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Leavenworth, Kansas is on the west bank of the Missouri River, spreads out over high bluffs and rolling hills, overlooking the Big Muddy, its green "bottoms," and adjacent farm lands. The business district is on fairly level ground in the narrow valley of Three Mile Creek, a shallow stream which flows between steep banks and makes a natural line of demarcation between downtown Leavenworth and the south residential district.

Bounded by the river on the east and by the military reservation of Fort Leavenworth on the north, the city's growth from the retail and industrial district has been largely to the south and west. There are a number of modern homes among the old Victorian mansions that line its well shaded streets, but the architecture of the city is predominantly that of the eighties and nineties.

Fort Leavenworth, known as "the mother-in-law of the Army" because of the more than 200 Leavenworth girls who have married army officers, is just beyond the city limits two and a half miles northwest of the business district. It consists of an 8,000 acre reservation with appropriate residences and administrative buildings, and it also contains the Federal Penitentiary and the United States Prison Annex, formerly the Army disciplinary barracks.

The Penitentiary, locally calkd the "Pen," a towering city of gray stone and red brick, has its entrance at Thirteenth and Metropolitan Streets, 1.9 miles from the business section. Escapes from its impregnable walls are rare, but there have been some notable exceptions. On November 7, 1901, before the institution was completed, 26 inmates marched away in a fusillade of bullets. On April 20, 1910, six convicts forced an engineer to crash a locomotive through the heavy prison gates; and on December n, 1931, seven men, armed with revolvers smuggled to them in a barrel of shoe polish and using Warden Thomas B. White, his secretary, and a guard as shields, made a break for freedom. In each case, however, liberty was of short duration.

Catholic and Protestant churches are well supported and constitute a potent civic force. Residents at the fort have their own cliques and social circles, although women in riding habit and men in Army khaki are familiar figures in the city, particularly during the summer encampments. Prison guards make their homes in Leavenworth and occasionally the families of convicts establish temporary residence.

Although the manufacture of furniture predominates, there are various other industries whose production includes structural steel, cotton gloves, flour, stoves and ranges, mine and mill machinery, meat packing products, and coal. Diversified farming, truck gardening, and livestock raising are practiced in the vicinity, and a luscious variety of strawberry the Aroma developed by local fruitgrowers, has acquired a wide market.

The earliest known inhabitants of Leavenworth County were the Kansa Indians, a migratory tribe, followed by the Delaware and the Kickapoo. Lewis and Clark passed the townsite July 2, 1804, camped to the north, and left a description of the country in their journals. Seventeen years later trade with Santa Fe was initiated, and in 1827 Col. Henry H. Leavenworth erected Cantonment Leavenworth now Fort Leavenworth to protect traffic on the Santa Fe Trail. The first white settlers in the county and State were the farmers at the cantonment and missionaries employed among the immigrant tribes a few years later.

Leavenworth, the town, had its origin at a meeting of pro-slavers in Weston, Mo., a few days after the passage of the Kansas -Nebraska bill (May 30, 1854). Ambitious men in Missouri coveted the rich lands in Kansas, and David R. Atchison, proponent of slavery, advised his friends in Weston to go over and help themselves which they did even before the Territory was established. Although the townsite was on the Delaware Trust Lands and provisions of the treaty precluded their settlement until they were surveyed and sold to the highest bidder, Missourians surged across the border and preempted the choice locations. Some brought families and built crude huts in order to present the appearance of bona fide settlers. Most of the claims were speculative, but by the end of June 1854 there was scarcely an acre not claimed in this fashion.

The town company, the first in Kansas Territory, was organized June 13, 1854; the 320 acres embraced in the joint claim were surveyed, platted and divided into shares; and "New Town," as it was at first locally known, was created. The name, Douglas, in honor of Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois, was suggested and generally favored; but H. Miles Moore, a townsite proprietor, argued that the sale of lots would be stimulated by leading outsiders to confuse the city with the military post, which was in an exceedingly desirable situation, and "Leavenworth" was adopted.

The city was progressing smoothly when the Delaware Indians, incited by settlers from the rival town of Atchison, sent a formal complaint to Washington, protesting against the invasion of their lands, and an order to drive off all squatters was issued. It was realized then that the dash into Kansas was illegal, but by agreeing to pay a price fixed by the Government, the squatters contrived to appease the Indians and were allowed to remain, although the final sale of the land was not consummated until February, 1857.

Meanwhile, plans went ahead for the town's advancement. On September 15, 1854, the Kansas Herald, first English newspaper in the Territory, was published under a tree on the town's levee. On October 9 the first sale of town lots was held, and the following summer by an act of the legislature convened July 20, 1855 Leavenworth became the first incorporated town in Kansas Territory.

Early elections of the community were notoriously corrupt. Residents of Weston and other points in Missouri floated down the Missouri on steamboats to stuff ballot boxes with fraudulent votes. The proslavery and Free State parties nominated candidates for the Territorial council and assembly, and a canvass made before the first election (March 30, 1855) revealed the district as capable of polling 305 votes. But the election inspectors accepted 964 "legitimate" votes and allowed the pro-slavery candidates an overwhelming majority.

Nor was it wise to protest the frauds. William Phillips, a young Free State lawyer, tried it and was advised to leave the Territory. When he refused, he was stripped to the waist, tarred and feathered, and escorted to Weston, Mo., where he was ridden on a rail to the accompaniment of clanging bells and pans, and eventually placed on a slave block and auctioned off for one cent by an old Negro.

But despite political violence, Leavenworth grew. Its proximity to the fort gave it military protection and made it the commercial terminus for the roads radiating from the fort into the Territory. Business firms were attracted. In the fall of 1854 Murphy and Scruggs established a sawmill. By the following February the Leavenworth Hotel had been erected ; a tailor, shoemaker, and barber had hung out their signs; and two blacksmith and three carpenter shops were established. In the spring of 1856 J. L. Abernathy, with the slender capital of $600 began the Abernathy Furniture Company; the following fall Majors Russell and Waddell (see TRANSPORTATION) made it headquarters for their vast transportation system.

Employing thousands of men and oxen and hundreds of wagons, this firm did more for the development of the town than several decades of average increase. The first year it expended more than $15,000 for stores, and for blacksmith, wagon and repair shops, thereby attracting other traders. Outfitters, formerly located at Independence, Westport, Weston, and St. Joseph, Missouri, now moved to Leavenworth as the new base of supply for the West and Southwest. And to all this exchange was added the $600,000 annually spent by the fort in salaries and for supplies.

On March 25, 1858, after two previous attempts at Lecompton and Topeka a constitutional convention assembled in Melodeon Hall at Leavenworth and framed the Leavenworth Constitution. This document was patterned after the Topeka Constitution and was sent to Congress while that body was debating the Lecompton Constitution. One of its provisions recognized the Negro and gave him the right to the ballot ; another provided that the question of universal suffrage be submitted to a vote. Congress never took action on this constitution but its purpose was accomplished by the eventual defeat of the Lecompton Constitution.

Four years after its founding, July 15, 1858, Leavenworth suffered a fire in which 32 stores and $200,000 worth of property were destroyed. Yet, by 1861, with a population of nearly 8,000, it was the largest city in the newly formed State and a money center equal in importance to cities of five times its size. It boasted eight banks and five newspapers, shops, stores, and manufacturing plants. It had telegraphic connections with the East and was looking forward to railroads. It had an organized board of education and a school system.

Meanwhile the political sentiments of the community had shifted strongly to the North and throughout the struggle of the Civil War Leavenworth was loyal, furnishing eighteen companies for defense of the Union. On April 18, 1861, when a river steamer flying a Confederate flag docked at the levee, a crowd assembled with "Old Kickapoo," a battle scarred cannon, and ordered the flag lowered. Then the mob went aboard and forced the skipper to raise the American standard.

Leavenworth's importance was recognized in the development of railroads, and one of the first charters granted by the Territorial legislature was to the Leavenworth, Pawnee and Western (afterwards the Eastern Division of the Union Pacific) in 1855. As the starting point for western travel, Leavenworth was selected for the eastern terminus. But after surveying, grading, and assembling supplies, difficulties arose; and the terminus was moved to Wyandotte in the summer of 1863. This was a serious setback, duplicated in 1879 when a branch line of the Hannibal and St. Joseph from Cameron, Mo., resisted all Leavenworth's efforts and selected Kansas City, Mo., as its point of connection. These losses to Leavenworth gave Kansas City the advantage which resulted in its ultimate ascendancy ; although until 1880 Leavenworth, with more than 20,000 people, was still the largest city in Kansas, humming with trade and manufacture. Since 1900, however, it has fallen to sixth place.

The city has many manufacturing interests, wholesale and retail establishments, and is serviced by one main and five branch line railroads.


PLANTERS' HOUSE (private), NE. corner Shawnee and Main Sts., now operated as an apartment house, is a four-story building of red brick, once a popular hostelry of the West. It was opened in 1856 by indignant pro-slavery men who heartily disapproved of the Free State policies of the old Leavenworth Hotel, then on the northwest corner of Main and Delaware Streets.

Although it catered to guests of pro-slavery sentiment, one tolerant person proposed that Free Soilers who paid their bills and deported themselves as gentlemen should be suffered admittance. The barroom was patronized by enemy politicians, so the management kept one pro-slavery and one abolitionist bartender on duty at all times.

The hotel was host to many famous guests, including Abraham Lincoln, who delivered a campaign speech December 3, 1859, from the steps of Stockton Hall; Stephen A. Douglas, who spoke from the balcony of the Planters'; and Horace Greeley. It was the temporary abode of Gen. William T. Sherman, who, during a brief period of law practice in Leavenworth, is said to have lost the only case he tried.

A kidnapping occurred January 13, 1859, at the Planters'. Temporarily thwarted in an attempt to arrest Charley Fisher, a Negro employee, on the charge that he was a fugitive slave, a deputy United States marshal obtained a ladder, stuck his head in a window and threatened to blow out the landlord's brains. This persuaded the landlord. Assisted by two other men, the marshal handcuffed Fisher and took him across the river into Missouri. But while his captors enjoyed a brief siesta, the Negro escaped and filed off his shackles. His abductors were arrested, tried, and found guilty of kidnapping a slave. However, no existing law provided punishment for such an offense and they were released.

The SITE OF STOCKTON HALL, 401 Delaware St., now occupied by the Leavenworth National Bank, was the scene of Lincoln's campaign speech December 3, 1859, in which he attacked the Stephen A. Douglas theory of State sovereignty. Stockton Hall was a privatelyowned auditorium arranged for theatrical presentations and public gatherings. One of the most significant meetings in State history was held here in the summer of 1858 for the organization of the Democratic party in Kansas. It was destroyed by fire January 25, 1864.

The NATIONAL HOTEL, NE. corner 4th and Cherokee Sts., was visited by Carry Nation during her barwrecking campaign of the 1900's, but the pleasant smile of Jesus Mella, the affable host, dissuaded her from the intention. During her visit curious citizens pressed their noses against windows and crowded through the doors to view the famous hatchet-wielder. Many retired to the bar for drinks and, it is reported, provided the saloon a record for one day's business that remained unchallenged.

The LEAVENWORTH COUNTY COURTHOUSE, Walnut St., between 3rd and 4th Sts., a stone building, was erected upon the ruins of its predecessor, which was almost completely destroyed by fire in 1911. The well kept grounds, with flower beds and venerable trees, provide an attractive setting, particularly in the spring and summer.

The FORMER HOME OF THOMAS CARNEY (private), 411 Walnut St., now used as the Presbyterian manse, is a two-story, ten-room house of stucco-covered brick, with a wide porch on two sides. Started in 1855 by Jeremiah Clark, the property and building were later purchased by Governor Carney, second Governor of Kansas, who completed the house and built a wall around the entire block. Part of this wall remains.

The PUBLIC LIBRARY, SE. corner 5th and Walnut Sts., a building of red brick with arched windows, was occupied in 1902 and financed by an endowment from Andrew Carnegie. It has approximately 39,500 volumes, but contains no special collections.

The J. C. LYSLE MILLING PLANT, 512 Choctaw St., houses one of the oldest flour mills in Kansas, the company being founded in the early iSyo's. During the late i88o's the company introduced Kansas hard wheat flour to Europe and, for a number of years, was the largest exporter of Kansas flour to markets of the United Kingdom.

By a series of automatic processes, in which the wheat travels more than a mile to the packing room, the grain is separated from foreign matter by screening, scoured to remove residual dirt, dampened, and ground into flour and feed.

The Y.W.C.A., 529 Delaware St., contains a relic of Lincoln's visit. In a bookcase on the second floor is a Wedgwood pitcher with a yellowed paper pasted to its bottom. A faded inscription reads:

"From this pitcher Mr. A. Lincoln drank a glass of beer, when a guest of my father, Mark W. Delahay, in 1859, at Leavenworth, Kansas, Kiowa St., near 3rd St. M.E.D."

A THREE WHEELED MOTOR CAR is on display at the Bayer Brothers Carriage & Motor Works (open by appointment), 725 Shawnee St. Made in 1905, this was one of four motor cars designed and manufactured by Henry Bayer and Charles Doyle, an expert though bibulous mechanic of Cleveland, Ohio. The three-wheeled vehicle, propelled by a two-cylinder motor, has a gasoline tank under the seat, and a long iron rod on the right side, which serves as a steering device. Three pedals operate the clutch, brake, and emergency brake.

This car is in running condition and, according to the Bayer family, an offer from Henry Ford of $1,000 and a new Ford sedan has been refused.

The ABERNATHY FURNITURE PLANT, 205 Miami St., covers 2,500 square feet of space. The company was established in 1856 and is one of the oldest enterprises in Leavenworth. Founded by J. L. Abernathy it is now the largest industry in the city occupying two plants, and employing some 400 men the year round in the manufacture of a general line of household, school, and office furniture, as well as mattresses and other household supplies most of which are distributed in the western part of the United States.

MELLA'S CASTLE, NE. corner 6th and Shawnee Sts., the most incongruous building in Leavenworth, was constructed in the i88o's, designed in the manner of an Italian villa, and named Terrace des Italiens. The vine covered stone building was erected by the widow of Dr. J. W. Brock, who had served in the Union army. It has been transformed into a restaurant and night club.

The ABDALLAH SHRINE TEMPLE (open by permission), 509-511 Shawnee St., the "Mother Temple" of Kansas, was chartered March 28, 1887. The original building, which has a stucco front and two sphinxes between the doorways, has been augmented by another structure of brick, trimmed in white stone. The temple's auditorium, with a seating capacity of 1,500, is the largest in Leavenworth.

The CATHEDRAL OF THE IMMACULATE CONCEPTION, 711-715 N. 5th St., once one of the largest and most imposing churches west of the Mississippi, was started in 1864 and dedicated December 8, 1868.

Designed in the Romanesque style, the building served the first organized parish in the Territory and is still the cathedral of the Leavenworth Diocese. The paintings by Leon Pomrade on the ceiling and walls remain remarkably clear.

Bishop Meige was appointed in 1850 Pope Pius IX as vicar apostolic of the Indian Territory, but it was not until May 15, 1855, that he visited Leavenworth, celebrated Mass, and decided upon the town as his permanent residence.

The PARKER AMUSEMENT PLANT (open by appointment), 1000 S. 4th St., has manufactured and shipped merry-go-rounds, ferris wheels, and other carnival amusement devices to remote parts of the world, but now engages principally in repair work on the merry-go-rounds it has leased or sold.

Moved from Abilene, Kans., in 1910 by C. W. Parker, one of the founders, the factory soon won the appellation, the "Wooden Horse Ranch." According to Paul Parker, a son, the Sultan of Java came here in 1916 and ordered a merry-go-round complete with 48 horses. The Sultan, it developed, had 48 wives, and his subtlety was employed to prevent a jealous uprising in his harem. He paid $16,000 for the merry-go-round and during its construction stayed at the Parker home. After his return to Java he sent Mrs. C. W. Parker a large mirror framed with ivory, still in the family's possession.

At EVERGREEN SANITARIUM (private), first block S. of the city limits on Maple Ave., a rambling two-story stucco building with a flat roof, Carry Nation spent her last days. She died there June 2, 1911. The Evergreen Sanitarium has been discontinued and the building is now used as a private institution known as the Stoddard Sanitarium.

PILOT KNOB, a long wooded ridge in SW. Leavenworth, provides a commanding view of the surrounding country. The highest point in Leavenworth, Pilot Knob possessed early day significance as a trail marker. A large pile of stone on the southern point was one of several between Leavenworth and a ford over the Kansas River at Lawrence, serving as guides for the Sac and the Fox, the Miami, and other Kansas tribes on their excursions to Fort Leavenworth and Weston, Mo.

An ancient cemetery on the hill has been almost obliterated. Isaac Cody, father of William F. (Buffalo Bill) Cody, who died October 12, 1857, was one of the first buried there. Buffalo Bill's mother died six years later and was interred beside her husband. Many unidentified skeletons, however, have been removed to other cemeteries.

The HOME RIVERSIDE COAL MINE, SE. corner 2nd and Maple Sts. produces bituminous coal and is tunneled under the Missouri River. The shaft is 750 feet deep. Before the mine was equipped with electricity, burros pulled the coal cars. With the coming of electricity the donkeys were removed, but it was necessary to expose them to the light gradually in order to prevent blindness.

FORT LEAVENWORTH, Metropolitan and Grant Aves., was an outpost of civilization 30 years before Kansas Statehood. It served as the first executive headquarters of the first Territorial Governor. As a training ground for army officers, it is accorded an eminent position among military posts. Grant Avenue, the main thoroughfare, connects with other paved highways and narrow, tree shaded drives. A studious atmosphere pervades the fort, particularly in the vicinity of the Command and General Staff School. Traffic is required to move slowly here.

"Cantonment Leavenworth" was established by Col. Henry H. Leavenworth in 1827 and four companies of the Third Regiment under Colonel Leavenworth's command were immediately set to work building the cantonment. Tents pitched on the west bank of the Missouri River soon were replaced with huts of logs and bark, occupying the approximate site of the present Main Parade, north of Kearney Avenue, between McClellan Avenue and Sumner Place. As a protection against Indians, a stone wall was built on higher ground on the south.

Soon malarial fever depleted the little garrison. The sickness recurred in 1828 and 1829. Cholera, too, was taking a heavy toll from the frontier army and nearly wiped out some of the Indian villages in the vicinity of Fort Leavenworth. The situation became so critical that on April 28, 1832, Gen. Winfield Scott issued the following order:

Every soldier or ranger who shall be found drunk or insensibly intoxicated after the publication of this order will be compelled, as soon as his strength will permit, to dig his grave at a suitable burying place large enough for his own reception, as such grave cannot fail to be wanted for the drunken man himself or for some drunken companion.

The first post office in this region was established here May 29, 1828. It was an outfitting point for troops in the Mexican War and later for California gold seekers. Many famous names are associated with the history of the fort; among them Kit Carson, Wild Bill Hickok, and Buffalo Bill Cody, the last of whom spent his boyhood in the vicinity. In 1834 the First Dragoons, organized in 1833 as the first cavalry regiment in the Army, was ordered here and showed to a great advantage over the slow moving infantry in the pursuit of well mounted Indians.

Congress designated Fort Leavenworth as temporary capital of the Territory. But the first Governor, Reeder, arriving October 7, 1854, found inadequate quarters, and soon sought more commodious housing at Shawnee Mission (see Tour 4), in Johnson County. During the Civil War thousands of volunteers were mustered in and trained here and important ordnance stores were guarded. But the expected southern attack never came.

From this fort went officers to serve in the Spanish American War; and it became an active training center during the World War. Gen. John J. Pershing and Marshall Ferdinand Foch visited the fort after the war and tendered their praise.

At the south end of Scott Avenue is the COMMAND AND GENERAL STAFF SCHOOL, a combination of four buildings Sheridan, Grant, Sherman, and Wagner Halls which ranks second only to the Army War College in Washington, D. C., as a training school for officers. Of yellow brick, with broad entrances, the long consolidation of buildings is surmounted with a tower with illuminated clock dials on its four sides.

Established in 1881 by order of Gen. William T. Sherman, who before the Civil War was a lawyer in Leavenworth, the school has constantly improved in its broad objective of training officers for command and for general staff duty. Names of the Nation's greatest military leaders have been associated with its growth and progress. A school library includes virtually every military book in existence. About 250 officers graduate yearly.

The RESIDENCE OF THE COMMANDANT, No.1 Scott Avenue, was built about 1861 to house the officer in charge. It has undergone considerable reconstruction and is now one of the most attractive residence buildings at the fort. It is occupied (1938) by Brigadier General Leslie J. McNair.

At 611 Scott Avenue is the site of the FORMER HOME OF HIRAM RICH, the post sutler, where Andrew H. Reeder took his meals during his brief stay at Leavenworth. It has been completely rebuilt into a modern two-story English Colonial house and has been occupied variously by post sutlers, department and post commanders. It was constructed of logs about 1841.

A MONUMENT TO GEN. ULYSSES S. GRANT stands in a tiny triangular park at the confluence of Scott and Grant Avenues. This bronze statue was designed by Lorado Taft and erected in 1889.

North of this monument is the HISTORIC STONE WALL erected by Colonel Leavenworth's men in 1827.

A bronze marker was placed through the efforts of the Capt. Jesse Leavenworth Chapter, Daughters of the American Revolution.

A BRANCH OF THE SANTA FE AND OREG9N TRAILS started approximately 100 yards south of the present Missouri Pacific Railroad station at the foot of what is now Riverside Avenue. The ruts where pioneers landed their wagons and teams from river steamboats and pulled up a steep grade can still be traced between the trees. The wagons moved along the present route of Kearney Avenue on west to make connections with the well-trodden Santa Fe and Oregon Trails.

At 12-14 Sumner Place is the FORMER HOME OF GOVERNOR REEDER, representing in part the oldest building at the fort. It is a two-story structure with a porch or gallery extending along the entire breadth of its upper story. Built of native stone in 1834, a brick extension was added in 1879 and later the entire building was stuccoed. It is just north of the site of the old Dragoon barracks.

On the southwest corner of Scott and McPherson Avenues is POPE HALL, occupying the site of an old assembly hall, school building, and post chapel, erected about 1850, which served as the first executive headquarters of the Territory. Governor Reeder maintained his offices here from October 7 to November 24, 1854.

A COLONIAL STYLE BRICK HOUSE, at No. 17 Sumner Place, is one of the oldest and most interesting at the fort. It was built about 1840 and became the home of the post commanders, who were hosts to numerous distinguished guests here until 1890. Since then it has served as officers' quarters.

On the northwest corner of McPherson and Riverside Avenues is the U. S. PRISON ANNEX, formerly the U. S. Military Prison and Disciplinary Barracks, which was started in 1875. Previous to that time military prisoners were sent to penitentiaries with civilian convicts. The walls and buildings are of gray stone quarried on the Reservation.

Three times have prisoners engaged in strikes here. In 1919 the prison was crowded beyond capacity with "conscientious objectors," radicals, and I.W.W.'s, who overflowed into a stockade. Many were men of good character who had received excessive sentences amid the war hysteria for trivial offenses. Bitter resentment against such injustice flared into violence January 25, 1919. A Negro struck his white opponent after a card game, and during the ensuing racial conflict many Negroes were taken to the prison hospital suffering from severe beatings. The white men who beat them were sent to "the hole," a place of isolation. A prison labor gang went on a "folded arms strike" January 29, and refused to work. One of the conscientious objectors said their chief grievance was the needless prolongation of their wartime sentences. When a strikers' committee conferred with prison officials later in the day, they were told that this matter of holding the war prisoners after peace had been taken up with Washington only a week before. Col. Sedgwick Rice, the Fort Commandant, ordered the release of men from "the hole," and left for Washington to present the case to the War Department. The "fold arms" prisoners returned to work.

But neither pardons nor commutations resulted, and another strike was called in May 1919 with a demand for recognition of a prisoners' committee. This revolutionary demand was granted. A board of officers sent by Washington arrived July 7 to review the cases, but before action was taken the prisoners were on strike for a third time. The warden practically acquiesced in the demands of the prisoners' committee, and a veritable government by soviet was established. The situation became so tense that extra prison guards and additional troops were stationed inside and outside the prison walls. Machine guns were placed at strategic points, cells were searched for weapons, and the men were put on a diet of "bread, water and toothpicks." By July 26 the cowed prisoners asked to be returned to work, and to their regular meals, but Colonel Rice chose to extend the punishment until July 29, when they were returned to work at full rations. On August 3, 1919, 128 of the mutineers were taken under heavy guard to Alcatraz Island.

The old prison now serves as an annex to the Federal Penitentiary, principally for the confinement of narcotic addicts.

The FORT LEAVENWORTH MUSEUM, is in a small brick building just west of the Infantry barracks on McPherson Avenue. The first floor contains a collection of vehicles including the carriage in which Abraham Lincoln rode from Troy to Leavenworth, Kansas, December 1859; an ^ prairie schooner; and several stagecoaches, Army transport wagons and hansom cabs. On the second floor is a collection of Indian artifacts found within a radius of a few miles of the fort and dioramas depicting Kansas history, the work of the Kansas WPA Museum Project.

The NATIONAL CEMETERY, opposite entrance to the golf course on Biddle Boulevard, is surrounded by a stone wall and contains hundreds of neatly aligned small stone markers over the graves of soldiers who fought in the War of 1812, the Indian campaigns and the Mexican, Civil, Spanish, Philippine, and World Wars. Gen. Henry H. Leavenworth, the fort's founder, is buried here. He died July 21, 1834, while leading an expedition against the Pawnee four days before orders were issued promoting him to the rank of brigadier general. He was buried at Delhi, N. Y. In 1901 his body was returned to Fort Leavenworth.

A massive granite shaft unveiled on Memorial Day, May 30, 1902, bears an inscription to his memory. This tract was set aside for a cemetery in 1860 and bodies from two older burial grounds at the fort were re-interred here, some without identification. They included soldiers and civilians who had died in the vicinity of the fort and others brought in from the plains along the Santa Fe Trail. Among the known dead are five officers of the Seventh Cavalry, including Capt. T. W. Custer, a brother of Gen. George A. Custer, who died in the battle of the Little Big Horn; Prvt. John Urquhart, one of the "hot heads" of Charleston, S. C, who fired the volley on Fort Sumter; and six Confederate soldiers mortally wounded in the battle of Westport. A monument marking the grave of Col Edward Hatch lists 54 battles in which he was engaged.

South of the National Cemetery is the SUMMER TRAINING CAMP, where R.O.T.C. students from colleges and C.M.T.C. cadets are given military training for six week and four week periods, respectively. Rows of plain, one-story frame buildings provide "mess," bath, and executive quarters during the sessions, when the camp is a mass of neatly aligned army tents.

See Also:Kansas Facts: Leavenworth County Facts