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[Clark, February 1, 1805]
 1st of February Friday 1805
 a cold windey Day our hunters returnd. haveing killed only one Deer, a
 war Chief of the Me ne tar ras Came with Some Corn requested to have a
 War hatchet made, & requested to be allowed to go to war against the
 Souis & Ricarres who had Killed a mandan Some time past--we refused,
 and gave reassons, which he verry readily assented to, and promised to
 open his ears to all we Said this man is young and named (Seeing Snake
 Mar-book, She-ah-O-ke-ah) this mans woman Set out & he prosued her, in
 the evening
 [Clark, February 2, 1805]
 2nd of February Satturday 1805
 a find Day one Deer Killed our interpeter Still unwell, one of the
 wives of the Big belley interptr taken Sick--Mr. Larocke leave us to
 day (this man is a Clerk to the N W Company, & verry anxious to
 accompany us)
 [Lewis, February 3, 1805]
 3rd of February Sunday 1805.
 a fine day; the blacksmith again commences his opperations. we were
 visited by but few of the natives today. the situation of our boat and
 perogues is now allarming, they are firmly inclosed in the Ice and
 almost covered with snow. The ice which incloses them lyes in several
 stratas of unequal thicknesses which are seperated by streams of water.
 this peculiarly unfortunate because so soon as we cut through the first
 strata of ice the water rushes up and rises as high as the upper
 surface of the ice and thus creates such a debth of water as renders it
 impracticable to cut away the lower strata which appears firmly
 attatched to, and confining the bottom of the vessels. the instruments
 we have hitherto used has been the ax only, with which, we have made
 several attempts that proved unsuccessful) from the cause above
 mentioned. we then determined to attempt freeing them from the ice by
 means of boiling water which we purposed heating in the vessels by
 means of hot stones, but this expedient proved also fruitless, as every
 species of stone which we could procure in the neighbourhood partook so
 much of the calcarious genus that they burst into small particles on
 being exposed to the heat of the fire. we now determined as the dernier
 resort to prepare a parse) of Iron spikes and attatch them to the end
 of small poles of convenient length and endeavour by means of them to
 free the vessels from the ice. we have already prepared a large rope of
 Elk-skin and a windless by means of which we have no doubt of being
 able to draw the boat on the bank provided we can free from the ice.
 [Clark, February 3, 1805]
 3rd of February 1805 our provisions of meat being nearly exorsted I
 concluded to Decend the River on the Ice & hunt, I Set out with about
 16 men 3 horses & 2 Slays Descended nearly 60 miles Killed & loaded the
 horses back, & made 2 pens which we filed with meat, & returned on the
 13th we Killed 40 Deer, 3 Bulls 19 Elk, maney So meager that they were
 unfit for use
 [Lewis, February 4, 1805]
 4th February, Monday 1805.
 This morning fair tho could the thermometer stood at 18° below Naught,
 wind from N. W. Capt Clark set out with a hunting party consisting of
 sixteen of our command and two frenchmen who together with two others,
 have established a small hut and resided this winter within the
 vicinity of Fort Mandane under our protection. visited by many of the
 natives today. our stock of meat which we had procured in the Months of
 November & December is now nearly exhausted; a supply of this articles
 is at this moment peculiarly interesting as well for our immediate
 consumption, as that we may have time before the approach of the warm
 season to prepare the meat for our voyage in the spring of the year.
 Capt. Clark therefore deturmined to continue his rout down the river
 even as far as the River bullet unless he should find a plenty of game
 nearer--The men transported their baggage on a couple of small wooden
 Slays drawn by themselves, and took with them 3 pack horses which we
 had agreed should be returned with a load of meat to fort mandane as
 soon as they could procure it. no buffaloe have made their appearance
 in our neighbourhood for some weeks; and I am informed that our Indian
 neighbours-suffer extreemly at this moment for the article of flesh.
 Shields killed two deer this evening, both very lean--one a large buck,
 he had shed his horns.
 [Lewis, February 5, 1805]
 5th February Tuesday 1805.
 Pleasent morning wind from N. W. fair; visited by many of the natives
 who brought a considerable quanty of corn in payment for the work which
 the blacksmith had done for them--they are pecuarly attatched to a
 battle ax formed in a very inconvenient manner in my opinion. it is
 fabricated of iron only, the blade is extreemly thin, from 7 to nine
 inches in length and from 43/4, to 6 Inches on it's edge, from whence
 the sides proceed nearly in a straight line to the eye where it's width
 is generally not more than an inch. The eye is round & about one inch
 in diameter. the handle seldom more than fourteen inches in length, the
 whole weighing about one pound--the great length of the blade of this
 ax, added to the small size of the handle renders a stroke uncertain
 and easily avoided, while the shortness of the handel must render a
 blow much less forceable if even well directed, and still more
 inconvenient as they uniformly use this instrument in action on
 horseback. The oalder fassion is still more inconvenient, it is
 somewhat in the form of the blade of an Espantoon but is attatchd to a
 helve of the dementions before discribed the blade is sometimes by way
 of ornament purforated with two three or more small circular holes--the
 following is the general figure it is from 12 to 15 inces in length
 [Lewis, February 6, 1805]
 6th February Wednesday 1805.
 Fair morning Wind from N. W. had a sley prepared against the return of
 the horses which Capt Clark had promised to send back as soon as he
 should be able to procure a load of meat. visited by many of the
 natives among others the Big white, the Coal, big-man, hairy horn and
 the black man, I smoked with them, after which they retired, a
 deportment not common, for they usually pester us with their good
 company the ballance of the day after once being introduced to our
 apartment. Shields killed three antelopes this evening. the blacksmiths
 take a considerable quantity of corn today in payment for their labour.
 the blacksmith's have proved a happy resoce to us in our present
 situation as I believe it would have been difficult to have devised any
 other method to have procured corn from the natives. the Indians are
 extravegantly fond of sheet iron of which they form arrow-points and
 manufacter into instruments for scraping and dressing their buffaloe
 robes--I permited the blacksmith to dispose of a part of a sheet-iron
 callaboos which had been nearly birnt out on our passage up the river,
 and for each piece about four inches square he obtained from seven to
 eight gallons of corn from the natives who appeared extreemly pleased
 with the exchange-
 [Lewis, February 7, 1805]
 7th February Thursday 1805.
 This morning was fair Thermometer at 18° above naught much warmer than it
 has been for some days; wind S. E. continue to be visited by the
 natives. The Sergt. of the guard reported that the Indian women (wives
 to our interpreters) were in the habit of unbaring the fort gate at any
 time of night and admitting their Indian visitors, I therefore directed
 a lock to be put to the gate and ordered that no Indian but those
 attatched to the garrison should be permitted to remain all night
 within the fort or admitted during the period which the gate had been
 previously ordered to be kept shut which was from sunset untill sunrise.
 [Lewis, February 8, 1805]
 8th February Friday 1805.
 This morning was fair wind S. E. the weather still warm and pleasent-
 visited by the black-Cat the principal chief of the Roop-tar-he, or
 upper mandane vilage. this man possesses more integrety, firmness,
 inteligence and perspicuety of mind than any indian I have met with in
 this quarter, and I think with a little management he may be made a
 usefull agent in furthering the views of our government. The black Cat
 presented me with a bow and apologized for not having completed the
 shield he had promised alledging that the weather had been too could to
 permit his making it, I gave him som small shot 6 fishing-hooks and 2
 yards of ribbon his squaw also presented me with 2 pair of mockersons
 for which in return I gave a small lookingglass and a couples of
 nedles. the chief dined with me and left me in the evening. he informed
 me that his people suffered very much for the article of meat, and that
 he had not himself tasted any for several days.
 [Lewis, February 9, 1805]
 9th February Saturday 1805.
 The morning fair and pleasent, wind from S. E.--visted by Mr. McKinzey
 one the N. W. Company's clerks. this evening a man by the name of
 Howard whom I had given permission to go the Mandane vilage returned
 after the gate was shut and rether than call to the guard to have it
 opened scaled the works an indian who was looking on shortly after
 followed his example. I convinced the Indian of the impropryety of his
 conduct, and explained to him the riske he had run of being severely
 treated, the fellow appeared much allarmed, I gave him a small piece of
 tobacco and sent him away Howard I had comitted to the care of the
 guard with a determineation to have him tryed by a Courtmartial for
 this offence. this man is an old soldier which still hightens this
 [Lewis, February 10, 1805]
 10th February Sunday 1805.
 This Morning was Cloudy after a slight snow which fell in the course of
 the night the wind blue very hard from N. W. altho the thermometer
 stood at 18° Above naught the violence of the wind caused a degree of
 could that was much more unpleasent than that of yesterday when
 thermometer stood at 10° only above the same point. Mr. McKinzey left me
 this morning. Charbono returned with one of the Frenchmen and informed
 that he had left the three Horses and two men with the meat which Capt.
 Clark had sent at some distance below on the river--he told me that the
 horses were heavy loaded and that not being shod it was impossible for
 horses to travel on the ice. I determined to send down some men with
 two small slays for the meat and accordingly I gave orders that they
 should set out early the next morning. two men were also sent to
 conduct the horses by way of the plain.
 [Lewis, February 11, 1805]
 11th February Monday 1805.
 The party that were ordered last evening set out early this morning.
 the weather was fair and could wind N. W. about five oclock this
 evening one of the wives of Charbono was delivered of a fine boy. it is
 worthy of remark that this was the first child which this woman had
 boarn and as is common in such cases her labour was tedious and the
 pain violent; Mr. Jessome informed me that he had freequently
 adminstered a small portion of the rattle of the rattle-snake, which he
 assured me had never failed to produce the desired effect, that of
 hastening the birth of the child; having the rattle of a snake by me I
 gave it to him and he administered two rings of it to the woman broken
 in small pieces with the fingers and added to a small quantity of
 water. Whether this medicine was truly the cause or not I shall not
 undertake to determine, but I was informed that she had not taken it
 more than ten minutes before she brought forth perhaps this remedy may
 be worthy of future experiments, but I must confess that I want faith
 as to it's efficacy.-
 [Lewis, February 12, 1805]
 12th February Tuesday 1805.
 The morning was fair tho could, thermometer at 14° below naught wind S.
 E. ordered the Blacksmith to shoe the horses and some others to prepare
 some gears in order to send them down with three slays to join the
 hunting party and transport the meat which they may have pocured to
 this place--the the men whom I had sent for the meat left by Charbono
 did not return untill 4 OClock this evening. Drewyer arrived with the
 horses about the same time, the horses appeared much fatieged I
 directed some meal brands given them moisened with a little water but
 to my astonishment found that they would not eat it but prefered the
 bark of the cotton wood which forms the principall article of food
 usually given them by their Indian masters in the winter season; for
 this purpose they cause the trees to be felled by their women and the
 horses feed on the boughs and bark of their tender branches. the
 Indians in our neighbourhood are freequently pilfered of their horses
 by the Recares, Souixs and Assinniboins and therefore make it an
 invariable rule to put their horses in their lodges at night. in this
 situation the only food of the horse consists of a few sticks of the
 cottonwood from the size of a man's finger to that of his arm. The
 Indians are invariably severe riders, and frequently have occasion for
 many days together through the whole course of the day to employ their
 horses in pursuing the Buffaloe or transporting meat to their vilages
 during which time they are seldom suffered to tast food; at night the
 Horse returned to his stall where his food is what seems to me a scanty
 allowance of wood. under these circumstances it would seem that their
 horses could not long exist or at least could not retain their flesh
 and strength, but the contrary is the fact, this valuable anamall under
 all those disadvantages is seldom seen meager or unfit for service.--A
 little after dark this evening Capt. Clark arrived with the hunting
 party--since they set out they have killed forty Deer, three buffaloe
 bulls, & sixteen Elk, most of them were so meager that they were unfit
 for uce, particularly the Buffaloes and male Elk--the wolves also which
 are here extreemly numerous heped themselves to a considerable
 proportion of the hunt--if an anamal is killed and lyes only one night
 exposed to the wolves it is almost invariably devoured by them.
 [Lewis, February 13, 1805]
 13th February Wednesday 1805.
 The morning cloudy thermometer 2° below naught wind from S. E. visited by
 the Black-Cat gave him a battle ax with which he appeared much
 [Clark, February 13, 1805]
 I returned last night from a hunting party much fatigued, haveing
 walked 30 miles on the ice and through of wood land Points in which the
 Snow was nearly Knee Deep
 The 1st day I left the fort proceeded on the ice to new Mandan Island,
 22 miles & Camped Killed nothing, & nothing to eat,
 The 2d day the morning verry Cold & Windey, I broke thro the ice and
 got my feet and legs wet, Sent out 4 hunters thro a point to Kill a
 Deer & Cook it by the time the party Should get up, those hunters
 killed a Deer & 2 Buffalow Bulls the Buffalow too Meagur to eate, we
 eate the Deer & proceeded on to an old Indian Lodge, Sent out the
 hunters & they brought in three lean Deer, which we made use of for
 food,--walking on uneaven ice has blistered the bottom of my feat, and
 walking is painfull to me
 3rd day Cold morning the after party of the Day worm, Camped on a Sand
 point near the mouth of a Creek on the S W. Side we Call hunting Creek,
 I turned out with the hunters, I Killed 2 Deer the hunters killed an
 Elk, Buffalow Bull & 5 Deer. all Meager
 4th Day hunted the two bottoms near the Camp Killed 9 Elk, 18 Deer,
 brought to camp all the meat fit to eate & had the bones taken out.
 every man ingaged either in hunting or Collecting & packing the meat to
 5th Day Dispatched one of the party our Interpeter & 2 french men with
 the 3 horses loaded with the best of the meat to the fort 44 miles
 Distant, the remaining meat I had packed on the 2 Slays & drawn down to
 the next point about 3 miles below, at this place I had all the meat
 Collected which was killed yesterday & had escaped the wolves, Raven &
 Magpie, (which are verry noumerous about this Place) and put into a
 close pen made of logs to secure it from the wolves & birds & proceeded
 on to a large bottom nearly opposit the Chisscheter (heart) River, in
 this bottom we found but little game, Great No. of wolves, on the hills
 Saw Several parsels of Buffalow.--Camped. I killed a Buck
 6th Day The Buffalow Seen last night provd to be Bulls. lean & unfit
 for to make uce of as food, the Distance from Camp being nearly 60
 miles, and the packing of meat that distance attended with much
 difficuity deturmined me to return and hunt the points above, we Set
 out on our return and halted at an old Indian lodge 40 miles below Fort
 Mandan Killed 3 Elk & 2 Deer-.
 7th Day a cold Day wind blew hard from the N. W. J Fields got one of
 his ears frosed deturmined to lay by and hunt today Killed an Elk & 6
 deer,* this meat I had Boned & put onto a Close pen made of logs--*all
 that was fit for use
 8th day air keen halted at the old Camp we Stayed in on the 2d night
 after we left the Fort, expecting to meat the horses at this Place,
 killed 3 Deer, Several men being nearly out of Mockersons & the horses
 not returning deturmind me to return to the Fort on tomorrow
 9th day. Set out early, Saw great numbers of Grouse feeding on the
 young willows, on the Sand bars one mans I sent in persute of a gangue
 of Elk killed three near the old Ricara Village and joined at the fort,
 Sent him back to Secure the meat one man with him--The ice on the parts
 of the River which was verry rough, as I went down, was Smothe on my
 return, this is owing to the rise and fall of the water, which takes
 place every day or two, and Caused by partial thaws, and obstructions
 in the passage of the water thro the Ice, which frequently attaches
 itself to the bottom.--the water when riseing forses its way thro the
 cracks & air holes above the old ice, & in one night becoms a Smothe
 Surface of ice 4 to 6 Inchs thick,--the river falls & the ice Sink in
 places with the water and attaches itself to the bottom, and when it
 again rises to its former hite, frequently leavs a valley of Several
 feet to Supply with water to bring it on a leavel Surfice.
 The water of the Missouri at this time is Clear with little Tinges.
 I saw Several old Villages near the Chisscheta River on enquirey found
 they were Mandan Villages destroyed by the Sous & Small Pox, they
 noumerous and lived in 6 Villages near that place.
 [Clark, February 14, 1805]
 14th Sent 4 men with the Horses Shod & 2 Slays down for the meat I had
 left, 22 miles below those men were rushed on by 106 Sioux who robed
 them of 2 of their horses--& they returned
 [Clark, February 14, 1805]
 14th of February Thursday 1805
 The Snow fell 3 inches Deep last night, a fine morning, Dispatched
 George Drewyer & 3 men with two Slays drawn by 3 horses for the meat
 left below-
 [Clark, February 15, 1805]
 15th Capt. Lewis with a party of men & 4 Indians went in pursute of the
 Sioux, the Indians returned the next Day & informed me that the Sioux
 had Burnt all my meat & Born home (they Saw me but was afraid to attact
 me) Capt Lewis returned the 21st with 2400 l. of meat, haveing Killed
 36 Deer & 14 Elk, the Sioux burnt one of my meet houses; they did not
 find the other
 [Clark, February 15, 1805]
 15th of February Friday 1805
 at 10 oClock P M. last night the men that dispatched yesterday for the
 meat, returned and informed us that as they were on their march down at
 the distance of about 24 miles below the Fort about 105 Indians which
 they took to be Souis rushed on them and Cut their horses from the
 Slays, two of which they carried off in great hast, the 3rd horse was
 given up to the party by the intersetion of an Indian who assumd Some
 authority on the accasion, probably more thro fear of himself or Some
 of the Indians being killed by our men who were not disposed to be
 Robed of all they had tamely, they also forced 2 of the mens knives & a
 tamahawk, the man obliged them to return the tamahawk the knives they
 ran off with G Drewyer Frasure, S Gutterage, & Newmon with a broken Gun
 we dispatched two men to inform the mandans, and if any of them chose
 to pursue those robers, to come down in the morning, and join Capt
 Lewis who intended to Set out with a party of men verry early, by 12
 oClock the Chief of the 2ed Village Big white Came down, and Soon after
 one other Chief and Several men--The Chief observed that all the young
 men of the 2 Villages were out hunting, and but verry fiew guns were
 left,Capt. Lewis Set out at Sunrise with 24 men, to meet those Soues
 &c. Several Indians accompanied him Some with Bows & arrows Some withe
 Spears & Battle axes, a 2 with fusees--the morning fine the
 Thermometer Stood at 16° below 0, Nought, visited by 2 of the Big Bellies
 this evening,--one Chief of the Mandans returned from Capt Lewises
 Party nearly blind--this Complaint is as I am infomd. Common at this
 Season of the year and caused by the reflection of the Sun on the ice &
 Snow, it is cured by jentilley Swetting the part affected by throweng
 Snow on a hot Stone
 verry Cold part of the night--one man Killed a verry large Red Fox to
 [Clark, February 16, 1805]
 16th of February Satturday 1805
 a fine morning, visited by but fiew Indians to day, at Dusk two of the
 Indians who wint down with Capt. Lewis returned, Soon after two others
 and one man (Howard) with his feet frosted, and informed that the Inds.
 who Commited the roberry of the 2 horses was So far a head that they
 could not be overtaken, they left a number of pars of Mockersons which,
 the Mandans knew to be Souix mockersons,--This war party Camped verry
 near the last camp I made when on my hunting party, where they left
 Some Corn, as a deception, with a view to induc a belief that they were
 Capt Lewis & party proceeded on down the meat I left at my last Camp
 was taken.
 [Clark, February 17, 1805]
 17th of February Sunday 1805
 this morning worm & a little Cloudy, the Coal & his Son visited me to
 day with about 30 w. of Drid Buffalow meat, & Some Tallow Mr. McKinsey
 one of the N W. Compys. Clerks visited me (one of the hoses the Sous
 robed a fiew Days past belonged to this man) The after part of the day
 [Clark, February 18, 1805]
 18th of February Monday 1805
 a cloudy morning Some Snow, Several Indians here today Mr. McKinsey
 leave me, the after part of the day fine I am much engaged makeing a
 discriptive List of the Rivers from Information our Store of Meat is
 out to day
 [Clark, February 19, 1805]
 19th of February Tuesday 1805
 a fine Day visited by Several of the Mandans to day, our Smiths are
 much engaged mending and makeing Axes for the Indians for which we get
 [Clark, February 20, 1805]
 Fort Mandan
 20th February Wednesday 1805
 a Butifull Day, visited by the Little raven verry early this morning I
 am informed of the Death of an old man whome I Saw in the Mandan
 Village. this man, informed me that he "was 120 winters old, he
 requested his grand Children to Dress him after Death & Set him on a
 Stone on a hill with his face towards his old Village or Down the
 river, that he might go Streight to his brother at their old village
 under ground"I observed Several Mandan verry old Chiefly men
 [Clark, February 21, 1805]
 21st February Thursday 1805
 a Delightfull Day put out our Clothes to Sun--Visited by the big white
 & Big man they informed me that Several men of their nation was gorn to
 Consult their Medison Stone about 3 day march to the South West to know
 What was to be the result of the insuing year--They have great
 confidence in this Stone and Say that it informs them of every thing
 which is to happen, & visit it every Spring & Sometimes in the Summer
 "They haveing arrived at the Stone give it Smoke and proceed to the
 wood at Some distance to Sleep the next morning return to the Stone,
 and find marks white & raised on the Stone representing the piece or
 war which they are to meet with, and other changes, which they are to
 meet" This Stone has a leavel Surface of about 20 feet in Surcumfrance,
 thick and pores, and no doubt has Some mineral qualtites effected by
 the Sun.
 The Big Bellies have a Stone to which they ascribe nearly the Same
 Capt Lewis returned with 2 Slays loaded with meat, after finding that
 he could not overtake the Souis war party, (who had in their way
 distroyd all the meat at one Deposit which I had made & Burnt the
 Lodges) deturmined to proceed on to the lower Deposit, which he found
 had not been observed by Soux he hunted two day Killed 36 Deer & 14
 Elk, Several of them So meager, that they were unfit for use, the meet
 which he killed and that in the lower Deposit amounting to about 3000
 wt was brought up on two Slays, one Drawn by 16 men had about 2400 wt
 on it
 [Clark, February 22, 1805]
 Fort Mandan
 22nd of February Friday 1805.
 a Cloudy morning, at about 12 oClock it began to rain and Continud for
 a fiew minits, and turned to Snow, and Continud Snowing for about one
 hour, and Cleared away fair The two hunters left below arrived, They
 killed two Elk, and hung them up out of the reach of the wolves--The
 Coal a Ricara who is a considerable Chief of the Mandans visited us to
 day, and maney others of the three nations in our neighbourhood.
 [Clark, February 23, 1805]
 23rd of February 1805 Satturday
 All hands employed in Cutting the Perogus Loose from the ice, which was
 nearly even with their top; we found great difficuelty in effecting
 this work owing to the Different devisions of Ice & water after Cutting
 as much as we Could with axes, we had all the Iron we Could get & Some
 axes put on long poles and picked throught the ice, under the first
 water, which was not more the 6 or 8 inches deep--we disengaged one
 Perogue, and nearly disingaged the 2nd in Course of this day which has
 been warm & pleasent vised by a no of Indians, jessomme & familey went
 to the Shoes Indians Villag to day
 The father of the Boy whose feet were frose near this place, and nearly
 Cured by us took him home in a Slay-
 [Clark, February 24, 1805]
 24th February Sunday 1805
 The Day fine, we Commenced very early to day the Cutting loose the boat
 which was more difficuelt than the perogus with great exertions and
 with the assistance of Great prises we lousened her and turned the
 Second perogue upon the ice, ready to Draw out, in Lousening the boat
 from the ice Some of the Corking drew out which Caused her to Leake for
 a few minits untill we Discovered the Leake & Stoped it--Jessomme our
 interpeter & familey returned from the Villages Several Indians visit
 us today
 [Clark, February 25, 1805]
 25th of February Monday 1805 we fixed a Windlass and Drew up the two
 Perogues on the upper bank and attempted the Boat, but the Roap which
 we bade made of Elk Skins proved too weak & broke Several times night
 Comeing on obliged us to leave her in a Situation but little advanced-
 we were Visited by the Black mockerson Chief of the little Village of
 Big Bellies, the Cheef of the Shoe Inds and a number of others those
 Chiefs gave us Some meat which they packed on their wives, and one
 requested a ax to be made for hies Sun, Mr. Bunch, one of the under
 traders for the hudsons Bay Companey--one of the Big Bellies asked
 leave for himself & his two wives to Stay all night, which was granted,
 also two Boys Stayed all night, one the Sun of the Black Cat.
 The Day has been exceedingly pleasent
 [Clark, February 26, 1805]
 26th of Feby 1805 Drew up the Boat & perogus, after Cutting them out of
 the ice with great Dificuelty-& trouble
 [Clark, February 26, 1805]
 26th February Tuesday 1805
 a fine Day Commencd verry early in makeing preparations for drawing up
 the Boat on the bank, at Sunset by repeated exertions the whole day we
 accomplished this troublesom task, just as we were fixed for having the
 Boat the ice gave away near us for about 100 yds in length--a number of
 Indians here to day to See the Boat rise on the Bank
 [Clark, February 27, 1805]
 27th of February Wednesday 1805
 a fine day, prepareing the Tools to make perogues all day--a feiw
 Indians visit us to day, one the largest Indian I ever Saw, & as large
 a man as ever I Saw, I commence a Map of the Countrey on the Missouries
 & its waters &c. &c.-
 [Clark, February 28, 1805]
 28th of February 1805 Thursday Mr. Gravilin 2 frenchmen and 2 Ricaras
 arrived from the Ricaras with letters from Mr. Tahoe &c. informing us
 of the Deturmination of the Ricaras to follow our councils--and the
 threts & intintions of the Sioux in Killing us whenever they again met
 us--and that a party of Several bands were formeing to attacke the
 Mandans &c. &c.
 we informed the Mandans & others of this information & also the wish
 the Ricars had to live near them & fite the Sioux &c. &c. &c.
 despatched 16 Men 5 Miles abov to build 6 Canoes for the voyage, being
 Deturmend to Send back the Barge
 [Clark, February 28, 1805]
 28th of February Thursday 1805
 a fine morning, two men of the N W Compy arrve with letters and Sacka
 comah also a Root and top of a plant presented by Mr. Haney, for the
 Cure of mad Dogs Snakes &c, and to be found & used as follows vz: "this
 root is found on high lands and asent of hills, the way of useing it is
 to Scarify the part when bitten to chu or pound an inch or more if the
 root is Small, and applying it to the bitten part renewing it twice a
 Day. the bitten person is not to chaw nor Swallow any of the Root for
 it might have contrary effect."
 Sent out 16 men to make four Perogus those men returned in the evening
 and informed that they found trees they thought would answer.
 Mr. Gravelin two frenchmen & two Inds. arrive from the Ricara Nation
 with Letters from Mr. Anty Tabeaux, informing us of the peaceable
 dispositions of that nation towards the Mandans & Me ne to res & their
 avowed intentions of pursueing our Councils & advice, they express a
 wish to visit the Mandans, & Know if it will be agreeable to them to
 admit the Ricaras to Settle near them and join them against their
 common Enimey the Souis we mentioned this to the mandans, who observed
 they had always wished to be at peace and good neighbours with the
 Ricaras, and it is also the Sentiments of all the Big Bellies, & Shoe
 Mr. Gravilin informs that the Sisetoons and the 3 upper bands of the
 Tetons, with the Yanktons of the North intend to come to war in a Short
 time against the nations in this quarter, & will Kill everry white man
 they See--Mr. T. also informes that Mr. Cameron of St peters has put
 arms into the hands of the Souls to revenge the death of 3 of his men
 Killed by the Chipaways latterly--and that the Band of tetons which we
 Saw is desposed to doe as we have advised them--thro the influenc of
 their Chief the Black Buffalow
 Mr. Gravilin further informs that the Party which Robed us of the 2
 horses laterly were all Sieoux 100 in number, they Called at the
 Ricaras on their return, the Ricares being displeased at their Conduct
 would not give them any thing to eate, that being the greatest insult
 they could peaceably offer them, and upbraded them.