Croop and about of the under part of the body is of a bright dove
 coloured blue, under neath the under beak, as high as the lower edge of
 the eye, and back as far as the hinder part of the eyes and thence
 comeing down to a point in the front of the neck about 2/3rd of it's
 length downwards, is of a fine dark brick red. between this brick red
 and the dove colour there runs a narrow Stripe of pure white. the ears
 are covered with some coarse dark brown feathers. just at the base of
 the under chap there is a narrow transvirce Stripe of white. from the
 crown of the head two long round feathers extend backwards nearly in
 the direction of the beak and are of a black Colour. the length of
 these feathers is 21/2 inches. one overlais and Conseals the other
 which is Somewhat Shorter and Seems to be raped in the plumage of that
 in front which folding backwards colapses behing and has a round
 appearance. the tail is composed of 12 dark brown feathers of nearly
 equal length. the large feathers of the wings are of a dark brown & are
 reather Short in purpotion to the body of the bird. in this respect
 very Similar to the partridge. the covert of the wings and back are of
 a dove Colour with a Slight admixture of redish brown. a wide Stripe
 which extends from Side to Side of the body and occupies the lower
 region of the breast is beautifully varigated with the brick red white
 & black which perdominates in the order they are mentioned and the
 Colours mark the feathers transversely. the legs are covered with
 feathers as low as the Knee; these feathers are of dark brown tiped
 with a dark brick red as are also those between and about the joining
 of the legs with the body. the foot is presisely that of the Common
 partridge except that they are as also the legs white. the upper beak
 is Short, wide at it's base, black, convex, curved downwards and
 reather obtusely pointed. it exceeds the under chap considerably which
 is of a white colour, also convex under neath and obtusely pointed. the
 nostrils are remarkably Small, placed far back and low down on the
 Sides of the beak. they are covered by a thin proterant elastic, black
 leather like Substance. the eyes are of a uniform pierceing black
 colour. this is a most butifull bird I preserved the Skin of this bird
 retaining the wings feet & head which I hope will give a just Idea of
 the bird. it's loud note is Single and Consists of a loud Squall,
 intirely different from the whistling of our partridge or quailes. it
 has a chiping note when allarmed like our partridge.--to day there was
 a Second of those birds killed which presisely resembles that just
 discribed. I believe those to be the mail bird the female, if so, I
 have not yet Seen.-.
 at 6 P.M. Shannon and party returned with the flesh of five Elk. the
 two he had wounded in the morning he found dead near the place he had
 Shot them. we had the meat cut into thin pices and Scaffored with a
 fire under it to dry out, which we expect in the course of the night
 Can be effected. four Indians from the great rapids visited us to day
 and Continued all day. they give the Same account of the Scercity of
 provisions above the falls as has already been given by others. This
 Supply of Elk I think by useing economey and in addition of roots and
 dogs which we may probably precure from he Nativs on Lewis's river will
 be Sufficient to last us to the Chopunnish where we Shall Meet with our
 horses-. and near which place there is Some deer to be precured.
 Frazer killed a pheasent of the Common kind. Jos. Field killed a
 vulture of that Speces already discribed. in the evening late the
 Indians left us and returned to their village. we detected that fires
 be kept under the meat all night. and tha Drewyer and the two Fields
 proceed on to the next bottom and hunt untill we Should arive. 9 miles
 
 
 [Lewis, April 7, 1806]
 Monday April 7th 1806.
 This morning early the flesh of the remaining Elk was brought in and
 Drewyer with the Feildses departed agreeably to the order of the last
 evening. we employed the party in drying the meat today which we
 completed by the evening, and we had it secured in dryed Elkskins and
 put on board in readiness for an early departure. we were visited today
 by several parties of indians from a village about 8 miles above us of
 the Sahhalah nation. I detected one of them in steeling a peice of lead
 and sent him from camp. I hope we have now a sufficient stock of dryed
 meat to serve us as far the Chopunnish provided we can obtain a few
 dogs horses and roots by the way. in the neighbourhood of the
 Chopunnish we can procure a few deer and perhaps a bear or two for the
 mountains. last evening Reubin Fields killed a bird of the quail kind
 it is reather larger than the quail, or partridge as they are called in
 Virginia. it's form is precisely that of our patridge tho it's plumage
 differs in every part. the upper part of the head, sides and back of
 the neck, including the croop and about 1/3 of the under part of the
 body is of a bright dove coloured blue, underneath the under beak, as
 high as the lower edge of the eyes, and back as far as the hinder part
 of the eyes and thence coming down to a point in front of the neck
 about two thirds of it's length downwards, is of a fine dark brick red.
 between this brick red and the dove colour there runs a narrow stripe
 of pure white. the ears are covered with some coarse stiff dark brown
 feathers. just at the base of the under chap there is narrow transverse
 stripe of white. from the crown of the head two long round feathers
 extend backwards nearly in the direction of the beak and are of a black
 colour. the longest of these feathers is two inches and an half, it
 overlays and conceals the other which is somewhat shorter and seems to
 be raped in the plumage of that in front which folding backwards
 colapses behind and has a round appearance. the tail is composed of
 twelve dark brown feathers of nearly equal length. the large feathers
 of the wings are of a dark brown and are reather short in proportion to
 the body of the bird in that rispect very similar to our common
 partridge. the covert of the wings and back are of a dove colour with a
 slight admixture of redish brown. a wide stripe which extends from side
 to side of the body and occupyes the lower region of the breast is
 beautifully variagated with the brick red white and black which
 pedominate in the order they are mentioned and the colours mark the
 feathers transversely. the legs are covered with feathers as low as the
 knee; these feathers are of a dark brown tiped with the dark brick red
 as are also those between and about the joining of the legs with the
 body. they have four toes on each foot of which three are in front and
 that in the center the longest, those one each side nearly of a length;
 that behing is also of good length and are all armed with long and
 strong nails. the legs and feet are white and imbrecated with
 proportionably large broad scales. the upper beak is short, wide at
 it's base, black, convex, curved downwards and reather obtusely
 pointed. it exceeds the under chap considerably which is of a white
 colour, also convex underneath and obtusely pointed. the nostrils are
 remarkably small placed far back and low down on the sides of the beak.
 they are covered by a thin protuberant elastic, black leatherlike
 substance. the eyes are of a uniform piercing black colour. this is a
 most beautifull bird. I preserved the skin of this bird retaining the
 wings feet and head which I hope will give a just idea of the bird.
 it's loud note is single and consists of a loud squall, intirely
 different from the whistling of our quales or partridge. it has a
 cherping note when allarmed something like ours.--today there was a
 second of these birds killed by Capt C. which precisely resembled that
 just discribed. I believe these to be the male bird the female, if so,
 I have not yet seen.--the day has been fair and weather extreemly
 pleasant. we made our men exercise themselves in shooting today and
 regulate their guns found several of them that had their sights moved
 by accedent, and others that wanted some little alterations all which
 were compleatly rectifyed in the course of the day. in the evening all
 the Indians departed for their village.
 
 
 [Clark, April 7, 1806]
 Monday April 7th 1806
 This morning Drewyer & the two Fields Set out agreeably to their orders
 of last evening, the remainder of the party employed in drying the
 flesh of the five Elk killed by Shannon yesterday. which was completed
 and we had it Secured in dried Shaved Elk Skins and put on board in
 readiness for our early departure. we were visited by Several parties
 of Indians from a Village about 12 miles above us of the Sahhalah
 nation. one of them was detected in Stealing a piece of Lead. I Sent
 him off imedeately. I hope now we have a Sufficient Stock of dryed meat
 to Serve us as far as the Chopunnish provided we can obtain a fiew
 dogs, horses and roots by the way. in the neighbourhood of the
 Chopunnish under the Rocky Mountains we can precure a fiew deer, and
 perhaps a Bear or two for the Mountains.
 The day has been fair and weather exceedingly pleasent. we made our men
 exersise themselves in Shooting and regulateing their guns, found
 Several of them that had their Sights moved by accident, and others
 that wanted Some little alterations all which were compleated rectified
 in the Course of the day except my Small rifle, which I found wanted
 Cutting out. about 4 oClock P M all the Indians left us, and returned
 to their Village. they had brought with them Wappato, & pashequa roots
 Chapellel cakes, and a Species of Raspberry for Sale, none of which
 they disposed of as they asked Such enormous prices for those articles
 that we were not able to purchase any. Drewyer returned down the river
 in the evening & informed us that the nativs had Sceared all the Elk
 from the river above. Joseph & reuben Fields had proceeded on further
 up the river in the canoe, he expected to the village.
 I provaled on an old indian to mark the Multnomah R down on the Sand
 which hid and perfectly Corisponded with the Sketch given me by sundary
 others, with the addition of a circular mountain which passes this
 river at the falls and connects with the mountains of the Seacoast. he
 also lais down the Clark a mos passing a high Conical Mountain near
 it's mouth on the lower Side and heads in Mount Jefferson which he lais
 down by raiseing the Sand as a very high mountain and Covered with
 eternal Snow. the high mountain which this Indian lais down near the
 enterance of Clark a mos river, we have not Seen as the hills in it's
 diretion from this vally is high and obscures the Sight of it from us.
 Mt Jefferson we Can plainly See from the enterance of Multnomah from
 which place it bears S. E. this is a noble Mountain and I think equally
 as high or Something higher than Mt. St. Heleansa but its distance
 being much greater than that of the latter, So great a portion of it
 does not appear above the range of mountains which lie between both
 those Stupendious Mountains and the Mouth of Multnomah. like Mt. St.
 Heleans its figure is a regular Cone and is covered with eturnial Snow.
 that the Clarkamos nation as also those at the falls of the Multnomah
 live principally on fish of which those Streams abound and also on
 roots which they precure on it's borders, they also Sometimes Come down
 to the Columbia in Serch of Wappato. they build their houses in the
 Same form with those of the Columbian Vally of wide Split boads and
 Covered with bark of the White Cedar which is the entire length of the
 one Side of the roof and jut over at the eve about 18 inches. at the
 distance of about 18 inches transvers Spinters of dried pine is
 inserted through the Ceder bark inorder to keep it Smooth and prevent
 it's edge from Colapsing by the heat of the Sun; in this manner the
 nativs make a very Secure light and lasting roof of this bark. which we
 have observed in every Vilege in this Vally as well as those above.
 this Indian also informed me the multnomah above the falls was Crouded
 with rapids and thickly inhabited by indians of the Callah-po-e-wah
 Nation. he informed he had himself been a long way up that river &c.
 
 
 [Lewis, April 8, 1806]
 Tuesday April 8th 1806.
 The wind blew so violently this morning that we were obliged to unlode
 our perogues and canoes, soon after which they filled with water. being
 compelled to remain during the day at our present station we sent out
 some hunters in order to add something to our stock of provision; and
 exposed our dryed meat to the sun and the smoke of small fires. in the
 evening the hunters returned having killed a duck only; they saw two
 bear and some of the blacktailed jumping or fallow deer, such as are
 found about Fort Clatsop; this kind of deer are scarce in this
 neighbourhood, the common longtailed fallow deer being most abundant.
 we have seen the black bear only in this quarter. the wind continued
 without intermission to blow violently all day. I took a walk today of
 three miles down the river; in the course of which I had an opportunity
 to correct an errow which I have heretofore made with rispect to the
 shrub I have hithertoo called the large leafed thorn. the leaf of this
 thorn is small being only abut 21/2 inches long, is petiolate,
 conjugate; the leafets are petiolate accutely pointed, having their
 margins cut with unequal angular insissures. the shrub which I have
 heretofore confounded with this grows in similar situations, has a stem
 precisely like it except the thorn and bears a large three loabed leaf.
 this bryer is of the class Polyandria and order Polygynia. the flowers
 are single, the peduncle long and celindric. the calix is a perianth,
 of one leaf, five cleft, & accutely pointed. the perianth is proper,
 erect, inferior with rispect to both petals and germen, and equal. the
 corolla consists of five accute pale scarlet petals, insirted in the
 recepticle with a short and narrow claw. the Corolla is smooth,
 moderately long, situated at the base of the germen, permanent, and cup
 shaped. of the stamens the filaments are subulate, inserted into the
 recepticle, unequal and bent inwards concealing the pistillum; anther
 two loabed and inflected situated on the top of the fillaments of the
 pistillum the germ is conical, imbricated, superior, sessile and short.
 the styles are short with rispect to the stamen, capillary smooth,
 obtuse, distributed over the serface of the germ and decid-uous. no
 perseptable stigma.--late at night the centinel detected an old indian
 man in attempting to creep into camp in order to pilfer; he allarmed
 the indian very much by presenting his gun at him; he gave the fellow a
 few stripes with a switch and sent him off. this fellow is one of a
 party of six who layed incamped a few hundred yards below us, they
 departed soon after this occurrence.
 
 
 [Clark, April 8, 1806]
 Tuesday April 8th 1806
 This morning about day light I heard a Considerable roreing like wind
 at a distance and in the Course of a Short time ways rose very high
 which appeared to come across the river and in the Course of an hour
 became So high that we were obliged to unload the canoes, at 7 oClock
 A.M. the winds Suelded and blew So hard and raised the Waves So
 emensely high from the N. E and tossed our Canoes against the Shore in
 Such a manner as to render it necessary to haul them up on the bank.
 finding from the appearance of the winds that it is probable that we
 may be detained all day, we Sent out Drewyer, Shannon Colter & Collins
 to hunt with derections to return if the Wind Should lul, if not to
 Continue the hunt all day except they killed Elk or bear Sooner &c. we
 had the dried meat which was cured at our last encampment below exposed
 to the Sun. John Shields Cut out my Small rifle & brought hir to Shoot
 very well. the party ows much to the injenuity of this man, by whome
 their guns are repared when they get out of order which is very often.
 I observed an Indian Woman who visited us yesterday blind of an eye,
 and a man who was nearly blind of both eyes. the loss of Sight I have
 observed to be more Common among all the nations inhabiting this river
 than among any people I ever observed. they have almost invariably Sore
 eyes at all Stages of life. the loss of an eye is very Common among
 them; blindness in persons of middle age is by no means uncommon, and
 it is almost invariably a concammitant of old age. I Know not to what
 cause to attribute this prevalent deficientcy of the eye except it be
 their exposure to the reflection of the Sun on the water to which they
 are constantly exposed in the Occupation of fishing. about 1 P M
 Collins Shannon and Colter returned. Collins Saw 2 bear but could not
 get a Shot at them. neither Shannon nor Colter Saw any thing worth
 Shooting. Soon after Drewyer returned haveing only a Summer Duck. the
 Elk is gorn to the mountains as the hunters Suppose. in the evening
 late an old man his Son & Grand Son and their Wives &c. Came down
 dureing the time the waves raged with great fury. the wife of the Grand
 Son is a woman of differant appearance from any we have Seen on this
 river, she has a very round head and pierceing black eyes. Soon after
 those people arived the Old man was detected in Stealing a Spoon and he
 was ordered away, at about 200 yards below our Camp they built
 themselves a fire and did not return to our fires after-. The Wind
 Continued violently hard all day, and threw our Canoes with Such force
 against the Shore that one of them Split before we Could get it out.
 
 
 [Lewis, April 9, 1806]
 Wednesday April 9th 1806.
 This morning early we commenced the operation of reloading our canoes;
 at 7 A.M. we departed and proceeded on to the Camp of Reubin and Joseph
 Fields they had not killed any game; we made no halt at this place but
 continued our rout to the Wah-clel-lah Village which is situated on the
 North side of the river about a mile below the beacon rock; here we
 halted and took breakfast. John Colter one of our party observed the
 tomehawk in one of the lodges which had been stolen from us on the 4th
 of November last as we decended this river; the natives attempted to
 wrest the tomahawk from him but he retained it. they indeavoured
 afterwards to exculpate themselves from the odium of having stolen it,
 they alledged that they had bought it from the natives below; but their
 neighbours had several days previously, informed us that these people
 had stolen the Tommehawk and then had it at their village. this village
 appears to be the winter station of the Wah-clel-lahs and Clahclellars,
 the greater part of the former have lately removed to the falls of the
 Multnomah, and the latter have established themselves a few miles above
 on the North side of the river opposite the lower point of brant
 island, being the commencement of the rapids, here they also take their
 salmon; they are now in the act of removing, and not only take with
 them their furniture and effects but also the bark and most of the
 boards which formed their houses. 14 houses remain entire but are at
 this time but thinly inhabited, nine others appear to have been lately
 removed, and the traces of ten or twelve others of ancient date were to
 be seen in the rear of their present village. they sometimes sink their
 houses in the earth, and at other times have their floors level with
 the surface of the earth; they are generally built with boards and
 covered with Cedar bark. most of them have a devision in their houses
 near the entrance wich is at the end or in the event of it's bing a
 double house is from the center of a narrow passage. several families
 inhabit one appartment. the women of these people pierce the cartelage
 of the nose in which they wear various ornaments in other rispects they
 do not differ from those in the neighbourhood of the Diamond island;
 tho most of the women brad their hair which hanges in two tresses one
 hanging over each ear. these people were very unfriendly, and seemed
 illy disposed had our numbers not detered them any acts of violence.
 with some difficuly we obtained five dogs from them and a few wappetoe.
 on our way to this village we passed several beautifull cascades which
 fell from a great hight over the stupendious rocks which cloles the
 river on both sides nearly, except a small bottom on the South side in
 which our hunters were encamped. the most remarkable of these casscades
 falls about 300 feet perpendicularly over a solid rock into a narrow
 bottom of the river on the south side. it is a large creek, situated
 about 5 miles above our encampment of the last evening. several small
 streams fall from a much greater hight, and in their decent become a
 perfect mist which collecting on the rocks below again become visible
 and decend a second time in the same manner before they reach the base
 of the rocks. the hills have now become mountains high on each side are
 rocky steep and covered generally with fir and white cedar. we saw some
 turkey buzzards this morning of the speceis common to the United states
 which are the first we have seen on this side the rocky mountains.
 during our halt at this village the grand Cheif and two inferior Cheifs
 of the Chil-luck-kit-to-quaw nation arrived with several men and women
 of their nation in two large canoes. these people were on their return
 up the river, having been on a trading voyage to the Columbean vally,
 and were loaded with wappetoe dryed anchovies, with some beads &c which
 they had received in exchange for dryed and pounded salmon shappelell
 beargrass &c. These people had been very kind to us as we decended the
 river we therefore smoked with them and treated them with every
 attention. at 2 P.M. we renewed our voyage; passed under the beacon
 rock on the north side, to the left of two small islands situated near
 the shore. at four P.M. we arrived at the Clah-clel-lah village; here
 we found the natives busily engaged in erecting their new habitations,
 which appear to be reather of a temperary kind; it is most probable
 that they only reside here during the salmon season. we purchased two
 dogs of these people who like those of the village blow were but sulky
 and illy disposed; they are great rogues and we are obliged to keep
 them at a proper distance from our bag-gage. as we could not ascend the
 rapid by the North side of the river with our large canoes, we passed
 to the oposite side and entered the narrow channel which seperates
 brant Island from the South shore; the evening being far spent and the
 wind high raining and very cold we thought best not to attempt the
 rapids this evening, we therefore sought a safe harbour in this narrow
 channel and encamped on the main shore. our small canoe with Drewer and
 the two feildses was unable to pass the river with us in consequence of
 the waves they therefore toed her up along the N. side of the river and
 encamped opposite the upper point of brant Island. after halting this
 evening I took a turn with my gun in order to kill a deer, but was
 unsuccessfull. I saw much fresh sign. the fir has been lately injured
 by a fire near this place and many of them have discharged considerable
 quantities of rozin. we directed that Collins should hunt a few hours
 tomorrow morning and that Gibson and his crew should remain at his
 place untill we returned and employ themselves in collectng rozin which
 our canoes are now in want of.
 
 
 [Clark, April 9, 1806]
 Wednesday April 9th 1806
 last night at a late hour the old amsiated Indian who was detected in
 Stealing a Spoon yesterday, Crept upon his belley with his hands and
 feet, with a view as I Suppose to take Some of our baggage which was in
 Several defferent parcels on the bank. the Sentinal observed the
 motions of this old amcinated retch untill he got with a fiew feet of
 the baggage at he hailed him and approached with his gun in a possion
 as if going to Shoote which allarmed the old retch in Such a manner
 that he ran with all his power tumbleing over brush and every thing in
 his way. at 7 A.M. we Set out and proceeded on to the Camp of Joseph &
 Reubin Fields. they had killed nothing. here we did not delay but
 proceeded on to Wah-clel-lah Village on the North Side and brackfast
 here one the men Colter observed the Tomahawk which was Stolen from on
 the 4th of Novr. last as we decended the Columbia, he took the tomahawk
 the natives attempted to wrest it from him, he held fast the Tomahawk.
 Those people attempted to excuse themselves from odium of Stealing it,
 by makeing Signs that they had purchased the Tomahawk, but their
 nighbours informed me otherwise and made Signs that they had taken it.
 This Village appears to be the wintering Station of two bands of the
 Shah-ha-la Nation. One band has already moved the Falls of the
 Multnomah which is the place they take their Salmon. The other band is
 now moveing a fiew miles above to the foot of the first rapid on this
 river, at which place they take their Salmon. 14 houses only appear
 occupied and the inhabitants of those moveing off hourly, they take
 with them in their Canoes independent of all their houshold effects the
 bark of their houses, and boards. 9 houses has been latterly abandened
 and 14 others is yet is thinly inhabited at present, and the remains of
 10 or 12 others are to be Seen and appears to have been enhabited last
 fall. those people were not hospital and with Some dificuelty we
 precured 5 dogs and a fiew Wappato of them. Soon after we arived at
 this Village the Grand Cheif and two others of the
 Chee-luck-kit-le-quaw Nation arived from below. they had with them 11
 men and 7 womin and had been trading in the Columbia Vally for Wappato,
 beeds and dried Anchovies &c in exchange for which they had given
 pounded fish Shappalell, bear grass, acorns boiled berries &c. &c. and
 are now on their return to their village. as those people had been very
 Kind to us as we decended the river we gave them Smoke. at 2 oClock P.
 M we Set out and passed under the Beacon rock on the North Side of two
 Small Islds. Situated nearest the N. side. at 4 P.M. we arived at the
 first rapid at the head of Straw berry island at which place on the N
 W. Side of the Columbia here we found the nativs from the last village
 rebuilding their habitations of the bark of their old Village 16 Huts
 are already Compleated and appear only temporrary it is most probable
 that they only reside here dureing the Season of the Salmon. as we
 Could not pass with the large Canoes up the N. W. Side for the rocks,
 the wind high and a rainey disagreeable evining. our Smallest Canoe
 being too low to cross through the high waves, we Sent her up on the N
 W. Side with Drewyer and the two Fields and after purchaseing 2 dogs
 Crossed and into the Sluce of a large high Island seperated from the S.
 E Side by a narrow chanel, in this chanel we found a good harbor and
 encamped on the lower Side. We Saw Some deer Sign and Collins to hunt
 in the mornig untill the Canoes were toed above the rapids. made 16
 Miles to day. evening wet & disagreeable.
 
 
 [Lewis, April 10, 1806]
 Thursday April 10th 1806.
 We set out early and droped down the channel to the lower end of brant
 Island from whence we drew them up the rapid by a cord about a quarter
 of a mile which we soon performed; Collins and Gibson not having yet
 come over we directed Sergt. Pryor to remain with the cord on the
 Island untill Gibson arrived and assist him with his crew in geting his
 canoe up the rapid, when they were to join us on the oposite side at a
 small village of six houses of the Clah-clah'lahs where we halted for
 breakfast. in passing the river which is here about 400 yds. wide the
 rapidity of the currant was such that it boar us down a considerable
 distance notwithstanding we employed five oars. on entering one of
 these lodges, the natives offered us a sheepskin for sail, than which
 nothing could have been more acceptable except the animal itself. the
 skin of the head of the sheep with the horns remaining was cased in
 such manner as to fit the head of a man by whom it was woarn and highly
 prized as an ornament. we obtained this cap in exchange for a knife,
 and were compelled to give two Elkskins in exchange for the skin. this
 appeared to be the skin of a sheep not fully grown; the horns were
 about four inches long, celindric, smooth, black, erect and pointed;
 they rise from the middle of the forehead a little above the eyes. they
 offered us a second skin of a full grown sheep which was quite as large
 as that of a common deer. they discovered our anxity to purchase and in
 order to extort a great plrice declared that they prized it too much to
 dispose of it. in expectation of finding some others of a similar kind
 for sale among the natives of this neighbourhood I would not offer him
 a greater price than had been given for the other which he refused.
 these people informed us that these sheep were found in great abundance
 on the hights and among the clifts of the adjacent mountains. and that
 they had lately killed these two from a herd of 36, at no great
 distance from their village. we could obtain no provision from those
 people except four white salmon trout. at ten oclock Sergt. Pryor and
 Gibson joined us with Collins who had killed 3 deer. these were all of
 the blacktailed fallow kind. we set out and continued our rout up the
 N. side of the river with great difficulty in consequence of the
 rapidity of the current and the large rocks which form this shore; the
 South side of the river is impassable. as we had but one sufficient
 toerope and were obliged to employ the cord in geting on our canoes the
 greater part of the way we could only take them one at a time which
 retarded our progress very much. by evening we arrived at the portage
 on the North side where we landed and conveyed our bagage to the top of
 the hill about 200 paces distant where we formed a camp. we had the
 canoes drawn on shore and secured. the small canoe got loose from the
 hunters and went a drift with a tin vessel and tommahawk in her; the
 Indians caught her at the last village and brought her up to us this
 evening for which service we gave them a couple of knives; the canoe
 overset and lost the articles which were in her.--Saw the white pine at
 this place.
 
 
 [Clark, April 10, 1806]
 Thursday April 10th 1806
 Collins went out in the bottom to hunt agreeable to the order of last
 evening, and gibsons Crew was derected to delay for Collins dureing
 which time they were derected to Collect rozin from the pines in the
 bottom near our Camp at 6 A M. we Set out and proceeded to the lower
 point of the Island from whence we were Compelled to draw our Canoes up
 a rapid for about 1/4 mile which we Soon performed. Collins & gibson
 haveing not yet Come over we derected Serjt. Pryor to delay on the
 Island untill Gibson Came over & assist him with the large toe roap
 which we also left and to join us at a village of four houses of the
 Clah-lah-lar Tribe which is opposit to this Island on North Side at
 which place we intened to brackfast. in crossing the River which at
 this place is not more than 400 yards wide we fell down a great
 distance owing to the rapidity of the Current. I entered one of the
 houses of those people and was Scercely Seated before they offered me a
 Sheep Skin for Sale nothing could be more acceptable except the Animal
 itself in examoning this Skin I found it was a young one, the Skin of
 the head was Cased So as to fit the head of a man and was esteemed as a
 great orniment and highly prised by them. we precured this Cased head
 for a knife and, the Skin we were obliged to give two Raw Elk Skins
 for. Soon after they offered a large one for Sall. after finding us
 anxious to purchase they declined silling this Skin. those people
 informed us that they killed those Animals among the rocks in the
 mountains under which they live; and that great numbers of those
 animals inhabit those mountains & that the lamb was killed out of a
 gange of 36 at a Short distance from their village. The wool of the
 full grown Sheep, or that on the Skin which we Saw was much Corser than
 that of the one which we purchased, the Skin was about the Size of that
 of a Common deer. The Skin we obtained appeared to be the Skin of a
 Sheep not fully grown, the wool fine, the Horns were abought 4 inches
 long, Celindric, Smooth, black, a little bending backwards and pointed;
 they rise from the Middle of the foeheard, and a little above the eyes,
 and appeared to possess all the marks of the Common Sheep as already
 discribed. We could precure no provisions from those people except four
 white Salmon trout. at 10 oClock Sergt. Pryor and Gibson joined us with
 Collins who had killed 3 deer. these were all of the blacktailed fallow
 kind. We Set out and Continued up on the N. Side of the river with
 great dificuelty in Consequence of the Rapidity of the Current and the
 large rocks which forms this Shore; the South Side of the river is
 impassable.
 As we had but one Sufficent toe roap and were obliged to employ the
 Cord in getting on our Canoes the greater part of the way we could only
 take them one at a time which retarded our progress very much. by
 evening we arived at the portage on the N. Side where we landed and
 Conveyed our baggage to the top of the hill about 200 paces distant
 where we found a Camp. we had the Canoes drawn on Shore and Secured.
 the Small Canoe got loose from the hunters and went adrift with a tin
 cup & a tomahawk in her; the Indians Caught her at the last Village and
 brought her up to us this evening for which we gave them two knives;
 the Canoe overset and lost the articles which were in her.-.
 
 
 [Lewis, April 11, 1806]
 Friday April 11th 1806.
 As the tents and skins which covered both our men and baggage were wet
 with the rain which fell last evening, and as it continued still
 raining this morning we concluded to take our canoes first to the head
 of the rapids, hoping that by evening the rain would cease and afford
 us a fair afternoon to take our baggage over the portage. this portage
 is two thousand eight hundred yards along a narrow rough and slipery
 road. the duty of getting the canoes above the rapid was by mutual
 consent confided to my friend Capt. C. who took with him for that
 purpose all the party except Bratton who is yet so weak he is unable to
 work, three others who were lamed by various accedents and one other to
 cook for the party. a few men were absolutely necessary at any rate to
 guard our baggage from the War-clel-lars who crouded about our camp in
 considerable numbers. these are the greates theives and scoundrels we
 have met with. by the evening Capt. C. took 4 of our canoes above the
 rapids tho with much difficulty and labour. the canoes were much
 damaged by being driven against the rocks in dispite of every
 precaution which could be taken to prevent it. the men complained of
 being so much fatiegued in the evening that we posponed taking up our
 5th canoe untill tomorrow. these rapids are much worse than they were
 fall when we passed them, at that time there were only three difficult
 points within seven miles, at present the whole distance is extreemly
 difficult of ascent, and it would be impracticable to decend except by
 leting down the empty vessels by a cord and then even the wrisk would
 be greater than in taking them up by the same means. the water appears
 to be upwards of 20 feet higher than when we decended the river. the
 distance by way of the river between the points of the portage is 3
 Msmany of the natives crouded about the bank of the river where the men
 were engaged in taking up the canoes; one of them had the insolence to
 cast stones down the bank at two of the men who happened to be a little
 detatched from the party at the time. on the return of the party in the
 evening from the head of the rapids they met with many of the natives
 on the road, who seemed but illy disposed; two of these fellows met
 with John Sheilds who had delayed some time in purchasing a dog and was
 a considerable distance behind the party on their return with Capt. C.
 they attempted to take the dog from him and pushed him out of the road.
 he had nothing to defend himself with except a large knife which he
 drew with an intention of puting one or both of them to death before
 they could get themselves in readiness to use their arrows, but
 discovering his design they declined the combat and instantly fled
 through the woods. three of this same tribe of villains the
 Wah-clel-lars, stole my dog this evening, and took him towards their
 village; I was shortly afterwards informed of this transaction by an
 indian who spoke the Clatsop language, and sent three men in pursuit of
 the theives with orders if they made the least resistence or difficulty
 in surrendering the dog to fire on them; they overtook these fellows or
 reather came within sight of them at the distance of about 2 miles; the
 indians discovering the party in pursuit of them left the dog and fled.
 they also stole an ax from us, but scarcely had it in their possession
 before Thompson detected them and wrest it from them. we ordered the
 centinel to keep them out of camp, and informed them by signs that if
 they made any further attempts to steal our property or insulted our
 men we should put them to instant death. a cheif of the Clah-clel-lah
 tribe informed us that there were two very bad men among the
 Wah-clel-lahs who had been the principal actors in these seenes of
 outradge of which we complained, and that it was not the wish of the
 nation by any means to displease us. we told him that we hoped it might
 be the case, but we should certainly be as good as our words if they
 presisted in their insolence. I am convinced that no other
 consideration but our number at this moment protects us. The Cheif
 appeared mortified at the conduct of his people, and seemed friendly
 disposed towards us. as he appeared to be a man of consideration and we
 had reason to beleive much rispected by the neighbouring tribes we
 thought it well to bestoe a medal of small size upon him. he appeared
 much gratifyed with this mark of distinction, and some little attention
 which we shewed him. he had in his possession a very good pipe tomahawk
 which he informed us he had received as a present from a trader who
 visited him last winter over land pointing to the N. W., whome he
 called Swippeton; he was pleased with the tommahawk of Capt. C. in
 consequence of it's having a brass bowl and Capt. C. gratified him by
 an exchange. as a further proof of his being esteemed by this white
 trader, he gave us a well baked saylor's bisquit which he also informed
 us he had received from Swippeton. from these evidences I have no doubt
 but the traders who winter in some of the inlets to the N. of us visit
 this part of the Columbia by land at certain seasons, most probably
 when they are confined to their winter harbour. and if so some of those
 inlets are probably at no great distance from this place, as there
 seems to be but little inducement to intice the trader hither from any
 considerable distance particularly as the difficulty in traveling on
 the borders of this mountainous country must be great at that season as
 the natives informed me their snows were frequently breast deep. I
 observe snowshoes in all the lodges of the natives above the Columbean
 vally. I hope that the friendly interposition of this chief may prevent
 our being compelled to use some violence with these people; our men
 seem well disposed to kill a few of them. we keep ourselves perefectly
 on our guard. This evening we send Drewyer and the two Feildses on a
 few miles up the river to the entrance of Cruzatt's river to hunt
 untill our arrival. The inhabitants of the Y-eh-huh Village on the
 North side immediately above the rapids have lately removed to the
 opposite side of the river, where it appears they usually take their
 salmon. like their relations the Wah-Clel-lars they have taken their
 houses with them. I observe that all the houses lately established have
 their floors on the surface of the earth, are smaller and of more
 temperary structure than those which are sunk in the ground. I presume
 the former are their spring and Summer dwellings and the latter those
 of the fall and winter. these houses are most generally built with
 boards and covered with bark. some of an inferior ore more temperary
 cast are built entirely of cedar bark, which is kept smooth and
 extended by inserting small splinters of wood through the bark
 crosswise at the distance of 12 or 14 inches assunder. several families
 inhabit the same appartment. their women as well as those of the 3
 villages next below us pierce the cartelage of the nose and insert
 various ornaments. they very seldom imprint any figures on their skins;
 a few I observed had one or two longitudinal lines of dots on the front
 of the leg, reaching from the ankle upwards about midleg. most of their
 women braid their hair in two tresses as before mentioned. the men
 usually cew their hair in two parsels which like the braded tresses of
 the female hang over each ear in front of the sholder, and gives an
 additional width to the head and face so much admired by them. these
 cews are usually formed with throngs of dressed Otterskin crossing each
 other and not roled in our manner arrond the hair. in all other
 rispects I observe no difference in their dress habits manners &c. from
 those in the Neighbourhood of the diamond Island. today we recognized a
 man of the Elute nation who reside at the long narrows of the Columbia,
 he was on his return from a trading voyage to the Columbean valley with
 10 or 12 others of his nation. many other natives from the villages
 above were employed in taking their roots &c over the portage on their
 return. I observed that the men equally with the women engage in the
 labour of carrying. they all left their canoes below the rapids and
 took others above which they had left as they decended. those which
 were left below were taken down the river by the persons from whom they
 had been hired or borrowed. the natives from above behaved themselves
 in a very orderly manner. The salmon have not yet made their
 appearance, tho the natives are not so much distressed for food as I
 was induced to believe. I walked down today about 3/4 of a mile below
 our encampment to observe the manner in which these people inter their
 dead. I found eight sepulchers near the north bank of the river built
 in the following manner. four strong forks are first sunk several feet
 in the ground and rise about six feet high, froming a parrallelogram of
 8 by 10 feet. the intervals between these upright forks, on which four
 poles are laid, are filled up with broad erect boards with their lower
 ends sunk in the ground and their upper ends confined to the horizontal
 poles. a flat roof is formed of several layers of boards; the floors of
 these sepulchres are on a level with the surface of the earth. the
 human bodies are well rolled in dressed skins and lashed securely with
 chords and laid horizontaly on the back with the head to the west. in
 some of these sepulchres they are laid on each other to the debth of
 three or four bodies. in one of those sepulchres which was nearly
 decayed I observed that the human bones filled it perfectly to the
 hight of about three feet. many articles appear to be sacreficed to the
 dead both within and without the sepulcres. among other articles, I
 observed a brass teakettle, some scollep shells, parts of several robes
 of cloth and skins, with sticks for diging roots &c.--this appears to
 be the burying ground of the Wahclellahs, Clahclellahs and Yehhuhs.
 
 
 [Clark, April 11, 1806]
 Friday April 11th 1806
 rained the greater part of the last night and continued to rain this
 morning, as the Skins and the Covering of both the mend and loading
 were wet we determined to take the Canoes over first in hopes that by
 the evening the rain would Sease and afford us a fair afternoon to
 Carry our baggage over the portage which is 2 miles by land and a
 Slipery road. I therefore took all the men except three who had Sore
 feet and two to cook, and who were with the baggage; and with great
 dificuelty and much fatigue we drew up 4 of our canoes above the Rapids
 3 miles in extent. the men became So fatigued that we deturmined to
 puspone takeing the 5th Canoe untill tomorrow. Those rapids are much
 worse than they were at the time we passed last fall at that time there
 was only three bad places in the distance of 7 miles. at this time the
 whole distance is a rapid and dificuelt of assent; and would be very
 dangerous at this Stage of the water (which is ____ feet higher than
 when we passed down) to decent in any kind of Craft. Great numbers of
 the nativs visited us and viewed us from the banks as we passed on with
 the Canoes, maney of those people were also about our baggage and on
 the portage road. two of those fellows insulted John Shields who had
 delayed in purchaseing a dog at the upper part of the rapids and was
 Some distance behind myself and the party on our return to camp. they
 attempted to take his dog and push him out of the road. he had nothing
 to defend himself except a large knife which he drew with a full
 deturmination to put one of them to death before he had an oppertunity
 of dischargeing his arrow. the nativs obseveing his motion ran off. one
 other Indn. Stold an ax and was not in possession before he was
 detected by Thompson and the ax taken from him. one other fellow
 attempted to Steal Capt. Lewis's dog, and had decoyed him nearly half a
 mile we were informed of it by a man who Spoke the Clatsop language and
 imediately Sent three men with their guns who over took the Indians,
 who on their approach ran off and lift the dog--we informed the nativ's
 by Signs that if the indians insulted our men or Stold our property we
 Should Certainly put them to death a Chief of the Clah-clal-lahs Tribe
 informed us that there was two very bad men who had been guilty of
 those mischevious acts. that it was not the wish of their tribe that
 any thing should be done which might displese the white people. this
 Chief had a large fine pipe tomahawk which he informed me he got from a
 Trader he called Swippeton. I exchanged tomahawks with this Chief, and
 as he appeared to be a man of consideration among the tribes of this
 neighbourhood and much conserned for the ingiries offered us, we gave
 him a Medal of the Small Size which appeard. to please him verry much;
 and will I hope have a favourable tendincy, in as much as it will
 attach him to our interest, and he probably will harang his people in
 our favour, which may prevent any acts of violence being Commited, on
 either Side. nothing but the Strength of our party has prevented our
 being robed before this time. Sent Drewyer & 2 Fields on a head to
 hunt. The inhabitents of the Wyach-hich Tribe Village imediately above
 those rapids on the N W. Side have latterly moved their village to the
 opposit Side of the river, where they take their Salmon; they are now
 in the act of removeing and not only take their furniture and effects
 but also the bark and most of the boards which formed their houses.
 Those like the tribes below Sometimes Sink their houses in the earth,
 and at other times have their flowrs leavil with the Surface of the
 earth; they are Generally built of boards and Covered with bark. those
 which appear intended for temporary use are most generally built of the
 White Cedar bark. Most of those have a division in the houses near the
 enterance which is at the end, or in the event of it's being a double
 house is from the center of a narrow passage. Several families enhabit
 one appartment. the women of those people as well as those in the 3
 villages below pierce the cartilage of the nose in which they ware
 Various orniments. in other respects they do not deffer from those of
 the Dimond Island. tho most of the women brad their hair which hangs in
 two tresses, one hanging over each ear. The yound men of all those
 tribes ware their hair plated, in two plats anging over each Sholder,
 maney of them also Cew their hair with otter Skin divided on the crown
 of the head and hanging over each ear. to day I recognised a man of the
 Elute nation who reside at the Long narrows, he was on his return from
 a tradeing voyage to the Columbian Vally with 10 or 12 of his tribe.
 maney others from the villages above this were takeing their roots &c.
 over the portage to day on their return home.
 vegitation is rapidly progressing. Sarvis berry, Sackacommis and the
 large leafed ash is in blume. also fir N. ____ in bloom
 
 
 [Lewis, April 12, 1806]
 Saturday April 12th 1806.
 It rained the greater part of last night and still continued to rain
 this morning. I therefore determined to take up the remaining perogue
 this morning for which purpose I took with me every man that could be
 of any service. a small distance above our camp there is one of the
 most difficult parts of the rapid. at this place the current sets with
 great violence against a projecting rock. in hawling the perogue
 arround this point the bow unfortunately took the current at too great
 a distance from the rock, she turned her side to the stream and the
 utmost exertions of all the party were unable to resist the forse with
 which she was driven by the current, they were compelled to let loose
 the cord and of course both perogue and cord went a drift with the
 stream. the loss of this perogue will I fear compell us to purchase one
 or more canoes of the indians at an extravegant price. after breakfast
 all hands were employed in taking our baggage over the portage. we
 caused all the men who had short rifles to carry them, in order to be
 prepared for the natives should they make any attempts to rob or injure
 them. I went up to the head of the rapids and left Capt. C. below.
 during the day I obtained a vocabulary of the language of the
 War-clel-lars &c. I found that their numbers were precisely those of
 the Chinnooks but the other parts of their language essentially
 different. by 5 P.M. we had brought up all our baggage and Capt. C.
 joined me from the lower camp with the Clahclellah cheif. there is an
 old village situated about halfway on the portage road the fraim of the
 houses, which are remarkably large one 160 by 45 feet, remain almost
 entire. the covering of the houses appears to have been sunk in a pond
 back of the village. this the chief informed us was the residence
 occasionally of his tribe. these houses are fraimed in the usual manner
 but consist of a double set as if oune house had been built within the
 other. the floors are on a level with the ground. the natives did not
 croud about us in such numbers today as yesterday, and behaved
 themselves much better; no doubt the precautions which they observed us
 take had a good effect. I employed sergt. Pryor the greater part of the
 day in reparing and corking the perogue and canoes. it continued to
 rain by showers all day. about 20 of the Y-eh-huhs remained with me the
 greater part of the day and departed in the evening. they conducted
 themselves with much propryety and contemned the conduct of their
 relations towards us. We purchased one sheepskin for which we gave the
 skin of an Elk and one of a deer. this animal was killed by the man who
 sold us the skin near this place; he informed us that they were
 abundant among the mountains and usually resorted the rocky parts. the
 big horned animal is also an inhabitant of these mountains. I saw
 several robes of their skins among the natives.as the evening was rainy
 cold and far advanced and ourselves wet we determined to remain all
 night. the mountains are high steep and rocky. the rock is principally
 black. they are covered with fir of several speceis and the white
 cedar. near the river we find the Cottonwood, sweet willow, broad
 leafed ash, a species of maple, the purple haw, a small speceis of
 cherry; purple currant, goosberry, red willow, vining and white burry
 honeysuckle, huckkle burry, sacacommis, two speceis of mountain holley,
 &common ash. for the three last days this inclusive we have made only 7
 miles.
 
 
 [Clark, April 12, 1806]
 Saturday April 12th 1806.
 rained the greater part of the last night and this morning untile 10
 A.M. we employed all hands in attempting to take up the lost Canoe. in
 attempting to pass by a rock against which the Current run with emence
 force, the bow unfortunately took the Current at too great a distance
 from the rock, She turned broad Side to the Stream, and the exertions
 of every man was not Sufficient to hold her. the men were Compelled to
 let go the rope and both the Canoe and rope went with the Stream. the
 loss of this Canoe will I fear Compell us to purchase another at an
 extravigent price. after brackfast all hands who were employed in
 Carrying the baggage over the portage 11/2 miles which they performed
 by 4 P.M. the nativs did not visit us in Such Crouds to day as
 yesterday. we Caused all the men of the party who ha Short guns to
 carry them on the portage for fear of Some attempt on the part of the
 nativs to rob the party. The rain Continued at intervales all day. in
 the evening after everry thing was taken from the lower Camp I Set out
 myself accompanied by the Cheif of the Clah-clal lars to the head of
 the portage. as we passed the remains of an old Village about half way
 the portage, this Cheif informed me that this old Village had been the
 residence of his Tribe dureing the last Salmon Season. this village I
 mentiond in decending this river, but did not know the Tribes that had
 inhabited it that time. Capt. Lewis took a vocabulary of the languge of
 those people whilst I had all the baggage taken across the portage & we
 formed a Camp at the place we had encamped on our way down.
 at my arival at the head of the portage found about 20 of the natives
 of the Wy ach hich tribe who reside above the rapids, with Capt Lewis.
 those people appeared much better disposed towards us than either the
 Clahclallah or Wahclellah and Condemn their Conduct much. Those tribes
 I believe to be all the Same Nation their Language habits manners dress
 &c. are presisely alike and differ but little from those below the
 Great Narrows of this river. I observed a woman with a Sheep Skin robe
 on which I purchased for one Elk and one deer Skin. the father of this
 woman informed me that he had killed the animal off of which he had
 taken this Skin on the mountains imediately above his village, and that
 on those mountains great numbers of those animals were to be found in
 large flocks among the Steep rocks. I also purchased 2 pieces of
 Chapellell and Some roots of those people. as the evening was rainey
 and ourselves and party wet we Concluded to delay untill the morning
 and dry our selves. The Indians left us about 6 P M and returned to
 their Village on the opposit Side. mountains are high on each Side and
 Covered with Snow for about 1/3 of the way down. the growth is
 principally fir and White Cedar. the bottoms and low Situations is
 Covered with a variety Such as Cotton, large leafed ash, Sweet willow a
 Species of beech, alder, white thorn, cherry of a Small Speces, Servis
 berry bushes, Huckleberries bushes, a Speces of Lorel &c. &c. I saw a
 turkey buzzard which is the 3rd which I have Seen west of the rocky
 mountains. the 1st was on the 7 inst. above quick Sand river. for the
 three last days this inclusive we have made 7 miles only.
 
 
 [Lewis, April 13, 1806]
 Sunday April 13th 1806.
 The loss of one of our perogues rendered it necessary to distribute her
 crew and cargo among the 2 remaining perogues and 2 canoes, which being
 done we loaded and set out 8 A.M. we passed the village immediately
 above the rapids where only one house at present remains entire, the
 other 8 having been taken down and removed to the oposite side of the
 river as before mentioned. we found the additional laiding which we had
 been compelled to put on board rendered our vessels extreemly
 inconvenient to mannage and in short reather unsafe in the event of
 high winds; I therefore left Capt. C. with the two perogues to proceede
 up the river on the N. side, and with the two canoes and some
 additional hands passed over the river above the rapids to the Y-eh-huh
 village in order to purchase one or more canoes. I found the village
 consisting of 11 houses crouded with inhabitants; it appeared to me
 that they could have mustered about 60 fighting men then present. they
 appeared very friendly disposed, and I soon obtained two small canoes
 from them for which I gave two robes and four elkskins. I also
 purchased four paddles and three dogs from them with deerskins. the dog
 now constitutes a considerable part of our subsistence and with most of
 the party has become a favorite food; certain I am that it is a healthy
 strong diet, and from habit it has become by no means disagreeable to
 me, I prefer it to lean venison or Elk, and is very far superior to the
 horse in any state. after remaining about 2 hours at this Village I
 departed and continued my rout with the four canoes along the S. side
 of the river the wind being too high to pass over to the entrance of
 Cruzatts river where I expected to have overtaken Capt. C. not seing
 the perogues on the opposite side I ascended the river untill one
 oclock or about 5 ms. above the entrance of Cruzat's river. being
 convinced that the perogues were behind I halted and directed the men
 to dress the dogs and cook one of them for dinner; a little before we
 had completed our meal Capt. C. arrived with the perogues and landed
 opposite to us. after dinner I passed the river to the perogues and
 found that Capt. C. had halted for the evening and was himself hunting
 with three of the party. the men in formed me that they had seen
 nothing of the hunters whom we had sent on the 11th ints. to the
 Entrance of Cruzatt's Riv. I directed Sergt. ordway to take the two
 small canoes for his mess and the loading which he had formerly carried
 in the perogue we lost yesterday, and to have them dryed this evening
 and payed with rozin. Capt. Clark returned in about an hour and being
 convinced that the hunters were yet behind we dispatched Sergt. Pryor
 in surch of them with two men and an empty canoe to bring the meat they
 may have killed. John Sheilds returned a little after six P.M. with two
 deer which he had killed. these were also of the blacktailed fallow
 deer; there appears to be no other speceis of deer in these mountains.
 Capt. C. informed me that the wind had detained him several hours a
 little above Cruzatt's river; that while detained here he sent out some
 men to hunt; one of them wounded two deer but got neither of them. the
 wind having lulled in the evening and not seing anything of Drewyer and
 the Feildses he had proceeded on to this place where he intended
 waiting for me, and as he did not see my canoes when he landed had
 taken a hunt with some of the men as before mentioned.
 
 
 [Clark, April 13, 1806]
 Sunday April 13th 1806
 The loss of one of our large Canoes rendered it necessary to divide the
 loading and men of that Canoe between the remaining four, which was
 done and we loaded and Set out at 8 oClock A.M. passed the village
 imediately above the rapids, where only one house remains entire the
 other 8 haveing been taken down and moved to the opposit Side of the
 Columbia as already mentioned. the additional men and baggage in each
 Canoe renders them Crouded and unsafe. Capt. Lewis with 2 of the
 Smallest Canoes of Sergt. Pryor & gibson and Crossed above the Rapids
 to the Village on the S E Side with a view to purchase a Canoe of the
 nativs if possible. he took with him Some Cloth and a fiew Elk skins
 and Deer Skins. I with the two large Canoes proceeded on up the N. W.
 Side with the intention of gitting to the Encampment of our hunters who
 was derected to hunt in the bottom above Crusats River, and there wait
 the arival of Capt. Lewis. I proceeded on to the bottom in which I
 expected to find the hunters but Could See nothing of them. the wind
 rose and raised the ways to Such a hight that I could not proceed any
 further. we landed and I sent out Shields and Colter to hunt; Shields
 Shot two deer but Could get neither of them. I walkd. to Crusats river
 and up it 1/2 a mile on my return to the party found that the wind had
 lulled and as we Could See nothing of our hunters. I deturmined to
 proceed on to the next bottom where I thought it probable they had
 halted at 1/2 passed 2 P M Set out and proceeded on to the bottom 6
 miles and halted at the next bottom formed a Camp and Sent out all the
 hunters. I also walked out my self on the hills but saw nothing. on my
 return found Capt. Lewis at Camp with two canoes which he had purchased
 at the Y-ep-huh village for two robes and four elkskins. he also
 purchased 4 paddles and three Dogs from the nativs with deer Skins. the
 dogs now constitutes a considerable part of our Subsistance & with most
 of the party has become a favourable food. Certain I am that is a
 helthy Strong diet, derected Serjt. ordway to take the 2 Small Canoes
 purchased by Capt. Lewis for his mess and the loading he had in his
 Canoe which we lost yesterday, and drawed up and paid with rozin.
 I was convinced that the hunters must have been up River Cruzatt.
 despatched Sergt. Pryor with 2 men in a Canoe, with directions to
 assend Crusats River and if he found the hunters to assist them in with
 the meat. Jo. Shields returned about Sunset with two deer which he had
 killed, those were of the Black tail fallow Deer. there appears to be
 no other Species of Deer in those mountains. We proceeded on 12 miles.
 
 
 [Lewis, April 14, 1806]
 Monday April 14th 1806.
 This morning at seven oCk. we were joined by Sergt. Pryor and the three
 hunters they brought with them 4 deer which Drewyer had killed
 yesterday. we took breakfast and departed. at 9 A.M. the wind arrose
 and continued hard all day but not so violent as to prevent our
 proceeding. we kept close along the N. shore all day. the river from
 the rapids as high as the commencement of the narrows is from 1/2 to
 3/4 of a mile in width, and possesses scarcely any current. the bed is
 principally rock except at the entrance of Labuish's river which heads
 in Mount hood and like the quicksand river brings down from thence vast
 bodies of sand. the mountains through which the river passes nearly to
 the sepulchre rock, are high broken, rocky, partially covered with fir
 white cedar, and in many places exhibit very romantic seenes. some
 handsome cascades are seen on either hand tumbling from the stupendious
 rocks of the mountains into the river. near the border of the river I
 observed today the long leafed pine. this pine increases in quantity as
 you ascend the river and about the sepulchre rock where the lower
 country commences it superceedes the fir altogether. throughout the
 whole course of this river from the rapids as high as the
 Chilluckkittequaws, we find the trunks of many large pine trees sanding
 erect as they grew at present in 30 feet water; they are much doated
 and none of them vegetating; at the lowest tide of the river many of
 these trees are in ten feet water. certain it is that those large pine
 trees never grew in that position, nor can I account for this
 phenomenon except it be that the passage of the river through the
 narrow pass at the rapids has been obstructed by the rocks which have
 fallen from the hills into that channel within the last 20 years; the
 appearance of the hills at that place justify this opinion, they appear
 constantly to be falling in, and the apparent state of the decayed
 trees would seem to fix the era of their decline about the time
 men-tioned. at 1 P.M. we arrived at a large village situated in a
 narrow bottom on the N. side a little above the entrance of canoe
 creek. their houses are reather detatched and extent for several miles.
 they are about 20 in number. These people call themselves We-ock-sock,
 Wil-lacum. they differ but litte in appeance dress &c. from those of
 the rapids. Their men have some leging and mockersons among them. these
 are in the stile of Chopunnish. they have some good horses of which we
 saw ten or a douzen. these are the fist horses we have met with since
 we left this neighbourhood last fall, in short the country below this
 place will not permit the uce of this valuable animal except in the
 Columbian vally and there the present inhabitants have no uce for them
 as they reside immediately on the river and the country is too thickly
 timbered to admit them to run the game with horses if they had them. we
 halted at this village and dined. purchased five dogs some roots,
 shappalell, filberds and dryed burries of the inhabitants. here I
 observed several habitations entirely under grownd; they were sunk
 about 8 feet deep and covered with strong timber and several feet of
 earth in a conic form. these habitations were evacuated at present.
 they are about 16 feet in diameter, nearly circular, and are entered
 through a hole at the top which appears to answer the double purpose of
 a chimney and a door. from this entrance you decend to the floor by a
 ladder. the present habitations of these people were on the surface of
 the ground and do not differ from those of the tribes of the rapids.
 their language is the same with that of the Chilluckkittequaws. these
 people appeared very friendly. some of them informed us that they had
 lately returned from a war excurtion against the snake indians who
 inhabit the upper part of the Multnomah river to the S. E. of them.
 they call them To-wannah'-hi'-ooks. that they had been fortunate in
 their expedition and had taken from their enimies most of the horses
 which we saw in their possession. after dinner we pursued our voyage;
 Capt. Clark walked on shore with Charbono. I ascended the river about
 six miles at which place the river washed the base of high clifts on
 the Lard. side, here we halted a few minutes and were joined by Capt.
 C. and Charbono and proceeded on to the entrance of a small run on N.
 side a little below a large village on the same side opposite the
 sepulchre rock. this village can raise about an hundred fighting men
 they call themselves. they do not differ in any rispect from the
 village below. many of them visited our camp this evening and remained
 with us untill we went to bed. they then left us and retired to their
 quarters.-
 
 
 [Clark, April 14, 1806]
 Monday April 14th 1806
 This morning at 7 oClock we were joined by Sgt. Pryor and they three
 hunters they brought with them 4 deer which drewyer had killed
 yesterday. we took brackfast and departed at 9 A.M. the wind rose and
 Continued to blow hard all day but not so violent as to prevent our
 proceeding. we kept Close allong the N. Shore all day. the river from
 the rapids to the Commencement of the narrows is from 1/2 to 3/4 of a
 Mile in wedth, and possesses but little Current. the bead is rock
 except at the enterence of Labiech's river which heads in Mt. Hood and
 like the quick Sand River brings down from thence Vast bodies of Sand
 the Mountains through which the river passes nearly to Cataract River
 are high broken rocky, particularly Covered with fir and white Cedar,
 and in maney places very romantic scenes. Some handsom Cascades are
 Seen on either Side tumbling from the Stupendious rocks of the
 mountains into the river. I observe near the river the long leafed Pine
 which increas as we assend and Superseeds the fir altogether about the
 Sepulchre rock. We find the trunks of maney large pine trees Standing
 erect as they grew, at present in 30 feet water; they are much doated
 and none of them vegitateing. at the lowest water of the river maney of
 those trees are in 10 feet water. the Cause I have attempted to account
 for as I decended. at 1 P M. we arrived at a large village Situated in
 a narrow bottom on the N. Side a little above the enterance of Canoe
 Creek. their houses are reather detached, and extend for Several Miles.
 they are about 20 in number. those people Call themselves Wil-la-cum.
 they differ but little in appearance dress &c. from those of the
 rapids. their men have Some legins and mockersons among them. those are
 in the Stile of Chopunnish. they have Some good horss of which we Saw
 10 or 12 these are the first horses we have met with Since we left this
 neighbourhood last fall in Short the Country below this place will not
 permit the use of this valuable animal except in the Columbian vally,
 and there the present inhabitents have no use for them as they reside
 imediately on the river and the Country is too thickly timbd. We halted
 at this village Dined and purchased five dogs, Some roots Chappalell,
 Philberds and dried berries of the inhabitents. here I observed Several
 habitations under ground; they were Sunk about 8 feet deep and covered
 with Strong timber and Several feet of earth in a conic form. those
 habitations are avacuated at present. they are about 16 feet diamieter,
 nearly Circular, and are entered through a hole at top which appears to
 answer the double purpose of a Chimney and a dore. from this enterance
 you decend to the flore by a ladder. the present habitations of those
 people were on the Surface of the ground and do not differ from those
 of the tribes about the Rapids. their language is the Same with the Che
 luck kit to quaws. these people appeared very friendly. Some of them
 informed us that they had latterly returned from the War excurtion
 against the Snake Indians who inhabit the upper part of the Multnomah
 river to the S. E. of them they Call them To wan nah hi ooks. that they
 had been fortunate in the expidition and had taken from their enimies
 most of the horses which we Saw in their possession. after dinner we
 proceeded on our voyage. I walked on Shore with Shabono on the N. Side
 through a handsom bottom. met Several parties of women and boys in
 Serch of herbs & roots to Subsist on maney of them had parcels of the
 Stems of the Sunflower. I joined Capt Lewis and the party at 6 miles,
 at which place the river washed the bottom of high Clifts on the N.
 Side. Several Canoes over take us with families moveing up. we passed 3
 encampments and came too in the mouth of a Small Creek on the N. Side
 imediately below a village and opposit the Sepulchar rock. this village
 Consists of about 100 fighting men of Several tribes from the plains to
 the North Collected here waiting for the Salmon. they do not differ in
 any respect from those below. many of them visited our Camp this
 evening and remaind. with us untill we went to bead. they then left us
 and returned to their quarters. made ____ miles.
 
 
 [Lewis, April 15, 1806]
 Tuesday April 15th 1806
 We delayed this morning untill after breakfast in order to purchase
 some horses of the Indians; accordingly we exposed some articles in
 exchange for horses the natives were unwilling to barter, we therefore
 put up our merchandize and at 8 A.M. we set out. we halted a few
 minutes at the sepulchre rock, and examined the deposits of the ded at
 that place. these were constructed in the same manner of those already
 discribed below the rapids. some of them were more than half filled
 with dead bodies. there were thirteen sepulchres on this rock which
 stands near the center of the river and has a surface of about 2 acres
 above highwater mark.--from hence we returned to the nothern shore and
 continued up it about four miles to another village of the same nation
 with whom we remained last night. here we halted and informed the
 natives of our wish to purchase horses; the produced us several for
 sale but would not take the articles which we had in exchange for them.
 they wanted an instrumet which the Northwest traders call an eye-dag
 which we had not. we procured two dogs of them and departed. a little
 below the entrance of Cataract river we halted at another village of
 the same people, at which we were equally unsuccessful) in the purchase
 of horses. we also halted at the two villages of the Chilluckkittequaws
 a few miles above with no better success. at three in the evening we
 arrived at the entrance of Quinnette creek which we ascended a short
 distance and encamped at the place we have called rockfort camp. here
 we were visited by some of the people from the villages at the great
 narrows and falls. we informed them of our wish to purchase horses, &
 agreed to meet them on the opposite or North side of the river tomorrow
 for the purpose of bartering with them. most of them returned to their
 villages this evening three only remained with us all night. these
 people are much better clad than any of the nations below; their men
 have generally leging mockersons and large robes, many of them wear
 shirts of the same form those of the Chopunnish and Shoshonees highly
 ornamented with the quills of the porcupine as are also their
 mockersons and legings. they conceal the parts of generation with the
 skin of a fox or some other small animal drawn underneath a girdle and
 hanging loosly in front of them like a narrow apron. the dress of their
 women differs very little from those about the rapids. both men and
 women cut their hair in the forehead which comes down as low as the
 eyebrows, they have long earlocks cut square at the end. the other part
 of their hair is dressed in the same manner as those of the rapids.
 after we landed and formed our camp this evening Drewyer and some
 others took a hunt and killed a deer of the longtailed kind. it was a
 buck and the young horns had shot fourth about 2 inches.
 
 
 [Clark, April 15, 1806]
 Tuesday April 15th 1806
 We delayed this morning untill after brackfast in order to purchase
 Some horses of the Indians; accordingly we exposed Some articles in
 exchange for horses the nativs were unwilling to exchange their horses,
 we put up our merchindize and at 8 A M. Set out. we halted a fiew
 minits at the Sepulchar rock and examined the deposit of the dead at
 that place. those were Constructed in the Same manner of those already
 described below the rapids. Some of them were more than half filled
 with dead bodies. there were 13 Sepulchers on this rock which Stands
 near the Center of the river, and has a Cerface of about two acres
 above the water.-. from hence we returned to the Northern Shore and
 Continued up it about 4 miles to a Village at the enterance of Cateract
 River, here we halted and informed the nativs of our wish to purchase
 horses; the produced Several for Sale but would not take the articles
 we had in exchange for them. they wanted an instriment which the Northw
 Traders call an eye dag which we had not. we precured two dogs and
 departed we also halted at the two villages of the Chil luck kitequaws
 a fiew Ms. above with no better Sucksess. at 3 in the evening we
 arivied at the enterance of Quinnett Creek which we assended a Short
 distance and Encamped at the place we had Called rock fort Camp. here
 we were visited by Some of the people from the Villages at the long
 Narrows & Falls. we informed them of our wish to purchase horses, and
 agreed to meet them on the opposit or north Side on tomorrow for the
 purpose of bartering with them. most of them returned to their village
 this evening three only remained with us all night. those people are
 much better Clad than the nativs below. their men have generaly Legins
 mockersons & large robes. Maney of them were Shirts of the Same form of
 those of the Chopunnish & Shoshonees highly ornamented with the quils
 of the purcupine, as are also their mockersons & Legins. they Conseal
 the parts of generation with the Skins of the Fox or Some other Small
 animal drawn under neath a girdle and hanging loosely in front of them
 like a narrow apron. The dress of their women differ verry little from
 those about the rapids. both men & women Cut their hair in the forehead
 which comes down as low as the Eyebrows, they have long ear locks Cut
 Square at the end. The other parts of their hair is dressed in the Same
 Manner as those of the rapids. after we landld and formed our Camp this
 evening Drewyer and some oths took a hunt and killed a Deer of the log
 tailed kind. it was a Buck and the young deer horns had Shot foth about
 two inches made ____ miles to day.
 
 
 [Lewis, April 16, 1806]
 Wednesday April 16th 1806.
 About 8 A.M. Capt. Clark passed the river with the two interpreters,
 the indian woman and nine men in order to trade with the natives for
 their horses, for which purpose he took with him a good part of our
 stock of merchandize. I remained in camp; sent out the hunters very
 early in the morning, and set Sergts. Gass and Pryor with some others
 at work to make a parsel of packsaddles. twelve horses will be
 sufficient to transport our baggage and some pounded fish which we
 intend taking with us as a reserved store for the rocky mountains. I
 was visited today by several of the natives, and amused myself in
 making a collection of the esculent plants in the neighbourhood such as
 the Indians use, a specemine of which I preserved. I also met with
 sundry other plants which were strangers to me which I also preserved,
 among others there is a currant which is now in blume and has yellow
 blossom something like the yellow currant of the Missouri but is a
 different speceis. Reubin Feilds returned in the evening and brought
 with him a large grey squrrel and two others of a kind I had never
 before seen. they are a size less than the grey squirrel common to the
 middle atlantic states and of a pided grey and yellowish brown colour,
 in form it resembles our grey squrrel precisely. I had them skined
 leaving the head feet and tail to them and placed in the sun to dry.
 Joseph Feilds brought me a black pheasant which he had killed; this I
 found on examination to be the large black or dark brown pheasant I had
 met with on the upper part of the Missouri. it is as large as a well
 grown fowl the iris of the eye is of a dark yellowish brown, the puple
 black, the legs are booted to the toes, the tail is composed of 18
 black feathers tiped with bluish white, of which the two in the center
 are reather shorter than the others which are all of the same length.
 over the eye there is a stripe of a 1/4 of an inch in width uncovered
 with feathers of a fine orrange yellow. the wide spaces void of
 feathers on the side of the neck are also of the same colour. I had
 some parts of this bird preserved. our present station is the last
 point at which there is a single stick of timber on the river for a
 great distance and is the commencement of the open plains which extend
 nearly to the base of the rocky Mts. Labuish returned this evening
 having killed two deer I sent and had them brought in. this evening
 Capt. C. informed me by some of the men whom he sent over that that he
 had obtained no horses as yet of the natives. that they promised to
 trade with him provided he would remove to their vil-lage. to this he
 had consented and should proceede to the Skillute village above the
 long narrows as soon as the men returned whom he had sent to me for
 some other articles. I dispatched the men on their return to capt. C.
 immediately with these articles and he set out with his party
 accompanyed by the natives to their village where he remained all
 night.--the natives who had spent the day with me seemed very well
 disposed, they left me at 6 in the evening and returned to their
 rispective villages. the hunters informed me that they saw some
 Antelopes, & the tracks of several black bear, but no appearance of any
 Elk. we were informed by the Indians that the river which falls in on
 the S. side of the Columbia just above the Eneshur village heads in
 Mount hood and dose not water the extensive country which we have
 heretofore calculated on. a great portion of that extensive tract of
 country to the S. and S. W. of the Columbia and it's S. E. branch, and
 between the same and the waters of Callifornia must be watered by the
 Multnomah river.-
 
 
 [Clark, April 16, 1806]
 April 16th 1806
 Crossed the river and Sent Drewyer & Goodrich to the Skil lute village
 to envite the Indians to trade horses with us, also sent Frazer &
 Shabono to the Che-luck-kit-ti-quar village for the same purpose a
 number of Indians came of both nations and delayed the greater part of
 the day without tradeing a Single horse the Great Chief of the
 Skillutes also came with Drewyer. he was lame and Could not walk he
 told me if I would go to his Town his people would trade with me. I Set
 out late and arrived at Sunset and informd. the natives that in the
 morning I would trade with them. he gave me onions to eate which had
 been Sweated. Peter played the violin and the men danced. Saw abt. 100
 Stacks of fish. maney nations visit this place for trade. the
 discription of the houses, their dress habits &c. Smoked &c. I saw
 great numbers of horses
 
 
 [Clark, April 16, 1806]
 Wednesday April 16th 1806
 about 8 oClock this morning I passed the river with the two
 interpreters, and nine men in order to trade with the nativs for their
 horses, for which purpose I took with me a good part of our Stock of
 merchindize. Capt L. Sent out the hunters and Set Several men at work
 makeing pack Saddles. twelve horses will be Sufficient to trans port
 our baggage and Some pounded fish with our dried Elk. which we intend
 takeing with us as a reserved Store for the Plains & rocky mountains. I
 formed a Camp on the N. Side and Sent Drewyer & Goodrich to the
 Skillute Village, and Shabono & Frazer down to the Chilluckkitequaw
 Villages with derections to inform the nativs that I had Crossed the
 river for the purpose of purchaseing horses, and if they had horses to
 Sell us to bring them to my Camp. Great numbers of Indians came from
 both Villages and delayed the greater part of the day without tradeing
 a Single horse. Drewyer returned with the principal Chief of the
 Skillutes who was lame and Could not walk. after his arival Some horses
 were offered for Sale, but they asked nearly half the merchindize I had
 with me for one horse. this price I could not think of giveing. the
 Chief informed me if I would go to his town with him, his people would
 Sell me horses. I therefore Concluded to accompany him to his Village 7
 miles distant. we Set out and arrived at the Village at Sunset. after
 Some Serimony I entered the house of the Chief. I then informed them
 that I would trade with them for their horses in the morning for which
 I would give for each horse the articles which I had offered yestered.
 The Chief Set before me a large platter of Onions which had been
 Sweeted. I gave a part of those onions to all my party and we all eate
 of them, in this State the root is very Sweet and the tops tender. the
 nativs requested the party to dance which they very readily consented
 and Peter Cruzat played on the Violin and the men danced Several dances
 & retired to rest in the houses of the 1st and Second Cheif.
 this village is moved about 300 yards below the Spot it Stood last fall
 at the time we passed down. they were all above grown and built in the
 Same form of those below already discribed. We observed maney stacks of
 fish remaining untouched on either Side of the river. The Inhabitents
 of this Village ware the robe of deer Elk Goat &c. and most of the men
 ware Legins and mockersons and Shirts highly ornimented with Porcupine
 quills & beeds. the women were the Truss most Commonly. tho Some of
 them have long Shirts all of those articles they precure from other
 nations who visit them for the purpose of exchangeing those articles
 for their pounded fish of which they prepare great quantities. This is
 the Great Mart of all this Country. ten different tribes who reside on
 Taptate and Catteract River visit those people for the purpose of
 purchaseing their fish, and the Indians on the Columbia and Lewis's
 river quite to the Chopunnish Nation Visit them for the purpose of
 tradeing horses buffalow robes for beeds, and Such articles as they
 have not. The Skillutes precure the most of their Cloth knivs axes &
 beeds from the Indians from the North of them who trade with white
 people who come into the inlets to the North at no great distance from
 the Tapteet. their horses of which I saw great numbers, they precure
 from the Indians who reside on the banks of the Columbia above, and
 what fiew they take from the To war ne hi ooks or Snake Indians. I
 smoked with all the principal men of this nation in the house of their
 great Cheif and lay my Self down on a Mat to Sleep but was prevented by
 the mice and vermin with which this house abounded and which was very
 troublesom to me.
 
 
 [Lewis, April 17, 1806]
 Thursday April 17th 1806.
 This morning early I sent out the hunters, and set several additional
 hands about the packsaddles. I find that the sturgeon is not taken by
 any of the natives above the Columbean vally. the inhabitants of the
 rapids at this time take a few of the white salmon trout and
 considerable quantities of a small indifferent mullet on which they
 principally subsist. I have seen none except dryed fish of the last
 season in the possession of the people above that place, they subsist
 on roots principally with some dryed and pounded fish. the salmon not
 having made their appearance proves a serious inconvenience to us. but
 few of the natives visited my camp today and those only remained a few
 hours. even at this place which is merely on the border of the plains
 of Columbia the climate seems to have changed the air feels dryer and
 more pure. the earth is dry and seems as if there had been no rain for
 a week or ten days. the plain is covered with a rich virdure of grass
 and herbs from four to nine inches high and exhibits a beautiful) seen
 particularly pleasing after having been so long imprisoned in mountains
 and those almost impenetrably thick forrests of the seacoast. Joseph
 Feilds brought me today three eggs of the party coloured corvus, they
 are about the size and shape of those of the pigeon. they are bluish
 white much freckled with dark redish brown irregular spots, in short it
 is reather a mixture of those colours in which the redish brown
 predominates, particularly towards the larger end.--This evening
 Willard and Cruzatte returned from Capt. Clark and brought me a note in
 which Capt. C. informed me that he had sill been unsuccessful) having
 not obtained a single horse as yet from the natives and the state of
 our stores are so low that I begin to fear we shall not be enabled to
 obtain as many horses at this place as will convey our baggage and
 unless we do obtain a sufficient number for that purpose we shall not
 hasten our progress as a part of our baggage must still be conveyed by
 water. Capt. C. informed me that he should proceed as far as the
 Eneshur village today and would return tomorrow and join me at the
 Skillute village to which place I mean to proceed with the party
 tomorrow. I dispatched Shannon with a note to Capt. Clark in which I
 requested him to double the price we have heretofore offered for horses
 and if possible obtain as many as five, by this means we shall be
 enabled to proceed immediately with our small canoes and those horses
 to the villages in the neighbourhood of the mussel shell rapid where
 horses are more abundant and cheaper; with the remainder of our
 merchandize in addition to the canoes we can no doubt obtain as many
 horses there as will answer our purposes. delay in the villages at the
 narrows and falls will be expensive to us inasmuch as we will be
 compelled to purchase both fuel and food of the indians, and might the
 better enable them to execute any hostile desighn should they meditate
 any against us.--all the hunters returned in the evening. Sheilds had
 killed one deer which he brought with him. the packsaddles were
 completed this evening. I had some Elkskins put in the water today make
 harnes for the packhorses but shall not cut them untill I know the
 number we can obtain.--there is a species of hiasinth in these plains
 the bulb of which the natives eat either boiled baked or dryed in the
 sun. this bulb is white, not entirely solid, and of a flat form; the
 bulb of the present year overlays, or crowns that of the last, and
 seems to be pressed close to it, the old bulb is withered much thiner
 equally wide with that of the present year and sends fourth from it's
 sides a number of small radicles.--this hiasinth is of a pale blue
 colour and is a very pretty flower. I preserved a specemine of it.
 
 
 [Clark, April 17, 1806]
 April 17th 1806
 I rose early and took a position near to the village and exposed the
 artiles I had for Sale Great numbers of Indians Came from different
 derections, Some from below Some above and others across the Countrey
 from the Tapteet river See description of the Nations &c.--I obtained a
 Sketch of the Columbia as also Clarks river. See sketch I made a bargin
 with the Chief who has more horses than all the village besides for 2
 horses. Soon after he Canseled his bargin, and we again bargined for 3
 horses, they were brought forward, and only one fit for Service, the
 others had Such intolerable backs as to render them entirely unfit for
 Service. as I would not take the 3 he would not Sell the good one to
 me, and we were off the bargin. I then packed up and was about Setting
 out for the Falls when one Indian Sold me 2 horses and one other one
 horse, and Some others Said they wished to trade which caused me to
 conclude to delay here one other night. Maney of the natives from above
 Come and Said they would trade, but asked a higher price than I thought
 I could give or reather more than this nation asked.--Great numbers of
 Men.--I hed to purchase 3 dogs for the men to eate & Some
 Shap-per-lell. I Sent Crusat, Wiser, Willard and McNeal back to Capt
 Lewis informing him of my ill Suck'sess, and adviseing him to proceed
 on to this place as Soon as possible, and my intention of proceededing
 on to the falls to purchase horses if possible Several Indians arived
 late this evening. Capt. Lewis Sent me a note by Shannon informing me
 that he would Set early on tomorrow morning early &c. &c. I sleped in
 house of the 2d Chief and they had not any thing except fish to eate
 and no wood for fire. those people have a number of buffalow robes.
 They have great number of Skimming nets
 
 
 [Clark, April 17, 1806]
 Thursday 17th of April 1806
 I rose early after bad nights rest, and took my merchindize to a rock
 which afforded an elegable Situation for my purpose, and at a Short
 distance from the houses, and divided the articles of merchindize into
 parsels of Such articles as I thought best Calculated to pleas the
 Indians, and in each parcel I put as many articles as we could afford
 to give, and thus exposed them to view, informing the Indians that each
 parcel was intended for a horse. they tanterlised me the greater part
 of the day, Saying that they had Sent out for their horses and would
 trade as Soon as they Came. Several parcels of merchindize was laid by
 for which they told me they would bring horses. I made a bargin with
 the Chief for 2 horses, about an hour after he canseled the bargin and
 we again bargained for 3 horses which were brought foward, only one of
 the 3 could be possibly used the other two had Such intolerable backs
 as to render them entirely unfit for Service. I refused to take two of
 them which displeased him and he refused to part with the 3rd. I then
 packed up the articles and was about Setting out for the Village above
 when a man Came and Sold me two horses, and another man Sold me one
 horse, and Several others informed me that they would trade with me if
 I would Continue untill their horses could be drove up. this induced me
 to Continue at this Village another day. Maney of the nativs from
 different villages on the Columbia above offered to trade, but asked
 Such things as we had not and double as much of the articles which I
 had as we could afford to give. this was a very unfavourable
 circumstance as my dependance for precureing a Sufficiency of horses
 rested on the Suckcess above where I had reasons to believe there were
 a greater abundance of those animals, and was in hopes of getting them
 on better terms. I purchased 3 dogs for the party with me to eate and
 Some Chap-pa-lell for my Self. before precureing the 3 horses I
 dispatched Crusat, Willard & McNeal and Peter Wiser to Capt Lewis at
 the Rock fort Camp with a note informing him of my ill Suckcess in
 precureing horses, and advised him to proceed on to this place as Soon
 as possible. that I would in the mean time proceed on to the Enesher
 Nation above the Great falls and try to purchase Some horses of that
 people. Soon after I had dispatched this party the Chief of the
 Enesher's and 15 or 20 of his people visited me and appeared to be
 anxious to See the articles I offered for the horses. Several of them
 agreeed to let me have horses if I would add Sundery articles to those
 I offered which I agreeed to, and they lay'd those bundles by and
 informed me they would deliver me the horses in the morning. I proposed
 going with them to their Town. the Chief informed me that their horses
 were all in the plains with their womin gathering roots. they would
 Send out and bring the horses to this place tomorrow. this entiligence
 was flattering, tho I doubted the Sincerity of those people who had
 Several times disapointed me in a Similar way. however I deturmined to
 Continue untill tomorrow. in the mean time industously employd. our
 Selves with the great multitude of indians of differant Nations about
 us trying to purchase horses. Shabono purchased a verry fine Mare for
 which he gave Hurmen, Elks Teeth, a belt and Some other articles of no
 great value. no other purchase was made in the Course of this day. in
 the evening I recved a note from Capt L--by Shannon informing me that
 he Should Set out early on tomorrow morning and Should proceed up to
 the bason 2 miles below the Skillute Village. and adviseing me to give
 double the prices which we had first agreed on for each horse. I
 observe at every house Scooping Nets with which they take the Salmon.
 I was envited into the house of the 2nd Chief where Concluded to Sleep.
 this man was pore nothing to eat but dried fish, and no wood to burn.
 altho the night was Cold they Could not rase as much wood as would make
 a fire
 
 
 [Lewis, April 18, 1806]
 Friday April 18th 1806.
 Late last evening we were visited by the principal cheif of
 Chilluckkittaquaws and 12 of his nation they remained with us untill 9
 OC. when they all departed except the Cheif and two others who slept at
 my feet. we loaded our vessels and set out after an early breakfast
 this morning. we gave the indians a passage to the N. shore on which
 they reside and pursued our rout to the foot of the first rapid at the
 distance of 4 ms. here we found it necessary to unload the perogues and
 canoes and make a portage of 70 paces over a rock; we then drew our
 vessels up by a cord and the assistance of setingpoles. from hence we
 proceeded to the bason below the long narrows 5 ms. further and landed
 on the Lard. side at 1/2 after 3. the Cheif when he left me this
 morning promised to bring some horses to barter with me at the bason.-
 the long narrows are much more formidable than they were when we
 decended them last fall there would be no possibility of passind either
 up or down them in any vessel.--after unloading the canoes and
 arranging the camp I walked up to the Skillute Village and jouined
 Capt. he had procured four horses only for which a high price had been
 given, at least more than double that which we had formerly given for
 those which we purchased from the Shoshonees and the first band of
 Flatheads. they have a great abundance of horses but will not dispose
 of them. we determined to make the portage to the head of the long
 narrows with our baggage and five small canoes. the 2 perogues we could
 take no further and therefore cut them up for fuel. in the evening
 Capt. C. and myself returned to the camp at the bason and left Drewyer
 and three others with the merchandize at the village, three parsels of
 which had been laid by at the request of individuals who promised to
 give us horses for them in the morning.--I shot my airgun in the
 presents of the natives at the village which excited great astonishment.
 
 
 [Clark, April 18, 1806]
 April 18th 1806
 early this morning I was awoke by a Indian from the nieghbourhood of
 our horses, he had he arived here yesterday & this morning found a
 Small bag of powder and ball which had been left when we exposed our
 goods yesterday and brought it to me. I had a fire made out and exposed
 the articles &c. having increased the articles for each horse, and Sent
 out 2 men to hunt the horses bought yesterday. after Colecting them
 Sent Shabono and Frazer with the 4 I had purchased down to Capt Lewis.
 and was tanterlised with the expectation of purchaseing more
 imediately. Great numbers of the Indians from the falls and both above
 and below. none of them appeared anxious to part with their horses but
 told me that Several were Comeing from the plains about 1 or 2 P M. and
 laid by 2 parcels of merchindize and told me that they had Sent for
 their horses. among other Tribes was those of the Skad-datts who
 bantered the Skillutes to play with them at a Singular Kind of game
 which was Soon Made up and 9 of aside Sat down they were Some time
 making up their bets of Beeds, brass thimbles or tubes robes &c. &c.
 when the bets were all made up the nine on each Side took opposides
 faceing each other at the distance of about 12 feet. in front of each
 party was placed a long pole on which they Struck with a Stick and
 Sung. they made use of 2 Small pices of bone in this form and Size a
 bone was given to 2 men of the Same party who changed it from hand to
 hand with great dexterity one hand above the other looking down, and
 when he was ready for the opposit party to guess he Seperated his hands
 Swinging them around the breast looking at the opposit party who waved
 their hand to the Side the bone was in. if the opposit party guessed
 the hand of each man the bone was given to them. if neither it was
 nothing. if they guessed one which they might single out if they
 pleased they recived his bone, and lost on the other as they hapened to
 fail in guessing the also lose one if they fail guessing both The game
 is plaid at different numbers & each party has 5 sticks. Several of
 those games were played to day in which the Skillute won, indeed the
 won all the beeds and Som robes of the Skad datts which they _____ one
 other game which they also played _____ 2 by men with 4 Sticks. 2 black
 & 2 White under a kind of hat made of bark. as this is a very intrecut
 game I cannot describe it: the one who holds the Sticks places them in
 different positions, and the opposit party, guess the position of the
 black Sticks by a motion of either one or both of the hands. each man
 has 4 Sticks. this as also the other is accompanied with a kind of
 Song. This hat is about 12 inches diamuter and the Sticks about 5
 inches long---at 3 P M Sergt Ordway arived with 3 men from Capt Lewis
 with elk skins and Some fiew articles Such as a Coat & robes. I had 3
 dogs purchased, Soon after Capt. Lewis Came up with J. Fields he had
 assended the river with much dificuelty to the bason 2 Miles below. I
 left Drewyer, Warner, Shannon & Goodrich with the articles and went
 down with Capt Lewis to the bason, Cut up 2 of our canoes for fire wood
 no horses more maney nations resort here for trade
 
 
 [Clark, April 18, 1806]
 Friday 18th April 1806
 Early this Morning I was awoke by an indian man of the Chopunnish
 Nation who informed me that he lived in the neighbourhood of our
 horses. this man delivered me a bag of powder and ball which he had
 picked up this morning at the place the goods were exposed yesterday I
 had a fire made of Some poles purchased of the nativs at a Short
 distance from the houses and the articles exposed as yesterday.
 Collected the 4 horses purchased yesterday and Sent Frazier and Shabono
 with them to the bason where I expected they would meet Cap L-s and
 Commence the portage of the baggage on those horses. about 10 A.M. the
 Indians Came down from the Eneesher Villages and I expected would take
 the articles which they had laid by yesterday. but to my estonishment
 not one would make the exchange to day-. two other parcels of good were
 laid by and the horses promised at 2 P.M. I payed but little attention
 to this bargain however Suffered the bundles to lye. I dressed the
 Sores of the principal Chief gave Some Small things to his children and
 promised the Chief Some Medicine for to Cure his Sores. his wife who I
 found to be a Sulky Bitch and was Somewhat efflicted with pains in her
 back. this I thought a good oppertunity to get her on my Side giveing
 here Something for her back. I rubed a little Camphere on her temples
 and back, and applyed worm flannel to her back which She thought had
 nearly restored her to her former feelings. this I thought a favourable
 time to trade with the Chief who had more horses than all the nation
 besides. I accordingly made him an offer which he excepted and Sold me
 two horses. Great numbers of Indians from defferent derections visited
 me at this place to day, none of them appeared willing to part with
 their horses, but told me that Several were Comeing from the plains
 this evening. among other Nations who visit this place for the purpose
 of trade is the Skad-datt's. those people bantered the Skillutes to
 play at a Singular kind of game. in the Course of the day the Skillutes
 won all their beeds Skins arrows &c. This game was Composed of 9 men on
 a Side. they Set down opposit to each other at the distance of about 10
 feet. in front of each party a long pole was placed on which they
 Struck with a Small Stick to the time of their Songs. after the bets
 were made up which was nearly half an hour after they Set down, two
 round bones was producd about the Size of a mans little finger or
 Something Smaller and 21/4 inches in length. which they held in their
 hand Changeing it from one hand to the other with great dexterity. 2
 men on the Same Side performed this part, and when they had the bone in
 the hand they wished, they looked at their advosarys Swinging arms
 around their Sholders for their advosary Guess which they pirformed by
 the motion the hand either to the right or left. if the opposit party
 guessed the hand of both of the men who had the bone, the bones were
 given to them. if neither the bones was retained and nothing Counted.
 if they guessed one and not the other, one bone was dilivered up and
 the party possessing the other bone Counted one. and one for every time
 the advosary miss guessed untill they guessed the hand in which the
 bone was in-in this game each party has 5 Sticks. and one Side wins all
 the Sticks, once twice or thrice as the game may be Set. I observed
 another game which those people also play and is played by 2 persons
 with 4 Sticks about the Size of a mans finger and about 7 inches in
 length. two of those Sticks are black and the other 2 White and
 Something larger than the black ones. those Sticks they place in
 defferent positions which they perform under a kind of trencher made of
 bark round and about 14 inches diamieter. this is a very intricate game
 and I cannot Sufficiently understand to discribe it. the man who is in
 possession of the Sticks &c places them in defferent positions, and the
 opposit party tels the position of the black Sticks by a motion of
 either or both of his hands &c. this game is Counted in the Same way as
 the one before mentioned. all their games are accompanied with Songs
 and time. at 3 P. M Sergt. Ordway & three men arived from Cap Lewis
 they brought with them Several Elk Skins, two of my Coats and 4 robes
 of the party to add to the Stores I had with me for the purchase of
 horses. Sgt. O. informed me that Cap L. had arived with all the Canoes
 into the bason 2 miles below and wished Some dogs to eate. I had 3 dogs
 purchased and Sent down. at 5 P.M. Capt. Lewis Came up. he informed me
 that he had the river to the bason with much difecuelty and danger,
 haveing made one portage. as I had not Slept but very little for the
 two nights past on account of mice & virmen with which those indian
 houses abounded, and haveing no blanket with me, and the means of
 keeping a fire Sufficent to keep me worm out was too Expensive I
 deturmined to proceed with Capt L. down to Camp at the bason. I left
 the Articles of Merchendize &c. with Drewyer, Werner, Shannon &
 Goodrich untill the morning---at the bason we Cut up two of our Canoes
 for fire wood verry much to the Sagreen of the nativs not with standing
 they would give us nothing for them. In my absence Several Inds.
 visited Capt. Lewis at his camp among others was the great Cheif of the
 Chilluckkitquaw who Continued with him untill he left Rock fort Camp.
 Capt L. had 12 pack Saddles Completed and Strings prepared of the Elk
 skins for Lashing the loads he also kept out all the hunters who killed
 just deer enough for the party with him to Subsist on. The Cheif who
 had Visited Capt Lewis promised him that he would bring Some horses to
 the bason and trade with him. but he was not as good as his word. Capt
 Lewis gave a large Kittle for a horse which was offered to him at the
 bason this evening.
 
 
 [Lewis, April 19, 1806]
 Saturday Aprl. 19th 1806.
 This morning early we had our small canoes drawn out, and employed all
 hands in transporting our baggage on their backs and by means of the
 four pack horses, over the portage. This labour we had accomplished by
 3 P.M. and established our camp a little above the present Skil-lute
 village which has been removed a few hundred yards lower down the river
 than when we passed them last fall and like others below have the
 floors of their summer dwellings on the surface of the earth instead of
 those cellars in which they resided when we passed them. there was
 great joy with the natives last night in consequence of the arrival of
 the salmon; one of those fish was caught; this was the harbinger of
 good news to them. they informed us that these fish would arrive in
 great quantities in the course of about 5 days. this fish was dressed
 and being divided into small peices was given to each child in the
 village. this custom is founded in a supersticious opinon that it will
 hasten the arrival of the salmon. with much difficulty we obtained four
 other horses from the Indians today, we wer obliged to dispence with
 two of our kettles in order to acquire those. we have now only one
 small kettle to a mess of 8 men. in the evening Capt. Clark set out
 with four men to the Enesher village at the grand falls in order to
 make a further attempt to procure horses. these people are very
 faithless in their contracts. they frequently receive the merchandize
 in exchange for their horses and after some hours insist on some
 additional article being given them or revoke the exchange. they have
 pilfered several small articles from us this evening.--I directed the
 horses to be hubbled & suffered to graize at a little distance from our
 camp under the immediate eye of the men who had them in charge. one of
 the men Willard was negligent in his attention to his horse and
 suffered it to ramble off; it was not to be found when I ordered the
 others to be brought up and confined to the picquits. this in addition
 to the other difficulties under which I laboured was truly provoking. I
 repremanded him more severely for this peice of negligence than had
 been usual with me. I had the remaining horses well secured by
 picquits; they were extreemly wrestless and it required the attention
 of the whole guard through the night to retain them notwithstanding
 they were bubbled and picquted. they frequently throwed themselves by
 the ropes by which they were confined. all except one were stone horse
 for the people in this neighbourhood do not understand the art of
 gelding them, and this is a season at which they are most vicious. many
 of the natives remained about our camp all night.
 
 
 [Clark, April 19, 1806]
 April 19th 1806
 this morning early Some rain had the Small Canoes hauled out to dry
 every man Capable of Carrying a load Comencd the portage and by 5 P. M
 had every part of our baggage and canoes across the portage. I then
 took Sgt. Pryor, G. Shannon & Crusat & Labiech and went up to the falls
 at which place I arivd. about 8 P.M. in the Course of this day I
 purchased 4 horses at the town & Capt Lewis purchased one. the nativs
 finding that we were about to proceed on by water Sold us those fiew
 horses for which we were Compd. to pay them emence prices and the
 horses were indefferent. Several Showers of rain this day. description
 of those people &c narrows bad
 
 
 [Clark, April 19, 1806]
 Saturday 19th April 1806.
 We deturmined to make the portage to the head of the long narrows with
 our baggage and 5 Small Canoes, the 2 large Canoes we Could take no
 further and therefore Cut them up for fuel. we had our Small Canoes
 drawn up very early and employed all hands in transporting our baggage
 on their backs and by means of 4 pack horses, over the portage. This
 labour we had accomplished by 3 P.M. and established our Camp a little
 above the present Skillute village which has been removed as before
 observed a fiew hundred yards lower down the river than when we passed
 it last fall. I left Capt L. at the bason and proceeded to the village
 early this morning with a view to recive the horses which were promised
 to be brought this morning for articles laid by last evining. in the
 Course of this day I purchased four horses at the Village, and Capt
 Lewis one at the bason before he left it. after the baggage was all
 Safely landed above the portage, all hands brought over the Canoes at 2
 lodes which was accomplished by 5 P.M. as we had not a Sufficiency of
 horses to transport our baggage we agreed that I should proceed on to
 the Enesher villages at the great falls of the Columbia and if possible
 purchase as maney horses as would transport the baggage from that
 place, and rid us of the trouble and dificuelty of takeing our Canoes
 further. I set out with Serjt Pryor, Geo Shannon Peter Crusat & Labiech
 at half past 5 P.M. for the Enesher Village at which place I arrived at
 8 P.M. Several Showers of rain in the after part of to day, and the S W
 wind very high. there was great joy with the nativs last night in
 consequence of the arrival of the Salmon; one of those fish was cought,
 this was the harbenger of good news to them. They informed us that
 those fish would arive in great quantities in the Course of about 5
 days. this fish was dressed and being divided into Small pieces was
 given to each Child in the village. this Custom is founded on a
 Supersticious opinion that it will hasten the arrival of the Salmon.
 we were oblige to dispence with two of our kitties in order to acquire
 two of the horses purchasd. to day. we have now only one Small kittle
 to a mess of 8 men. These people are very fathless in Contracts; they
 frequently reive the merchindize in exchange for their horses and after
 Some hours insist on Some additional article being given them or revoke
 the exchange.
 The long narrows are much more formadable than they were when we
 decended them last fall, there would be no possibility of passing
 either up or down them in any vessle at this time.
 I entered the largest house of the Eneeshers village in which I found
 all the enhabitents in bead. they rose and made a light of Straw, they
 haveing no wood to burn. many men Collected. we Smoked and I informed
 them that I had come to purchase a fiew horses of them. they promused
 to Sell me Some in the morning.
 
 
 [Lewis, April 20, 1806]
 Sunday April 20th 1806.
 some frost this morning. The Enesher an Skillutes are much better clad
 than they were last fall, there men have generally legings mockersons
 and large robes; many of them wear shirts of the same form with those
 of the Shoshone Chopunnish &c highly ornamented with porcupine quills.
 the dress of their women differs very little from those of the great
 rapids and above. their children frequently wear robes of the large
 grey squirrel skins, those of the men and women are principally deer
 skins, some wolf, elk, bighorn and buffaloe; the latter they procure
 from the nations who sometimes visit the Missouri. indeed a
 considerable poportion of their wearing apparel is purchased from their
 neighbours to the N. W. in exchange for pounded fish copper and beads.
 at present the principal village of the Eneshur is below the falls on
 the N. side of the river. one other village is above the falls on the
 S. side and another a few miles above on the N. side. the first
 consists of 19, the 2cd of 11, and the 3rd of 5 lodges. their houses
 like those of the Skillutes have their floors on the surface of the
 ground, but are formed of sticks and covered with mats and straw. they
 are large and contain usually several families each for fuel they use
 straw, small willows and the southern wood. they use the silk grass in
 manufacturing their fishing nets and bags, the bear grass and cedar
 bark are employed in forming a variety of articles. they are poor,
 dirty, proud, haughty, inhospitable, parsimonious and faithless in
 every rispect, nothing but our numbers I beleive prevents their
 attempting to murder us at this moment.
 This morning I was informed that the natives had pilfered six
 tommahawks and a knife from the party in the course of the last night.
 I spoke to the cheif on this subject. he appeared angry with his people
 and addressed them but the property was not restored. one horse which I
 had purchased and paid for yesterday and which could not be found when
 I ordered the horses into close confinement yesterday I was now
 informed had been gambled away by the rascal who had sold it to me and
 had been taken away by a man of another nation. I therefore took the
 goods back from this fellow. I purchased a gun from the cheif for which
 I gave him 2 Elkskins. in the course of the day I obtained two other
 indifferent horses for which I gave an extravigant price. I found that
 I should get no more horses and therefore resolved to proceed tomorrow
 morning with those which I had and to convey the baggage in two small
 canoes that the horses could not carry. for this purpose I had a load
 made up for seven horses, the eighth Bratton was compelled to ride as
 he was yet unable to walk. I barted my Elkskins old irons and 2 canoes
 for beads. one of the canoes for which they would give us but little I
 had cut up for fuel. These people have yet a large quantity of dryed
 fish on hand yet they will not let us have any but for an exorbitant
 price. we purchased two dogs and some shappellel from them. I had the
 horses graized untill evening and then picquited and bubbled within the
 limits of our camp. I ordered the indians from our camp this evening
 and informed them that if I caught them attempting to perloin any
 article from us I would beat them severely. they went off in reather a
 bad humour and I directed the party to examine their arms and be on
 their guard. they stole two spoons from us in the course of the day.
 The Scaddals, Squan-nan-os, Shan-wah-purrs and Shallattas reside to the
 N. W. of these people, depend on hunting deer and Elk and trade with
 these people for ther pounded fish.
 
 
 [Clark, April 20, 1806]
 April 20th 1806
 This morning very Cold hills covered with Snow. I Showed the nativs
 what I had to give for their horses and attempted to purchase them.
 they informed me that they would not Sell any horses to me, that their
 horses were at a long ways off and they would not trade them. my offer
 was a blue robe, Callico Shirt, a handkerchef, 5 parcels of paint a
 Knife, a wampom moon 4 braces of ribin, a pice of Brass and about 6
 braces of yellow heeds; and to that amount for what I had I also
 offered my large blue blanket for one, my Coat Sword & Plume none of
 which Seem to entice those people to give horses if they had any. they
 Set in their huts which is of mats Supported on poles without fire. at
 night when they wish a light they burn dry Straw & Some fiew Small dry
 willows. they Speak defferent from those below, have but little to
 eate. Some roots & Dryed fish is to be found in their houses. I am half
 frozed at this inhospitable Village which is moved from its position
 above the falls to one below and Contains 19 large houses, a village is
 also established on the other Side imedeately above the falls. all the
 natives who was established above the Falls for Some distance has
 removed Those people are much better dressed than they were at the time
 we went down the river. They have all new, Deer, Elk, Ibex Goat & wolf
 Skin robes, their Children also the large squirel Skin robes, maney of
 them have Legins and mockersons, all of which they precure of the
 Indians at a distance in exchange for their pounded fish & Beeds, they
 also purchase Silk grass, of which they make their nets & Sales for
 takeing fish they also purchase Bear grass and maney other things for
 their fish. those people gave me roots and berries prepared in
 different ways for which I gave some Small articles in return.-Great
 numbers of Skiming knets on their houses. Those people are Pore and
 Kind durty & indolt. They ware their hair loose flowing the men cut in
 the foward which the Skilloots do not &c. &c.
 I could not precure a Single horse of those people, dureing this day at
 any price, they offered me 2 for 2 kittles of which we Could not spear.
 I used every artifice decent & even false Statements to enduce those
 pore devils to Sell me horses. in the evening two different men offered
 to Sell me three horses which they informed me was a little distance
 off and they would bring them imediately. those two persons as I found
 went imediately off up the river to their tribe without any intention
 to find or Sell their horses. a little before Sunset 3 men arived from
 Some distance above and informed me that they Came to See me. at Sunset
 finding no probability of Capt Lewis arival, packed up the articles and
 took them into the lodge in which I lay last night. Great numbers of
 those people geathered around me to Smoke. I gave them 2 pipes and lay
 down in the back part of the house with Sgt. P. & the men with our arms
 in a Situation as to be ready in case of any alarm. those pore people
 appear entirely harmless--I purchased a dog and Some wood with a little
 pounded fish and Chappaless. made a fire on the rocks and Cooked the
 dogs on which the men breckfast & Dined. wind hard all day cold from N
 W.
 
 
 [Clark, April 20, 1806]
 Sunday 20th April 1806
 a very cold morning the western mountains Covered with Snow I Shewed
 the Eneshers the articles I had to give for their horses. they without
 hezitation informed me that they would not Sell me any for the articles
 I had, if I would give them Kitties they would let me have horses, and
 not without. that their horses were at a long ways off in the planes
 and they would not Send for them &c. my offer was a blue robe, a
 Calleco Shirt, a Silk handkerchief, 5 parcels of paint, a knife, a
 Wampom moon, 8 yards of ribon, Several pieces of Brass, a mockerson awl
 and 6 braces of yellow beeds; and to that amount for each horse which
 is more than double what we gave either the Sohsohne or first flat
 heads we met with on Clarks river I also offered my large blue blanket,
 my Coat Sword & plume none of which Seamed to entice those people to
 Sell their horses. not with standing every exertion not a Single horse
 Could be precured of those people in the Course of the day. Those
 people are much better Clad than they were last fall, their men have
 generally legins mockersons and large robes. maney of them ware Shirts
 of the Same form of those of the Chopunnish and Shoshone highly
 ornimented with porcupine quills. the dress of their winen differs
 verry little from those above the great rapids. their Children have
 Small robes of the Squirel Skins. those of the men & women are
 principally deer, Some elk, wolf, Ibix & buffalow which they precure
 from distant nations who purchase their Pounded fish in exchange for
 those robes & Beeds. The principal village of the Enesher nation is
 imedeately below the falls on the N. Side. one other village of the
 Same nation above the falls on the opposit Side and one other a few
 miles above on the North Side.--The Houses of those people like the
 Skillutes have the flores of their Summer dwelling on the Surface of
 the earth in Sted of those Sellers in which they resided when we passed
 them last fall. those houses are Covered with mats and Straw are large
 and Contain Several families each. I counted 19 at this Village & 11 on
 the opposit Side. those people are pore durty haughty. they burn Straw
 and Small willows. have but little to eate and deer with what they
 have. they precure the Silk grass of which they make their nets, the
 bear grass for makeing their mats and Several other necessary of the
 Indians of the following nations who trade with them as also the
 Skillutes for their pounded fish. Viz. Skad-dats, Squan-nun-os,
 Shan-wappoms, Shall-lat-tos, who reside to the north and Several bands
 who reside on the Columbia above.--I precured a Sketch of the Columbia
 and its branches of those people in which they made the river which
 falls into the Columbia imediately above the falls on the South Side to
 branch out into 3 branches one of which they make head in Mt.jefferson,
 one in mount Hood and the other in the S W. range of Mountains and does
 not water that extensive Country we have heretofore Calculated on. a
 great portion of that extensive tract of Country to the S. and S. W. of
 the Columbia and Lewis's river and between the Same and the waters of
 Callifornia must be watered by the Multnomah river.--See Sketch in the
 latter part of this book (No. 5). Those people are great jokies and
 deciptfull in trade.
 at Sunset finding that Capt Lewis would not arrive this evening as I
 expected, I packed up all the articles which I had exposed, at a
 Situation I had pitched on to Encamp, and at which place we had bought
 as maney fishing poles as made a fire to Cook a dog which I had
 purchased for the men to eate, and returned to the lodge which I had
 Slept in last night. great number gathered around me to Smoke, I gave
 them two pipes, and then lay my self down with the men to Sleep,
 haveing our merchendize under our heads and guns &c in our arms, as we
 always have in Similar Situations
 
 
 [Lewis, April 21, 1806]
 Monday April 21st 1806.
 Notwithstanding all the precautions I had taken with rispect to the
 horses one of them had broken his cord of 5 strands of Elkskin and had
 gone off spanseled. I sent several men in surch of the horse with
 orders to return at 10 A.M. with or without the horse being determined
 to remain no longer with these villains. they stole another tomahawk
 from us this morning I surched many of them but could not find it. I
 ordered all the spare poles, paddles and the ballance of our canoe put
 on the fire as the morning was cold and also that not a particle should
 be left for the benefit of the indians. I detected a fellow in stealing
 an iron socket of a canoe pole and gave him several severe blows and
 mad the men kick him out of camp. I now informed the indians that I
 would shoot the first of them that attempted to steal an article from
 us. that we were not affraid to fight them, that I had it in my power
 at that moment to kill them all and set fire to their houses, but it
 was not my wish to treat them with severity provided they would let my
 property alone. that I would take their horses if I could find out the
 persons who had stolen the tommahawks, but that I had reather loose the
 property altogether than take the hose of an inosent person. the chiefs
 were present hung their heads and said nothing. at 9 A.M. Windsor
 returned with the lost horse, the others who were in surch of the horse
 soon after returned also. the Indian who promised to accompany me as
 far as the Chopunnish country produced me two horses one of which he
 politely gave me the liberty of packing. we took breakfast and departed
 a few minutes after 10 OClock. having nine horses loaded and one which
 Bratton rode not being able as yet to march; the two canoes I had
 dispatched early this morning. at 1 P.M. I arrived at the Enesher
 Village where I found Capt Clark and party; he had not purchased a
 single horse. he informed me that these people were quite as unfriendly
 as their neighbours the Skillutes, and that he had subsisted since he
 left me on a couple of platters of pounded roots and fish which an old
 man had the politeness to offer him. his party fared much better on
 dogs which he purchased from those people. the man resided here from
 whom I had purchased the horse which ran off from me yesterday. I had
 given him a large kettle and a knife in exchange for that horse which I
 informed him should be taken from him unles he produced me the lost
 horse or one of equal value in his stead, the latter he prefered and
 produced me a very good horse which I very cheerfully received. we soon
 made the portage with our canoes and baggage and halted about 1/2 a
 mile above the Village where we graized our horses and took dinner on
 some dogs which we purchased of these people. after dinner we proceeded
 on about four miles to a village of 9 mat lodges of the Enesher a
 little below the entrance of Clark's river and encamped; one of the
 canoes joined us the other not observing us halt continued on. we
 obtained two dogs and a small quantity of fuel of these people for
 which we were obliged to give a higher price than usual. our guide
 continued with us, he appears to be an honest sincere fellow. he tells
 us that the indians a little above will treat us with much more
 hospitality than those we are now with. we purchased another horse this
 evening but his back is in such a horid state that we can put but
 little on him; we obtained him for a trifle, at least for articles
 which might be procured in the U States for 10 shillings Virga Cory.-
 we took the precaution of piquting and spanseling our horses this
 evening near our camp.
 
 
 [Clark, April 21, 1806]
 April 21st 1806
 a fair Cold morning. I find it useless to offer any articles or attempt
 to trade at this village and therefore deturmine to ____ before I rose
 the house was Crouded with Indians to Smoke I gave them none. they are
 well Supplied with Straw & bark bags ready to hold their pounded fish.
 at 12 oClock the advance of the party from below arived and Soon after
 the Canoes all things were taken above the falls & 2 Canoes, turned out
 the horss and Cooked & Eat 2 dogs which we purchased of the nativs,
 purchased one horse for Which we are to give a Kittle which was given
 by us to a man for a horse 3 days past &c. the horse was either taken
 or Strayed off. The Chief from below Came up and appeared Concerned for
 what had been done at his Village (See Journal)
 a 4 P M loaded up & Set out the Canoes also proceed on about 3 miles
 opposit to the Mouth of Clarks river, and an Indian man who has
 attached himself to us and who has lent us a horse to pack & lives near
 the Rocky mountains. he told us that as the day was far Spent we had
 better Camp at a village of 9 Lodges a little off the road opsd. the
 River CClarks This river has a great falls above 2 forks on its West
 Side. we formed a Camp purchased Some wood & 3 dogs for which we gave
 pewter buttons which buttons we had made &c. but fiew Indians with us
 this evining purchased an old horse and tied up all the horses when we
 went to bed
 Those are the Same people with those below at the falls. See journal
 for the next day-
 Skad data ill looking people reside to the N about 18 or 20 miles they
 played against the Skillutes a game they Call ____ 9 of a Side and lost
 all the beeds & other articles
 also a Single game with 2 black & 2 white Sticks under a kind of hat. 2
 men played this game is intricit and each party has 4 pegs to count it
 The former game is played with 2 bones or Sticks about the Size of a
 large quill and 2 inches long passing from one hand to the other and
 the adverse party guess. See description before mentioned. The nations
 abov at the falls also play this game and bet high
 
 
 [Clark, April 21, 1806]
 Monday 21st April 1806
 A fair Cold morning I found it useless to make any further attempts to
 trade horses with those unfriendly people who only Crouded about me to
 view and make their remarks and Smoke, the latter I did not indulge
 them with to day. at 12 oClock Capt Lewis and party Came up from the
 Skillutes Village with 9 horses packed and one which bratten who was
 yet too weak to walk, rode, and Soon after the two Small Canoes also
 loaded with the residue of the baggage which Could not be taken on
 horses. we had everry thing imedeately taken above the falls, in the
 mean time purchased 2 Dogs on which the party dined--whilst I remained
 at the Enesher Village I Subsisted on 2 platters of roots, Some pounded
 fish and Sun flour Seed pounded which an old man had the politeness to
 give me. in return for which I gave him Several Small articles-.
 Capt Lewis informed me that imedeately after I left him the nativs
 began to Steal and had Stolen Tomahawks of the party, and in the Course
 of the night had let our horses loose he had burnt one and Sold 2 of
 the largest Canoes for beeds, the other 2 brought on. an indian was
 detected in Stealing a socket and was kicked out of Camp. Capt L.
 informed the Indians that the next man who attempted to steal Should be
 Shot and thretened them and informed them that he could kill them in a
 moment and Set their town on fire if he pleased. but it was not his
 desire to hurt them Severly if they would let the property of the party
 alone. the Chiefs hung their heads and Said nothing. he lost the horse
 that was given for a large kittle, and a Chopunnish man lent a horse to
 carry a load and accompanied the party--The man who we had reason to
 believe had Stolen the horse he had given for the Kittle we thretend a
 little and he produced a very good horse in the place of that one which
 we Chearfully receved.
 after dinner we proceeded on about 4 Miles to a Village of 9 Mat Lodges
 of the Enesher, a little below the enterance of To war nah hi ooks
 river and encamped. one of the Canoes joined us, the other not haveing
 observed us halt continued on. We obtained 2 Dogs and a Small quantity
 of fuel of those people for which we were obliged to give a higher
 price than usial. our guide continued with us, he appears to be an
 honest fellow. he tels us that the indians above will treat us with
 much more hospitallity than those we are now with. we purchased another
 horse this evening but his back is in Such a horrid State that we Can
 put but little on him; we obtained him for a triffle, at least for
 articles which might be precured in the U. States for 10/-virga.
 Currency--we took the precaution of picqueting and Spancelling our
 horses this evening near our Camp. the evening Cold and we Could afford
 only one fire.
 
 
 [Lewis, April 22, 1806]
 Tuesday April 22cd 1806.
 Last night two of our horses broke loos from the picquits and straggled
 off some little distance, the men who had charge of them fortunately
 recovered them early. at 7 A.M. we set out having previously sent on
 our small Canoe with Colter and Potts. we had not arrived at the top of
 a hill over which the road leads opposite the village before Charbono's
 horse threw his load, and taking fright at the saddle and robe which
 still adhered, ran at full speed down the hill, near the village he
 disengaged himself from the saddle and robe, an indian hid the robe in
 his lodge. I sent our guide and one man who was with me in the rear to
 assist Charbono in retaking his horse which having done they returned
 to the village on the track of the horse in surch of the lost articles
 they found the saddle but could see nothing of the robe the indians
 denyed having seen it; they then continued on the track of the horse to
 the place from whence he had set out with the same success. being now
 confident that the Indians had taken it I sent the Indian woman on to
 request Capt. C. to halt the party and send back some of the men to my
 assistance being determined either to make the indians deliver the robe
 or birn their houses. they have vexed me in such a manner by such
 repeated acts of villany that I am quite disposed to treat them with
 every severyty, their defenseless state pleads forgivness so far as
 rispects their lives. with this resolution I returned to their village
 which I had just reached as Labuish met me with the robe which he
 informed me he found in an Indian lodg hid behind their baggage. I now
 returned and joined Capt Clark who was waiting my arrival with the
 party. the Indian woman had not reached Capt C. untill about the time I
 arrived and he returned from a position on the top of a hill not far
 from where he had halted the party. from the top of this emmenense
 Capt. C. had an extensive view of the country. he observed the range of
 mountains in which Mount Hood stands to continue nearly south as far as
 the eye could reach. he also observed the snow clad top of Mount
 Jefferson which boar S. 10 W. Mount Hood from the same point boar S. 30
 W. the tops of the range of western mountains are covered with snow.
 Capt C. also discovered some timbered country in a Southern direction
 from him at no great distance. Clarks river which mouths immediately
 opposite this point of view forks at the distance of 18 or 20 miles
 from hence, the wright hand fork takes it rise in mount Hood, and the
 main branch continues it's course to the S. E.
 we now made the following regulations as to our future order of march
 (viz) that Capt. C. & myself should devide the men who were
 disencumbered by horses and march alternately each day the one in front
 and the other in rear. haveing divided the party agreeably to this
 arrangement, we proceeded on through an open plain country about 8
 miles to a village of 6 houses of the Eneshur nation, here we observed
 our 2 canoes passing up on the opposite side; the wind being too high
 for them to pass the river they continued on. we halted at a small run
 just above the village where we dined on some dogs which we purchased
 of the inhabitants and suffered our horses to graize about three hours.
 there is no timber in this country we are obliged to purchase our fuel
 of the natives, who bling it from a great distance. while we halted for
 dinner we purch a horse. after dinner we proceeded on up the river
 about 4 miles to a village of 7 mat lodges of the last mentioned
 nation. here our Chopunnish guide informed us that the next village was
 at a considerable distance and that we could not reach it tonight. the
 people at this place offered to sell us wood and dogs, and we therefore
 thought it better to remain all night. a man blonging to the next
 village abovd proposed exchanging a horse for one of our canoes, just
 at this moment one of our canoes was passing. we hailed them and
 ordered them to come over but the wind continued so high that they
 could not join us untill after sunset and the Indian who wished to
 exchange his horse for the canoe had gone on. Charbonoe purchased a
 horse this evening. we obtained 4 dogs and as much wood as answered our
 purposes on moderate terms. we can only afford ourselves one fire, and
 are obliged to lie without shelter, the nights are cold and days warm.-
 Colter and Pots had passed on with their canoe.
 
 
 [Clark, April 22, 1806]
 Tuesday 22nd of April 1806
 last night 2 of our horses broke loose and Strayed of at a Short
 dis-tance. at 7 oClock we loaded up and Set out, haveing previously
 Sent off the Canoe with Colter and Potts we had not arived at the top
 of the hill which is 200 feet before Shabonos horse threw off his load
 and went with great Speed down the hill to the Village where he
 disengaged himself of his Saddle & the robe which was under it, the
 Indians hid the robe and delayed Capt. Lewis and the rear party Some
 time before they found the robe which was in a lodge hid behind their
 baggage, and took possession of it. dureing the time the front of the
 party was waiting for Cap Lewis, I assended a high hill from which I
 could plainly See the range of Mountains which runs South from Mt. Hood
 as far as I could See. I also discovered the top of Mt. Jefferson which
 is Covered with Snow and is S to W. Mt. Hood is S. 30° W. the range of
 mountains are Covered with timber and also Mt Hood to a sertain bite.
 The range of Mountains has Snow on them. I also discovered some
 timbered land in a S. detection from me, Short of the mountains. Clarks
 river which mouthes imedeately opposit to me forks at about 18 or 20
 miles, the West fork runs to the Mt Hood and the main branch Runs from
 S. E. after Capt Lewis Came up we proceeded on through a open ruged
 plain about 8 miles to a Village of 6 Houses on the river. here we
 observed our 2 Canoes passing up on the opposit Side and the Wind too
 high for them to join us. I halted at the mouth of a run above the
 village near Some good grass to let the horses graze and for the party
 to dine. Sent to the huts and purchased a dog & Some wood. dureing the
 time the party was takeing diner we purchased one horse. after we
 proceeded on up the river about 4 miles to a village of 7 mat Lodges.
 here our Chopunnish guide informed me that the next villg. was at Some
 distance and that we Could not get to it to night, and that there was
 no wood to be precured on this Side. a man offered to Sell us a horse
 for a Canoe. just at the moment we discovered one of our Canoes on the
 opposit Side. we concluded to Camp here all night with the expectation
 of precureing some horses. Sent and purchased Some wood and 4 dogs &
 Shapillele. Shabono purchased a hors for which he gave a red rapper,
 Shirt, ploom & Tomahawk &c. the party purchased a great quantity of
 Chapellell and Some berries for which they gave bits of Tin and Small
 pieces of Cloth & wire &c. had our horses led out and held to grass
 untill dusk when they were all brought to Camp, and pickets drove in
 the ground and the horses tied up. we find the horses very troublesom
 perticularly the Stud which Compose 10/13 of our number of horses. the
 air I find extreemly Cold which blows Continularly from Mt. Hoods
 Snowey regions. those Indians reside in Small Lodges built of the mats
 of Grass, flags &c. and Crouded with inhabitents, who Speak a language
 Somewhat different from those at the falls. their dress habits and
 appearance appear to be very much the Same with those below. we made 14
 miles to day with the greatest exirtion. Serjt. Gass & R. Fields joined
 us with one Canoe this evening. the other Canoe with Colter & pots is a
 head.
 
 
 [Lewis, April 23, 1806]
 Wednesday April 23rd 1806.
 At day light this morning we were informed that the two horses of our
 Interpreter Charbono were absent; on enquiry it appeared that he had
 neglected to confine them to picquts as had been directed last evening.
 we immediately dispatched Reubin Feilds and Labuish to assist Charbono
 in recovering his horses. one of them was found at no great distance
 and the other was given over as lost. at 8 A.M. Reuben Feilds and
 Sergt. Gass proceeded in the canoe. at 10 Labuish and Charbono returned
 unsuccessfull, they had gone back on the road nearly to the last
 village and suched the plains on either hand to a considerable
 distance. our remaining longer would have prevented our making a timely
 stage which in our situation is all important; we therefore determined
 to proceed immediately to the next village which from the information
 of our guide will occupy the greater part of the day to reach at eleven
 OCk. we loaded our horses and set out. during the time we were detained
 this morning we had two packsaddles made. we continued our march along
 a narrow rocky bottom on the N. side of the river about 12 miles to the
 Wah-how-pum Village of 12 temperary mat lodges near the Rock rapid.
 these people appeared much pleased to see us, sold us 4 dogs and some
 wood for our small articles which we had previously prepared as our
 only resource to obtain fuel and food through those plains. these
 articles conisted of pewter buttons, strips of tin iron and brass,
 twisted wire &c. we also obtained some shap-pe-lell newly made from
 these people. here we met with a Chopunnish man on his return up the
 river with his family and about 13 head of horses most of them young
 and unbroken. he offered to hire us some of them to pack as far a his
 nation, but we prefer bying as by hireing his horses we shal have the
 whole of his family most probably to mentain. at a little distance
 below this village we passed five lodges of the same people who like
 those were waiting the arrival of the salmon. after we had arranged our
 camp we caused all the old and brave men to set arround and smoke with
 us. we had the violin played and some of the men danced; after which
 the natives entertained us with a dance after their method. this dance
 differed from any I have yet seen. they formed a circle and all sung as
 well the spectators as the dancers who performed within the circle.
 these placed their sholders together with their robes tightly drawn
 about them and danced in a line from side to side, several parties of
 from 4 to seven will be performing within the circle at the same time.
 the whole concluded with a premiscuous dance in which most of them sung
 and danced. these people speak a language very similar to the
 Chopunnish whome they also resemble in their dress their women wear
 long legings mockersons shirts and robes. their men also dress with
 legings shirts robes and mockersons. after the dance was ended the
 Indians retired at our request and we retired to rest. we had all our
 horses side bubbled and turned out to graize; at this village, a large
 creek falls in on the N. side which we did not observe as we decended
 the river. the river is by no means as rapid as when we decended or at
 least not obstructed with those dangerous rapids the water at present
 covers most of the rocks in the bed of the river. the natives promised
 to barter their horses with us in the morning we therefore entertained
 a hope that we shall be enabled to proceede by land from hence with the
 whole of our party and baggage. came 12 miles by land. the sands made
 the march fatieguing.-
 
 
 [Clark, April 23, 1806]
 Wednesday 23rd 1806
 at day light this morning we were informed that the two horses of our
 interpreter Shabono were missing on enquirey we were informed that he
 had neglected to tie up his horses as derected last evening. we
 imedeately dispatch him, R. Fields & Labiech in Serch of the horses,
 one of them were found at no great distance. the other was not found.
 R. Fields retd. without finding the horse Set out with Sergt Gass in
 the Small Canoe at about 8 A M. at 10 Shabono and Labiech returned also
 unsucksessfull they had went on the back trail nearly to the last
 Village and took a circle around on the hills. as our Situation was
 Such that we Could not detain for a horse, which would prevent our
 makeing a timely Stage which is a great object with us in those open
 plains, we Concluded to give up the horse and proceed on to the next
 village which we were informed was at Some distance and would take us
 the greater part of the day. at 11 A.M. we packed up and Set out and
 proceeded up on the N. Side of the Columbia on a high narrow bottom and
 rockey for 12 miles to the Wah-how-pum village near the rock rapid of
 12 temporary mat Lodges, those people appeared pleased to See us. they
 Sold us 4 dogs Some Shapollell and wood for our Small articles Such as
 awls pieces of Tin and brass. we passed Several Lodges on the bank of
 the river where they were fixed waiting for the Salmon. I over took a
 Choponish man whome I had Seen at the long, and who had found a bag of
 our powder and brought it to me at that place. this man had his family
 on the ____ and about 3 head of horses which appeared young and
 unbroke. his spous as also that of the other gave me a Cake of
 Chapellell and proceeded on with me to the Wah howpum Village and
 formed his Camp near us. we Caused all the old & brave men to Set
 around and Smoke with us. we Caused the fiddle to be played and Some of
 the men danced. after them the nativs danced. they dance different from
 any Indians I have Seen. they dance with their Sholders together and
 pass from Side to Side, defferent parties passing each other, from 2 to
 7. and 4 parties danceing at the Same time and Concluding the dance by
 passing promiscuisly throu & beetween each other. after which we Sent
 of the Indians and retired to bed. Those people Speak a language verry
 Similal to the Chopunish and with a very inconsiderable difference.
 their dress and appearance is more like those of the Great falls of the
 Columbia. we had all our horses Side hobbled and let out to feed. at
 this village a large Creek falls in on the N. Side which I had not
 observed as I decended the river. the river is by no means as rapid as
 it was at the time we decended. The nativs promised to give is a horse
 for one of our Canoes. and offer to Sell us another for a Scarlet robe
 which we have not at present. Shabono made a bargin with one of the
 Indian men going with us, for a horse for Which he gave his Shirt. and
 two of the leather Sutes of his wife. The Sand through which we walked
 to day is So light that renders the march verry fatigueing. made 12
 miles by land.
 
 
 [Lewis, April 24, 1806]
 Thursday April 24 th 1806.
 We were up early this morning and dispatched the men in surch of our
 horses, they were all found in a little time except McNeal's. we hired
 an indian to surch for this horse it was one in the evening before he
 returned with him. in the intermediate time we had 4 packsaddles made
 purchased three horses of the Wah-howpums, and hired three others of
 the Chopunnish man who accompanys us with his family and horses. we now
 sold our canoes for a few strands of beads, loaded up and departed at 2
 P.M. the natives had tantalized us with an exchange of horses for our
 canoes in the first instance, but when they found that we had made our
 arrangements to travel by land they would give us nothing for them I
 determined to cut them in peices sooner than leave them on those terms,
 Drewyer struck one of the canoes and split of a small peice with his
 tommahawk, they discovered us determined on this subject and offered us
 several strands of beads for each which were accepted. we proceeded up
 the river between the hills and it's Northen shore. the road was rocky
 and sandy alternately, the road difficult and fatiegu-ing. at 12 ms. we
 arrived at a village of 5 lodges of the Met-cow-wes, having passed 4
 lodges at 4 and 2 at 2 Ms. further. we ramined all night near the
 Met-cow-we lodges about 2 miles below our encampment of the ____ of
 October last; we purchased three dogs and some shappellel of these
 people which we cooked with dry grass and willow boughs. many of the
 natives pased and repassed us today on the road and behaved themselves
 with distant rispect towards us. most of the party complain of the
 soarness of their feet and legs this evening; it is no doubt caused by
 walking over the rough stones and deep sands after bing for some months
 passed been accustomed to a soft soil. my left ankle gives me much
 pain. I baithed my feet in cold water from which I experienced
 considerable releif. The curloos are abundant in these plains and are
 now laying their eggs. saw the Kildee, the brown lizzard, and a Moonax
 which the natives had petted. the winds which set from Mount Hood or in
 a westerly direction are much more cold than those from the opposite
 quarter. there are now no dews in these plains, and from the appearance
 of the earth there appears to have been no rain for several weeks.--we
 derected that the three horses which we purchased yesterday should be
 bubbled and confined to a picqut, and that the others should be
 disposed of in the same manner they were last evening.
 
 
 [Clark, April 24, 1806]
 Thursday 24th April 1806
 rose early this morning and Sent out after the horses all of which were
 found except McNeals which I hired an Indian to find and gave him a
 Tomahawk had 4 pack Saddles made ready to pack the horses which we may
 purchase. we purchased 3 horses, and hired 3 others of the Chopunnish
 man who accompanies us with his family, and at 1 P.M. Set out and
 proceeded on through a open Countrey rugid & Sandy between Some high
 lands and the river to a village of 5 Lodges of the Met-cow-we band
 haveing passed 4 Lodges at 4 miles and 2 Lodges at 6 miles. Great
 numbers of the nativs pass us on hors back maney meet us and Continued
 with us to the Lodges. we purchased 3 dogs which were pore, but the
 fattest we Could precure, and Cooked them with Straw and dry willow. we
 Sold our Canoes for a fiew Strands of beeds. the nativs had tantelized
 us with an exchange of horses for our Canoes in the first instance, but
 when they found that we had made our arrangements to travel by land
 they would give us nothing for them. we Sent Drewyer to Cut them up, he
 Struck one and Split her they discovered that we were deturmined to
 destroy the Canoes and offered us Several Strans of beeds which were
 acceptd most of the party Complain of their feet and legs this evening
 being very Sore. it is no doubt Causd. by walking over the rough Stone
 and deep Sand after being accustomed to a Soft Soil. my legs and feet
 give me much pain. I bathed them in Cold water from which I experienced
 Considerable relief. we directed that the 3 horses purchased yesterday
 should be hobbled and confined to pickquets and that the others Should
 be Hobbled & Spancled, and Strictly attended to by the guard made 12
 miles to day.-
 
 
 [Lewis, April 25, 1806]
 Friday April 25th 1806.
 This morning we collected our horses and set out at 9 A.M. and
 proceeded on 11 ms. to the Village of the Pish-quit-pahs of 51 mat
 lodges where we arrived at 2 P.M. purchased five dogs and some wood
 from them and took dinner. this village contains about 7 hundred souls.
 most of those people were in the plains at a distance from the river as
 we passed down last fall, they had now therefore the gratification of
 beholding whitemen for the first time. while here they flocked arround
 us in great numbers tho treated us with much rispect. we gave two
 medals of the small size to their two principal Cheifs who were pointed
 out to us by our Chopunnish fellow traveller and were acknowledged by
 the nation. we exposed a few old clothes my dirk and Capt. C's swoard
 to barter for horses but were unsuccessfull these articles constitute
 at present our principal stock in trade. the Pish-quit-pahs insisted
 much on our remaining with them all night, but sudry reasons conspired
 to urge our noncomplyance with their wishes. we passed one house or
 reather lodge of the Metcowwees about a mile above our encampment of
 the ____th of October last the Pish-quit-pahs, may be considered
 hunters as well as fishermen as they spend the fall and winter months
 in that occupation. they are generally pleasently featured of good
 statue and well proportioned. both women and men ride extreemly well.
 their bridle is usually a hair rope tyed with both ends to the under
 jaw of the horse, and their saddle consists of a pad of dressed skin
 stuffed with goats hair with wooden stirups. almost all the horses
 which I have seen in possession of the Indians have soar backs. the
 Pishquitpah women for the most part dress with short shirts which reach
 to their knees long legings and mockersons, they also use large robes;
 some of them weare only the truss and robe they brade their hair as
 before discribed but the heads of neither male nor female of this tribe
 are so much flattened as the nations lower down on this river. at 4
 P.M. we set out accompanyed by eighteen or twenty of their young men on
 horseback. we continued our rout about nine miles where finding as many
 willows as would answer our purposes for fuel we encamped for the
 evening. the country we passed through was much as that of yesterday.
 the river hills are about 250 feet high and generally abrupt and
 craggey in many places faced with a perpendicular and solid rock. this
 rock is black and hard. leve plains extend themselves from the tops of
 the river hills to a great distance on either side of the river. the
 soil is not as fertile as about the falls, tho it produces a low grass
 on which the horses feed very conveniently. it astonished me to seed
 the order of their horses at this season of the year when I knew that
 they had wintered on the dry grass of the plains and at the same time
 road with greater severity than is common among ourselves. I did not
 see a single horse which could be deemed poor and many of them were as
 fat as seals. their horses are generally good. this evining after we
 had encamped, we traded for two horses with nearly the same articles we
 had offered at the village; these nags Capt. C. and myself intend
 riding ourselves; haveing now a sufficiency to transport with ease all
 our baggage and the packs of the men.--we killed six ducks in the
 course of the day; one of them was of a speceis which I had never
 before seen I therefore had the most material parts of it reserved as a
 specimine, the leggs are yellow and feet webbed as those of the
 duckandmallard. saw many common lizzards, several rattlesnakes killed
 by the party, they are the same as those common to the U States. the
 horned Lizzard is also common.--had the fiddle played at the request of
 the natives and some of the men danced. we passed five lodges of the
 Walldh wolldhs at the distance of 4 miles above the Pishquitpahs.
 
 
 [Clark, April 25, 1806]
 Friday 25th of April 1806
 This morning we Collected our horses very conveniently and Set out at 9
 A M and proceeded on to a village of Pish-quit-pahs of 52 mat Lodges 11
 miles this village Contains about 700 Soles here we turned out our
 horses and bought 5 dogs & some wood and dined here we met with a Chief
 and gave him a Medal of the Small Size. we passed a house a little
 above the place we encamped on the 20th of Octr. 1805. we offered to
 purchase with what articles we had Such as old Clothes &c. emence
 numbers of those Indians flocked about us and behaved with distant
 respect towards us. we attempted to purchase Some horses without
 Suckcess. at 4 P. M Set out. I was in the rear and had not proceeded
 verry far before one of the horses which we had hired of the
 Chopunnish, was taken from Hall who I had directed to ride. he had
 fallen behind out of my sight at the time. we proceeded on about 9
 miles through a Country Similar to that of yesterday and encamped below
 the mouth of a Small Creek we passed at 4 miles a Village of 5 Mat
 Lodges of the War-war-wa Tribe. We made a Chief and gave a medal to a
 Chief of each of those two tribes. great numbers of the nativs
 accompanied us to our encampmt. The Curloos are abundant in those
 plains & are now laying their eggs. Saw the Kildee the brown Lizzard,
 and a moonax which the nativs had petted. the Winds which Set from
 mount hood or in a westwardly direction are much more cold than those
 from any other quarter. there are no dews in these plains, and from the
 appearance of the earth there appears to have been no rain for Several
 Weeks. The pish-quit pahs may be considered as hunters as well as
 fishermen as they Spend the fall & winter months in that occupation.
 they are generally pleasently featured of good Statue and well
 proportiond. both women and men ride extreamly well. their bridle is
 usially a hair rope tied with both ends to the under jaw of the horse,
 and their Saddles Consist of a pad of dressed Skin Stuffed with goats
 hair with wooden Sturreps. almost all the horses I have Seen in the poss
 ession of the Indians have Sore backs.
 The pishquitpahs women for the most part dress with Short Shirts which
 reach to their knees long legins, and mockersons, they also use long
 robes; Some of them weare only the truss and robe, they brade their
 hair as before discribed but the heads of neither the male nor female
 of this tribe are So much flattend as the nativs lower down on this
 river. we were accompd. by 18 or 20 young men on horsback. we Continued
 our rout about 9 miles, where finding as maney Willows as would answer
 our purpose for fuel we encamped for the night. the Country we passed
 through was Sandy indifferent rocky and hills on the left. proceeded up
 on the North Side the river hills are about 250 feet high & generally
 abrupt and Craggey in maney places faced with a pirpendicular and Solid
 rock. this rock is black and hard. leavel plains extend themselves from
 the top of the river hills to a great distance on either Side of the
 river. the Soil is not as fertile as about the falls tho it produces
 low grass on which the horses feed very Conveniently. it astonished me
 to See the order of their horses at this Season of the year when I know
 they had wintered on dry grass of the plains and at the Same time rode
 with greater Severity than is Common among ourselves. I did not See a
 Single horse which Could be deemed pore, and maney of them were verry
 fat. their horses are generally good. this evening after we had
 encamped we traded for two horses with nearly the Same articles we had
 offered at the Village. these Nags Capt. L-s and myself intend rideing
 ourselves; haveing now a Sufficency to transport with ease all our
 baggage and the packs of the men.--we killed 6 ducks in the course of
 the day; one of them were of a Species I had never before Seen. the
 legs yellow and feet wibbed as those of the duckinmallard. Saw great
 numbers of Common Lizzard. Several rattle Snakes, killed by the party,
 they are the Same as those Common to the U. States. the Horned Lizzard
 is also Common.--a Chief over took us. we had the fiddle played by the
 request of the nativs and Some of the men danced. I think those plains
 are much more Sandy than any which I have Seen and the road is a bed of
 loose Sand. made 20 miles.
 
 
 [Lewis, April 26, 1806]
 Saturday April 26th 1806.
 This morning early we set forward and at the distance of three miles
 entered a low level plain country of great extent. here the river hills
 are low and receede a great distance from the river this low country
 commenced on the S. side of the river about 10 miles below our
 encampment of last evening. these plains are covered with a variety of
 herbatious plants, grass, and three speceis of shrubs specimines of
 which I have preserved. at the distance of twelve miles we halted near
 a few willows which afforded us a sufficient quantity of fuel to cook
 our dinner which consisted of the ballance of the dogs we had purchased
 yesterday evening and some jirked Elk. we were overtaken today by
 several families of the natives who were traveling up the river with a
 number of horses; they continued with us much to our annoyance as the
 day was worm the roads dusty and we could not prevent their horses from
 crouding in and breaking our order of mach without using some acts of
 severity which we did not wish to commit. after dinner we continued our
 march through the level plain near the river 16 Ms. and encamped about
 a mile below three lodges of the Wollah wollah nation, and about 7 Ms.
 above our encampment of the 19 of October last. after we encamped a
 little Indian boy caught several chubbs with a bone in this form which
 he substituted for a hook. these fish were of about 9 inches long small
 head large abdomen, small where the tail joined the body, the tail wide
 long in proportion and forked. the back and ventral fins were
 equadistant from the head and had each 10 bony rays, the fns next the
 gills nine each and that near the tail 12. the upper exceeded the under
 jaw, the latter is truncate at the extremity and the tonge and pallet
 are smooth. the colour is white on the sides and belley and a blewish
 brown on the back. the iris of the eye is of a silvery colour and puple
 black.--we covered ourselves partially this evening from the rain by
 means of an old tent.
 
 
 [Clark, April 26, 1806]
 Saturday April 26th 1806
 This morning early we proceeded on and at the distance of three miles
 entered a low leavel plain Country of great extent. here the river
 hills are low and receed a great distance from the river this low
 Country Comenced on the South Side about 10 miles below our Encampment
 of the last night, those plains are Covered with a variety of
 herbatious plants, Grass and 3 Species of Shrubs. at the distance of 12
 miles halted near Some willows which afforded us a Sufficent quantity
 of fuel to cook our dinner which Consisted of the ballance of the dogs
 we had purchased yesterday evening and Some jerked Elk. we were over
 taken to day by Several families of the nativs who were traveling up
 the river with a Numr. of horses; they Continued with us much to our
 ennoyance as the day was worm the roads dusty and we Could not prevent
 their horses Crouding in and breaking our order of March without useing
 Some acts of Severty which we did not wish to Commit. after dinner we
 Continued our march through a leavel plain near the river 16 miles and
 encamped about a mile below 3 Lodges of the fritened band of the Wallah
 wallah nation, and about 7 miles above our encampment of the 19th of
 Octr. last. after we encamped a little Indian boy Cought Several Chubbs
 with a bone in this form which he Substituted for a hook. those fish
 were of about 9 inches long. we Covered our Selves perfectly this
 evening from the rain by means of an old tent. Saw a Goat and a Small
 wolf at a distance to day. made 28 miles
 
 
 [Lewis, April 27, 1806]
 Sunday April 27th 1806.
 This morning we were detained untill 9 A.M. in consequence of the
 absence of one of Charbono's horses. the horse at length being
 recovered we set out and at the distance of fifteen miles passed
 through a country similar to that of yesterday; the hills at the
 extremity of this distance again approach the river and are rocky
 abrupt and 300 feet high. we ascended the hill and marched through a
 high plain for 9 miles when we again returned to the river, I now
 thought it best to halt as the horses and men were much fatiegued altho
 had not reached the Wallah wollah village as we had been led to beleive
 by our guide who informed us that the village was at the place we
 should next return to the river, and the consideration of our having
 but little provision had been our inducement to make the march we had
 made this morning. we collected some of the dry stalks of weeds and the
 stems of a shrub which resembles the southern wood; made a small fire
 and boiled a small quantity of our jerked meat on which we dined; while
 here the principal Cheif of the Wallahwallahs joined us with six men of
 his nation. this Cheif by name Yel-lept had visited us on the morning
 of the 19 of October at our encampment a little below this place; we
 gave him at that time a small medal, and promised him a larger one on
 our return. he appeared much gratifyed at seeng us return, invited us
 to remain at his village three or four days and assured us that we
 should be furnished with a plenty of such food as they had themselves;
 and some horses to assist us on our journey. after our scanty repast we
 continued our march accompanyed by Yellept and his party to the village
 which we found at the distance of six miles situated on the N. side of
 the river at the lower side of the low country about 12 ms. below the
 entrance of Lewis's river. This Cheif is a man of much influence not
 only in his own nation but also among the neighbouring tribes and
 nations.--This Village consists of 15 large mat lodges. at present they
 seem to subsist principally on a speceis of mullet which weigh from one
 to three lbs. and roots of various discriptions which these plains
 furnish them in great abundance. they also take a few salmon trout of
 the white kind.--Yellept haranged his village in our favour intreated
 them to furnish us with fuel and provision and set the example himself
 by bringing us an armfull of wood and a platter of 3 roasted mullets.
 the others soon followed his example with rispect to fuel and we soon
 found ourselves in possession of an ample stock. they birn the stems of
 the shrubs in the plains there being no timber in their neighbourhood
 of any discription. we purchased four dogs of these people on which the
 party suped heartily having been on short allowance for near two days.
 the indians retired when we requested them this evening and behaved
 themselves in every rispect extreemly well. the indians informed us
 that there was a good road which passed from the columbia opposite to
 this village to the entrance of the Kooskooske on the S. side of
 Lewis's river; they also informed us, that there were a plenty of deer
 and Antelopes on the road, with good water and grass. we knew that a
 road in that direction if the country would permit would shorten our
 rout at least 80 miles. the indians also informed us that the country
 was level and the road good, under these circumstances we did not
 hesitate in pursuing the rout recommended by our guide whos information
 was corroberated by Yellept & others. we concluded to pass our horses
 over early in the morning.
 
 
 [Clark, April 27, 1806]
 Sunday April 27th 1806.
 This morning we were detained untill 9 A M in consequence of the
 absence of one of Shabono's horses. the horse being at length recovered
 we Set out and to the distance of 15 miles passed through a Country
 Similar to that of yesterday. (passed Muscle Shell rapid) and at the
 experation of this distance again approached the river, and are rocky
 abrupt and 300 feet high. we assended the hill and marched through a
 high plain 10 miles where we again returned to the river. we halted
 altho we had not reached the Wal-lah-lal-lah village as we had been led
 to believe by our guide who informed us that the village was at the
 place we Should next return to the river, and the considiration of our
 haveing but little provisions had been our inducement to make the march
 we had made this morning. we collected Some of the dry stalks of weeds
 and the Stems of Shrubs or weeds which resemble the Southern wood; made
 a Small fire and boiled a Small quantity of our jurked meat on which we
 dined; while here we were met by the principal Chief of the Wal lah wal
 lah Nation and Several of his nation. this chief by name Yel lep-pet
 had visited us on the morning of the 19th of Octr. at our encampment
 imedeately opposit to us; we gave him at that time a Small Medal, and
 promised him a large one on our return. he appeared much gratified at
 Seeing us return. he envited us to remain at his village 3 or 4 days
 and assured us that we Should be furnished with a plenty of Such food
 as they had themselves, and Some horses to assist us on our journey.
 after our Scanty repast we Continued our March accompanied by Yelleppit
 and his party to the Village which we found at the distance of Six
 miles, Situated on the North Side of the river. about 16 miles below
 the enterance of Lewis's river. This Chief is a man of much influence
 not only in his own nation but also among the neighbouring tribes and
 nations.--the village Consists of 15 large mat Lodges. at present they
 Seam to Subsist principally on a Species of Mullet which weighs from
 one to 3 pds. and roots of various discriptions which those plains
 furnish them in great abundance. They also take a fiew Salmon trout of
 the white kind. Yelleppet haranged his village in our favor intreated
 them to furnish us with fuel & provisions and Set the example himself
 by bringing us an armfull of wood, and a platter with 3 rosted mullets.
 the others Soon followed his example with respect to fuel and we Soon
 found ourselves in possession of an ample Stock, they burn the Stems of
 the Shrubs in the plains, there being no timber in this neighbourhood
 of any description. we purchased 4 dogs of those people on which the
 party Suped hartily haveing been on Short allowance for near 2 days.
 the Indians retired when we requested them this evening and behaved
 themselves in every respect very well. the Indians informed us that
 there was a good road Which passed from the Columbia opposit to this
 Village to the enterance of Kooskooske on the S. Side of Lewis's river,
 they also informed us, there were a plenty of Deer and Antilopes on the
 road with good water and grass. we knew that a road in that direction
 if the Country would permit it would Shorten the rout at least 80
 miles. the Indians also inform us that the County was leavel and the
 road good, under those circumstances we did not hesitate in pursueing
 the rout recommended by our guide and Corroberated by Yetleppit and
 others. we Concluded to pass our horses over early in the morning.-
 made 31 miles to day
 
 
 [Lewis, April 28, 1806]
 Monday April 28th 1806.
 This morning early Yellept brought a very eligant white horse to our
 camp and presented him to Capt. C. signifying his wish to get a kettle
 but on being informed that we had already disposed of every kettle we
 could possibly spear he said he was content with whatever he thought
 proper to give him. Capt. C. gave him his swoard a hundred balls and
 powder and some sail articles with which he appeared perfectly
 satisfyed. it was necessary before we entered on our rout through the
 plains where we were to meet with no lodges or resident indians that we
 should lay in a stock of provision and not depend altogether on the
 gun. we directed Frazier to whom we have intrusted the duty of makeing
 those purchases to lay in as many fat dogs as he could procure; he soon
 obtained ten. being anxious to depart we requested the Cheif to furnish
 us with canoes to pass the river, but he insisted on our remaining with
 him this day at least, that he would be much pleased if we would conset
 to remain two or three, but he would not let us have canoes to leave
 him today. that he had sent for the Chym nap'-pos his neighbours to
 come down and join his people this evening and dance for us. we urged
 the necessity of our going on immediately in order that we might the
 sooner return to them with the articles which they wished but this had
 no effect, he said that the time he asked could not make any
 considerable difference. I at length urged that there was no wind
 blowing and that the river was consequently in good order to pass our
 horses and if he would furnish us with canoes for that purpose we would
 remain all night at our present encampment, to this proposition he
 assented and soon produced us a couple of canoes by means of which we
 passed our horses over the river safely and bubbled them as usual. we
 found a Shoshone woman, prisoner among these people by means of whome
 and Sahcahgarweah we found the means of conversing with the
 Wollahwollahs. we conversed with them for several hours and fully
 satisfyed all their enquiries with rispect to ourselves and the objects
 of our pursuit. they were much pleased. they brought several diseased
 persons to us for whom they requested some medical aid. one had his
 knee contracted by the rheumatism, another with a broken arm &c to all
 of which we administered much to the gratification of those poor
 wretches. we gave them some eye-water which I beleive will render them
 more essential service than any other article in the medical way which
 we had it in our power to bestoe on them. soar eyes seem to be a
 universal complaint amonge these people; I have no doubt but the fine
 sand of these plains and river contribute much to this disorder. ulsers
 and irruptions of the skin on various parts of the body are also common
 diseases among them. a little before sunset the Chymnahpos arrived;
 they were about 100 men and a few women; they joined the Wallahwollahs
 who were about the same number and formed a half circle arround our
 camp where they waited very patiently to see our party dance. the
 fiddle was played and the men amused themselves with dancing about an
 hour. we then requested the Indians to dance which they very cheerfully
 complyed with; they continued their dance untill 10 at night. the whole
 assemblage of indians about 550 men women and children sung and danced
 at the same time. most of them stood in the same place and merely
 jumped up to the time of their music. some of the men who were esteemed
 most brave entered the space arrond which the main body were formed in
 solid column, and danced in a circular manner sidewise. at 10 P.M. the
 dance concluded and the natives retired; they were much gratifyed with
 seeing some of our party join them in their dance.
 
 
 [Clark, April 28, 1806]
 Monday April 28th 1806
 This morning early the Great Chief Yel lip pet brought a very eligant
 white horse to our Camp and presented him to me Signifying his wish to
 get a kittle but being informed that we had already disposed of every
 kittle we could possibly Spare he Said he was Content with what ever I
 thought proper to give him. I gave him my Swoard, 100 balls & powder
 and Some Small articles of which he appeared perfectly Satisfied. it
 was necessary before we entered on our rout through the plains where we
 were to meet with no lodges or resident Indians that we Should lay in a
 Stock of provisions and not depend altogether on the gun. we derected
 R. Frazer to whome we have intrusted the duty of makeing the purchases,
 to lay in as maney fat dogs as he could procure; he Soon obtained 10.
 being anxious to depart we requested the Chief to furnish us with
 Canoes to pass the river, but he insisted on our remaining with him
 this day at least, that he would be much pleased if we would consent to
 remain two or 3 days, but he would not let us have Canoes to leave him
 this day. that he had Sent for the Chim-na-pums his neighbours to come
 down and join his people this evening and dance for us. We urged the
 necessity of our proceeding on imediately in order that we might the
 Sooner return to them, with the articles which they wishd. brought to
 them but this had no effect, he Said that the time he asked Could not
 make any Considerable difference. I at length urged that there was no
 wind blowing and that the river was consequently in good order to pass
 our horses and if he would furnish us with Canoes for that purpose
 we would remain all night at our present encampment, to this
 proposition he assented and Soon produced a Canoe. I Saw a man who had
 his knee Contracted who had previously applyed to me for Some Medisene,
 that if he would fournish another Canoe I would give him Some Medisene.
 he readily Consented and went himself with his Canoe by means of which
 we passed our horses over the river Safely and hobbled them as usial-.
 We found a Sho Sho ne woman, prisoner among those people by means of
 whome and Sah-cah gah-weah, Shabono's wife we found means of
 Converceing with the Wallahwallfirs. we Conversed with them for Several
 hours and fully Satisfy all their enquiries with respect to our Selves
 and the Object of our pursute. they were much pleased. they brought
 Several disordered persons to us for whome they requested Some Medical
 aid. one had his knee contracted by the Rhumitism (whome is just
 mentioned above) another with a broken arm &c. to all of whome we
 administered much to the gratification of those pore wretches, we gave
 them Some eye water which I believe will render them more esential
 Sirvece than any other article in the Medical way which we had it in
 our power to bestow on them Sore eyes Seam to be a universial Complaint
 among those people; I have no doubt but the fine Sands of those plains
 and the river Contribute much to the disorder. The man who had his arm
 broken had it loosely bound in a peice of leather without any thing to
 Surport it. I dressed the arm which was broken Short above the wrist &
 Supported it with broad Sticks to keep it in place, put in a Sling and
 furnished him with Some lint bandages &c. to Dress it in future. a
 little before Sun Set the Chim nah poms arrived; they were about 100
 men and a fiew women; they joined the Wallah wallahs who were about 150
 men and formed a half Circle arround our camp where they waited verry
 patiently to See our party dance. the fiddle was played and the men
 amused themselves with danceing about an hour. we then requested the
 Indians to dance which they very Chearfully Complyed with; they
 Continued their dance untill 10 at night. the whole assemblage of
 Indians about 350 men women and Children Sung and danced at the Same
 time. most of them danced in the Same place they Stood and mearly
 jumped up to the time of their musick. Some of the men who were
 esteemed most brave entered the Space around which the main body were
 formed in Solid Column and danced in a Circular manner Side wise. at 10
 P M. the dance ended and the nativs retired; they were much gratified
 in Seeing Some of our Party join them in their dance. one of their
 party who made himself the most Conspicious Charecter in the dance and
 Songs, we were told was a Medesene man & Could foretell things. that he
 had told of our Comeing into their Country and was now about to Consult
 his God the moon if what we Said was the truth &c. &c.
 
 
 [Lewis, April 29, 1806]
 Tuesday April 29th 1806.
 This morning Yellept furnished us with two canoes and we began to
 transport our baggage over the river; we also sent a party of the men
 over to collect the horses. we purchased some dogs and shappellell this
 morning. we had now a store of 12 dogs for our voyage through the
 plains. by 11 A.M. we had passed the river with our party and baggage
 but were detained several hours in consequence of not being able to
 collect our horses. our guide now informed us that it was too late in
 the evening to reach an eligible place to encamp; that we could not
 reach any water before night. we therefore thought it best to remain on
 the Wallahwollah river about a mile from the Columbia untill the
 morning, and accordingly encamped on that river near a fish wear. this
 wear consists of two curtains of small willow switches matted together
 with four lines of withs of the same materials extening quite across
 the river, parrallel with eah other and about 6 feet assunder. those
 are supported by several parsels of poles placed in the manner before
 discribed of the fishing wears. these curtains of willow are either
 roled at one end for a few feet to permit the fish to pass or are let
 down at pleasure. they take their fish which at present are a mullet
 only of from one to five lbs., with small seines of 15 or 18 feet long
 drawn by two persons; these they drag down to the wear and raise the
 bottom of the seine against the willow curtain. they have also a small
 seine maniaged by one person it bags in the manner of the scooping net;
 the one side of the net is confined to a simicircular bow of half the
 size of a man's arm and about 5 feet long; the other side is confined
 to a strong string which being attatched to the extremities of the bow
 forms the cord line to the simicircle. The Wallahwollah river
 discharges itself into the Columbia on it's S. side 15 miles below the
 entrance of Lewis's river or the S. E. branch. a high range of hills
 pass the Columbia just below the entrance of this river. this is a
 handsome stream about 41/2 feet deep and 50 yds. wide; it's bed is
 composed of gravel principally with some sand and mud; the banks are
 abrupt but not high, tho it dose not appear to overflow; the water is
 clear. the indians inform us that it has it's surces in the range of
 mountains in view of us to the E and S. E. these mountains commence a
 little to the south of Mt. Hood and extending themselves in a N.
 Eastwardly direction terminate near a Southen branch of Lewis's river
 short of the Rocky mountains. The Towannahiooks river, river LaPage and
 the Wollah-wollah rivers all take their rise on the N side of these
 mountains; two principal branches of the first of these take their rise
 in Mountains Jefferson and hood. these mountains are covered with snow
 at present tho do not appear high; they seperate the waters of the
 Multnomah from those of the Columbia river. they appear to be about 65
 or 70 miles distant from hence. The Snake indian prisoner informed us
 that at some distance in the large plains to the South of those
 mountains there was a large river runing to the N. W. which was as wide
 as the Columbia at this place which is nearly one mile. this account is
 no doubt some what exagerated but it serves to evince the certainty of
 the Multnomah being a very large river and that it's waters are
 seperated from the Columbia by those mountains and that with the aid of
 a southwardly branch of Lewis's river which passes arrond the eastern
 extremity of those mountains, it must water that vast tract of country
 extending from those mountains to the waters of the gulph of
 California. and no doubt it heads with the Yellowstone river and the
 del Nord. we gave small medals to two inferior cheifs of this nation
 and they each presented us a fine horse in return we gave them sundry
 articles and among others one of my case pistols and several hundred
 rounds of amunition. there are 12 other lodges of the Wollahwollah
 nation on this river a little distance below our camp. 12 these as well
 as those beyond the Columbia appear to depend on this fishing wear for
 their subsistence. these people as well as the Chymnahpos are very well
 dressed, much more so particularly their women than they were as we
 decended the river last fall most of them have long shirts and
 leggings, good robes and mockersons. their women wear the truss when
 they cannot procure the shirt, but very few are seen with the former at
 this moment. I presume the success of their winters hunt has produced
 this change in their attire. they all cut their hair in their forehead
 and most of the men wear the two cews over each sholder in front of the
 body; some have the addition of a few small plats formed of the
 earlocks and others tigh a small bundle of the docked foretop in front
 of the forehead. their ornaments are such as discribed of the nations
 below and are woarn in a similar manner. they insisted on our dancinq
 this evening but it rained a little the wind blew hard and the weather
 was cold, we therefore did not indulge them.
 
 
 [Clark, April 29, 1806]
 Tuesday April 29th 1806
 This Morning Yelleppit furnished us with 2 Canoes, and We began to
 transport our baggage over the river; we also Sent a party of the men
 over to collect our horses. we purchased Some deer and chappellell this
 morning. we had now a Store of 12 dogs for our voyage through the
 plains. by 11 A.M. we had passed the river with our party and baggage
 but were detained Several hours in consequence of not being able to
 Collect our horses. our guide now informed us that it was too late in
 the evening to reach an eligible place to encamp; that we Could not
 reach any water before night. we therefore thought it best to remain on
 the Wallah wallah river about a mile from the Columbia untill the
 morning, accordingly encampd on the river near a fish Wear. this weare
 Consists of two Curtains of Small willows wattled together with four
 lines of withes of the Same Materials extending quite across the river,
 parralal with each other and about 6 feet asunder. those are Supported
 by Several parrelals of poles placed in this manner those Curtains of
 willows is either roled at one end for a fiew feet to permit the fish
 to pass or are let down at pleasure. they take their fish which at
 present are a Mullet only of from one to 5 pounds Wt. with Small Seines
 of 15 or 18 feet long drawn by two persons; these they drag down to the
 Wear and rase the bottom of the seine against the willow Curtain. they
 have also a Small Seine managed by one person, it bags in the manner of
 the Scooping Nets; the one Side of the Net is Confined to a
 Simicircular bow of half the Size of a mans arm and about 5 feet long,
 the other Side is confined to a Strong String which being attatched to
 the extremities of the bow forms the Cord line to the Simicurcle. The
 Wallah wallah River discharges it's Self into the Columbia on it's
 South Side 15 miles below the enterance of Lewis's River, or the S. E.
 branch. a range of hills pass the Columbia just below the enterance of
 this river. this is a handsom Stream about 41/2 feet deep and 50 yards
 wide; it's bead is composed of gravel principally with Some Sand and
 Mud; the banks are abrupt but not high, tho it does not appear to
 overflow; the water is Clear. the Indians inform us that it has it's
 Source in the range of Mountains in view of us to the E. and S. E.
 these Mountains commence a little to the South of Mt. Hood and extend
 themselves in a S Eastwardly direction terminateing near the Southern
 banks of Lewis's river Short of the rockey Mountains. Ta wan nahiooks
 river, river Lapage and ____ River all take their rise on those
 Mountains. the two principal branches of the first of those take their
 rise in the Mountain's, Jefferson and Hood. those Mountains are Covered
 at present with Snow. those S W. Mountains are Covered with Snow at
 present tho do not appear high. they Seperate the Waters of the
 Multnomah from those of the Columbia river. they appear to be 65 or 70
 miles distant from hence. The Snake indian prisoner informed us that at
 Some distance in the large plains to the South of those Mountains there
 was a large river running to the N. W. which was as wide as the
 Columbia at this place, which is nearly 1 mile. this account is no
 doubt Somewhat exagurated but it Serves to evince the Certainty of the
 Multnomah being a very large River and that it's waters are Seperated
 from the Columbia by those Mountains, and that with the aid of a
 Southwardly branch of Lewis's river which pass around the Eastern
 extremity of those mountains, it must water that vast tract of Country
 extending from those Mountains to the Waters of the Gulf of
 Callifornia. and no doubt it heads with the Rochejhone and Del Nord.
 We gave Small Medals to two inferior Chiefs of this nation, and they
 each furnished us with a fine horse, in return we gave them Sundery
 articles among which was one of Capt Lewis's Pistols & Several hundred
 rounds of Amunition. there are 12 other Lodges of the Wallahwallah
 Nation on this river a Short distance below our Camp. those as well as
 those beyond the Columbia appear to depend on their fishing weres for
 their Subsistance. those people as well as the Chym na poms are very
 well disposed, much more So particular their women than they were when
 we decended the river last fall. Most of them have long Shirts and
 leggins, good robes and Mockersons. their women were the truss when
 they Cannot precure the Shirt, but very fiew are Seen with the former
 at the present. I prosume the Suckcess of their Winters hunt has
 produced this change in their attere. they all Cut their hair in the
 fore head, and most of the men ware the two Cews over each Sholder in
 front of the body; Some have the addition of a fiew Small plats formed
 of the eare locks, and others tigh a Small bundle of the docked foretop
 in front of the fore head. their orniments are Such as discribed of the
 nativs below, and are worn in a Similar manner. they insisted on our
 danceing this evening but it rained a little the wind blew hard and the
 weather was Cold, we therefore did not indulge them.--Several applyed
 to me to day for medical aides, one a broken arm another inward fever
 and Several with pains across their loins, and Sore eyes. I
 administered as well as I could to all. in the evining a man brought
 his wife and a horse both up to me. the horse he gave me as a present.
 and his wife who was verry unwell the effects of violent Coalds was
 placed before me. I did not think her Case a bad one and gave Such
 medesine as would keep her body open and raped her in flannel. left
 Some Simple Medesene to be taken. we also gave Some Eye water 1 G. of
 Ela v V. & 2 grs. of Sacchm Stry. to an ounce of water and in that
 perpotion. Great No. of the nativs about us all night.
 
 
 [Lewis, April 30, 1806]
 Wednesday April 30th 1806.
 This morning we had some difficulty in collecting our horses
 notwithstanding we had bubbled and picquited those we obtained of these
 people. we purchased two other horses this morning and several dogs. we
 exchanged one of our most indifferent horses for a very good one with
 the Chopunnish man who has his family with him. this man has a daughter
 new arrived at the age of puberty, who being in a certain situation is
 not permitted to ascociate with the family but sleeps at a distance
 from her father's camp and when traveling follows at some distance
 behind. in this state I am informed that the female is not permitted to
 eat, nor to touch any article of a culinary nature or manly occupation.
 at 10 A.M. we had collected all our horses except the white horse which
 Yellept had given Capt. C. the whole of the men soon after returned
 without being able to find this horse. I lent my horse to Yellept to
 surch Capt. C's about half an hour after he set out our Chopunnish man
 brought up Capt. C's horse we now determined to leave one man to bring
 on my horse when Yellept returned and to proceed on with the party
 accordingly we took leave of these friendly honest people the
 Wollahwollahs and departed at 11 A.M. accompanyed by our guide and the
 Chopunnish man and family. we continued our rout N. 30 E. 14 ms.
 through an open level sandy plain to a bold Creek 10 yds. wide. this
 stream is a branch of the Wallahwollah river into which it discharges
 itself about six miles above the junction of that river with the
 Columbia. it takes it's rise in the same range of mountains to the East
 of the sources of the main branch of the same. it appears to be
 navigable for canoes; it is deep and has a bold current. there are many
 large banks of pure sand which appear to have been drifted up by the
 wind to the hight of 15 or 20 feet, lying in many parts of the plain
 through which we passed today. this plain as usual is covered with
 arromatic shrubs hurbatious plants and a short grass. many of those
 plants produce those esculent roots which form a principal part of the
 subsistence of the natives. among others there is one which produces a
 root somewhat like the sweet pittaitoe.--we encamped at the place we
 intersepted the creek where we had the pleasure once more to find an
 abundance of good wood for the purpose of making ourselves comfortable
 fires, which has not been the case since we left rock fort camp.
 Drewyer killed a beaver and an otter; a pan of the former we reserved
 for ourselves and gave the indians the ballance. these people will not
 eat the dog but feast heartily on the otter which is vastly inferior in
 my estimation, they sometimes also eat their horses, this indeed is
 common to all the indians who possess this annimal in the plains of
 Columbia; but it is only done when necessity compells them.--the narrow
 bottom of this creek is very fertile, tho the plains are poor and
 sandy. the hills of the creek are generally abrupt and rocky. there is
 a good store of timber on this creek at least 20 fold more than on the
 Columbia river itself. it consists of Cottonwood, birch, the crimson
 haw, redwillow, sweetwillow, chokecherry yellow currants, goosberry,
 whiteberryed honeysuckle rose bushes, seven bark, and shoemate. I
 observed the corngrass and rushes in some parts of the bottom. Reubin
 Feilds overtook us with my horse. our stock of horses has now encresed
 to 23 and most of them excellent young horses, but much the greater
 portion of them have soar backs. these indians are cruell
 horse-masters; they ride hard, and their saddles are so illy
 constructed that they cannot avoid wounding the backs of their horses;
 but reguardless of this they ride them when the backs of those poor
 annimals are in a horrid condition.
 
 
 [Clark, April 30, 1806]
 Wednesday April 30th 1806.
 This morning we had Some dificuelty in Collecting our horses
 notwithstanding we had hobbled & Picqueted those we obtained of those
 people. we purchased two other horses this morning and 4 dogs. we
 exchanged one of our most indeferent horses for a very good one with
 the Choponnish man who has his family with him. this man has a doughter
 now arived at the age of puberty who being in a certain Situation-is
 not permited to acoiate with the family but Sleeps at a distance from
 her father's Camp, and when traveling follows at Some distance be-hind.
 in this State I am informed that the female is not permited to eat, nor
 to touch any article of a culinary nature or manly occupation. at 10
 A.M. we had Collected all our horses except the White horse which
 Yelleppit the Great Chief had given me. the whole of the men haveing
 returned without being able to find this hors. I informed the chief and
 he mounted Capt Lewis's horse and went in Serch of the horse himself.
 about half an hour after the Chopunnish man brought my horse. we
 deturmined to proceed on with the party leaving one man to bring up
 Capt L.-s horse when Yelleppit Should return. We took leave of those
 honest friendly people the Wallah wallahs and departed at 11 A.M.
 accompanied by our guide and the Chopunnish man and family. we
 Continued our rout N. 30° E. 14 ms. through an open leavel Sandy Plain to
 a bold Creek 10 yards wide. this stream is a branch of the Wallahwallah
 river, and takes it's rise in the same range of mountains to the East
 of the main branch. deep and has a bold Current. there are maney large
 banks of pure Sand which appear to have been drifted up by the wind to
 the hight of 20 or 30 feet, lying in maney parts of the plains through
 which we passed to day. This plain as usial is covered with arromatic
 Shrubs, hurbatious plants and tufts of Short grass. Maney of those
 plants produce those esculent roots which forms a principal part of the
 Subsistance of the Nativs. among others there is one which produce a
 root Somewhat like the Sweet potato. We encamped at the place we
 intersepted the Creek where we had the pleasure once more to find a
 Sufficency of wood for the purpose of makeing ourselves comfortable
 fires, which has not been the Case Since we left Rock fort Camp below
 the falls. Drewyer killed a beaver and an otter. the narrow bottoms of
 this Creek is fertile. tho the plains are pore & Sandy. the hills of
 the Creek are generaly abrupt and rocky. there is Some timber on this
 Creek. it consists of Cotton wood, birch, the Crimson haw, red willow,
 Sweet willow, Choke Cherry, yellow Current, goose berry, white berried
 honey suckle, rose bushes, Seven bark, Shoemate &c. &c. rushes in Some
 parts of the bottoms.
 R. Fields over took us with Capt Lewis's horse our Stock of horses have
 now increased to 23 and most of them excellent young horses, but much
 the greatest part of them have Sore backs. those Indians are cruel
 horse masters; they ride hard and their Saddles illey constructed. &c.
 &c.