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[Lewis, July 1, 1805] Monday July 1st 1805. This morning I set Frazier and Whitehouse to sewing the leather on the sides of the sections of the boat; Shields and J. Fields to collect and split light wood and prepare a pit to make tar. Gas I set at work to make the way strips out of some willow limbs which tho indifferent were the best which could be obtained. Drewyer and myself completed the opperation of rendering the tallow; we obtained about 100 lbs. by evening the skins were all attatched to their sections and I returned them again to the water. all matters were now in readiness to commence the opperation of puting the parts of the boat together in the morning. the way strips are not yet ready but will be done in time as I have obtained the necessary timber. the difficulty in obtaining the necessary materials has retarded my operations in forming this boat extreemly tedious and troublesome; and as it was a novel peice of machinism to all who were employed my constant attention was necessary to every part of the work; this together with the duties of cheif cook has kept me pretty well employed. at 3 P.M. Capt. Clark arrived with the party all very much fortiegued. he brought with him all the baggage except what he had deposited yesterday at the six mile stake, for which the party were too much fortiegued to return this evening. we gave them a dram and suffered them to rest from their labours this evening. I directed Bratton to assist in making the tar tomorrow, and scelected several others to assist in puting the boat together. the day has been warm and the Musquetoes troublesome of course the bear were about our camp all last night, we have therefore determined to beat up their quarters tomorrow, and kill them or drive them from their haunts about this place.
 
 
 [Clark, July 1, 1805] White Bear Islands above the Falls of the Missouri July 1st Monday 1805 I arrived at this place to day at 3 oClock P.M. with the party from the lower part of the portage much fatigued &c.
 
 
 [Clark, July 1, 1805] July 1st Monday 1805. We Set out early this morning with the remaining load, and proceeded on verry well to Capt Lewis's Camp where we arrived at 3 oClock, the Day worm and party much fatigued, found Capt. Lewis and party all buisey employd in fitting up the Iron boat, the wind hard from the S, W,--one man verry unwell, his legs & theis broke out and Swelled the hail which fell at Capt. Lewis Camp 27 Ins was 7 Inches in circumfrance & waied 3 ounces, fortunately for us it was not So large in the plains, if it had we Should most certainly fallen victims to its rage as the men were mostly naked, and but few with hats or any covering on their heads, The hunters killed 3 white bear one large, the fore feet of which measured 9 Inchs across, the hind feet 11 Inchs 3/4 long & 7 Inch's wide a bear nearly Catching Joseph Fields Chased him into the water, bear about the Camp every night & Seen on an Isld. in the day
 
 
 [Lewis, July 2, 1805] Tuesday July 2cd 1805 A shower of rain fell very early this morning after which we dispatched the men for the remaining baggage at the 6 mile stake. Shields and Bratton seting their tarkiln, Sergts. Pryor and Gass at work on the waystrips and myself and all other hands engaged in puting the boat together which we accomplished in about 3 hours and I then set four men at work sewing the leather over the cross bars of Iron on the inner side of the boat, which form the ends of the sections. about 2 P.M. the party returned with the baggage, all well pleased that they had completed the laborious task of the portage. The Musquetoes uncommonly troublesome the wind hard from the S. W. all day I think it possible that these almost perpetual S. W. winds proceede from the agency of the Snowey Mountains and the wide level and untimbered plains which streach themselves along their bases for an immence distance (i e) that the air comeing in contact with the snow is suddonly chilled and condenced, thus becoming heaver than the air beneath in the plains, it glides down the sides of these mountains & decends to the plains, where by the constant action of the sun on the face of an untimbered country there is a partial vacuum formed for it's reception. I have observed that the winds from this quarter are always the coldest and most violent which we experience, yet I am far from giving full credit to my own hypothesis on this subject; if hoever I find on the opposite side of these mountains that the winds take a contrary direction I shall then have more faith. After I had completed my observation of Equal Altitudes today Capt. Clark Myself and 12 men passed over to the large Island to hunt bear. the brush in that part of it where the bear frequent is an almost impenetrable thicket of the broad leafed willow; this brush we entered in small parties of 3 or four together and surched in every part. we found one only which made at Drewyer and he shot him in the brest at the distance of about 20 feet, the ball fortunately passed through his heart, the stroke knocked the bear down and gave Drewyer time to get out of his sight; the bear changed his course we pursued him about a hundred yards by the blood and found him dead; we surched the thicket in every part but found no other, and therefore returned. this was a young male and would weigh about 400 lbs. the water of the Missouri here is in most places about 10 feet deep. after our return, in moving some of the baggage we caught a large rata it was somewhat larger than the common European rat, of lighter colour; the body and outer part of the legs and head of a light lead colour, the belly and inner side of the legs white as were also the feet and years. the toes were longer and the ears much larger than the common rat; the ears uncovered with hair. the eyes were black and prominent the whiskers very long and full. the tail was reather longer than the body and covered with fine fur or poil of the same length and colour of the back. the fur was very silkey close and short. I have frequently seen the nests of these rats in clifts of rocks and hollow trees but never before saw one of them. they feed very much on the fruit and seed of the prickly pear; or at least I have seen large quantities of the hulls of that fruit lying about their holes and in their nests.
 
 
 [Clark, July 2, 1805] July 2nd Tuesday 1805 Some rain at day light this morning. dispatched the party for the remaining baggage left at the 6 mile Stake, they returned in the evening and we Crossed to a large Island nearly opposit to us to kill bear which has been Seen frequently in the Island, we killed one bear & returned at Sun Set. The Roreing of the falls for maney miles above us
 
 
 [Clark, July 2, 1805] July 2nd Tuesday 1805 Some rain at day light this morn'g after which a fair morning, dispatched the men for the Kegs &c. left at the Six mile Stake, others to get timber for the boat &c. Musquetors verry troublesom to day, day worm, after the return of the men with the articles left at the 6 mile Stake Capt. Lewis my Self & 12 men Crossed to an Island on which we Saw a bear the evening before, & Several had been Seen by the party at this place, we killed one of the bear and returned. The river at this place is ____ yards wide and about 10 feet water Cought a rat in our Stores, which had done some mischief, this rat was about the Sise of a Comn. large rat, larger ears, long whiskers & toes, with a tail long & hairey like a ground Squirel, verry fine fur and lighter than the Common rat. Wind to day as usial from the S. W. and hard all the after part of the day, those winds are also Cool and generally verry hard.
 
 
 [Lewis, July 3, 1805] Wednesday July 3rd 1805. This morning early we employed all hands; some were making tar or attempting to make it, others were attatching the skins on the boat, other cuting and fiting the bark for lining puting in the woodworke &c some hunters were sent out to kill buffaloe in order to make pemecon to take with us and also for their skins which we now want to cover our baggage in the boat and canoes when we depart from hence. the Indians have informed us that we should shortly leave the buffaloe country after passing the falls; this I much regret for I know when we leave the buffaloe that we shal sometimes be under the necessity of fasting occasionally. and at all events the white puddings will be irretreivably lost and Sharbono out of imployment. our tar-kiln which ought to have began to run this morning has yealded no tar as yet and I am much affraid will not yeald any, if so I fear the whole opperation of my boat will be useless. I fear I have committed another blunder also in sewing the skins with a nedle which has sharp edges these have cut the skin and as it drys I discover that the throng dose not fill the holes as I expected tho I made them sew with a large throng for that purpose. at 10 OCk A.M. we had a slight shower which scarcely wet the grass. One buffaloe only and 2 Antelopes killed today six beaver and 2 otter have been killed within the last three days. The current of the river looks so gentle and inviting that the men all seem anxious to be moving upward as well as ourselves. we have got the boat prety well forward today and think we shall be able to complete her tomorrow except paying her, to do which will require some little time to make her first perfectly dry. she has assumed her shape and looks extreemly well. She will be very light, more so than any vessel of her size that I ever saw.
 
 
 [Clark, July 3, 1805] July 3rd Wednesday 1805 all of party employd in Sowing the Skins to the boat, burning Tare, preparing timber, hunting buffalow for their meat & Skins, drying & repacking the Stores, Goods &c. &c. at 1 oClock began to rain. in the evening the hunters killed two antilopes & a Buffalow.
 
 
 [Clark, July 3, 1805] July 3rd Wednesday 1805 A fine morning wind from the S. W all the party employd, Some about the boat, attaching the Skins & Sowing them to the Sections, others prepareing timber, Some, burning tar of the drift pine, Some airring and repacking the Stores & Goods, & others hunting for Meet to make pemitigon & for the use of their Skins to Cover the Canoes & boat,-. a Small Shower at 1 oClock which did Scercely wet the grass-. one buffalow and two Antilopes Killed this evening. Six beaver & 2 orters has been Killed at this camp within a fiew days we discover no fish above the falls as yet--the only timber in this part of the Countrey is willow, a fiew Cotton trees which is neither large nor tall, Boxalders and red wood. (Boil roche arrow wood)
 The water tolerably clear and Soft in the river, Current jentle and bottoms riseing from the water; no appearance of the river riseing more than a few feet above the falls, as high up as we have yet explored. but few trees on the Std Side the grass is high and fine near the river. the winds has blown for Several days from the S. W. I think it possible that those almost perpetial S W. winds, proceed from the agency of the Snowey mountains and the wide leavel and untimbered plains which Streach themselves along their borders for an emence distance, that the air comeing in Contact with the Snow is Suddenly chilled and condensed, thus becomeing heavyer than the air beneath in the plains it glides down the Sides of those mountains and decends to the plains, where by the constant action of the Sun on the face of the untimbered country there is a partial vacuom formed for it's reception I have observed that the winds from this quarter is always the Coaldest and most violent which we experience, yet I am far from giveing full credit to this hypothesis on this Subject; if I find however on the opposit Side of these mountains that the winds take a contrary direction I Shall then have full faith. (The winds take a contrary direction in the morning or from the mountains on the west Side)
 
 
 [Lewis, July 4, 1805] Thursday July 4th 1805. Yesterday we permitted Sergt. Gass McNeal and several others who had not yet seen the falls to visit them. no appearance of tar yet and I am now confident that we shall not be able to obtain any; a serious misfortune. I employed a number of hands on the boat today and by 4 P.M. in the evening completed her except the most difficult part of the work that of making her seams secure. I had her turned up and some small fires kindled underneath to dry her. Capt. C. completed a draught of the river from Fort Mandan to this place which we intend depositing at this place in order to guard against accedents. not having seen the Snake Indians or knowing in fact whether to calculate on their friendship or hostility or friendship we have conceived our party sufficiently small and therefore have concluded not to dispatch a canoe with a part of our men to St. Louis as we had intended early in the spring. we fear also that such a measure might possibly discourage those who would in such case remain, and might possibly hazzard the fate of the expedition. we have never once hinted to any one of the party that we had such a scheme in contemplation, and all appear perfectly to have made up their minds to suceed in the expedition or purish in the attempt. we all beleive that we are now about to enter on the most perilous and difficult part of our voyage, yet I see no one repining; all appear ready to met those difficulties which wait us with resolution and becoming fortitude. we had a heavy dew this morning. the clouds near these mountains rise suddonly and discharge their contents partially on the neighbouring plains; the same cloud will discharge hail alone in one part hail and rain in another and rain only in a third all within the space of a few miles; and on the Mountains to the S. E. of us sometimes snow. at present there is no snow on those mountains; that which covered them when we first saw them and which has fallen on them several times since has all disappeared. the Mountains to the N. W. & W. of us are still entirely covered are white and glitter with the reflection of the sun. I do not beleive that the clouds which prevail at this season of the year reach the summits of those lofty mountains; and if they do the probability is that they deposit snow only for there has been no perceptible deminution of the snow which they contain since we first saw them. I have thought it probable that these mountains might have derived their appellation of shining Mountains, from their glittering appearance when the sun shines in certain directions on the snow which covers them. since our arrival at the falls we have repeatedly witnessed a nois which proceeds from a direction a little to the N. of West as loud and resembling precisely the discharge of a piece of ordinance of 6 pounds at the distance of three miles. I was informed of it by the men several times before I paid any attention to it, thinking it was thunder most probably which they had mistaken at length walking in the plains the other day I heard this noise very distictly, it was perfectly calm clear and not a cloud to be seen, I halted and listened attentively about an hour during which time I heard two other discharges and tok the direction of the sound with my pocket compass. I have no doubt but if I had leasure I could find from whence it issued. I have thout it probable that it might be caused by runing water in some of the caverns of those immence mountains, on the principal of the blowing caverns; but in such case the sounds would be periodical & regular, which is not the case with this, being sometimes heard once only and at other times, six or seven discharges in quick succession. it is heard also at different seasons of the day and night. I am at a loss to account for this phenomenon. our work being at an end this evening, we gave the men a drink of sperits, it being the last of our stock, and some of them appeared a little sensible of it's effects the fiddle was plyed and they danced very merrily untill 9 in the evening when a heavy shower of rain put an end to that part of the amusement tho they continued their mirth with songs and festive jokes and were extreemly merry untill late at night. we had a very comfortable dinner, of bacon, beans, suit dumplings & buffaloe beaf &c. in short we had no just cause to covet the sumptuous feasts of our countrymen on this day.--one Elk and a beaver were all that was killed by the hunters today; the buffaloe seem to have withdrawn themselves from this neighbourhood; tho the men inform us that they are still abundant about the falls.
 
 
 [Clark, July 4, 1805],July the 4th Thursday 1805 A fine morning, a heavy dew last night, all hands employed in Completeing the leather boat, gave the Party a dram which made Several verry lively, a black Cloud came up from the S. W, and rained a fiew drops I employ my Self drawing a Copy of the river to be left at this place for fear of Some accident in advance, I have left buried below the falls a Map of the Countrey below Fort Mandan with Sundery private papers the party amused themselves danceing untill late when a Shower of rain broke up the amusement, all lively and Chearfull, one Elk and a beaver kill'd to day. our Tar kill like to turn out nothing from the following cause.
 The climate about the falls of Missouri appears to be Singular Cloudy every day (Since our arrival near them) which rise from defferent directions and discharge themselves partially in the plains & mountains, in Some places rain others rain & hail, hail alone, and on the mountains in Some parts Snow. a rumbling like Cannon at a great distance is heard to the west if us; the Cause we Can't account
 
 
 [Lewis, July 5, 1805] Friday July 5th 1805. This morning I had the boat removed to an open situation, scaffold her off the ground, turned her keel to the sun and kindled fires under her to dry her more expeditiously. I then set a couple of men to pounding of charcoal to form a composition with some beeswax which we have and buffaloe tallow now my only hope and resource for paying my boat; I sincerely hope it may answer yet I fear it will not. the boat in every other rispect completely answers my most sanguine expectation; she is not yet dry and eight men can carry her with the greatest ease; she is strong and will carry at least 8,000 lbs. with her suit of hands; her form is as complete as I could wish it. the stitches begin to gape very much since she has began to dry; I am now convinced this would not have been the case had the skins been sewed with a sharp point only and the leather not cut by the edges of a sharp nedle. about 8 A M. a large herd of buffaloe came near our camp and Capt. Clark with a party of the hunters indeavoured to get a shoot at them but the wind proved unfavourable and they ran off; the hunters pursued and killed three of them; we had most of the meat brought in and set a party to drying it. their skins were all brought in and streached to dry for the purpose of covering the baggage. 2 Wolves and three Antelopes also killed today. we permitted three other men to visit the falls today; these were the last of the party who had not as yet indulged themselves with this grand and interesting seen. the buffaloe again appear in great numbers about our camp and seem to be moving down the river. it is somewhat remarkable that altho you may see ten or a douzen herds of buffaloe distinctly scattered and many miles distant yet if they are undisturbed by pursuit, they will all be traveling in one direction. the men who were permitted to visit the falls today returned in the evening and reported that the buffaloe were very numerous in that quarter; and as the country is more broken near the river in that quarter we conclude to dispatch a couple of canoes tomorrow with some hunters to kill as many as will answer our purposes.
 The plains in this part of the country are not so fertile as below the entrance of the Cockkle or missel shell river and from thence down the Missouri there is also much more stone on the sides of the hills and on the broken lands than below.-
 
 
 [Clark, July 5, 1805] July 5th Friday 1805 A fine morning and but little wind, worm and Sultrey at 8 oClock--I Saw a large gangue of Buffalow and prosued them with Several men the wind was unfavourable and we Could not get near them, the party Scattered & Killed 3 buffalow and brought in their Skins and Some meat, Killed 2 wolves & 3 Antilopes for their Skins, Capt. Lewis much engaged in Completeing the Leather boat. Three men went to See the Falls, Saw great numbers of Buffalow on both Sides of the river. great numbers of young black birds
 
 
 [Lewis, July 6, 1805] Saturday July 6th 1805 In the couse of last night had several showers of hail and rain attended with thunder and lightning. about day a heavy storm came on from the S W attended with hail rain and a continued roar of thunder and some lightning. the hail was as large as musket balls and covered the ground perfectly. we hand some of it collected which kept very well through the day and served to cool our water. These showers and gusts keep my boat wet in dispite of my exertions. she is not yet ready for the grease and coal. after the hail and rain was over this morning we dispatched 4 hunters and two canoes to the head of the rappids as we had determined last evening. the red and yellow courants are now ripe and abundant, they are reather ascid as yet. There is a remarkable small fox which ascociate in large communities and burrow in the praries something like the small wolf but we have not as yet been able to obtain one of them; they are extreemly watchfull and take reffuge in their burrows which are very deep; we have seen them no where except near these falls.
 
 
 [Clark, July 6, 1805] July 6th Satturday 1805 a heavy wind from the S W and Some rain about mid night last, at day light this morning a verry black Cloud from the S W, with a Contined rore of thunder & Some lightening and rained and hailed tremendiously for about 1/2 an hour, the hail was the Size of a musket ball and Covered the ground. this hail & rain was accompand. by a hard wind which lasted for a fiew minits. Cloudy all the forepart of the day, after Part Clear. dispatched 4 men in 2 Canoes to the falls, to kill Buffalow, for their Skins & Meat others employd about the boat, I cought Some Small fish this evening.
 
 
 [Lewis, July 7, 1805] Sunday July 7th 1805. The weather warm and cloudy therefore unfavourable for many operations; I keep small fires under the boat; the blowing flies are innumerable about it; the moisture retained by the bark prevents it from drying as fast as it otherwise would. we dispatched two other hunters to kill Elk or buffaloe for their skins to cover our baggage. we have no tents; the men are therefore obliged to have recourse to the sails for shelter from the weather and we have not more skins than are sufficient to cover our baggage when stoed away in bulk on land. many of the men are engaged in dressing leather to cloath themselves. their leather cloathes soon become rotton as they are much exposed to the water and frequently wet. Capt. Clarks black man York is very unwell today and he gave him a doze of tartar emettic which operated very well and he was much better in the evening. this is a discription of medecine that I nevr have recourse to in my practice except in cases of the intermittent fever. this evening the hunters returned with the canoes and brought thre buffaloe skins only and two Antelope 4 deer and three wolf skins; they reported that the buffaloe had gone further down the river. the two hunters whom we sent out from hence returned also without having killed anything except one Elk. I set one of the party at work to make me some sacks of the wolf skins, to transport my Instruments when occasion requirs their being carried any distance by land.--we had a light shower of rain about 4 P.M. attended with some thunder and lightning. one beaver caught this morning. the musquetoes are excessively troublesome to us. I have prepared my composition which I should have put on this evening but the rain prevented me.
 
 
 [Clark, July 7, 1805] July 7th Sunday 1805 A Warm day wind from the S. W Cloudy as usial, the four men hunters did not return last night. dispatched 2 men to kill Elk for the use of their Skin for the boat. my man York Sick, I give him a dosh of Tarter. Some rain in the after part of the day in the evining the hunters returned with three buffalow Skins two goat Skins, four Deer Skins, two deer, & 3 wolve Skins, to be used in Covering the boat Canoes & to make mockersons, one Elk also killed to day
 
 
 [Lewis, July 8, 1805] Monday July 8th 1805. Capt. Clark Determined to make a second effort to replace the notes which he had made with rispect to the river and falls accordingly he set out after an early breakfast and took with him the greater part of the men with a view also to kill buffaloe should there be any in that quarter. after geting some distance in the plains he divided the party and sent them in different directions and himself and two others struck the Missouri at the entrance of medicine river and continued down it to the great Cataract, from whence he returned through the plains to camp where he arrived late in the evening. the hunters also returned having killed 3 buffaloe 2 Antelopes and a deer. he informed me that the immence herds of buffaloe which we had seen for some time past in this neighbourhood have almost entirely disappeared and he beleives are gone down the river.
 The day being warm and fair about 12 OCk. the boat was sufficiently dry to receive a coat of the composition which I accordingly applyed. this adds very much to her appearance whether it will be effectual or not. it gives her hull the appearance of being formed of one solid piece. after the first coat had cooled I gave her a second which I think has made it sufficiently thick. The mountains which ly before us from the South, to the N. W. still continue covered with snow. one hunter also passed the river to hunt this morning in the evening he returned having killed a Buck and a male Antelope. The party who were down with Capt. Clark also killed a small fox which they brought with them. it was a female appeared to give suck, otherwise it is so much like the comm small fox of this country commonly called the kit fox that I should have taken it for a young one of that species; however on closer examination it did apear to differ somewhat; it's colour was of a lighter brown, it's years proportionably larger, and the tale not so large or the hair not so long which formed it. they are very delicately formed, exceedingly fleet, and not as large as the common domestic cat. their tallons appear longer than any species of fox I ever saw and seem therefore prepared more amply by nature for the purpose of burrowing. there is sufficient difference for discrimination between it and the kit fox, and to satisfy me perfectly that it is a distinct species. the men also brought me a living ground squirrel which is something larger than those of the U States or those of that kind which are also common here. this is a much hadsomer anamal. like the other it's principal colour is a redish brown but is marked longitudinally with a much greater number of black or dark bron stripes; the spaces between which is marked by ranges of pure white circular spots, about the size of a brister blue shot. these colours imbrace the head neck back and sides; the tail is flat, or the long hair projecting horizontally from two sides of it only gives it that appearance. the belly and breast are of much lighter brown or nearly white. this is an inhabitant of the open plain altogether, wher it burrows and resides; nor is it like the other found among clifts of rocks or in the woodlands. their burrows sometimes like those of the mole run horizontally near the surface of the ground for a considerable distance, but those in which they reside or take refuge strike much deeper in the earth.--Slight rain this afternoon. musquetoes troublesome as usual.
 
 
 [Clark, July 8, 1805] July 8th Monday 1805 A worm morning flying Clouds I deturmin take the width of the river at the falls & the Medison river and to take the greater part of the men which Can be Speared to Kill Buffalow for their Skins as well as meat, devided the party & Sent them in different directions to hunt & proceeded my Self to the mouth of Medison river measured it and found it to be 137 yards wide, in the narrowest part of the Missouri imediately above Medison river the Missouri is 300 yards wide, below and a little above the falls 1440 yards wide with the direction of the upper great fall 580 yards wide, at the great Spring 270 yards wide, at the handsom falls of 47 ft. 8 I. the river is 473 yards wide, at the lower great falls the river is confined within 280 yards, below the falls the water occupies 93 yards only--after takeing the wedth of the river at those Sundery placies I returned thro the plains in a direct line to Camp. Some rain this evening after a verry hot day.--the mountains which are in view to the South & N W. are Covered with Snow. those nearer us and forma 3/4 Circle around us is not Covered with Snow at this time. The hunters killed 3 buffalow, two antelopes, & a Deer to day--the emence herds of buffalow which was near us a fiew days ago, has proceeded on down the river, we Can See but a fiew Bulls in the plains
 
 
 [Lewis, July 9, 1805] Tuesday July 9th 1805. The morning was fair and pleant. the Islands seem crouded with blackbirds; the young brude is now completely feathered and flying in common with the others. we corked the canoes and put them in the water and also launched the boat, she lay like a perfect cork on the water. five men would carry her with the greatest ease. I now directed seats to be fixed in her and oars to be fitted. the men loaded the canoes in readiness to depart. just at this moment a violent wind commenced and blew so hard that we were obliged to unload the canoes again; a part of the baggage in several of them got wet before it could be taken out. the wind continued violent untill late in the evening, by which time we discovered that a greater part of the composition had seperated from the skins and left the seams of the boat exposed to the water and she leaked in such manner that she would not answer. I need not add that this circumstance mortifyed me not a little; and to prevent her leaking without pich was impossible with us, and to obtain this article was equally impossible, therefore the evil was irraparable I now found that the section formed of the buffaloe hides on which some hair had been left, answered much the best purpose; this leaked but little and the parts which were well covered with hair about 1/8th of an inch in length retained the composition perfectly and remained sound and dry. from these circumstances I am preswaided, that had I formed her with buffaloe skins singed not quite as close as I had done those I employed, that she would have answered even with this composition. but to make any further experiments in our present situation seemed to me madness; the buffaloe had principally dserted us, and the season was now advancing fast. I therefore relinquished all further hope of my favorite boat and ordered her to be sunk in the water, that the skins might become soft in order the better to take her in peices tomorrow and deposite the iron fraim at this place as it could probably be of no further service to us. had I only singed my Elk skins in stead of shaving them I beleive the composition would have remained and the boat have answered; at least untill we could have reached the pine country which must be in advance of us from the pine which is brought down by the water and which is probably at no great distance where we might have supplyed ourselves with the necessary pich or gum. but it was now too late to introduce a remidy and I bid a dieu to my boat, and her expected services.--The next difficulty which presented itself was how we should convey the stores and baggage which we had purposed carrying in the boat. both Capt. Clark and myself recollected having heard the hunters mention that the bottoms of the river some few miles above us were much better timbered than below and that some of the trees were large. the idea therefore suggested itself of building two other canoes sufficiently large to carry the surplus baggage. on enquiry of the hunters it seemed to be the general opinion that trees sufficiently a large for this purpose might be obtained in a bottom on the opposite side about 8 miles distant by land and reather more than double that distance by water; accordingly Capt. Clark determined to set out early in the morning with ten of the best workmen and proceede by land to that place while the others would in the mean time be employed by myself in taking the Boat in peices and depositing her, together with the articles which we had previously determined to deposit at this place, and also in trasporting all the baggage up the river to that point in the six small canoes. this plan being settled between us orders were accordingly given to the party, and the ten men who were to accompany Capt. Clark had ground and prepared their axes and adds this evening in order to prepare for an early departure in the morning. we have on this as well as on many former occasions found a small grindstone which I brought with me from Harper's ferry extreemly convenient to us. if we find trees at the place mentioned sufficiently large for our purposes it will be extreemly fortunate; for we have not seen one for many miles below the entrance of musselshell River to this place, which would have answered.-
 
 
 [Clark, July 9, 1805] July 9th Tuesday 1805 a clear worm morning wind from the S W. Lanced the Leather boat, and found that it leaked a little; Corked Lanced & loaded the Canoes, hurried our truk wheels, & made a Carsh for a Skin & a fiew papers I intend to leave here on trial found the leather boat would not answer without the addition of Tar which we had none of, haveing Substituted Cole & Tallow in its place to Stop the Seams &c. which would not answer as it Seperated from the Skins when exposed to the water and left the Skins naked & Seams exposed to the water this falire of our favourate boat was a great disapointment to us, we haveing more baggage than our Canoes would Carry. Concluded to build Canoes for to Carry them; no timber near our Camp. I deturmined to proceed on up the river to a bottom in which our hunters reported was large Trees &c.
 
 
 [Lewis, July 10, 1805] Wednesday July 10th 1805. Capt. Clark set out with his party early this morning and passed over to the opposite side. after which I dispatched Sergt. Ordway with 4 Canoes and 8 men to take up a load of baggage as far as Capt. Clark's camp and return for the remainder of our plunder. with six others I now set to work on my boat, which had been previously drawn out of the water before the men departed, and in two hours had her fraim in readiness to be deposited. had a cash dug and deposited the Fraim of the boat, some papers and a few other trivial articles of but little importance. the wind blew very hard the greater part of the day. I also had the truck wheels buried in the pit which had been made to hold the tar. having nothing further to do I amused myself in fishing and caught a few small fish; they were of the species of white chub mentioned below the falls, tho they are small and few in number. I had thought on my first arrival here that there were no fish in this part of the river. Capt. Clark proceeded up the river 8 miles by land (distance by water 231/4) and found 2 trees of Cottonwood and cut them down; one proved to be hollow and split in falling at the upper part and was somewhat windshaken at bottom; the other proved to be much windshaken. he surched the bottom for better but could not find any he therefore determined to make canoes of those which he had fallen; and to contract their length in such manner as to clear the craks and the worst of the windsken parts making up the deficiency by allowing them to be as wide as the trees would permit. they were much at a loss for wood to make axhandles. the Chokecherry is the best we can procure for this purpose and of that wood they made and broke thir 13 handles in the course of this part of a day. had the eyes of our axes been round they would have answered this country much better. the musquetoes were very troublesome to them as well as ourselves today. Sergt. Ordway proceeded up the river about 5 miles when the wind became so violent that he was obliged to ly by untill late in the evening when he again set out with the canoes and arrived within 3 miles of Capt. Clark's Camp where he halted for the night. about five miles above whitebear camp there are two Islands in the river covered with Cottonwood box alder and some sweet willow also the undergrowth like that of the islands at this place.-
 
 
 [Clark, July 10, 1805] July 10th Wednesday 1805 a fair windey day wind hard the most of the day from the S. W.rained modderately all last night (by Showers) we dispatched Serjt. Ordway with 4 Canoes loaded & 8 men by water to assend as high as I Should have found timber for Canoes & formed a Camp;-. I Set out with Sergt. Pryor four Choppers two Involids & one man to hunt, Crossed to the Std. Side and proceeded on up the river 8 miles by land (distance by water 231/4 ms.) and found two Trees which I thought would make Canoes, had them fallen, one of them proved to be hollow & Split at one End & verry much win Shaken at the other, the other much win Shaken, we Serched the bottoms for better trees and made a trial of Several which proved to be more indifferent. I deturmined to make Canoes out of the two first trees we had fallen, to Contract thir length so as to clear the hollow & winshakes, & ad to the width as much as the tree would allow. The Musquitors emencely noumerous & troublesom, Killed two deer & a goat. The Canoes did not arrive as I expected, owing to the hard wind which blew a head in maney places. we ar much at a loss for wood to make ax hilthes,13 hath been made & broken in this piece of a day by the four Choppers, no other wood but Cotton Box elder Choke Cherry and red arrow wood. we Substitute the Cherry in place of Hickory for ax hilthes ram rods, &c. &c.
 
 
 [Lewis, July 11, 1805] Thursday July 11th 1805. We had now nothing to do but wait for the canoes; as they had not returned I sent out some of the small party with me to hunt; in the evening they returned with a good quantity of the flesh of a fat buffaloe which they had killed. the canoes not arrived this evening. I saw several very large grey Eagles today they are a half as large again as the common bald Eagle of this country. I do not think the bald Eagle here qute so large as those of the U States; the grey Eagle is infinitely larger and is no doubt a distinct species. this evening a little before the sun set I heared two other discharges of this unaccounable artillery of the Rocky Mountains proceeding from the same quarter that I had before heard it. I now recollected the Minnetares making mention of the nois which they had frequently heard in the Rocky Mountains like thunder; and which they said the mountains made; but I paid no attention to the information supposing it either false or the fantom of a supersticious immagination. I have also been informed by the engages that the Panis and Ricaras give the same account of the Black mountains which lye West of them. this phenomenon the philosophy of the engages readily accounts for; they state it to be the bursting of the rich mines of silver which these mountains contain.
 This morning Capt. Clark dispatched Bratton to meet the canoes which were detained by the wind to get a couple of axes. he obtained the axes and returned in about two hours. this man has been unable to work for several days in consequence of a whitlow on one of his fingers; a complaint which has been very common among the men. one of the canoes arrived at Capt. Clarks camp about 10 A.M. this he had unloaded and set a few miles up the river for a buffaloe which had been killed, the party sent killed another in thir rout and brought in the flesh and skins of both they were in good order; his hunters had also killed two deer and an Antelope yesterday. the three other canoes did not arrive untill late in the evening in consequence of the wind and the fear of weting their loads which consisted of articles much more liable to be injured by moisture than those which composed the load of that which arrived in the morning. Capt. C. had the canoes unloaded and ordered them to float down in the course of the night to my camp, but the wind proved so high after night that they were obliged to put too about 8 miles above and remain untill morning. Capt. C. kept the party with him busily engaged at the canoes. his hunters killed and brought in three very fat deer this evening.
 
 
 [Clark, July 11, 1805] July 11th Thursday 1805 a fair windey morning wind S. W. I dispatch W Bratten (who cannot work he haveing a turner rising on his finger) to meat the Canoes & bring from them two axes, which is necessary for the work at the perogues or Canoes, and is indespenceable he returned in about two hours & informed that one Canoe was within three miles, about 1 oClock the Canoe which Bratten left arrived haveing killed a Buffalow on the river above our Camp, at which place the bend of the river below & that above is about 1 mile apart, I dispatched Serjt. Pryor with 3 men in the Canoe to get the meat they killed another buffalow near the one killed and brought the meat of both down. at Sunset the 3 remaining Canoes arrived unloaded & returned imeadeately with orders to flote down to Camp at the portage to night for the purpose of takeing up the remaining baggage. Musquitors verry troublesom, and in addition to their torments we have a Small Knat, which is as disagreeable, our hunter killed 3 Deer to day one of them verry fat. all the men with me engaged about the Canoes hunting &c. &.
 
 
 [Lewis, July 12, 1805] Friday July 12th 1805. The canoes not having arrived and the wind still high I dispatched Sergt. Gass with three men to join Capt. Clark and assist in completing the canoes retaining only a few who in addition to those in the canoes that I expect every moment, will be sufficient to man the six canoes and take up all the baggage we have here at one load. I feel excessively anxious to be moving on. the canoes were detained by the wind untill 2 P.M. when they set out and arrived at this place so late that I thought it best to detain them untill morning. Bratton came down today for a cople of axes which I sent by him; he returned immediately. Sergt. Gass and party joined Capt. Clark at 10 A.M. Capt. C. kept all the men with him busily engaged some in drying meat, others in hunting, and as many as could be employed about the canoes. Segt. Pryor got his sholder dislocated yesterday, it was replaced immediately and is likely to do him but little injury; it is painfull to him today. the hunters with Capt. C. killed three deer and two otter today. the otter are now plenty since the water has become sufficiently clear for them to take fish. the blue crested fisher, or as they are sometimes called the Kingfisher, is an inhabitant of this part of the country; this bird is very rare on the Missouri; I have not seen more than three or four of those birds during my voyage from the entrance of the Missouri to the mouth of Maria's river and those few were reather the inhabitants of streams of clerer water which discharged themselves into the Missouri than of that river, as they were seen about the entrances of such streams. Musquetoes extreemly troublesome to me today nor is a large black knat less troublesome, which dose not sting, but attacks the eye in swarms and compells us to brush them off or have our eyes filled with them. I made the men dry the ballance of the freshe meet which we had abot the camp amounting to about 200 lbs.
 
 
 [Clark, July 12, 1805] July 12th Friday 1805 a fair windey morning wind from the S. W. all hands at work at Day light Some at the Canoes, & others drying meat for our voyage-Dispatched W. Brattin to the lower Camp for two axes which are necessary to carry on our work at this place &. Serjt. Pryors Sholder was put out of place yesterday Carrying Meat and is painfull to day. wind hard all day dispatched 2 hunters, they returnd in the evening with three Deer & 2 orters. four men arrived from the lower Camp by land to assist at this place in building the Canoes &c. musquitors & knats verry troublesom all day. a fiew wild pigions about our Camp.
 
 
 [Lewis, July 13, 1805] Saturday July 13th 1805. This morning being calm and Clear I had the remainder of our baggage embarked in the six small canoes and maned them with two men each. I now bid a cheerfull adue to my camp and passed over to the opposite shore. Baptiest La Page one of the men whom I had reserved to man the canoes being sick I sent Charbono in his stead by water and the sick man and Indian woman accompanyed me by land. from the head of the white bear Islands I passed in a S. W. direction and struck the Missouri at 3 miles and continued up it to Capt. Clark's camp where I arrived about 9 A.M. and found them busily engaged with their canoes Meat &c. in my way I passed a very extraordinary Indian lodge, or at least the fraim of one; it was formed of sixteen large cottonwood poles each about fifty feet long and at their larger end which rested on the ground as thick as a man's body; these were arranged in a circular manner at bottom and equally distributed except the omission of one on the East side which I suppose was the entrance to the lodge; the upper part of the poles are united in a common point above and secured with large wyths of willow brush. in the center of this fabric there was the remains of a large fire; and about the place the marks of about 80 leather lodges. I know not what was the intention or design of such a lodge but certain I am that it was not designed for a dwelling of anyone family. it was 216 feet in circumpherence at the base. it was most probably designed for some great feast, or a council house on some great national concern. I never saw a similar one nor do the nations lower down the Missouri construct such. The canoes and party with Sergt. Ordway poceeded up the river about 5 miles when the wind became so violent that two of the canoes shiped a considerable quanty of water and they were compelled to put too take out the baggage to dry and clense the canoes of the water. about 5 P.M. the wind abated and they came on about 8 miles further and encamped. I saw a number of turtledoves and some pigeons today. of the latter I shot one; they are the same common to the United States, or the wild pigeon as they are called. nothing remarkable in the appearance of the country; the timber entirely confined to the river and the country back on either side as far as the eye can reach entirely destitute of trees or brush. the timber is larger and more abundant in the bottom in which we now are than I have seen it on the Missouri for many hundred miles. the current of the river is still extreemly gentle. The hunters killed three buffaloe today which were in good order. the flesh was brought in dryed the skins wer also streached for covering our baggage. we eat an emensity of meat; it requires 4 deer, an Elk and a deer, or one buffaloe, to supply us plentifully 24 hours. meat now forms our food prinsipally as we reserve our flour parched meal and corn as much as possible for the rocky mountains which we are shortly to enter, and where from the indhan account game is not very abundant. I preserved specemines of several small plants to day which I have never before seen. The Musquetoes and knats are more troublesome here if possible than they were at the White bear Islands. I sent a man to the canoes for my musquetoe bier which I had neglected to bring with me, as it is impossible to sleep a moment without being defended against the attacks of these most tormenting of all insects; the man returned with it a little after dark.
 
 
 [Clark, July 13, 1805] July 13th Saturday 1805. a fair Calm Morning, verry Cool before day--we were visited by a Buffalow Bull who came within a fiew Steps of one of the Canoes the men were at work. Capt. Lewis one man &c. arrived over Land at 9 oClock, the wind rose and blew hard from the S. E. the greater part of the day both Canoes finished all to Corking & fixing ores &c. &c. The Hunters killed 3 Buffalow the most of all the meat I had dried for to make Pemitigon. The Musquetors & Knats verry troublesom all day & night
 
 
 [Lewis, July 14, 1805] Sunday July 14th 1805. This morning was calm fair and warm; the Musquetoes of course troublesome. all hands that could work were employed about the canoes. which we completed and launched this evening. the one was 25 feet and the other 33 feet in length and about 3 feet wide. we have now the seats and oars to make and fit &c. I walked out today and ascended the bluffs which are high rockey and steep; I continued my rout about 31/2 when I gained a conspicuous eminence about 2 mes. distant from the river a little below the entrance of Fort Mountain Creek. from this place I had a commanding view of the country and took the bearings of the following places. (viz)
 To the point at which the Missouri first enters the Rocky Mountains S. 28° W. 25 To the termineation of the 1st Chain of Rocky Mountains; northwardly, being that through which the Missouri first passes N. 73° W 80 To the extremity or tirmineation of 2cd Chain of the Rocky Mountains N. 65 W. 150 To the most distant point of a third and continued chain of the same mts N. 50°W. 200 The direction of the 2cd Do. from S 45 E. to N. 45• W.
 
 To Fort Mountain S. 75° W. 8
 The country in most parts very level and in others swelling with gentle rises and decents, or in other wirds what I have heretofore designated a wavy country destitute of timber except along the water-courses. On my return to camp found Sergt. Ordway had arrived with all the canoes about noon and had unloaded them every preperation except the entire completion of the oars poles &c is made for our departure tomorrow. the grass and weeds in this bottom are about 2 feet high; which is a much greater hight than we have seen them elsewhere this season. here I found the sand rush and nittles in small quantities. the grass in the plains is not more than 3 inches high. grasshoppers innumerable in the plains and the small birds before noticed together with the brown Curlooe still continue nomerous in every part of the plains.
 had a slight shower at 4 P.M. this evening.
 
 
 [Clark, July 14, 1805] July 14th Sunday 1805 a fine morning Calm and worm musquetors & Knats verry troublesom. The Canoes arrive at 12 oClock & unloade to Dry &c. finished & Lanced the 2 Canoes, Some rain this afternoon. all prepareing to Set out on tomorrow.
 
 
 [Lewis, July 15, 1805] Monday July 15th 1805. We arrose very early this morning, assigned the canoes their loads and had it put on board. we now found our vessels eight in number all heavily laden, notwithstanding our several deposits; tho it is true we have now a considerable stock of dryed meat and grease. we find it extreemly difficult to keep the baggage of many of our men within reasonable bounds; they will be adding bulky articles of but little use or value to them. At 10 A.M. we once more saw ourselves fairly under way much to my joy and I beleive that of every individual who compose the party. I walked on shore and killed 2 Elk near one of which the party halted and dined. we took the skins marrow bones and a part of the flesh of these Elk. in order to lighten the burthen of the canoes I continued my walk all the evening and took our only invalledes Potts an LaPage with me. we passed the river near where we dined and just above the entrance of a beautifull river 80 yards wide which falls in on the Lard. side which in honour of Mr. Robert Smith the Secretary of the Navy we called Smith's River. this stream meanders through a most lovely valley to the S. E. for about 25 miles when it enters the Rocky mountains and is concealed from our view. many herds of buffaloe were feeding in this valley. we again crossed the river to the Stard. side and passed through a plain and struck the river at a Northwardly bend where there was timber here we waited untill the canoes arrived by which time it was so late that we concluded to encamp for the night. here Drewyer wouded a deer which ran into the river my dog pursued caught it drowned it and brought it to shore at our camp. we have now passed Fort Mountain on our right it appears to be about ten miles distant. this mountain has a singular appearance it is situated in a level plain, it's sides stand nearly at right angles with each other and are each about a mile in extent. these are formed of a yellow clay only without the mixture of rock or stone of any size and rise perpendicularly to the hight of 300 feet. the top appears to be a level plain and from the eminence on which I was yesterday I could see that it was covered with a similar cost of grass with the plain on which it stands. the surface appears also to possess a tolerable fertile mole of 2 feet thick. and is to all appearance inaccessible. from it's figure we gave it the name of fort mountain. those mounds before mentioned near the falls have much the same appearance but are none of them as large as this one. the prickly pear is now in full blume and forms one of the beauties as well as the greatest pests of the plains. the sunflower is also in blume and is abundant. this plant is common to every part of the Missouri from it's entrance to this place. the lambsquarter, wild coucumber, sand rush and narrow dock are also common here. Drewyer killed another deer and an Otter today. we find it inconvenient to take all the short meanders of the river which has now become cooked and much narrower than below, we therefore take it's general course and lay down the small bends by the eye on our daily traverse or chart. the river is from too to 150 yds. wide. more timber on the river than below the falls for a great distance. on the banks of the river there are many large banks of sand much elivated above the plains on which they ly and appear as if they had been collected in the course of time from the river by the almost incessant S. W. winds; they always appear on the sides of the river opposite to those winds.
 The couses and distances from the White bear islands to the camp at which we made the canoes as taken by Sergt. Ordway.-
 
 
 [Clark, July 15, 1805] July 15th Monday 1805 rained all the last night I was wet all night this morning wind hard from the S. W. we Set out at 10 oClock and proceeded on verry well passed a river on the Lard Side about 80 yards wide which we Call after the Secy of the Navey Smiths River the river verry Crooked bottoms extensive rich and Passes thro a butifull vally between 2 mts. Conts. high grass, our Canoes being So Small Several of the men Capt. Lewis & my Self Compelled to walked on Shore & Cross the bends to keep up with the Canoes--a round mountain on our right abt. 10 miles appears inaxcessable we Call fort mountain. The Prickley pear in bloom but fiew other flowers. Sun flowr are common, also lambs quarter & Nettles. Capt Lew Killed 2 Elk & the hunters killed 2 Deer & a Ortter, we Camped on the Stard Side at which place I Saw many beaver, the timber on the edge of the river more Common than below the falls--as I am compelled to walk on Shore find it verry dificuelt to take the Courses of the river, as it is verry Crooked more So than below
 
 
 [Lewis, July 16, 1805] Tuesday July 16th 1805. We had a heavy dew last night sen one man back this morning for an ax that he had carelessly left last evening some miles below, and set out at an early hour. early this morning we passed about 40 little booths formed of willow bushes to shelter them from the sun; they appeared to have been deserted about 10 days; we supposed that they were snake Indians. they appeared to have a number of horses with them-. this appearance gives me much hope of meeting with these people shortly. Drewyer killed a buffaloe this morning near the river and we halted and breakfasted on it. here for the first time I ate of the small guts of the buffaloe cooked over a blazing fire in the Indian stile without any preperation of washing or other clensing and found them very good.-After breakfast I determined to leave Capt. C. and party, and go on to the point where the river enters the Rocky Mountains and make the necessary observations against their arrival; accordingly I set out with the two invalleds Potts and LaPage and Drewyer; I passed through a very handsome level plain on the Stard. side of the river, the country equally level and beautiful) on the opposite side; at the distance of 8 mes. passed a small stream on which I observed a considerable quantity of aspin. a little before 12 I halted on the river at a Stard. bend and well timbered bottom about 41/2 miles below the mountains and made the following observation.
 after this observation we pursued our rout through a high roling plain to a rappid immediately at the foot of the mountain where the Missouri first enters them. the current of the missouri below these rappids is strong for several miles, tho just above there is scarcely any current, the river very narrow and deep abot 70 yds. wide only and seems to be closely hemned in by the mountains on both sides, the bottoms only a few yards in width. an Indian road enters the mountain at the same place with the river on the Stard side and continues along it's border under the steep clifts these mountains appear to be only about 800 feet above the river and are formed almost entirely of a hard black grannite. with a few dwarf pine and cedar scattered on them. at this place there is a large rock of 400 feet high wich stands immediately in the gap which the missouri makes on it's passage from the mountains; it is insulated from the neighbouring mountains by a handsome little plain which surrounds it base on 3 sides and the Missouri washes it's base on the other, leaving it on the Lard. as it decends. this rock I called the tower. it may be ascended with some difficulty nearly to it's summit, and from it there is a most pleasing view of the country we are now about to leave. from it I saw this evening immence herds of buffaloe in the plains below. near this place we killed a fat elk on which we both dined and suped. the Musquetoes are extreemly troublesome this evening and I had left my bier, of course suffered considerably, and promised in my wrath that I never will be guily of a similar peice of negligence while on this voyage.
 
 
 [Clark, July 16, 1805] July 16th Tuesday 1805 a fair morning after a verry cold night, heavy dew, dispatched one man back for an ax left a fiew miles below, and Set out early Killed a Buffalow on which we Brackfast Capt Lewis & 3 men went on to the mountain to take a meridian altitude, passed about 40 Small Camps, which appeared to be abandoned about 10 or 12 days, Suppose they were Snake Indians, a fiew miles above I Saw the poles Standing in thir position of a verry large lodge of 60 feet Diamater, & the appearance of a number of Leather Lodges about, this Sign was old & appeared to have been last fall great number of buffalow the river is not So wide as below from 100 to 150 yards wide & Deep Crouded with Islands & Crooked Some Scattering timber on its edge Such as Cotton wood Cotton willow, willow and box elder, the Srubs are arrow wod, red wood, Choke Cherry, red berries, Goose beries, Sarvis burey, red & yellow Currents a Spcie of Shomake &c.
 I camped on the head of a Small Island near the Stard. Shore at the Rockey Mountains this Range of mountains appears to run N W & S E and is about 800 feet higher than the Water in the river faced with a hard black rock the current of the River from the Medison river to the mountain is gentle bottoms low and extensive, and its General Course is S. 10° W. about 30 miles on a direct line
 
 
 [Lewis, July 17, 1805] Wednesday July 17th 1805. The sunflower is in bloom and abundant in the river bottoms. The Indians of the Missouri particularly those who do not cultivate maze make great uce of the seed of this plant for bread, or use it in thickening their scope. they most commonly first parch the seed and then pound them between two smooth stones until) they reduce it to a fine meal. to this they sometimes mearly add a portion of water and drink it in that state, or add a sufficient quantity of marrow grease to reduce it to the consistency of common dough and eate it in that manner. the last composition I think much best and have eat it in that state heartily and think it a pallateable dish. there is but little of the broad leafed cottonwood above the falls, much the greater portion being of the narrow leafed kind. there are a great abundance of red yellow perple & black currants, and service berries now ripe and in great perfection. I find these fruits very pleasent particularly the yellow currant which I think vastly preferable to those of our gardens. the shrub which produces this fruit rises to the hight of 6 or 8 feet; the stem simple branching and erect. they grow closly ascociated in cops either in the oppen or timbered lands near the watercouses. the leaf is petiolate of a pale green and resembles in it's form that of the red currant common to our gardens. the perianth of the fructification is one leaved, five cleft, abreviated and tubular, the corolla is monopetallous funnel-shaped; very long, superior, withering and of a fine orrange colour. five stamens and one pistillum; of the first, the fillaments are capillare, inserted into the corolla, equal, and converging; the anther ovate, biffid and incumbent. with rispect to the second the germ is roundish, smoth, inferior pedicelled and small; the style, long, and thicker than the stamens, simple, cylindrical, smooth, and erect, withering and remains with the corolla untill the fruit is ripe. stigma simple obtuse and withering.--the fruit is a berry about the size and much the shape of the red currant of our gardins, like them growing in clusters supported by a compound footstalk, but the peduncles which support the several berries are longer in this species and the berries are more scattered. it is quite as transparent as the red current of our gardens, not so ascid, & more agreeably flavored. the other species differ not at all in appearance from the yellow except in the colour and flavor of their berries. I am not confident as to the colour of the corolla, but all those which I observed while in blume as we came up the Missouri were yellow but they might possibly have been all of the yellow kind and that the perple red and black currants here may have corollas of different tints from that of the yellow currant.--The survice berry differs somewhat from that of the U States the bushes are small sometimes not more than 2 feet high and scarcely ever exceed 8 and are proportionably small in their stems, growing very thickly ascosiated in clumps. the fruit is the same form but for the most part larger more lucious and of so deep a perple that on first sight you would think them black.--there are two species of goosbirris here allso but neither of them yet ripe. the choke cherries also abundant and not yet ripe. there is Box alder, red willow and a species of sumac here also. there is a large pine tree situated on a small island at the head of these rappids above our camp; it being the first we have seen for a long distance near the river I called the island pine island. This range of the rocky mountains runs from S E to N. W.--at 8 A.M. this morning Capt. Clark arrived with the party. we took breakfast here, after which I had the box which contained my instruments taken by land arround tower rock to the river above the rappid; the canoes ascended with some difficulty but without loss or injury, with their loads.
 After making those observations we proceed, and as the canoes were still heavy loaded all persons not employed in navigating the canoes walled on shore. the river clifts were so steep and frequently projecting into the river with their perpendicular points in such manner that we could not pass them by land, we wer therefore compelled to pass and repass the river very frequently in the couse of the evening. the bottoms are narrow the river also narrow deep and but little current. river from 70 to 100 yds. wide. but little timber on the river aspin constitutes a part of that little. see more pine than usual on the mountains tho still but thinly scattered. we saw some mountain rams or bighorned anamals this evening, and no other game whatever and indeed there is but little appearance of any. in some places both banks of the river are formed for a short distance of nearly perpendicular rocks of a dark black grannite of great hight; the river has the appearance of having cut it's passage in the course of time through this solid rock. we ascended about 6 miles this evening from the entrance of the mountain and encamped on the Stard. side where we found as much wood as made our fires. musquetoes still troublesome knats not as much so.--Capt. C. now informed me that after I left him yesterday, he saw the poles of a large lodge in praire on the Stard. side of the river which was 60 feet in diameter and appeared to have been built last fall; there were the remains of about 80 leather lodges near the place of the same apparent date. This large lodge was of the same construction of that mentioned above the white bear Islands. the party came on very well and encamped on the lower point of an island near the Stard. shore on that evening. this morning they had set out early and proceeded without obstruction untill they reached the rappid where I was encamped.
 
 
 [Clark, July 17, 1805] July 17th Wednesday 1805 Set out early this morning and Crossed the rapid at the Island Cald pine rapid with Some dificuelty, at this rapid I came up with Capt Lewis & party took a Medn. altitude & we took Some Luner Observations &c. and proceeded on, the emence high Precipies oblige all the party to pass & repass the river from one point to another the river confined in maney places in a verry narrow Chanel from 70 to 120 yards wide bottoms narrow without timber and maney places the mountain approach on both Sides, we observe great deel of Scattering pine on the mountains, Some aspin, Spruce & fur trees took a meridian altd. which gave for Lattitude 46° 42' 14" 7/10 N we proceeded on verry well about 8 miles & Camped on the Stard Side The river crooked bottoms narrow, Clifts high and Steep, I assended a Spur of the Mountain which I found to be highe & dificuelt of axcess, Containig Pitch Pine & Covered with grass Scercely any game to be Seen The yellow Current now ripe also the fussey red Choke Cheries getting ripe Purple Current are also ripe. Saw Several Ibex or mountain rams to day
 
 
 [Lewis, July 18, 1805] Thursday July 18th 1805. Set out early this morning. previous to our departure saw a large herd of the Bighorned anamals on the immencely high and nearly perpendicular clift opposite to us; on the fase of this clift they walked about and hounded from rock to rock with apparent unconcern where it appared to me that no quadruped could have stood, and from which had they made one false step they must have been precipitated at least a 500 feet. this anamal appears to frequent such precepices and clifts where in fact they are perfectly secure from the pursuit of the wolf, bear, or even man himself.--at the distance of 21/2 miles we passed the entrance of a considerable river on the Stard. side; about 80 yds. wide being nearly as wide as the Missouri at that place. it's current is rapid and water extreamly transparent; the bed is formed of small smooth stones of flat rounded or other figures. it's bottoms are narrow but possess as much timber as the Missouri. the country is mountainous and broken through which it passes. it appears as if it might be navigated but to what extent must be conjectural. this handsome bold and clear stream we named in honour of the Secretary of war calling it Dearborn's river.-as we were anxious now to meet with the Sosonees or snake Indians as soon as possible in order to obtain information relative to the geography of the country and also if necessary, some horses we thought it better for one of us either Capt. C. or myself to take a small party & proceed on up the river, some distance before the canoes, in order to discover them, should they be on the river before the daily discharge of our guns, which was necessary in procuring subsistence for the party, should allarm and cause them to retreat to the mountains and conceal themselves, supposing us to be their enemies who visit them usually by the way of this river. accordingly Capt. Clark set out this morning after breakfast with Joseph Fields, Pots and his servant York. we proceeded on tolerably well; the current stonger than yesterday we employ the cord and oars principally tho sometimes the setting pole. in the evening we passed a large creek about 30 yds. wide which disembogues on the Stard. side; it discharges a bold current of water it's banks low and bed frormed of stones altogether; this stream we called Ordway's creek after Sergt. John Ordway. I have observed for several days a species of flax growing in the river bottoms the leaf stem and pericarp of which resembles the common flax cultivated in the U States. the stem rises to the hight of about 21/2 or 3 feet high; as many as 8 or ten of which proceede from the same root. the root appears to be perennial. the bark of the stem is thick strong and appears as if it would make excellent Hax. the seed are not yet ripe but I hope to have an opportunity of collecting some of them after they are so if it should on experiment prove to yeald good flax and at the same time admit of being cut without injuring the perennial root it will be a most valuable plant, and I think there is the greatest probability that it will do so, for notwithstanding the seed have not yet arrived at maturity it is puting up suckers or young shoots from the same root and would seem therefore that those which are fully grown and which are in the proper stage of vegitation to produce the best fax are not longer essencial to the preservation or support of the root. the river somewhat wider than yesterday and the mountains more distant from the river and not so high; the bottoms are but narrow and little or no timber near the river. some pine on the mountains which seems principally confined to their uper region. we killed one Elk this morning and found part of the flesh and the skin of a deer this evening which had been kited and left by Capt. Clark. we saw several herds of the Bighorn but they were all out of our reach on inacessable clifts.-we encamped on the Lard. side in a small grove of narrow leafed cottonwood there is not any of the broad leafed cottonwood on the river since it has entered the mountains. Capt Clark ascended the river on the Stard. side. in the early part of the day after he left me the hills were so steep that he gained but little off us; in the evening he passed over a mountain by which means he cut off many miles of the river's circuitous rout; the Indian road which he pursued over this mountain is wide and appears as if it had been cut down or dug in many places; he passed two streams of water, the branches of Ordway's creek, on which he saw a number of beaver dams succeeding each other in close order and extending as far up those streams as he could discover them in their couse towards the mountains. he also saw many bighorn anamals on the clifts of the mountains. not far beyond the mountain which he passed in the evening he encamped on a small stream of runing water. having travelled about 20 m. the water of those rivulets which make down from these mountains is extreemly cold pure and fine. the soil near the river is of a good quality and produces a luxuriant growth of grass and weeds; among the last the sunflower holds a distinguished place. the aspin is small but grows very commonly on the river and small streams which make down from the Mouts.
 I also observed another species of flax today which is not so large as the first, sildome obtaining a greater hight than 9 Inches or a foot the stem and leaf resemble the other species but the stem is rarely branched, bearing a single monopetallous bellshaped blue flower which is suspended with it's limb downwards,
 
 
 [Clark, July 18, 1805] July 18th Tursday 1805 a fine morning passed a Considerable river which falls in on the Stard Side and nearly as wide as the Missouri we call Dearbournes river after the Sety. of war. we thought it prudent for a partey to go a head for fear our fireing Should allarm the Indians and cause them to leave the river and take to the mountains for Safty from their enemes who visit them thro this rout. I deturmined to go a head with a Small partey a few days and find the Snake Indians if possible after brackfast I took J. Fields Potts & my Servent proceeded on. the Country So Hilley that we gained but little of the Canoes untill in the evening I passed over a mountain on an Indian rode by which rout I cut off Several miles of the Meanderings of the River, the roade which passes this mountain is wide and appears to have been dug in maney places, we Camped on a Small run of Clear Cold water, musquitors verry troublesom the forepart of the evening I Saw great maney Ibex. we Crossed two Streams of running water on those Streams I saw Several Beaver dams. ordway Creek the Countrey is Mountanious & rockey except the valey &c. which is Covered with earth of a good quallity without timber, The timber which is principally pitch pine is Confined to the mountains, the Small runs & Creeks which have water running in them Contain Cotton-Willow, Willow, & aspin. trees all Small I Saw maney fine Springs & Streams of running water which Sink & rise alternately in the Valies the water of those Streams are fine, those Streams which run off into the river are darned up by the beaver from near ther mouthes up as high as I could See up them
 
 
 [Lewis, July 19, 1805] Friday July 19th 1805 The Musquetoes are very troublesome to us as usual. this morning we set out early and proceeded on very well tho the water appears to encrease in volocity as we advance. the current has been strong all day and obstructed with some rapids, tho these are but little broken by rocks and are perfectly safe. the river deep and from 100 to 150 yds. wide. I walked along shore today and killed an Antelope. whever we get a view of the lofty summits of the mountains the snow presents itself, altho we are almost suffocated in this confined vally with heat. the pine cedar and balsum fir grow on the mountains in irregular assemleages or spots mostly high up on their sides and summits. this evening we entered much the most remarkable clifts that we have yet seen. these clifts rise from the waters edge on either side perpendicularly to the hight of 1200 feet. every object here wears a dark and gloomy aspect. the towering and projecting rocks in many places seem ready to tumble on us. the river appears to have forced it's way through this immence body of solid rock for the distance of 53/4 miles and where it makes it's exit below has thown on either side vast collumns of rocks mountains high. the river appears to have woarn a passage just the width of it's channel or 150 yds. it is deep from side to side nor is ther in the 1st 3 miles of this distance a spot except one of a few yards in extent on which a man could rest the soal of his foot. several fine springs burst out at the waters edge from the interstices of the rocks. it happens fortunately that altho the current is strong it is not so much so but what it may be overcome with the oars for there is hear no possibility of using either the cord or Setting pole. it was late in the evening before I entered this place and was obliged to continue my rout untill sometime after dark before I found a place sufficiently large to encamp my small party; at length such an one occurred on the lard. side where we found plenty of lightwood and pichpine. this rock is a black grannite below and appears to be of a much lighter colour above and from the fragments I take it to be flint of a yelloish brown and light creemcolourd yellow.--from the singular appearance of this place I called it the gates of the rocky mountains. the mountains higher today than yesterday, saw some Bighorns and a few Antelopes also beaver and Otter; the latter are now very plenty one of the men killed one of them today with a setting pole. musquetoes less troublesome than usual. we had a thundershower today about 1 P.M. which continued about an hour and was attended with som hail. we have seen no buffaloe since we entered the mounts. this morning early Capt. Clark pursued his rout, saw early in the day the remains of several Indians camps formed of willow brush which appeared to have been inhabited some time this spring. saw where the natives had pealed the bark off the pine trees about this same season. this the indian woman with us informs that they do to obtain the sap and soft part of the wood and bark for food. at 11 A.M. Capt. C. feell in with a gang of Elk of which he killed 2. and not being able to obtain as much wood as would make a fire substituded the dung of the buffaloe and cooked a part of their meat on which they breakfasted and again pursueed their rout, which lay along an old indian road. this evening they passed a hansome valley watered by a large creek which extends itself with it's valley into the mountain to a considerable distance. the latter part of the evening their rout lay over a hilly and mountanous country covered with the sharp fragments of flint which cut and bruised their feet excessively; nor wer the prickly pear of the leveler part of the rout much less painfull; they have now become so abundant in the open uplands that it is impossible to avoid them and their thorns are so keen and stif that they pearce a double thickness of dressed deers skin with ease. Capt. C. informed me that he extracted 17 of these bryers from his feet this evening after he encamped by the light of the fire. I have guarded or reather fortifyed my feet against them by soaling my mockersons with the hide of the buffaloe in parchment. he encamped on the river much fortiegud having passed two mountains in the course of the day and travelled about 30 miles.-
 
 
 [Clark, July 19, 1805] July 19th Fryday 1805 a find morning I proceeded on in an Indian path river verry crooked passed over two mountains Saw Several Indian Camps which they have left this Spring. Saw trees Peeled & found poles &c. at 11 oC I Saw a gange of Elk as we had no provision Concluded to kill Some Killd two and dined being oblige to Substitute dry buffalow dung in place of wood, this evening passed over a Cream Coloured flint which roled down from the Clifts into the bottoms, the Clifts Contain flint a dark grey Stone & a redish brown intermixed and no one Clift is Solid rock, all the rocks of everry description is in Small pices appears to have been broken by Some Convulsion--passed a butifull Creek on the Std. Side this eveng which meanders thro a butifull Vallie of great extent, I call after Sgt Pryor the countrey on the Lard Side a high mountain Saw Several Small rapids to day the river Keep its width and appear to be deep, my feet is verry much brused & cut walking over the flint, & constantly Stuck full Prickley pear thorns, I puled out 17 by the light of the fire to night We camped on the river Same (Lard) Side Musqutors verry troublesom.
 
 
 [Lewis, July 20, 1805] Saturday 20 h 1805. Set out early this morning as usual, currant strong, we therefore employ the toe rope when ever the banks permit the use of it; the water is reather deep for the seting pole in most places. at 6 A.M. the hills retreated from the river and the valley became wider than we have seen it since we entered the mountains. some scattering timber on the river and in the valley. consisting of the narrowleafed Cottonwood aspin & pine. vas numbers of the several species of currants goosberries and service berries; of each of these I preserved some seeds. I found a black currant which I thought preferable in flavor to the yellow. this currant is really a charming fruit and I am confident would be prefered at our markets to any currant now cultivated in the U States. we killed an Elk this morning which was very acceptable to us. through the valley which we entered early in the morning a large creek flows from the mountains and discharges itself into the river behind an island on Stard. side about 15 yds. wide this we called Potts's Creek after John Potts one of our party. about 10 A.M. we saw the smoke arrose as if the country had been set on fire up the valley of this creek about 7 ms. distant we were at a loss to determine whether it had been set on fire by the natives as a signall among themselves on discovering us, as is their custom or whether it had been set on fire by Capt. C. and party accedentally. the first however proved to be the fact, they had unperceived by us discovered Capt. Clark's party or mine, and had set the plain on fire to allarm the more distant natives and fled themselves further into the interior of the mountains. this evening we found the skin of an Elk and part of the flesh of the anamal which Capt. C. had left near the river at the upper side of the valley where he assended the mountain with a note informing me of his transactions and that he should pass the mounts which lay just above us and wate our arrival at some convenient place on the river. the other elk which Capt. C. had killed we could not find. about 2 in the evening we had passed through a range of low mountains and the country bacame more open again, tho still broken and untimbered and the bottoms not very extensive. we encamped on the Lard. side near a spring on a high bank the prickly pears are so abundant that we could scarcely find room to lye. just above our camp the river is again closed in by the Mouts. on both sides. I saw a black woodpecker today about the size of the lark woodpecker as black as a crow. I indevoured to get a shoot at it but could not. it is a distinct species of woodpecker; it has a long tail and flys a good deel like the jay bird.
 This morning Capt. Clark set out early and proceeded on through a valley leaving the river about six miles to his left; he fell in with an old Indian road which he pursued untill it struck the river about 18 miles from his camp of the last evening just above the entrance of a large creek which we call white paint Creek. the party were so much fortiegued with their march and their feet cut with the flint and perced with the prickly pears untill they had become so painfull that he proceeded but little further before he determined to encamp on the river and wait my arrival.--Capt. C. saw a smoke today up the valley of Pryor's creek which was no doubt caused by the natives likewise. he left signals or signs on his rout in order to inform the indians should they pursue his trale that we were not their enemies, but white men and their friends.--cloth &c
 
 
 [Clark, July 20, 1805] July 20th Satturday 1805 a fine morning we proceded on thro a valley leaveing the river about 6 miles to our left and fell into an Indian roade which took us to the river above the mo. of a Creek 18 miles The Misquetors verry troublesom my man York nearly tired out, the bottoms of my feet blistered. I observe a Smoke rise to our right up the Valley of the last Creek about 12 miles distant, The Cause of this Smoke I can't account for certainly tho think it probable that the Indians have heard the Shooting of the Partey below and Set the Praries or Valey on fire to allarm their Camps; Supposeing our party to be a war party comeing against them, I left Signs to Shew the Indians if they Should come on our trail that we were not their enemeys. Camped on the river, the feet of the men with me So Stuck with Prickley pear & cut with the Stones that they were Scerseley able to march at a Slow gate this after noon
 
 
 [Lewis, July 21, 1805] Sunday July 21st 1805. Set out early this morning and passed a bad rappid where the river enters the mountain about 1 m. from our camp of last evening the Clifts high and covered with fragments of broken rocks. the current strong; we employed the toe rope principally, and also the pole as the river is not now so deep but reather wider and much more rapid our progress was therefore slow and laborious. we saw three swans this morning, which like the geese have not yet recovered the feathers of the wing and could not fly we killed two of them the third escaped by diving and passed down with the current; they had no young ones with them therefore presume they do not breed in this country these are the first we have seen on the river for a great distance. we daily see great numbers of gees with their young which are perfectly feathered except the wings which are deficient in both young and old. my dog caught several today, as he frequently dose. the young ones are very fine, but the old gees are poor and unfit for uce. saw several of the large brown or sandhill Crain today with their young. the young Crain is as large as a turkey and cannot fly they are of a bright red bey colour or that of the common deer at this season. this bird feeds on grass prinsipally and is found in the river bottoms. the grass near the river is lofty and green that of the hill sides and high open grounds is perfectly dry and appears to be scorched by the heat of the sun. the country was rough mountainous & much as that of yesterday untill towards evening when the river entered a beautifull and extensive plain country of about 10 or 12 miles wide which extended upwards further that the eye could reach this valley is bounded by two nearly parallel ranges of high mountains which have their summits partially covered with snow. below the snowey region pine succeeds and reaches down their sides in some parts to the plain but much the greater portion of their surfaces is uncovered with timber and expose either a barren sterile soil covered with dry parched grass or black and rugged rocks. the river immediately on entering this valley assumes a different aspect and character, it spreads to a mile and upwards in width crouded with Islands, some of them large, is shallow enough for the use of the seting pole in almost every part and still more rappid than before; it's bottom is smooth stones and some large rocks as it has been since we have entered the mountains. the grass in these extensive bottoms is green and fine, about 18 inches or 2 feet high. the land is a black rich loam and appears very fertile. we encamped in this beatiful valley on the Lard. side the party complain of being much fatiegued with this days travel. we killed one deer today.--This morning we passed a bold creek 28 yds. wide which falls in on Stard. side. it has a handsome and an extensive valley. this we called Pryor's Creek after Sergt. (John) Pryor one of our party. I also saw two fesants today of a dark brown colour much larger than the phesant of the U States.
 this morning Capt. Clark having determined to hunt and wait my arrival somewhere about his preset station was fearfull that some indians might still be on the river above him sufficiently near to hear the report of his guns and therefore proceeded up, the river about three miles and not finding any indians nor discovering any fresh appearance of them returned about four miles below and fixed his camp near the river; after refreshing themselves with a few hours rest they set out in different directions to hunt. Capt C. killed a buck and Fields a buck and doe. he caught a young curlooe which was nearly feathered. the musquetoes were equally as troublesome to them as to ourselves this evening; tho some hours after dark the air becomes so cold that these insects disappear. the men are all fortunately supplyed with musquetoe biers otherwise it would be impossible for them to exist under the fatiegues which they daily encounter without their natural rest which they could not obtain for those tormenting insects if divested of their biers. timber still extreemly scant on the river but there is more in this valley than we have seen since we entered the mountains; the creeks which fall into the river are better supplyed with this article than the river itself.-
 we saw a number of trout today since the river has become more shallow; also caught a fish of a white colour on the belly and sides and of a bluish cast on the back which had been accedentally wounded by a setting pole. it had a long pointed mouth which opened somewhat like the shad.
 
 
 [Clark, July 21, 1805] July 21st Sunday 1805 a fine morning our feet So brused and Cut that I deturmined to delay for the Canoes, & if possible kill Some meat by the time they arrived, all the Creeks which fall into the Missouri on the Std. Side Since entering the Mountains have extencive Valies of open Plain. the river bottoms Contain nothing larger than a Srub untill above the last Creek the Creeks & runs have timber on them generally, the hills or mountains are in Some places thickly covered with pine & Cedar &c. &c. I proceeded on about 3 miles this morning finding no fresh Indian Sign returned down the river four miles and Camped, turned out to hunt for Some meat, which if we are Suckessfull will be a Seasonable Supply for the partey assending. emence quantities of Sarvice buries, yellow, red, Purple & black Currents ripe and Superior to any I ever tasted particularly the yellow & purple kind. Choke Cheries are Plenty; Some Goose buries--The wild rose Continue the Willow more abundant no Cotton wood of the Common kind Small birds are plenty, Some Deer, Elk, Goats, and Ibex; no buffalow in the Mountains.
 Those mountains are high and a great perportion of them rocky Vallies fertile I observe on the highest pinicals of Some of the mountains to the West Snow lying in Spots Some Still further North are covered with Snow and cant be Seen from this point The Winds in those mountains are not Settled generally with the river, to day the wind blow hard from the West at the Camp. The Missouri Continus its width the Current Strong and Crouded with little Islands and Cose graveley bars; but little fine Sand the Chanel generally a Corse gravel or Soft mud. Musquetors & Knats verry troublesom. I killed a Buck, and J. Fields killed a Buck and Doe this evening. Cought a young Curlough.
 
 
 [Lewis, July 22, 1805] Monday July 22cd 1805. We set out early as usual. The river being divided into such a number of channels by both large and small Island that I found it impossible to lay it down correctly following one channel only in a canoe and therefore walked on shore took the general courses of the river and from the rising grounds took a view of the Islands and it's different channels which I laid don in conformity thereto on my chart. there being but little timber to obstruct my view I could see it's various meanders very satisfactorily. I passed though a large Island which I found a beautifull level and fertile plain about 10 feet above the surface of the water and never overflown. on this Island I met with great quantities of a smal onion about the size of a musquit ball and some even larger; they were white crisp and well flavored I geathered about half a bushel of them before the canoes arrived. I halted the party for breakfast and the men also geathered considerable quantities of those onions. it's seed had just arrived to maturity and I gathered a good quantity of it. This appears to be a valuable plant inasmuch as it produces a large quantity to the squar foot and bears with ease the rigor of this climate, and withall I think it as pleasantly flavored as any species of that root I ever tasted. I called this beatifull and fertile island after this plant Onion Island. here I passed over to the stard. shore where the country was higher and ascended the river to the entrance of a large creek which discharges itself into the Missouri on the Stard. side. it is composed of three pretty considerable creeks which unite in a beautifull and extensive vally a few miles before it discharges itself into the river. while wateing for the canoes to arrive I killed an otter which sunk to the bottom on being shot, a circumstance unusual with that anamal. the water was about 8 feet deep yet so clear that I could see it at the bottom; I swam in and obtained it by diving. I halted the party here for dinner; the canoes had taken different channels through these islands and it was sometime before they all came up. I placed my thermometer in a good shade as was my custom about 4 P.M. and after dinner set out without it and had proceeded near a mile before I recollected it I sent Sergt. Ordway back for it, he found it and brought it on. the murcury stood at 80 a. 0 this is the warmest day except one which we have experienced this summer. The Indian woman recognizes the country and assures us that this is the river on which her relations live, and that the three forks are at no great distance. this peice of information has cheered the sperits of the party who now begin to console themselves with the anticipation of shortly seeing the head of the missouri yet unknown to the civilized world. the large creek which we passed on Stard. 15 yds. we call white Earth Creek from the circumstance of the natives procuring a white paint on this crek.--Saw many gees, crams, and small birds common to the plains, also a few phesants and a species of small curlooe or plover of a brown colour which I first met with near the entrance of Smith's river but they are so shy and watchfull there is no possibility of geting a shoot at them it is a different kind from any heretofore discribed and is about the size of the yellow leged plover or jack Curlooe. both species of the willow that of the broad leaf and narrow leaf still continue, the sweet willow is very scarce. the rose bush, small honesuckle, the pulpy leafed thorn, southernwood, sage Box alder narrow leafed cottonwood, red wod, a species of sumac are all found in abundance as well as the red and black goosberries, service berries, choke cherries and the currants of four distinct colours of black, yellow, red and perple. the cherries are not yet ripe. the bear appear to feed much on the currants. late this evening we arrived at Capt. Carks camp on the stard. side of the river; we took them on board with the meat they had collected and proceeded a short distance and encamped on an Island Capt. Clark's party had killed a deer and an Elk today and ourselves one deer and an Antelope only. altho Capt C. was much fatiegued his feet yet blistered and soar he insisted on pursuing his rout in the morning nor weould he consent willingly to my releiving him at that time by taking a tour of the same kind. finding him anxious I readily consented to remain with the canoes; he ordered Frazier and Jo. & Reubin Filds to hold themselves in readiness to accompany him in the morning. Sharbono was anxious to accompany him and was accordingly permitted. the musquetoes and knats more than usually troublesome to us this evening.-
 
 
 [Clark, July 22, 1805] July 22d Monday 1805 a fine morning wind from the S. E. the last night verry cold, my blanket being Small I lay on the grass & Covered with it. I opened the bruses & blisters of my feet which caused them to be painfull dispatched all the men to hunt in the bottom for Deer, deturmined my Self to lay by & nurs my feet. haveing nothing to eat but venison and Currents, I find my Self much weaker than when I left the Canoes and more inclined to rest & repose to day. These men were not Suckcessfull in hunting killed only one Deer Capt Lewis & the Party arvd. at 4 oClock & we all proceeded on a Short distance and Camped on an Island the Musquitors verry troublesom this evening G Drewyer not knowing the place we Camped Continued on up the river. I deturmined to proceed on in pursute of the Snake Indians on tomorrow and directed Jo Rubin Fields Frasure to get ready to accompany me. Shabono, our interpreter requested to go, which was granted &c. In my absence the hunters had killed Some Deer & a Elk, one fusee found &c. &c.
 
 
 [Lewis, July 23, 1805] Tuesday July 23rd 1805. Set out early as usual; Capt. Clark left us with his little party of 4 men and continued his rout on the Stard. side of the river. about 10 OCk. A M. we came up with Drewyer who had seperated from us yesterday evening and lay out all night not being able to find where we had encamped. he had killed 5 deer which we took on board and continued our rout. the river is still divided by a great number of islands, it channels sometimes seperating to the distance of 3 miles; the current very rapid with a number of riffles; the bed gravel and smooth stones; the banks low and of rich loam in the bottoms; some low bluffs of yellow and red clay with a hard red slate stone intermixed. the bottoms are wide and but scantily timbered; the underbrush very thick consisting of the narrow & broad leafed willow rose and Currant bushes principally. high plains succeeds the river bottoms and extend back on either side to the base of the mountains which are from 8 to 12 miles assunder, high, rocky, some small pine and Cedar on them and ly parallel with the river. passed a large creek on Lard. side 20 yds. wide which after meandering through a beautifull and extensive bottom for several miles nearly parallel with the river discharges itself opposite to a large cluster of islands which from their number I called the 10 islands and the creek Whitehous's Creek, after Josph. Whitehouse one of the party. saw a great abundance of the common thistles; also a number of the wild onions of which we collected a further supply. there is a species of garlic also which grows on the high lands with a flat leaf now green and in bloe but is strong tough and disagreeable. found some seed of the wild flax ripe which I preserved; this plant grows in great abundance in these bottoms. I halted rearther early for dinner today than usual in order to dry some articles which had gotten wet in several of the canoes. I ordered the canoes to hoist their small flags in order that should the indians see us they might discover that we were not Indians, nor their enemies. we made great uce of our seting poles and cords the uce of both which the river and banks favored. most of our small sockets were lost, and the stones were so smooth that the points of their poles sliped in such manner that it increased the labour of navigating the canoes very considerably, I recollected a parsel of giggs which I had brought on, and made the men each atatch one of these to the lower ends of their poles with strong wire, which answered the desired purpose. we saw Antelopes Crain gees ducks beaver and Otter. we took up four deer which Capt. Clark & party had killed and left near the river. he pursued his rout untill late in the evening and encamped on the bank of the river 25 ms. above our encampment of the last evening; he followed an old indian road which lyes along the river on the stard side Capt. saw a number of Antelopes, and one herd of Elk. also much sign of the indians but all of ancient date. I saw the bull rush and Cattail flag today.
 I saw a black snake today about two feet long the Belly of which was as black as any other part or as jet itself. it had 128 scuta on the belley 63 on the tail.
 
 
 [Clark, July 23, 1805] July 23rd Tuesday 1805 a fair morning wind from the South. I Set out by land at 6 miles overtook G Drewyer who had killed a Deer. we killed in the Same bottom 4 deer & a antelope & left them on the river bank for the Canoes proceeded on an Indian roade through a wider Vallie which the Missouri Passes about 25 miles & Camped on the bank of the river, High mountains on either Side of the Vallie Containing Scattering Pine & Cedar Some Small Cotton willow willow &c. on the Islands & bank of the river I Saw no fresh Sign of Indians to day Great number of antelopes Some Deer & a large Gangue of Elk
 
 
 [Lewis, July 24, 1805] Wednesday July 24th 1805. Set out at sunrise; the current very strong; passed a remarkable bluff of a crimson coloured earth on Stard. intermixed with Stratas of black and brick red slate. the valley through which the river passed today is much as that of yesterday nor is there any difference in the appearance of the mountains, they still continue high and seem to rise in some places like an amphatheater one rang above another as they receede from the river untill the most distant and lofty have their tops clad with snow. the adjacent mountains commonly rise so high as to conceal the more distant and lofty mountains from our view. I fear every day that we shall meet with some considerable falls or obstruction in the river notwithstanding the information of the Indian woman to the contrary who assures us that the river continues much as we see it. I can scarcely form an idea of a river runing to great extent through such a rough mountainous country without having it's stream intercepted by some difficult and gangerous rappids or falls. we daily pass a great number of small rappids or riffles which decend one to or 3 feet in 150 yards but they are rarely incommoded with fixed or standing rocks and altho strong rappid water are nevertheless quite practicable & by no means dangerous. we saw many beaver and some otter today; the former dam up the small channels of the river between the islands and compell the river in these parts to make other channels; which as soon as it has effected that which was stoped by the beaver becomes dry and is filled up with mud sand gravel and drift wood. the beaver is then compelled to seek another spot for his habitation wher he again erects his dam. thus the river in many places among the clusters of islands is constantly changing the direction of such sluices as the beaver are capable of stoping or of 20 yds. in width. this anamal in that way I beleive to be very instrumental in adding to the number of islands with which we find the river crouded. we killed one deer today and found a goat or Antelope which had been left by Capt. Clark. we saw a large bear but could not get a shoot at him. we also saw a great number of Crams & Antelopes, some gees and a few red-headed ducks the small bird of the plains and curloos still abundant. we observed a great number of snakes about the water of a brown uniform colour, some black, and others speckled on the abdomen and striped with black and brownish yellow on the back and sides. the first of these is the largest being about 4 feet long, the second is of that kind mentioned yesterday, and the last is much like the garter snake of our country and about it's size. none of these species are poisonous I examined their teeth and fund them innosent. they all appear to be fond of the water, to which they fly for shelter immediately on being pursued.--we saw much sign of Elk but met with none of them. from the appearance of bones and excrement of old date the buffaloe sometimes straggle into this valley; but there is no fresh sighn of them and I begin think that our harrvest of white puddings is at an end, at least untill our return to the buffaloe country. our trio of pests still invade and obstruct us on all occasions, these are the Musquetoes eye knats and prickley pears, equal to any three curses that ever poor Egypt laiboured under, except the Mahometant yoke. the men complain of being much fortiegued, their labour is excessively great. I occasionly encourage them by assisting in the labour of navigating the canoes, and have learned to push a tolerable good pole in their fraize. This morning Capt. Clark set out early and pursued the Indian road whih took him up a creek some miles abot 10 A.M. he discovered a horse about six miles distant on his left, he changed his rout towards the horse, on approaching him he found the horse in fine order but so wild he could not get within less than several hundred paces of him. he still saw much indian sign but none of recent date. from this horse he directed his course obliquely to the river where on his arrival he killed a deer and dined. in this wide valley where he met with the horse he passed five handsome streams, one of which only had timber another some willows and much stoped by the beaver. after dinner he continued his rout along the river upwards and encamped having traveled about 30 mes.
 
 
 [Clark, July 24, 1805] July 24th Wednesday 1805 a fine day wind from the N W. I proceeded on up a Creek on the direction of the Indian road at 10 oClock discovered a horse 6 miles to my left towards the river as I approached the horse found him fat and verry wild we could not get near him, we changed our Direction to the river for water haveing previously Crossed 5 handsom Streams in one Vallie one only had any timber on it one other Willows only & a number of beaver Dams. when I Struck the river turned down to kill a Deer which we dined on & proceeded on up the river a fiew miles an Campd. on the river. the river much like it was yesterday. the mountains on either Side appear like the hills had fallen half down & turned Side upwards the bottoms narrow and no timber a fiew bushes only.
 
 
 [Lewis, July 25, 1805] Thursday July 25th 1805. Set out at an early hour and proceeded on tolerably well the water still strong and some riffles as yesterday. the country continues much the same as the two preceeding days. in the forenoon we saw a large brown bear on an island but he retreated immediately to the main shore and ran off before we could get in reach of him. they appear to be more shy here than on the Missouri below the mountains. we saw some antelopes of which we killed one. these anamals appear now to have collected again is small herds several females with their young and one or two males compose the herd usually. some males are yet soletary or two perhaps together scattered over the plains which they seen invariably to prefer to the woodlands. if they happen accedentaly in the woodlands and are allarmed they run immediately to the plains, seeming to plaise a just confidence in their superior fleetness and bottom. we killed a couple of young gees which are very abundant and fine; but as they are but small game to subsist a party on of our strength I have forbid the men shooting at them as it waists a considerable quantity of amunition and delays our progress. we passed Capt. Clark's encampment of the 23rd inst. the face of the country & anamal and vegatable productions were the same as yesterday, untill late in the evening, when the valley appeared to termineate and the river was again hemned in on both sides with high caiggy and rocky clifts. soon after entering these hills or low mountains we passed a number of fine bold springs which burst out underneath the Lard. clifts near the edge of the water; they wer very cold and freestone water. we passed a large Crk. today in the plain country, 25 yds. wide, which discharges itself on the Stard. side; it is composed of five streams which unite in the plain at no great distance from the river and have their souces in the Mts. this stream we called Gass's Creek. after Sergt. Patric Gass one of our party.--two rapids near the large spring we passed this evening were the worst we have seen since that we passed on entering the rocky Mountain; they were obstructed with sharp pointed rocks, ranges of which extended quite across the river. the clifts are formed of a lighter coloured stone than those below I obseve some limestone also in the bed of the river which seem to have been brought down by the current as they are generally small and woarn smooth.--This morning Capt. Clark set out early and at the distance of a few miles arrived at the three forks of the Missouri, here he found the plains recently birnt on the stard. side, and the track of a horse which appeared to have passed only about four or five days. after taking breakfast of some meat which they had brought with them, examined the rivers, and written me a note informing me of his intended rout, he continued on up the North fork, which though not larger than the middle fork, boar more to the West, and of course more in the direction we were anxious to pursue. he ascended this stream about 25 miles on Stard. side, and encamped, much fatiegued, his feet blistered and wounded with the prickley pear thorns. Charbono gave out, one of his ankles failed him and he was unable to proceede any further.--I observed that the rocks which form the clifts on this part of the river appear as if they had been undermined by the river and by their weight had seperated from the parent hill and tumbled on their sides, the stratas of rock of which they are composed lying with their edges up; others not seperated seem obliquely depressed on the side next the river as if they had sunk down to fill the cavity which had been formed by the washing and wearing of the river. I have observed a red as well as a yellow species of goosberry which grows on the rocky Clifts in open places of a swetish pine like flavor, first observed in the neighbourhood of the falls; at least the yellow species was first observed there. the red differs from it in no particular except it's colour and size being somewhat larger; it is a very indifferent fruit, but as they form a variety of the native fruits of this country I preserved some of their seeds. musquetoes and knats troublesome as usual.
 
 
 [Clark, July 25, 1805] July 25th Thursday 1805 a fine morning we proceeded on a fiew miles to the three forks of the Missouri those three forks are nearly of a Size, the North fork appears to have the most water and must be Considered as the one best calculated for us to assend middle fork is quit as large about 90 yds. wide. The South fork is about 70 yds wide & falls in about 400 yards below the midle fork. those forks appear to be verry rapid & Contain Some timber in their bottoms which is verry extincive,--on the North Side the Indians have latterly Set the Praries on fire, the Cause I can't account for. I Saw one horse track going up the river about four or 5 days past. after Brackfast (which we made on the ribs of a Buck killed yesterday), I wrote a note informing Capt Lewis the rout I intended to take, and proeeded on up the main North fork thro a vallie, the day verry hot about 6 or 8 miles up the North fork a Small rapid river falls in on the Lard Side which affords a great Deel of water and appears to head in the Snow mountains to the S W. this little river falls into the Missouri by three mouthes, haveing Seperated after it arrives in the river Bottoms, and Contains as also all the water courses in this quarter emence number of Beaver & orter maney thousand enhabit the river & Creeks near the 3 forks (Pholosiphie's River)--We Campd on the Same Side we assended Starboard 20 miles on a direct line up the N. fork. Shabono our intrepreter nearly tired one of his ankles falling him--The bottoms are extencive and tolerable land Covered with tall grass & prickley pears The hills & mountains are high Steep & rockey. The river verry much divided by Islands Some Elk Bear & Deer and Some Small timber on the Islands. Great quantities of Currents, red, black, yellow, Purple, also Mountain Currents which grow on the Sides of Clifts; inferior in taste to the others haveing Sweet pineish flaver and are red & yellow, Choke Cheries, Boin roche, and the red buries also abound--musquitors verry trouble Som untill the mountain breeze Sprung up which was a little after night.
 
 
 [Lewis, July 26, 1805] Friday July 26th 1805. Set out early this morning as usual current strong with frequent riffles; employ the cord and seting poles. the oars scarcely ever being used except to pass the river in order to take advantage of the shore and cur-rent. at the distance of 33/4 m. passed the entrance of a large Creek 15 yds. wide which discharges itself on Lard. near the center of a Lard. bend it is a bold runing stream this we called Howard's Creek after Thomas P. Howard one of our party. at the distance of one mile further we passed the entrance of a small run which falls in just above a rocky clift on Lard. here the hills or reather mountains again recede from the river and the valley again widens to the extent of several miles with wide and fertile bottom lands. covered with grass and in many places a fine terf of greenswoard. the high lands are thin meagre soil covered with dry low sedge and a species of grass also dry the seeds of which are armed with a long twisted hard beard at the upper extremity while the lower point is a sharp subulate firm point beset at it's base with little stiff bristles standing with their points in a contrary direction to the subulate point to which they answer as a barb and serve also to pres it forward when onece entered a small distance. these barbed seed penetrate our mockersons and leather legings and give us great pain untill they are removed. my poor dog suffers with them excessively, he is constantly hinting and scratching himself as if in a rack of pain. the prickly pear also grow here as abundantly as usual. there is another species of the prickly pear of a globular form, composed of an assemblage of little conic leaves springing from a common root to which their small points are attached as a common center and the base of the cone forms the apex of the leaf which is garnished with a circular range of sharp thorns quite as stif and more keen than the more common species with the flat leaf, like the Cockeneal plant. on entering this open valley I saw the snowclad tops of distant mountains before us. the timber and mountains much as heretofore. saw a number of beaver today and some otter, killed one of the former, also 4 deer; found a deer's skin which had been left by Capt. C. with a note informing me of his having met with a horse but had seen no fresh appearance of the Indians. the river in the valley is from 2 to 250 yds. wide and crouded with Islands, in some places it is 3/4 of a mile wide including islands. were it passed the hills it was from 150 to 200 yds. the banks are still low but never overflow. one of the men brought me an indian bow which he found, it was made of cedar and about 2 F. 9 Inh. in length. it had nothing remarkable in it's form being much such as is used by the Mandans Minetares &c. This morning Capt. Clark left Sharbono and Joseph Fields at the camp of last evening and proceeded up the river about 12 miles to the top of a mountain from whence he had an extensive view of the valley of the river upwards and of a large creek which flowed into it on Std. side. not meeting with any fresh appearance of Indians he determined to return and examine the middle fork of the missouri and meet me by the time he expected me to arrive at the forks. he returned down the mountain by the way of an old Indian road which led through a deep hollow of the mountain facing the south the day being warm and the road unshaded by timber he suffered excessively with heat and the want of water, at length he arrived at a very cold spring, at which he took the precaution of weting his feet head and hands before drank but notwithstanding this precaution he soon felt the effects of the water. he felt himself very unwell shortly after but continued his march rejoined Sharbono and Fields where the party eat of a fawn which Jo. Fields had killed in their absence Capt. C. was so unwell that he had no inclination to eat. after a short respite he resumed his march pass the North fork at a large island; here Charbono was very near being swept away by the current and cannot swim, Capt. C however risqued him and saved his life. Capt. C. continued his march to a small river which falls into the North fork some miles above the junction of the 3 forks it being the distance of about four miles from his camp of last evening here finding himself still more unwell he determined to encamp. they killed two brown or Grisley bear this evening on the island where they passed the N. fork of the Missouri. this stream is much divided by islands and it's current rapid and much as that of the missouri where we are and is navigable.-
 
 
 [Clark, July 26, 1805] July 26th Friday 1805 I deturmined to leave Shabono & one man who had Sore feet to rest & proceed on with the other two to the top of a mountain 12 miles distant west and from thence view the river & vallies a head, we with great dificuelty & much fatigue reached the top at 11 oClock from the top of this mountain I could see the Course of the North fork about 10 miles meandering through a Vallie but Could discover no Indians or Sign which was fresh. I could also See Some distance up the Small River below, and also the middle fork after Satisfying my Self returned to the two men by an old Indian parth, on this parth & in the Mountain we Came to a Spring of excessive Cold water, which we drank reather freely of as we were almost famished; not with Standing the precautions of wetting my face, hands, & feet, I Soon felt the effects of the water. We Contind. thro a Deep Vallie without a Tree to Shade us Scorching with heat to the men who had killed a pore Deer, I was fatigued my feet with Several blisters & Stuck with prickley pears. I eate but verry little deturmined to Cross to the middle fork and examine that. we Crossed the Missouri which was divided by a verry large Island, the first Part was knee deep, the other waste deep & verry rapid--I felt my Self verry unwell & took up Camp on the little river 3 miles above its mouth & near the place it falls into the bottom a fiew Drops of rain this evening
 we killed 2 bear which was imediately in our way. both pore emence number of Beaver and orter in this little river which forks in the bottom
 
 
 [Lewis, July 27, 1805] Saturday July 27th 1805. We set out at an early hour and proceeded on but slowly the current still so rapid that the men are in a continual state of their utmost exertion to get on, and they begin to weaken fast from this continual state of violent exertion. at the distance of 13/4 miles the river was again closely hemned in by high Clifts of a solid limestone rock which appear to have tumbled or sunk in the same manner of those discribed yesterday. the limestone appears to be of an excellent quality of deep blue colour when fractured and of a light led colour where exposed to the weather. it appears to be of a very fine grain the fracture like that of marble. we saw a great number of the bighorn on those Clifts. at the distance of 33/4 ms. further we arrived at 9 A.M. at the junction of the S. E. fork of the Missouri and the country opens suddonly to extensive and beatifull plains and meadows which appear to be surrounded in every direction with distant and lofty mountains; supposing this to be the three forks of the Missouri I halted the party on the Lard. shore for breakfast and walked up the S. E. fork about 1/2 a mile and ascended the point of a high limestone clift from whence I commanded a most perfect view of the neighbouring country. From this point I could see the S. E. fork about 7 miles. it is rapid and about 70 yards wide. throughout the distance I saw it, it passes through a smoth extensive green meadow of fine grass in it's course meandering in several streams the largest of which passes near the Lard. hills, of which, the one I stand on is the extremity in this direction. a high wide and extensive plain succeeds the meadow and extends back several miles from the river on the Stard. sade and with the range of mountains up the Lard. side of the middle fork. a large spring arrises in this meadow about 1/4 of a mile from the S. E. fork into which it discharges itself on the Stard. side about 400 paces above me. from E to S. between the S. E. and middle forks a distant range of lofty mountains rose their snow-clad tops above the irregular and broken mountains which lie adjacent to this beautifull spot. the extreme point to which I could see the S. E. fork boar S. 65° E. distant 7 ms. as before observed. between the middle and S. E. forks near their junctions with the S. W. fork there is a handsom site for a fortification it consists of a limestone rock of an oblong form; it's sides perpendicular and about 25 ft high except at the extremity towards the middle fork where it ascends gradually and like the top is covered with a fine terf of greenswoard. the top is level and contains about 2 Acres. the rock rises from the level plain as if it had been designed for some such purpose. the extream point to which I can see the bottom and meandering of the Middle fork bears S. 15 E distant about 14 miles. here it turns to the right around a point of a high plain and disappears to my view. it's bottoms are several miles in width and like that of the S. E. fork form one smoth and beautifull green meadow. it is also divided into several streams. betwen this and the S. W. fork there is an extensive plain which appears to extend up both those rivers many miles and back to the mountains. the extreme point to which I can see the S. W. fork bears S. 30 W. distant about 12 miles. this stream passes through a similar country with the other two and is more divided and serpentine in it's course than either of the others; it also possesses abundanly more timber in it's bottoms. the timber here consists of the narrowleafed cottonwood almost entirely. but little box alder or sweet willow the underbrush thick and as heretofore discribed in the quarter of the missouri. a range of high mountains at a considerable distance appear to reach from South to West and are partially covered with snow the country to the right of the S. W. fork like that to the left of the S. E. fork is high broken and mountainous as is that also down the missouri behind us, through which, these three rivers after assembling their united force at this point seem to have forced a passage these bottom lands tho not more than 8 or 9 feet above the water seem never to overflow. after making a draught of the connection and meanders of these streams I decended the hill and returned to the party, took breakfast and ascended the S. W. fork 13/4 miles and encamped at a Lard. bend in a handsome level smooth plain just below a bayou, having passed the entrance of the middle fork at 1/2 a mile. here I encamped to wait the return of Capt. Clark and to give the men a little rest which seemed absolutely necessary to them. at the junction of the S. W. and Middle forks I found a note which had been left by Capt. Clark informing me of his intended rout, and that he would rejoin me at this place provided he did not fall in with any fresh sighn of Indians, in which case he intended to pursue untill he over took them calculating on my taking the S. W. fork, which I most certainly prefer as it's direction is much more promising than any other. beleiving this to be an essential point in the geography of this western part of the Continent I determined to remain at all events untill I obtained the necessary data for fixing it's latitude Longitude &c. after fixing my camp I had the canoes all unloaded and the baggage stoed away and securely covered on shore, and then permitted several men to hunt. I walked down to the middle fork and examined and compared it with the S. W. fork but could not satisfy myself which was the largest stream of the two, in fact they appeared as if they had been cast in the same mould there being no difference in character or size, therefore to call either of these streams the Missouri would be giving it a preference wich it's size dose not warrant as it is not larger then the other. they are each 90 yds. wide. in these meadows I saw a number of the duckanmallad with their young which are now nearly grown. Currants of every species as well as goosberries are found here in great abundance and perfection. a large black goosberry which grows to the hight of five or six feet is also found here. this is the growth of the bottom lands and is found also near the little rivulets which make down from the hills and mountains it puts up many stems from the same root, some of which are partialy branched and all reclining. the berry is attatched seperately by a long peduncle to the stem from which they hang pendant underneath. the berry is of an ovate form smooth as large as the common garden goosberry when arrived at maturity and is as black as jet, tho the pulp is of a cimson colour. this fruit is extreemly asced. the leaf resembles the common goosberry in form but is reather larger and somewhat proportioned to the superior size of it's stem when compared with the common goosberry. the stem is covered with very sharp thorns or bryers. below the tree forks as we passed this morning I observed many collections of the mud nests of the small martin attatched to the smooth face of the limestone rocks sheltered by projections of the same rock above. Our hunters returned this evening with 6 deer 3 Otter and a musk rat. they informed me that they had seen great numbers of Antelopes, and much sign of beaver Otter deer Elk, &c. at 3 P.M. Capt Clark arrived very sick with a high fever on him and much fatiegued and exhausted. he informed me that he was very sick all last night had a high fever and frequent chills & constant aking pains in all his mustles. this morning notwithstanding his indisposition he pursued his intended rout to the middle fork about 8 miles and finding no recent sign of Indians rested about an hour and came down the middle fork to this place. Capt. C. thought himself somewhat bilious and had not had a passage for several days; I prevailed on him to take a doze of Rushes pills, which I have always found sovereign in such cases and to bath his feet in warm water and rest himself. Capt. C's indisposition was a further inducement for my remaining here a couple of days; I therefore informed the men of my intention, and they put their deer skins in the water in order to prepare them for dressing tomorrow. we begin to feel considerable anxiety with rispect to the Snake Indians. if we do not find them or some other nation who have horses I fear the successfull issue of our voyage will be very doubtfull or at all events much more difficult in it's accomplishment. we are now several hundred miles within the bosom of this wild and mountanous country, where game may rationally be expected shortly to become scarce and subsistence precarious without any information with rispect to the country not knowing how far these mountains continue, or wher to direct our course to pass them to advantage or intersept a navigable branch of the Columbia, or even were we on such an one the probability is that we should not find any timber within these mountains large enough for canoes if we judge from the portion of them through which we have passed. however I still hope for the best, and intend taking a tramp myself in a few days to find these yellow gentlemen if possible. my two principal consolations are that from our present position it is impossible that the S. W. fork can head with the waters of any other river but the Columbia, and that if any Indians can subsist in the form of a nation in these mountains with the means they have of acquiring food we can also subsist. Capt. C. informed me that there is a part of this bottom on the West side of the Middle fork near the plain, which appears to overflow occasionally and is stony.
 
 
 [Clark, July 27, 1805] July 27th Saturday 1805 I was verry unwell all last night with a high fever & akeing in all my bones. my fever &c. continus, deturmind to prosue my intended rout to the middle fork, accordingly Set out in great pain across a Prarie 8 miles to the Middle this fork is nearly as large as the North fork & appears to be more rapid, we examined and found no fresh Sign of Indians, and after resting about an hour, proceeded down to the junction thro a wide bottom which appears to be overflown every year, & maney parts Stoney this river has Several Islands and number of beaver & orter, but little timber. we could See no fresh Sign of Indians just above the Point I found Capt Lewis encamped haveing arrived about 2 oClock. Several Deer killed this evening. I continue to be verry unwell fever verry high; take 5 of rushes pills & bathe my feet & legs in hot water
 
 
 [Lewis, July 28, 1805] Sunday July 28th 1805. My friend Capt. Clark was very sick all last night but feels himself somwhat better this morning since his medicine has opperated. I dispatched two men early this morning up the S. E. Fork to examine the river; and permitted sundry others to hunt in the neighbourhood of this place. Both Capt. C. and myself corrisponded in opinon with rispect to the impropriety of calling either of these streams the Missouri and accordingly agreed to name them after the President of the United States and the Secretaries of the Treasury and state having previously named one river in honour of the Secretaries of War and Navy. In pursuance of this resolution we called the S. W. fork, that which we meant to ascend, Jefferson's River in honor of Thomas Jefferson. the Middle fork we called Madison's River in honor of James Madison, and the S. E. Fork we called Gallitin's River in honor of Albert Gallitin. the two first are 90 yards wide and the last is 70 yards. all of them run with great valocity and thow out large bodies of water. Gallitin's River is reather more rapid than either of the others, is not quite as deep but from all appearances may be navigated to a considerable distance. Capt. C. who came down Madison's river yesterday and has also seen Jefferson's some distance thinks Madison's reather the most rapid, but it is not as much so by any means as Gallitin's. the beds of all these streams are formed of smooth pebble and gravel, and their waters perfectly transparent; in short they are three noble streams. there is timber enough here to support an establishment, provided it be erected with brick or stone either of which would be much cheaper than wood as all the materials for such a work are immediately at the spot. there are several small sand-bars along the shores at no great distance of very pure sand and the earth appears as if it would make good brick. I had all our baggage spread out to dry this morning; and the day proving warm, I had a small bower or booth erected for the comfort of Capt. C. our leather lodge when exposed to the sun is excessively hot. I observe large quantities of the sand rush in these bottoms which grow in many places as high as a man's breast and stand as thick as the stalks of wheat usually do. this affords one of the best winter pastures on earth for horses or cows, and of course will be much in favour of an establishment should it ever be thought necessary to fix one at this place. the grass is also luxouriant and would afford a fine swarth of hay at this time in parsels of many acres together. all those who are not hunting altho much fatiegued are busily engaged in dressing their skins, making mockersons leggings &c to make themselves comfortable. the Musquetoes are more than usually troublesome, the knats are not as much so. in the evening about 4 O'Ck the wind blew hard from South West and after some little time brought on a Cloud attended with thunder and Lightning from which we had a fine refreshing shower which cooled the air considerably; the showers continued with short intervals untill after dark. in the evening the hunters all returned they had killed 8 deer and 2 Elk. some of the deer wer in excellent order. those whome I had sent up Gallitin's river reported that after it passed the point to which I had seen it yesterday that it turned more to the East to a considerable distance or as far as they could discover the opening of the Mountains formed by it's valley which was many miles. the bottoms were tolerably wide but not as much so as at or near it's mouth. it's current is rappid and the stream much divided with islands but is sufficiently deep for canoe navigation. Our present camp is precisely on the spot that the Snake Indians were encamped at the time the Minnetares of the Knife R. first came in sight of them five years since. from hence they retreated about three miles up Jeffersons river and concealed themselves in the woods, the Minnetares pursued, attacked them, killed 4 men 4 women a number of boys, and mad prisoners of all the females and four boys, Sah-cah-gar-we-ah or Indian woman was one of the female prisoners taken at that time; tho I cannot discover that she shews any immotion of sorrow in recollecting this event, or of joy in being again restored to her native country; if she has enough to eat and a few trinkets to wear I beleive she would be perfectly content anywhere.
 
 
 [Clark, July 28, 1805] July 28th Sunday 1805 I was verry unwell all night, Something better this morning, a very worm day untill 4 oClock when the wind rose & blew hard from the S W. and was Cloudy, The Thermometr. Stood at 90° above 0 in the evening a heavy thunder Shower from the S W. which continud at intervales untill after dark, Several deer killed to day men all employed dressing Skins for Clothes & Mockersons, two men went up the East fork & reports that it is nearly the Size of the N. fork, verry rapid & has maney Islands. Our present Camp is the prosise Spot the Snake Indians were Camped at the time the Minetarries came in Sight, attacked & killed 4 men 4 women & a number of boys, & made prisoners of all. the females & 4 boys.
 
 
 [Lewis, July 29, 1805] Monday July 29th 1805. This morning some of the hunters turned out and returned in a few hours with four fat bucks, the venison is now very fine we have killed no mule deer since we lay here, they are all of the longtailed red deer which appear quite as large as those of the United States. the hunters brought in a living young sandhill crane it has nearly obtained it's growth but cannot fly; they had pursued it and caught it in the meadows. it's colour is precisely that of the red deer. we see a number of the old or full grown crams of this species feeding in these meadows. this young animal is very ferce and strikes a severe blow with his beak; after amusing myself with it I had it set at liberty and it moved off apparently much pleased with being releived from his captivity. the men have been busily engaged all day in dising skins and making them into various garments all are leather dressers and taylors. we see a great abundance of fish in the stream some of which we take to be trout but they will not bite at any bate we can offer them. the King fisher is common on the river since we have left the falls of the Missouri. we have not seen the summer duck since we left that place, nor do I beleive that it is an inhabitant of the Rocky mountains. the Duckanmallard were first seen with their young on the 20th inst. and I forgot to note it; they are now abundant with their young but do not breed in the missouri below the mountains. the grasshopers and crickets are abundant in the plains as are also the small birds frequently mentioned. there is also in these plains a large ant with a redish brown body and legs, and a black head and abdomen; they construct little perimids of small gravel in a conic shape, about 10 or 12 inches high without a mixture of sticks and with but little earth. Capt. Clark is much better today, is perfectly clear of fever but still very languid and complains of a general soarness in all his limbs. I prevailed on him to take the barks which he has done and eate tolerably freely of our good venison.
 
 
 [Clark, July 29, 1805] July 29 Monday 1805 A fair morning wind from the North I feel my Self something better to day, made some Celestial observations took two Merdn. altitudes which gave for Latd. 45° 22' 34" N men all dressing Skins &c.
 
 
 [Lewis, July 30, 1805] Tuesday July 30th 1805. Capt. Clark being much better this morning and having completed my observations we reloaded our canoes and set out, ascending Jeffersons river. Sharbono, his woman two invalleds and myself walked through the bottom on the Lard. side of the river about 41/2 miles when we again struck it at the place the woman informed us that she was taken prisoner. here we halted untill Capt. Clark arrived which was not untill after one P.M. the water being strong and the river extreemly crooked. we dined and again proceeded on; as the river now passed through the woods the invalleds got on board together with Sharbono and the Indian woman; I passed the river and continued my walk on the Stard. side. saw a vast number of beaver in many large dams which they had maid in various bayoes of the river which are distributed to the distance of three or four miles on this side of the river over an extensive bottom of timbered and meadow lands intermixed. in order to avoid these bayoes and beaver dams which I found difficult to pass I directed my course to the high plain to the right which I gained after some time with much difficulty and waiding many beaver dams to my waist in mud and water. I would willingly have joined the canoes but the brush were so thick, the river crooked and bottoms intercepted in such manner by the beaver dams, that I found it uceless to attempt to find them, and therefore proceeded on up the river in order to intersept it where it came near the plain and woult be more collected into one channel. at length about sunset I arrived at the river only about six miles from my calculation on a direct line from the place I had left the canoes but I thought they were still below me. I found the river was divided where I reached it by an Island and was therefore fearfull that they might pass without my seeing them, and went down to the lower point of the large island; here I discovered a small Island, close under the shore on which I was; I passed the narrow channel to the small island and examined the gravly bar along the edge of the river for the tracks of the men, knowing from the appearance of the river at this place that if they had passed they would have used the cord on the side where I was. I saw no tracks and was then fully convinced that they were below me. I fired my gun and hallooed but counld hear nothing of them. by this time it was getting nearly dark and a duck lit on the shore in about 40 steps of me and I killed it; having now secured my supper I looked our for a suitable place to amuse myself in combating the musquetoes for the ballance of the evening. I found a parsel of drift wood at the head of the little Island on which I was and immediately set it on fire and collected some willow brush to lye on. I cooked my duck which I found very good and after eating it layed down and should have had a comfortable nights lodge but for the musquetoes which infested me all night. late at night I was awakened by the nois of some animal runing over the stoney bar on which I lay but did not see it; from the weight with which it ran I supposed it to be either an Elk or a brown bear. the latter are very abundant in this neighbourhood. the night was cool but I felt very little inconvenience from it as I had a large fire all night. Capt. Clark had proceeded on after I seperated from him and encamped on a islad. only about 2 miles below me but did not hear the report of my gun nor of my hooping.-I saw some deer and antelopes.
 
 
 [Clark, July 30, 1805] July 30th Monday 1805 We Set out 8 oClock and proceeded on 131/2 miles up the N. fork the river verry rapid & Sholey the Channel entirely Corse gravel many Islands and a number of Chanels in different directions thro the bottom &c. passed the place the Squar interpretress was taken, one man with his Sholder Strained, 2 with Turners, we Camped on the Std. Side the evening Cool. Capt Lewis who walkd on Shore did not join me this evening
 
 
 [Lewis, July 31, 1805] Wednesday July 31st 1805. This morning I waited at my camp very impatiently for the arrival of Capt. Clark and party; I observed by my watch that it was 7 A.M. and they had not come in sight. I now became very uneasy and determined to wait until 8 and if they did not arrive by that time to proceed on up the river taking it as a fact that they had passed my camp some miles last evening. just as I set out to pursue my plan I discovered Charbono walking up shore some distance below me and waited untill arrived I now learnt that the canoes were behind, they arrived shortly after. their detention had been caused by the rapidity of the water and the circuitous rout of the river. they halted and breakfasted after which we all set out again and I continued my walk on the Stard. shore the river now becomes more collected the islands tho numerous ar generally small. the river continues rapid and is from 90 to 120 yd. wide has a considerable quantity of timber in it's bottoms. towards evening the bottoms became much narrower and the timber much more scant. high hills set in close on the Lard. and the plain high waivy or reather broken on the Stard. and approach the river closely for a shot distance vally above 11/2 M wd. About one mile above Capt. Clark's encampment of the last evening the principall entrance of a considerable river discharges itself into Jefferson's river. this stream is a little upwards of 30 yd. wide discharges a large quantity of very clear water it's bed like that of Jefferson's river is pebble and gravel. it takes it's rise in the snowclad mountains between Jefferson's and Madison's Rivers to the S. W. and discharges itself into the former by seven mouths it has some timber in it's bottoms and vas numbers of beaver and Otter. this stream we call River Philosophy. the rock of the clifts this evening is a hard black grannite like that of the clifts of most parts of the river below the limestone clifts at the 3 forks of the Missouri this evening just before we encamped Drewyer discovered a brown bear enter a small cops of bushes on the Lard. side; we surrounded the place an surched the brush but he had escaped in some manner unperceived but how we could not discover. nothing killed today and our fresh meat is out. when we have a plenty of fresh meat I find it impossible to make the men take any care of it, or use it with the least frugallity. tho I expect that necessity will shortly teach them this art. the mountiains on both sides of the river at no great distance are very lofty. we have a lame crew just now, two with turners or bad boils on various parts of them, one with a bad stone bruise, one with his arm accedently dislocated but fortunately well replaced, and a fifth has streigned his back by sliping and falling backwards on the gunwall of the canoe. the latter is Sergt. Gass. it gives him great pain to work in the canoe in his present situation, but he thinks he can walk with convenience, I therefore scelected him as one of the party to accompany me tomorrow, being determined to go in quest of the Snake Indians. I also directed Drewyer and Charbono to hold themselves in readiness. Charbono thinks that his ankle is sufficiently recovered to stand the march but I entertain my doubts of the fact; he is very anxious to accompany me and I therefore indulge him. There is some pine on the hills on both sides of the river opposite to our encampment which is on the Lard. side upon a small island just above a run. the bull rush & Cat-tail flag grow in great abundance in the moist parts of the bottoms the dryer situations are covered with fine grass, tanzy, thistles, onions and flax. the bottom land fertile and of a black rich loam. the uplands poor sterile and of a light yellow clay with a mixture of small smooth pebble and gravel, poducing prickley pears, sedge and the bearded grass in great abundance; this grass is now so dry that it would birn like tinder.--we saw one bighorn today a few antelopes and deer.-
 
 
 [Clark, July 31, 1805] July 31st Tuesday 1805 a fair Morning Capt Lewis out all night, we arrived at his Camp to brackfast, he was without a blanket, & he killed a Duck whiche Suped on &c. the river as yesterday Sholey & rapid, passed the lower mouth of a Small river on the Lard. in the morning & the upper mouth a ____ Miles above, this little river is the one I camped on the 26th & heads in the Snow mountains to the S W. proceeded on verry well and Camped on a Small Island a little above the place I Camped the 25th instant at the mouth of a run on the Lard Side, the bottoms from the Mouth of the river extend to 21/2 Miles & enter a Short & high hill which is about 1 mile thro and, the river then passes thro a 2d value of about 11/2 Miles wide, Some Islands. below this Knobe the river is Crouded with Islands, we are out of fresh meet, & nothing killed to day The Mountains on either Side is high & rough we have two men with toumers and unable to work.
 Capt Lewis deturmin to proceed on with three men in Serch of the Snake Indians, tomorrow